Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome 

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch.

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu mayelana nokuphazamiseka kwesayensi:

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

AbakwaReuters babika ukuthi okutholwe yi-IARC 'okuhleliwe ngaphandle' kuyindaba engamanga

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izibuyekezo: Imibhalo emisha yeMonsanto idalula ukuxhumana okuhle kuMlobi weReuters, I-Roundup Trial Tracker (Ephreli 25, 2019)
I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters athikili, isitatimende se-International Agency for Research on Cancer (Okthoba 24, 2017)

Usuku lokuqala lokuthunyelwe: Okthoba 20, 2017

Eqhubeka naye irekhodi lokubika okuchema nemboni mayelana ne-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), intatheli yeReuters uKate Kelland uphinde wahlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ngomhlaka-19 Okthoba 2017 indaba bethi ososayensi bahlele idokhumenti esalungiswa ngaphambi kokukhipha ukuhlolwa kwabo kokugcina okuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu. I-American Chemistry Council, iqembu lezokuhweba embonini yamakhemikhali, yakhipha ngokushesha i- isitatimende sephephandaba bencoma indaba kaKelland, ethi "ilulaza iziphetho ze-IARC mayelana ne-glyphosate" futhi inxusa abenzi benqubomgomo ukuthi "bathathele i-IARC izinyathelo ngokukhwabanisa kwedatha ngamabomu."

Indaba kaKelland icaphune isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto esithi “amalungu e-IARC asebenzise kabi futhi ahlanekezela imininingwane yesayensi” kodwa ahlulekile ukusho inani elibalulekile lobufakazi obuvele Imibhalo kaMonsanto uqobo ngokutholwa kwenkantolo okukhombisa izindlela eziningi inkampani esebenze ngazo ukuphatha nokuhlanekezela idatha ku-glyphosate emashumini eminyaka.

Indaba futhi yehlulekile ukusho ukuthi ucwaningo oluningi olwehlisiwe yi-Monsanto ekhokhelwe umsebenzi eyayingenayo imininingwane eyanele yokuhlangabezana namazinga we-IARC. Futhi yize uKelland ecaphuna ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-1983 kanye negundwane lapho i-IARC yehluleke khona ukuvumelana nabaphenyi bokuqala, yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi lezi kwakuyizifundo ezazikhokhelwa iMonsanto. Uhlulekile nokusho imininingwane ebucayi yokuthi ocwaningweni lwamagundane ngo-1983, ngisho negatsha le-EPA le-toxicology akazange avumelane nabaphenyi bakaMonsanto ngoba ubufakazi be-carcinogenicity babunamandla kakhulu, ngokusho kwemibhalo ye-EPA. Bathe kumamemos amaningi ukuthi impikiswano kaMonsanto ibingamukeleki futhi iyasola, futhi banqume ukuthi i-glyphosate ibe yi-carcinogen.

Ngokushiya la maqiniso abalulekile, nangokuhlanekezela amanye cishe ngaphakathi, uKelland ubhale enye indatshana esebenza uMonsanto kahle, kepha ulahlekise umphakathi kanye nabenzi bezinqubomgomo abathembele kuzindawo zezindaba ezithembekile ukuthola imininingwane eyiyo. Okuwukuphela kwephuzu elikhuthazayo elizothathwa endabeni kaKelland ukuthi kulokhu uvumile ukuthi iMonsanto imnikeze imininingwane.

Izindaba ezihlobene nemibhalo:

I-Reuters vs. I-UN Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zebhizinisi Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwesayensi?

NguStacy Malkan

Kusukela lapho ihlukanisiwe i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni njenge “mhlawumbe ebanga umdlavuza kubantu,” iqembu lososayensi bamazwe eqenjini lokucwaninga ngomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation belingaphansi ukuhlaselwa okubunayo ngemboni yezolimo kanye nabazalelwayo.

Phakathi ku ikhasi lokuqala uchungechunge enesihloko esithi "Amaphepha eMonsanto," iphephandaba laseFrance Okwezwe (6/1/17) uchaze lokhu kuhlasela “njengempi ye-pesticide yesayensi,” futhi wabika, “Ukusindisa i-glyphosate, inkampani [iMonsanto] yathatha isinyathelo sokulimaza i-United Nations ejensi yomdlavuza ngazo zonke izindlela.”

Ngama-scoops amabili anikezwa izimboni kanye nombiko okhethekile, oqiniswa ukubika kwakhe okuvamile, uKelland uhlose isifufula sokubika okubucayi kwi-WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), eveza leli qembu nososayensi balo bengasakwazi ukuxhumana futhi izinsolo ezingekho emthethweni, nezilinganisanayo mayelana nokushayisana kwezintshisakalo kanye nemininingwane ecindezelwe ekuthathweni kwabo kwezinqumo.Isikhali esisodwa esisemqoka emkhakheni wezikhali embonini kube ukubikwa UKate Kelland, umakadebona Reuters intatheli ezinze eLondon.

Iqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC lososayensi alizange lenze ucwaningo olusha, kepha labuyekeza iminyaka yocwaningo olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ngontanga ngaphambi kokuphetha ngokuthi kunobufakazi obunqunyelwe bomdlavuza kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni komhlaba wangempela kuya ku-glyphosate nobufakazi "obanele" bomdlavuza ezifundweni izilwane. I-IARC iphinde yaphetha ngokuthi kunobufakazi obuqinile bokuthi i-genotoxicity ye-glyphosate iyodwa, kanye ne-glyphosate esetshenziswe ekwakhiweni okunjengeMonsanto's Roundup brand ye-herbicide, ukusetshenziswa kwayo kukhuphuke kakhulu njengoba iMonsanto ithengisile izinhlobo zezitshalo ziguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo ukuba "Roundup Ready."

Kepha ngokubhala ngesinqumo se-IARC, uKelland ushaye indiva ucwaningo oluningi olushicilelwe olusekela ukwahlukaniswa, wagxila emaphuzu okukhuluma embonini nasekugxekeni kososayensi ekufuneni ukunciphisa ukucubungula kwabo. Ukubika kwakhe kuncike kakhulu emithonjeni yezimboni ezixhasa umkhakha, ngenkathi yehluleka ukudalula ukuxhumana kwemboni yabo; kuqukethe amaphutha Reuters unqabile ukulungisa; futhi wethule imininingwane ekhethwe ngama-cherry emongweni evela kumadokhumenti angazange awanikeze abafundi bakhe.

Ukuphakamisa eminye imibuzo mayelana nokuzimisela kwakhe njengentatheli yesayensi yizibopho zikaKelland ku Isayensi Media Center (SMC), okuyinhlangano ephikisanayo engenzi nzuzo e-UK exhuma ososayensi nezintatheli, bese iyayithola indawo enkulu yezimali eziqhamuka emaqenjini nasezinkampanini, kufaka phakathi izintshisekelo zomkhakha wamakhemikhali.

I-SMC, ebizwa ngokuthi “i-ejensi ye-PR yesayensi, ”Eyethulwa ngo-2002 ngokwengxenye njengomzamo wokunciphisa izindaba ezithathwa amaqembu afana neGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth, ngokusho kwencwadi yayo umbiko wokusungula. I-SMC isolwa ngokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo kanye nempilo yabantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obuthile obunempikiswano, ngokusho kuka abacwaningi abaningi abafunde iqembu.

Ukuchema kukaKelland ngokuthanda leli qembu kuyabonakala, njengoba evela kwi-SMC ividiyo yephromoshini kanye ne-SMC umbiko wokuphromotha, uba khona njalo Ama-SMC amafushane, ukhuluma ku Amashabhu we-SMC futhi waba khona imihlangano eNdiya ukuxoxa ngokusungula ihhovisi le-SMC lapho.

Kelland noma abahleli bakhe akekho Reuters uzophendula imibuzo ephathelene nobudlelwano bakhe ne-SMC, noma ukugxekwa okuthile ngokubika kwakhe.

UFiona Fox, umqondisi weSMC, uthe iqembu lakhe alisebenzanga noKelland ezindabeni zakhe ze-IARC noma anikeze imithombo engaphezu kwaleyo efakwe emaphepheni eSMC. Kusobala nokho ukuthi ukubika kukaKelland nge-glyphosate ne-IARC kukhombisa imibono evezwe ngochwepheshe be-SMC namaqembu embonini kulezo zihloko.

I-Reuters ithatha usosayensi womdlavuza

Ngo-June 14, i-2017, Reuters ishicilelwe a umbiko okhethekile nguKelland osola u-Aaron Blair, ingcweti yezifo eziqhamuka e-US National Cancer Institute nosihlalo wephaneli le-IARC ku-glyphosate, ngokugodla imininingwane ebalulekile ekuhlolweni komdlavuza.

Indaba kaKelland ize yaveza nokuthi imininingwane okuthiwa ibanjiwe ibingasiguqula isiphetho se-IARC sokuthi i-glyphosate kungenzeka i-carcinogenic. Kodwa-ke imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo yayiyi-subset encane yedatha ye-epidemiology etholwe ngephrojekthi yesikhathi eside eyaziwa njenge Ucwaningo Lwezempilo Lwezolimo (AHS). Ukuhlaziywa kweminyaka eminingana yemininingwane emayelana ne-glyphosate evela ku-AHS kwakusivele kushicilelwe futhi kwabhekwa yi-IARC, kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha kwemininingwane engaqediwe, engashicilelwanga akuzange kubhekwe, ngoba imithetho ye-IARC ifuna ukuthembela kuphela kudatha eshicilelwe.

Umbono kaKelland wokuthi uBlair ubambe idatha ebalulekile ubuphikisana nemibhalo yomthombo lapho asekele khona indaba yakhe, kepha akazange anikeze abafundi izixhumanisi zanoma iyiphi yaleyo mibhalo, ngakho abafundi abakwazanga ukuzihlolela ubuqiniso bezimangalo ngokwabo. Izinsolo zakhe zamabhomu zasatshalaliswa kabanzi, zaphindwa yizintatheli kwezinye izindawo zezindaba (kufaka phakathi umama Jones) futhi yathunyelwa ngokushesha njenge- ithuluzi lokunxenxa ngomkhakha wezolimo.

Ngemuva kokuthola imibhalo yangempela, uCarey Gillam, owayekade eyi Reuters intatheli nomqondisi manje wocwaningo lwe-US Right to Know (iqembu elingenzi nzuzo lapho nami ngisebenza khona), Bekele ngaphandle amaphutha amaningi nokushiywa esiqeshini sikaKelland.

Ukuhlaziywa kunikeza izibonelo zezimangalo ezisemqoka ku-athikili kaKelland, kufaka phakathi nesitatimende okuthiwa senziwe nguBlair, esingasekelwa yikhasi elinamakhasi angama-300 ukubekwa kukaBlair eyenziwa ngabameli bakaMonsanto, noma eminye imibhalo yomthombo.

Isethulo sikaKelland sokukhetha isikhundla sikaBlair sibuye sanganaki obekuphikisana nomqondo wakhe — ngokwesibonelo, iziqinisekiso eziningi zikaBlair zocwaningo ezibonisa ukuxhumana kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, njengoba uGillam abhala Huffington Post i-athikili (6 / 18 / 17).

UKelland uchaze ngokungachazeki ukubeka kukaBlair nezinto ahlobene nazo ngokuthi “yimibhalo yasenkantolo,” okusho ukuthi zitholakala emphakathini; empeleni, azizange zifakwe enkantolo, futhi kungenzeka ukuthi zitholwe kubameli bakaMonsanto noma kuma-surrogatives. (Le mibhalo ibitholakala kuphela kubameli abathintekayo kuleli cala, futhi abameli bommangali bathe abayinikanga uKelland.)

Reuters unqabile ukulungisa amaphutha esiqeshini, kufaka phakathi isimangalo esingamanga mayelana nemvelaphi yemibhalo yomthombo kanye nencazelo enganembile yomthombo oyisihluthulelo, isazi sezibalo uBob Tarone, njengo "ozimele weMonsanto." Eqinisweni, uTarone wayenakho uthole inkokhelo yokubonisana kusuka eMonsanto ngemizamo yakhe yokwehlisa isithunzi i-IARC.

Ukuphendula isicelo se-USRTK sokulungisa noma ukuhoxisa i-athikili kaKelland, Reuters Umhleli wamabhizinisi omhlaba uMike Williams ubhale ku-imeyili kaJuni 23:

Sibuyekeze i-athikili kanye nokubika lapho ibisuselwa khona. Lokho kubika kufaka phakathi okubhekiswe kuwe, kepha bekungagcini kukho. Intatheli, uKate Kelland, naye wayexhumana nabo bonke abantu okukhulunywe ngabo endabeni nabanye abaningi, wafunda neminye imibhalo. Ngokwalokho kubuyekezwa, asithathi le ndatshana njengengalungile noma ukugunyaza ukuhoxiswa.

UWilliams wenqabile ukukhuluma ngendaba engamanga "yemibhalo yasenkantolo" noma incazelo engalungile yeTarone njengomthombo ozimele.

Kusukela lapho, ithuluzi lokunxenxa Reuters unikezwe uMonsanto ukhule imilenze futhi wagijima wasendle. NgoJuni 24 Umhleli by IDispatch yaseSt kungezwe amaphutha ngaphezulu kokubika okuvele kudukisa. Maphakathi noJulayi, amabhulogi wephiko langakwesokudla ayesebenzisa i- Reuters indaba yokusola i-IARC ye ukukhwabanisa abakhokhi bentela base-US, izingosi zezindaba ezixhasa umkhakha zazibikezela ukuthi le ndaba izoba “isipikili sokugcina ebhokisini lomngcwabo”Yezimangalo zomdlavuza mayelana ne-glyphosate, kanye no iqembu lezindaba zesayensi mbumbulu beyithuthukisa indaba kaKelland ku Facebook enesihloko esiyimbumbulu esithi i-IARC ososayensi babevumile ukuthi bazifihla.

Ukuhlaselwa kwebhekoni

Lesi bekungekhona okokuqala ukuthi uKelland athembele kuBob Tarone njengomthombo oyisihluthulelo, futhi wehluleka ukudalula ukuxhumana kwakhe embonini, ku-athikili ehlasela i-IARC.

Ngo-Ephreli 2016 uphenyo olukhethekile nguKelland, "Ngubani Othi Ibhekoni Limbi ?," uveze i-IARC njengenhlangano edidayo engalungile kusayensi. Ucezu lwakhiwe kakhulu kwizingcaphuno ezivela kuTarone, eminye imithombo emibili ye-pro-industry ukuxhumana kwezimboni nakho okungazange kudalulwe, kanye nombukeli oyedwa ongaziwa.

Izindlela ze-IARC “aziqondakali kahle,” “aziwusebenzeli kahle umphakathi,” kwesinye isikhathi zintula ubukhali besayensi, “azilungele isayensi,” “azilungele izinhlangano ezilawulayo” futhi zenza umphakathi “into embi,” kusho abagxeki.

UTarone uthe, le nhlangano "ayinazazi, uma kungezona ezesayensi" - icala elicindezelwe ngofeleba esihlokweni esincane.

I-Tarone isebenza kumkhakha we-pro Isikhungo se-International Epidemiology, futhi wake wabandakanyeka kwi ucwaningo lweselula oluyimpikiswano, exhaswe ingxenye yomkhakha womakhalekhukhwini, ongatholanga ukuxhumana komdlavuza nomakhalekhukhwini, okuphikisana ne- izifundo ezikhokhelwa ngokuzimela kumagazini ofanayo.

Abanye abagxeki endabeni yobhekeni lukaKelland kwakunguPaulo Boffetta, usosayensi owayengundabuzekwayo wakudala wase-IARC owabhala iphepha evikela i-asbestos ngenkathi futhi ukuthola imali yokuvikela imboni ye-asbesto enkantolo; noGeoffrey Kabat, owake waba khona ihlukaniswe nososayensi oxhaswe ngemali embonini kagwayi ukubhala iphepha ukuvikela intuthu kagwayi.

UKabat ubuye asebenze ebhodini lokweluleka le-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), a iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi. Usuku i Reuters indaba hit, i-ACSH ithumele into yebhulogi (4 / 16 / 17) eziqhayisa ngokuthi uKelland usebenzise umeluleki wakhe uKabat njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza i-IARC.

[Bona okuthunyelwe okuhlobene ngoMashi 2019: Izibopho zikaGeoffrey Kabat kumaQembu Wezimboni Zikagwayi Namakhemikhali

Ukuxhumana komkhakha wemithombo yakhe, nomlando wabo wokuthatha izikhundla ngokungqubuzana nesayensi ejwayelekile, kubonakala kufanelekile, ikakhulukazi njengoba ukudalulwa kwebhekoni le-IARC kwakumataniswa neKelland i-athikili mayelana ne-glyphosate lowo osola umeluleki we-IARC uChris Portier ngokwenzelela ngenxa yokuzibandakanya kwakhe neqembu lezemvelo.

Ukubiyelwa kwenzalo kwenzelwe ukudicilela phansi incwadi, ehlelwe nguPortier futhi isayinwe ososayensi abangama-94, lokho kuchaze "amaphutha amakhulu" ekuhlolweni kwezinhlekelele ze-European Union okukhipha i-glyphosate engozini yomdlavuza.

Ukuhlaselwa kwePortier, netimu enhle yesayensi / embi yesayensi, kwananela imboni yamakhemikhali Iziteshi ze-PR ngosuku olufanayo kwavela izindatshana zakwaKelland.

IARC ihlehlela emuva

Ngo-Okthoba 2016, kwenye iskoop ekhethekile, UKelland waveza i-IARC njengenhlangano eyimfihlo eyayicele ososayensi bayo ukuthi bayigodle imibhalo ephathelene nokubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate. Lo mbhalo ubususelwa ekubhaleni okunikezwe uKelland ngu iqembu lomthetho elixhasa umkhakha.

Ukuphendula, i-IARC yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthumela imibuzo kaKelland kanye ne izimpendulo ababemthumele zona, enikeze umongo oshiywe ngaphandle kwe- Reuters indaba.

I-IARC ichaze ukuthi abameli bakaMonsanto babecela ososayensi ukuthi baphendule amaphepha asalungiswa kanye nezinqumo, futhi ngenxa yamacala aqhubekayo kuMonsanto, "ososayensi bazizwa bengakhululekile ukukhipha lezi zinto, futhi abanye babona ukuthi bayasatshiswa." Le nhlangano ithe bake babhekana nengcindezi efanayo phambilini yokuthi bakhiphe amaphepha asalungiswa ukuze basekele izinyathelo zomthetho ezibandakanya i-asbestos nogwayi, nokuthi kunemizamo yokudonsela amaphepha e-IARC ngamacala enkantolo ye-PCB.

Indaba ayizange isho lezo zibonelo, noma ukukhathazeka mayelana nemibhalo yesayensi esalungiswa egcina isenkantolo, kepha ucezu lwalusinda ekuhlaziyweni kwe-IARC, ukuyichaza njengeqembu "eliphikisana nososayensi emhlabeni wonke," "elibangele impikiswano ”nokuhlolwa komdlavuza“ okungadala ukwesabeka okungadingekile kwezempilo. ”

I-IARC "inezinhloso eziyimfihlo" futhi izenzo zayo "bezihlekisa," ngokusho kwesikhulu seMonsanto esicashunwe endabeni.

IARC yabhala ukuphendula (ukugcizelelwa koqobo):

Lo mbhalo ngu Reuters kulandela iphethini yemibiko engaguquguquki kepha edukisayo mayelana nohlelo lwe-IARC Monographs kwezinye izingxenye zemidiya eziqala ngemuva kokuthi i-glyphosate ihlukaniswe njenge mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IARC futhi wahlehliselwa emuva Ukubika kukaKelland ngoBlair, ephawula ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo nomthombo wakhe iTarone futhi echaza ukuthi uhlelo lokuhlola umdlavuza lwe-IARC aluthathi imininingwane engashicilelwe, futhi "alusekeli ukuhlolwa kwalo emibonweni ethulwe emibikweni yabezindaba," kodwa "kumhlangano ohleliwe nokubuyekezwa kuzo zonke izifundo zesayensi ezitholakala esidlangalaleni nezisemqoka, ngochwepheshe abazimele, ezingenazintshisekelo ezitholakala kubo. ”

Ukulandisa kwe-ejensi ye-PR

I-Science Media Center-eyiKelland usho kanje kube nomthelela ekubikeni kwakhe — unezintshisekelo, futhi wagxekwa nangokuphikisa imibono yesayensi esekela umkhakha. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iBayer, iDuPont, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye nama-ejensi kahulumeni, izisekelo namayunivesithi.

Ngawo wonke ama-akhawunti, i-SMC inethonya ekwakheni ukuthi abezindaba bazifaka kanjani izindaba ezithile zesayensi, imvamisa ithola eyayo ukusabela kochwepheshe ucaphuna ezindabeni zemidiya nokusakazwa kokushayela nge cindezela ngamafushane.

Njengoba uKelland echaze ku-SMC ividiyo yephromoshini, "Ekupheleni kwesithangami, uyayiqonda ukuthi yini indaba nokuthi kungani ibalulekile."

Leli yiphuzu lomzamo weSMC: ukukhombisa izintatheli ukuthi izindaba noma izifundo ziyakufanele yini ukunakwa, nokuthi kufanele zakhiwe kanjani.

Kwesinye isikhathi, ochwepheshe be-SMC badlala ingozi futhi banikeza isiqinisekiso emphakathini mayelana nemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano; isibonelo, abacwaningi bagxeke imizamo yabezindaba ye-SMC ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Imikhankaso ye-SMC kwesinye isikhathi ifaka isandla emizameni yokunxenxa. Ngo-2013 Nature i-athikili (7 / 10 / 13) uchaze ukuthi iSMC iluguqule kanjani igagasi ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kwemibungu yezilwane / yabantu ehlukanisiwe nokukhathazeka kokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwayo njengethuluzi lokucwaninga — futhi ngaleyo ndlela yamisa imithetho kahulumeni.

Umcwaningi wabezindaba oqashwe yi-SMC ukuze ahlaziye ukusebenza kwalowo mkhankaso, u-Andy Williams wase-Cardiff University, wabona imodeli ye-SMC njengenkinga, wakhathazeka ngokuthi impikiswano evimbelwe. Williams kuchazwe izifinyezo ze-SMC njengemicimbi ephethwe ngokuqinile ecindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo.

Esihlokweni somngcipheko womdlavuza we-glyphosate, i-SMC inikeza ukulandisa okucacile ekukhishweni kwayo kwabezindaba.

Ukuhlukaniswa komdlavuza we-IARC, ngokusho kwe- Ochwepheshe be-SMC, "Yehlulekile ukufaka imininingwane ebucayi," ibisuselwa "ekubukezweni okukhethwayo" nakubufakazi "obubonakala buzacile" futhi "kukonke akusekeli ukuhlukaniswa kwezinga eliphezulu okunjalo." Monsanto kanye nezinye umkhakha Amaqembu kukhuthazwe izingcaphuno.

Ochwepheshe be-SMC babenombono omuhle ngokwengeziwe wokuhlolwa kobungozi okwenziwa yi-European Food Safety Authority (I-EFSA) kanye ne-European Chemicals Agency (I-ECHA), okususe i-glyphosate yokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza womuntu.

Isiphetho se-EFSA yayisondelene kakhulu nesayensi, ibambisene futhi ilinganiselwe ”kunama-IARC, kanye ne Umbiko we-ECHA yayizimisele, izimele, iphelele futhi “ivunyelwe ngokwesayensi.”

Ukubika kukaKelland ku Reuters kunanela lezo zingqikithi zomkhakha wemboni, futhi kwesinye isikhathi basebenzise ochwepheshe abafanayo, njenge Indaba kaNovemba 2015 ngokuthi kungani ama-ejensi ase-Europe anikeze izeluleko eziphikisanayo mayelana nobungozi bomdlavuza we-glyphosate. Indaba yakhe icaphune ochwepheshe ababili ngokuqondile ku Ukukhishwa kwe-SMC, bese efingqa imibono yabo:

Ngamanye amagama, i-IARC inikwe umsebenzi wokugqamisa noma yini engase ibe ezimeni ezithile, noma ingajwayelekile, ikwazi ukudala umdlavuza kubantu. I-EFSA, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ikhathazekile ngezingozi zangempela zokuphila nokuthi, uma kwenzeka i-glyphosate, bukhona yini ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi uma isetshenziswa ezimweni ezijwayelekile, isibulala-zinambuzane sibeka ingozi engamukeleki empilweni yabantu noma emvelweni.

UKelland uhlanganise ukusabela okufushane okubili kwabezemvelo: IGreenpeace ibize ukubuyekezwa kwe-EFSA ngokuthi “mhlophe”, kanti uJennifer Sass woMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo uthe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC “bekuyinqubo eqinile, evikeleka ngokwesayensi futhi yomphakathi ebandakanya ikomidi lamazwe omhlaba lochwepheshe abangawona umkhakha . ” (An Isitatimende seNRDC ku-glyphosate ukubeka ngale ndlela: “IARC Got It Right, I-EFSA Ithole It Isuka eMonsanto.”)

Indaba kaKelland ilandelele ukuphawula kweqembu lezemvelo “nabagxeki be-IARC… bathi indlela yayo yokuhlonza izingozi isiba yinto engenamsebenzi kubathengi, abalwela ukusebenzisa iseluleko sayo empilweni yangempela,” futhi iphetha ngezingcaphuno zososayensi “othi intshisekelo usebenze njengomxhumanisi weMonsanto. ”

Lapho ebuzwa ngokugxekwa kwe-pro-industry bias ye-SMC, uFox waphendula wathi:

Silalela ngokucophelela noma ikuphi ukugxekwa okuvela emphakathini wezesayensi noma izintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK, kepha asikutholi ukugxekwa kokuchema ngemboni evela kulaba babambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokwenzelela embonini, futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3,000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi lezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba zesayensi ezinempikiswano enkulu, sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile.

Ukungqubuzana kwesazi

Ochwepheshe bezesayensi abahlali bedalula ukungqubuzana kwabo kwezintshisekelo ekukhishweni kwezindaba ezikhishwe yi-SMC, noma nasezindimeni zabo ezisezingeni eliphakeme njengabenza izinqumo ngengozi yomdlavuza yamakhemikhali afana ne-glyphosate.

Isazi esivela njalo se-SMC u-Alan Boobis, uprofesa wezemithi yamakhemikhali e-Imperial College London, unikeza imibono ekukhishweni kwama-SMC i-aspartame (“Hhayi ukukhathazeka”), glyphosate emchameni (akunandaba), ama-insecticide kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa (“Ngaphambi kwesikhathi ukuthola iziphetho”), utshwala, Ummbila we-GMO, trace izinsimbi, Ukudla kwama-rod rod futhi nokuningi.

The Isinqumo se-ECHA ukuthi i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogen "kufanele ihalaliselwe," ngokusho kukaBoobis, kanye ne Isinqumo se-IARC ukuthi mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic "ayisiyona imbangela yokwethuka okungafanele," ngoba ibingacabangi ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane zisetshenziswa kanjani emhlabeni wangempela.

UBoobis umemezele ukuthi akukho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekukhishweni kwe-IARC noma yikuphi ukukhishwa kwangaphambilini kweSMC okuphethe izingcaphuno zakhe. Kepha wabe esevusa a ihlazo lokungqubuzana kwenzalo ngesikhathi kuvela izindaba zokuthi ubephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a iqembu le-pro-industry, ngasikhathi sinye wabambisana nosihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyathola i-glyphosate akunakwenzeka ukubeka ingozi yomdlavuza ngokusebenzisa ukudla. (IBoobis okwamanje isitulo weBhodi Labaphathiswa be-ILSI, futhi iphini likamongameli isikhangiso sesikhashana Ye-ILSI / Europe.)

ILSI ithole iminikelo yabantu abayisithupha kusuka eMonsanto naseCropLife International, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. USolwazi Angelo Moretto, owayengusihlalo wesigungu se-UN ku-glyphosate kanye noBoobis, naye wabamba indima yobuholi ku-ILSI. Noma kunjalo iphaneli limenyezelwe akukho ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo.

UKelland akazange abike ngalezo zingxabano, noma kunjalo bhala mayelana okutholwe "ochwepheshe be-UN" abakhipha i-glyphosate engozini yomdlavuza, futhi wake wasebenzisa kabusha isicaphuna seBoobis Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-SMC ngendatshana ekhuluma ingulube yase-Ireland engcolisiwe. (Ubungozi kubathengi bebuphansi.)

Lapho ebuzwa mayelana nenqubomgomo yokudalula inzalo ye-SMC, nokuthi kungani ukuxhumana kweBoobis 'ISLI kungadalulwanga ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, uFox waphendula wathi:

Sicela bonke abacwaningi esibasebenzisayo ukuhlinzeka ngama-COI abo futhi senze ukuthi labo batholakalele izintatheli. Ngokuhambisana nezinye izinqubomgomo ze-COI eziningana, asikwazi ukuphenya yonke i-COI, yize samukela izintatheli ezikwenza lokho.

UBoobis akatholakalanga ukuphawula, kodwa utshele i- Guardian, "Indima yami ku-ILSI (kanye namagatsha ayo amabili) njengelungu lomkhakha womphakathi kanye nosihlalo wamabhodi abo abaphathiswa, izikhundla ezingaholi."

Kodwa ukungqubuzana "kubangele ukulahlwa okufutheka okuvela kuma-MEPs aluhlaza nama-NGO," i Guardian kubika, “kuqiniswe ukukhishwa kombiko [wephaneli le-UN] ezinsukwini ezimbili ngaphambi kokuba kuvunyelwe kabusha i-EU ukuvotela i-glyphosate, okuzobiza izimboni zamarandi ezigidigidi zamarandi.”

Futhi kunjalo nangewebhu ethintekile yethonya ebandakanya izinkampani, ochwepheshe besayensi, ukusakazwa kwabezindaba kanye nempikiswano esezingeni eliphakeme nge-glyphosate, manje edlala ezingeni lomhlaba njengeMonsanto ubhekene nokumangalelwa ngaphezulu kwamakhemikhali ngenxa yezimangalo zomdlavuza, futhi ifuna ukuqeda ifayili le- Isivumelwano esingu- $ 66 billion neBayer.

Okwamanje, e-US, njengoba Bloomberg kubika ngoJulayi 13: “Ingabe Umdlavuza Obulala Kakhulu Wezwe Uyimbangela Yomdlavuza? I-EPA kaTrump Izonquma. ”

Imilayezo eya Reuters kungathunyelwa le website (noma nge Twitter: @Reuters). Sicela ukhumbule ukuthi ukuxhumana ngenhlonipho kuphumelela kakhulu.

Kwenziwe Kanjani 'IMonsanto' Ukuthukuthela 'e-IARC ngokwehlukaniswa Komdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
NguCarey Gillam

Eminyakeni emithathu edlule kule nyanga Monsanto abaphathi babona ukuthi banenkinga enkulu ezandleni zabo.

KwakungoSepthemba 2014 futhi ikhemikhali elidayisa kakhulu kule nkampani, elibulala ukhula lathi glyphosate leso yisisekelo sophawu lukaMonsanto Roundup imikhiqizo, yayikhethwe njengenye yezibulala-zinambuzane ezimbalwa ezazizohlolwa yiWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). UMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka evikela ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokukhalaza ucwaningo lwesayensi olubonisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingadala umdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. Futhi noma ngabe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kwakusasele izinyanga, ososayensi uqobo lukaMonsanto babazi ukuthi umphumela ungaba yini-futhi babazi ukuthi ngeke kube kuhle.

Amarekhodi enkampani yangaphakathi awakhombisi nje kuphela izinga lokwesaba uMonsanto ayenalo mayelana nokubuyekezwa okuzayo, kodwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izikhulu zenkampani zazilindele ngokugcwele ososayensi be-IARC ukuthi bathole okungenani ukuxhumana okuthile komdlavuza ne-glyphosate. Ososayensi benkampani baxoxe "ngobungozi" obuzungeze imizamo yabo yokuvikela i-glyphosate phakathi kokutholakele okungathandeki okuningi kocwaningo kwizifundo zabantu nezilwane ezivezwe kumbulali wokhula. Ngaphezu kwezifundo ze-epidemiology, "futhi sinezinkinga ezingaba khona kwezinye izindawo i-IARC ezocubungula, okuwukuthi, ukuvezwa, i-genetox kanye nendlela yokwenza ..." kubhala usosayensi waseMonsanto ngo-Okthoba 2014. I-imeyili efanayo ixoxe ngesidingo sokuthola ababambisene nabo nokuhlela uxhaso “lokulwa” —izinyanga zonke ngaphambi komhlangano we-IARC ngoMashi 2015.

Futhi iMonsanto yabikezela ngaphakathi ngaphambi kokuthi i-IARC ihlangane nokuthi ukubuyekezwa kobufakazi besayensi kungaholela esinqumweni sokuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka" yayiyi-carcinogenic noma "mhlawumbe" yayikhona. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zazibikezele ngesinqumo se-IARC ku uhlelo lwangaphakathi "lokulungela" lokho kwexwayisa ozakwabo ukuthi “bacabangele futhi balungiselele umphumela…” Lo mbhalo ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayecabanga ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-IARC ikhombe i-glyphosate "njenge-carcinogen yabantu." Ukulinganiswa kwe-carcinogen okungenzeka kube "kungenzeka kodwa kuncane kakhulu," kusho imemo yeMonsanto. IARC ekugcineni yenzile hlela i-glyphosate njenge “mhlawumbe okubanga umdlavuza ebantwini.”

Njengoba umhlangano we-IARC wawususondele, imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ayizange ilinde isinqumo sangempela se-IARC ngaphambi kokuthatha isinyathelo. Ibhalise amaqembu ochwepheshe be-PR kanye nabaceli bokucela usizo, ososayensi nabanye kuhlelo oluhlose ukudala lokho okwenzelwe ukuthi kuvele njengesiphepho "sokukhala" kanye "nentukuthelo" yokulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. I-IARC ibinomlando "wezinqumo ezingabazekayo nezisolwa kwezepolitiki," kusho imemo yeMonsanto.

Uhlelo bekungukudala impikiswano eyanele yokuhlambalaza ngokuphelele ukuhlolwa kwe-IARC ngoba izikhulu zeMonsanto bezazi ukuthi abalawuli bazothonywa yi-IARC, futhi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwamakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kungaba sengozini.

"Kungenzeka ukuthi isinqumo se-IARC sibe nomthelela ekuthathweni kwezinqumo esikhathini esizayo," kusho uMonsanto encwadini yakhe yangaphakathi.

Isikhathi besibucayi ngoba ngo-2015 bobabili i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) kanye neKhomishini yase-Europe bebehlola ukugunyazwa kabusha kombulali wokhula waseMonsanto. Ukulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-European Union kanye ne-EPA kubambezele izinqumo zokugcina nge-glyphosate phakathi kwempikiswano esaqhubeka mayelana nokuphepha kwamakhemikhali.

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi kwakusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kwakukhona ubufakazi bokuba ne-carcinogenicity," kusho uPeter Infante, udokotela wezifo ezithathelana ngezifo osebenze iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-24 kuhulumeni wase-US efunda izingozi zomdlavuza kubasebenzi ekuvezweni yizinto ezinobuthi. "Kungabonakala kimi ukuthi iMonsanto ayithandi ukuthi umphakathi waziswe ngengozi yomdlavuza."

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi bekusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kunobufakazi bokuthi umzimba ubanga umdlavuza."

Ngemuva kwesinqumo se-IARC, kwaqubuka isiphepho semibhikisho esivela kubantu nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene kanye nokukhala kukaMonsanto ngentukuthelo. Abanye bangabaze ubuhlakani bezimali zaseMelika i-IARC neMonsanto kuqhubekile ukulandisa okungamanga ukuthi usihlalo weqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC wagodla imininingwane ebalulekile eqenjini.

Umzila wedokhumenti, okubandakanya ama-imeyili angaphakathi, ama-memos nokunye ukuxhumana okutholwe eMonsanto ngabameli babamangali ngokusebenzisa amacala asalindwe e-US, kucacisa ukuthi impikiswano, nenselelo yokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC ayizange ihlume ngokoqobo kumazwi ahlukahlukene, kepha eyenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kwesinqumo se-IARC futhi yaqhubeka ngemuva kwalokho. Inhloso bekungukuthi-futhi inguye-ukukholisa abalawuli ukuthi bakuyeke okutholwe yithimba lochwepheshe abazimele besayensi abakha iqembu le-IARC elalihlola i-glyphosate.

Amarekhodi angaphakathi atholwe ngamacala, kuhlanganiswe nemibhalo etholwe nge-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) nezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso futhi kukhombisa ukuthi izenzo ezisetshenziselwe ukudicilela phansi i-IARC beziyingxenye yamaphethini amashumi eminyaka amaqhinga akhohlisayo yiMonsanto ukuncenga abalawuli, abenzi bomthetho namalungu abezindaba nomphakathi ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-Roundup ziphephile. Le nkampani isisebenzise la maqhinga kaningi eminyakeni edlule ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abaningana abacwaningi babo abathole imiphumela eyingozi ehambisana ne-glyphosate.

"Ukukhala Kwe-orchestrate ”

Uhlelo lokuhlaselwa kwe-IARC, olwabekwa kumemo kaFebhuwari 2015, aluzange lubandakanye kuphela abantu baseMonsanto bangaphakathi be-PR, ososayensi kanye nochwepheshe bezokumaketha, kodwa nohlu lwabadlali bezimboni bangaphandle. Abantu abahlukahlukene babelwa imisebenzi. “Amasu namasu” afakiwe:

  • "I-Orchestrate Outry" enesinqumo se-IARC-Imboni iqhuba ukufinyelela okuqinile kwemidiya / imithombo yezokuxhumana ngenqubo nomphumela.
  • "Khomba / ucele ochwepheshe abavela eceleni ukuthi babhulogi, ba-op / bahlele, babhale i-tweet kanye / noma baxhumanise, baphinde babhale, baphinde babhale kabusha, njll." Le mibhalo ikhombisa “uchwepheshe” onjalo, uHenry Miller oyisifundiswa unikeze i-athikili ebhaliwe ukuthumela iForbes ukuthi ishicilelwe ngaphansi kwegama lakhe kungashiwo ukuthi uMonsanto ubandakanyekile. UForbes ufunde ngokukhohlisa ngenyanga edlule futhi baqeda ubudlelwane noMiller.
  • “Inform / Inoculate / Engage Industry Partners” —Ngokucacile abalingani bemboni ababalwe ohlwini babandakanya izinhlangano ezintathu ezithi zizimele ngeMonsanto kodwa sekuyisikhathi eside zibonwa ngabagxeki njengamaqembu aphambili enkampani — iMonsanto iqanjwe Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, womabili asuselwe e-US nase Umuzwa Ngezesayensi, esebenze e-United Kingdom nase-US, njengamaqembu ukusiza ngomsebenzi wayo. Eqinisweni, iSense About Science kwakuyiqembu elakhonjwa yiMonsanto ukuhola ukuphendula kwemboni futhi "linikeze inkundla yababukeli be-IARC." La maqembu enza njengoba kuhlelwe iMonsanto, athumela ukuhlaselwa okuthusayo e-IARC kumawebhusayithi awo.
  • Ukuzibandakanya ne-Regulatory Agencies-I-Monsanto ihlelelwe izinhlangano / abatshali bezolimo ukuthi "babhale abalawuli ngesikhalazo sokuthi bahlale begxile kwisayensi, hhayi esinqumweni sezombusazwe esenziwe yi-IARC."
  • "Push umbono womholi incwadi eya ephephandabeni eliyinhloko lansuku zonke ngosuku lwesinqumo se-IARC" ngosizo lwenkampani yezentengiso yasePotomac Group.

Uhlelo lokulungela lolo lubuye lusekele ukuxhasa "ukwakhiwa kwamaphepha amathathu amasha kwi-glyphosate egxile ku-epidemiology kanye ne-toxicology." Njengoba kuhlelwe, ngemuva nje kwesinqumo se-IARC uMonsanto wahlela ukuthi ososayensi abaningana — iningi labo ababengabasebenzi noma abeluleki abakhokhelwayo - babhale futhi bashicilele amaphepha ocwaningo asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Kwembulwa ngemibhalo yokutholwa ukuthi iMonsanto yaxoxa ngokubhalwa kwamaphepha ngesipoki. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, usosayensi wenkampani uWilliam Heydens utshele ozakwabo ukuthi inkampani "ingabhala izipoki" imibiko ethile ezophatha amagama ososayensi abangaphandle - "bazovele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," wabhala. Ubalule njengesibonelo isifundo sango-2000 esathathwa njengesinomthelela kubalawuli. Imibhalo ikhombisa Ukubhala nokuhlela okunzima kukaMonsanto ekubuyekezweni okusolakala ukuthi “kuzimele” okuholele kulokho.

IMonsanto iphikile yaliphika ilungelo lokubhala, kepha imemo eyodwa kusukela ngo-Agasti 2015 okuvela emafayilini kasosayensi waseMonsanto uDavid Saltmiras empeleni usebenzisa lelo gama, esho ukuthi “ghostwrote iphepha lokubuyekeza umdlavuza uGreim et al (2015)…” ebhekisa ephepheni elakhombisa ukuqanjwa ngusosayensi waseJalimane uHelmut Greim kanye noSaltmiras. (UMonsanto uvumile ukuthi uGreim wasebenza njengomxhumanisi enkampanini kanti ingxenye yomsebenzi wakhe kwakuwukushicilela imininingwane ebuyekezwa ngontanga ku-glyphosate).

Enye i-imeyili yangaphakathi kukhombisa ukubhalwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto wephepha locwaningo elinesihloko esithi "Imiphumela Yokuthuthuka Nokuzala… ngemuva Kokuvezwa KweGlyphosate." Usosayensi, uDonna Farmer, wenza umsebenzi omningi, kufaka phakathi lokho akubiza ngokuthi "ukusika nokunamathisela" kolwazi oluthile. Kepha igama lakhe alifakwanga njengombhali ngaphambi kokuba leli phepha linikezwe iphephabhuku. I- okushicilelwe uphethe ngokuthi abukho "ubufakazi obuqinile obuxhuma ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate emiphumeleni emibi yokukhula noma yokuzala."

Umzila wamaphepha futhi ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wesaba ukuthi inkampani yezempilo yase-US ehlela ukubuyekeza i-glyphosate e2015 ingavumelana ne-IARC futhi isebenzisane ne-EPA ukuvimba ngempumelelo leyo ejensi—I-Agency for Toxic Substances & Registry Registry (ATSDR) -kusukela ekwenzeni ukubuyekeza kwayo. "Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke," Isikhulu senkampani sabhala. 

Irekhodi likhombisa ukuthi ngaphambi kwe-IARC, iMonsanto amanethiwekhi aqashiwe ososayensi bezemfundo e-US nase-Europe abavikele imikhiqizo kaMonsanto, kufaka phakathi umbulali wayo wokhula, ngaphandle kokumemezela ukusebenzisana kwabo neMonsanto. Futhi ukuthi la masosha athule asize iMonsanto idicilele phansi ososayensi ababike ucwaningo olubonisa ukulimala okuhambisana ne-glyphosate ne-Roundup, kufaka phakathi ukusebenza ngokubhideka kukaMonsanto ukuthola ucwaningo olulodwa oluyingozi ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini ehoxisiwe kumagazini wesayensi lapho yashicilelwa khona ngoSepthemba 2012. Le nkampani yaze yakwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngomunye wabaluleki bayo abakhokhelwayo owathola ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate's genotoxicity yanqaba ukwenza ezinye izivivinyo watusa.

Uma okushiwo yiMonsanto kuyiqiniso, leyo glyphosate iphephe kakhulu, nokuthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi idala umdlavuza noma ezinye izinkinga zempilo, pho kungani yonke intuthu nezibuko? Kungani inkampani izodinga ukubhala amaphepha okucwaninga ukuze iwanikeze abalawuli? Kungani iMonsanto ingadinga ukusungula amanethiwekhi ososayensi ukukhuthaza ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokudiliza ososayensi abacwaningo lwabo oluphakamisa ukukhathazeka? Kungani iMonsanto izama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate yi-US ATSDR?

Amakomidi amabili ePhalamende laseYurophu ahlele ukulalelwa komhlaka-11 Okthoba eBrussels ukuze acubungule le mibuzo neminye njengoba iKhomishini yaseYurophu ibhekene nesikhathi esinqunyiwe sokuthatha isinqumo ngokugunyazwa kabusha kwe-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuphela kuka-2017.

Abenzi bomthetho kufanele babunake ubufakazi bokuthi i-ejensi yabo yokuphepha kokudla ibonakala ilahle ibhola ekuhloleni okuzimele kocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. Amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi i-European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) uxoshe isifundo ukuxhumanisa umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto nomdlavuza ngokululekwa isikhulu se-EPA esathi uMonsanto wabona “silusizo” futhi oyingxenye cwaninga manje ngokuhlangana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-EPA neMonsanto.

Kufanele futhi banake izindaba zokuthi i-EFSA isusele isincomo sayo ku-glyphosate embikweni okopishe futhi wanamathisela ukuhlaziywa okuvela ocwaningweni lweMonsanto.

Usihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant wamenywa ukuba azothula inkulumo yakhe emhlanganweni wePhalamende ngo-Okthoba, kodwa wenqaba ukuvela noma ukuthumela omunye umuntu ovela eMonsanto. UDkt Roland Solecki, inhloko yezokuphepha kwamakhemikhali eGerman Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), naye unqabile, ngokusho kwabahleli. Ngihlela ukubamba iqhaza, njengoba nommeleli ovela e-IARC nabanye abaningi.

Kuyo yonke le mpikiswano, kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuthi ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kunezimpande ezijulile ezisukela emuva okungenani ngonyaka we-1985 lapho i-EPA toxicologists ibheka idatha ekhombisa izicubu ezingavamile amagundane akhishwe nge-glyphosate futhi wanquma ukuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka ukuthi ibanga umdlavuza kubantu."

Imibhikisho yeMonsanto ekugcineni yaguqula lokho kuhlukaniswa kodwa ngenxa yawo wonke amaqhinga akhohlisayo asanda kuvezwa emibhalweni, amazwi kasosayensi we-EPA eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-30 eyedlule kufanele abhekwe namuhla: “IGlyphosate iyasola… Impikiswano kaMonsanto ayamukeleki. "

Usosayensi we-EPA ku leso memo sango-1985 ubhale nokuthi: “Umbono wethu ungowokuvikela impilo yomphakathi lapho sibona imininingwane esolisayo. Akuwona umsebenzi wethu ukuvikela ababhalisile… ”

Izishayamthetho zaseYurophu zingaba nokuhlakanipha ukuwakhumbula lawo mazwi.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku I-EcoWatch.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona nombhali we I-Whitewash - Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. Ungumqondisi ocwaningayo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elingena nzuzo labathengi elibhekele iqiniso nokusebenzela obala ohlelweni lwethu lokudla.  

UKate Kelland weReuters ukhuthaze ukulandisa okungamanga nge-IARC no-Aaron Blair

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

QAPHELA uJanuwari 2019: Imibhalo efakwe enkantolo khombisa ukuthi iMonsanto kuhlinzekwe uKate Kelland enemibhalo yendaba yakhe kaJuni 2017 ekhuluma ngo-Aaron Blair futhi wamnika umugqa wesilayidi wamaphoyinti okukhuluma inkampani yayifuna ukumbozwa. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka Okuthunyelwe kukaCarey Gillam's Roundup Trial Tracker.

Ukuhlaziywa okulandelayo kwalungiswa nguCarey Gillam futhi kwathunyelwa ngoJuni 28, 2017:

NgoJuni 14, 2017 Reuters esihlokweni elibhalwe nguKate Kelland, elinesihloko esithi "I-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-WHO ishiye ebumnyameni phezu kobufakazi be-glyphosate," isole ngephutha usosayensi womdlavuza ngokugodla imininingwane ebalulekile ekuhlolweni kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate okwenziwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Indaba kaKelland iqukethe amaphutha ayiqiniso futhi isho iziphetho eziphikisana nokufundwa okugcwele kwemibhalo ayikhombise njengemithombo eyinhloko. Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi uKelland akazange axhumanise nemibhalo ayikhombile, okwenza abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ukuthi uphambuke kangakanani ekuchazeni. I- idokhumenti eyinhloko yomthombo iphikisana ngokusobala nomqondo wendaba kaKelland. Eminye imibhalo indaba yakhe ekhonjisiwe, kepha futhi ayixhumananga nayo, ingatholakala ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe.

Ingemuva: Indaba yeReuters yayingenye yochungechunge lwezingcezu ezibucayi i-ejensi yezindaba eyishicilele nge-IARC uKelland ayibhala ngemuva kokuthi i-IARC ihlukanise i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngoMashi 2015. IGlyphosate iyimboni yokubulala ukhula enenzuzo enkulu esetshenziswa njengesithako esiyinhloko emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup, kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Ukwahlukaniswa kwe-IARC kudale ukuqulwa kwamacala amakhulu e-United States alethwe ngabantu abasola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo ubangelwe yiRoundup, futhi kwagqugquzela abalawuli be-European Union kanye ne-US ukuthi bakhulise ukuhlolwa kwabo kwamakhemikhali. Ngokuphendula ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, futhi njengendlela yokuzivikela ekumangalelweni kwamacala kanye nokuqinisa ukwesekwa kwezomthetho, iMonsanto ifake izikhalazo eziningi nge-IARC efuna ukubukela phansi ukwethembeka kwe-IARC. Indaba ka-June 14 Kelland, eyacaphuna isikhulu esiphezulu se “Monsanto” se-Monsanto, yaqinisa leyo mizamo yamasu futhi yashiwo nguMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali njengobufakazi bokuthi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kunamaphutha.

Cabanga ngalokhu:

  • Ukufakwa kukasosayensi u-Aaron Blair, ukukhulumisana okungaqondakali kanye nokuxhumana nge-imeyili endabeni yakhe ngokuthi "amadokhumende asenkantolo" bekungeyona imibhalo yenkantolo kepha bekuyimibhalo eyakhiwe yatholakala njengengxenye yokutholwa enkantolo yamacala amaningi eza nezisulu zomdlavuza Umangalela uMonsanto. Le mibhalo ibiphethwe yithimba labameli bakaMonsanto kanjalo nethimba labammangali. Bheka i-docket US Court Court yesifunda esiseNyakatho neCalifornia, icala lokuhola 3: 16-md-02741-VC. Uma iMonsanto noma i-surrogate inikeze uKelland amadokhumende, lokho kufuna kufanele ngabe kushiwo. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi le mibhalo ayitholakalanga enkantolo, njengoba indaba kaKelland isho, kubonakala sengathi iMonsanto noma ama-surrogates batshala udaba lwendaba futhi banikeza uKelland imibhalo, noma okungenani izingxenye ezithile zemibhalo, kanye nokuhlolwa kwayo.
  • Umbhalo kaKelland unikeza ukuphawula nokuchazwa kwesikhundla esivela kuBob Tarone, uKelland amchaza ngokuthi “ozimele ngeMonsanto.” Nokho imininingwane inikezwe yi-IARC kusungula ukuthi iTarone isebenze njengomxhumanisi okhokhelwayo eMonsanto emizameni yayo yokuhlambalaza i-IARC.
  • I-Reuters ihlekise lolu daba ngalesi sitatimende: "Usosayensi ohola lokho kubuyekezwa wayazi ngemininingwane emisha engakhombisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza - kodwa akakaze akhulume ngayo futhi ne-ejensi ayizange iyinake." UKelland waveza ukuthi uDkt Blair wayefihla ngenhloso imininingwane ebucayi. Noma kunjalo ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakazile ukuthi imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo "ibingakalungeli" ukuthunyelwa kumagazini ukuze ishicilelwe futhi ngeke ivunyelwe ukuthi icutshungulwe yi-IARC ngoba ibingakaqedwa futhi ishicilelwe. Idatha eningi yaqoqwa njengengxenye yeSifundo Sezempilo Sezolimo Sase-US ebanzi futhi ibizofakwa eminyakeni eminingana yolwazi olushicilelwe ngaphambili oluvela ku-AHS olungakhombisi ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ummeli waseMonsanto ubuze uBlair ngokuthi kungani imininingwane ingashicilelwanga ngesikhathi esizobhekwa yi-IARC, ethi: “Unqume, nganoma yisiphi isizathu, ukuthi leyo datha ngeke ishicilelwe ngaleso sikhathi, ngakho-ke ayizange ibhekwe IARC, akunjalo? ” UBlair uphendule wathi: “Cha. Futhi uyayingcolisa le nqubo. ” “Esinqume ukuthi kube ngumsebenzi ebesiwenza kulezi zifundo ezahlukene ubungakabi - awukakulungeli ukuthunyelwa kumajenali. Noma usuthathe isinqumo sokuyithumela emaphephandabeni ukuze ibuyekezwe, awunqumi ukuthi izoshicilelwa nini. ” (Blair deposition transcript page 259) UBlair uphinde wathi kummeli weMonsanto: “Okungafanelekile ukusheshe uphuthume okuthile okungakahlaziywa ngokuphelele noma kucatshangelwe kahle” (ikhasi 204).
  • UBlair uphinde wethula ubufakazi bokuthi eminye imininingwane evela ku-AHS engakaqedwa, engashicilelwe "ibingabalulekanga ngokwezibalo" (ikhasi 173 lokufaka imali). UBlair uphinde wafakaza kulokho kufakwa mayelana nedatha ekhombisa ukuxhumana okuqinile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-NHL nayo engazange ivezelwe i-IARC ngoba ayizange ishicilelwe.
  • UBlair ufakazele ukuthi eminye imininingwane evela ocwaningweni lweProject Pooled Project ikhombise ukuthi ubudlelwane obuqinile kakhulu ne-NHL ne-glyphosate, enobungozi obuphindwe kabili nobuphindwe kathathu obuhambisana ne-pesticide ebonwa kubantu abasebenzisa i-glyphosate ngaphezu kokuphindwe kabili ngonyaka. Njengedatha ye-AHS, le datha nayo ayizange ishicilelwe noma inikezwe i-IARC (amakhasi 274-283 we-Blair deposition).
  • Umbhalo kaKelland uphinde wathi: “UBlair uphinde wathi imininingwane ibizoguqula ukuhlaziywa kwe-IARC. Uthe bekuzokwenza ukuthi kungabi namathuba amancane okuthi i-glyphosate ihlangabezane nemibandela ye-ejensi yokuchazwa ngokuthi 'mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic.' ”Lobo bufakazi (emakhasini 177-189 of deposition) abuzisekeli nhlobo lezo zitatimende. Ekugcineni uBlair uthi “mhlawumbe” ukuze abuze imibuzo evela kummeli kaMonsanto ebuza ukuthi ngabe idatha ye-AHS ka-2013 ifakiwe yini ekuhlaziyweni kwedatha ye-epidemiology ebhekwe yi-IARC, uma lokho “bekuzokwehlisa ubungozi bezihlobo ze-meta-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngisho nangaphezulu… ”Indaba kaKelland nayo ishiya isithombe sokuthi le datha ye-epidemiology engashicilelwe evela ocwaningweni olungakaqedwa ngabe ishintsha umdlalo we-IARC. Eqinisweni, ukufunda lokhu kufakwa ngokuphelele, bese ukukuqhathanisa nombiko we-IARC we-glyphosate, kugcizelela ukuthi lowo mbono ungamanga futhi udukisa kanjani. UBlair ufakaze kuphela kwimininingwane ye-epidemiology futhi i-IARC ibisivele ibubonile ubufakazi besi sifo obubonakala njengobuncane. Ukuhlukaniswa kwayo kwe-glyphosate kwabona ukubaluleka kwedatha yezilwane (i-toxicology) eyibuyekeza, ikubheka "njengokwanele."
  • UKelland uziba izingxenye ezibalulekile zokufakwa kukaBlair ngqo ocwaningweni olushicilelwe lowe-2003 olathola ukuthi “kwakukhona ukuphindeka kabili kwengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma kubantu ababekade bevezwa yi-glyphosate” (amakhasi 54-55 of the deposition).
  • UKelland akabunaki ubufakazi obethulwe eBlair mayelana "namaphesenti angama-300 engcupheni eyandisiwe" yomdlavuza ocwaningweni lwaseSweden (ikhasi 60 lokufakwa).
  • Ukufunda konke ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakaze ngezibonelo eziningi zezifundo ezibonisa ukuhlangana okuhle phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, konke uKelland akushaya indiva.
  • UKelland ubhala ukuthi ebufakazini bakhe bezomthetho, uBlair uphinde wachaza i-AHS "njengeyinamandla" futhi wavuma ukuthi imininingwane ayibonisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza. Uveze ukuthi ubekhuluma ngemininingwane ethile engashicilelwe yango-2013 kwi-NHL ne-glyphosate okuyi-subset encane yolwazi etholwe ku-AHS, lapho ubufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi wayekhuluma ngesambulela esikhulu somsebenzi se-AHS, ebesilandelela imindeni yasepulazini. nokuqoqa idatha kumayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane iminyaka eminingana. Lokho uBlair akusho empeleni nge-AHS ebanzi yilokhu: “Kungumsebenzi onamandla. Futhi kunezinzuzo. Angiqiniseki ukuthi ngingathi yiyona enamandla amakhulu, kodwa isifundo esinamandla. ” (ikhasi 286 lokufaka imali)
    • Ngaphezu kwalokho, lapho ekhuluma ngqo ngemininingwane ye-AHS ka-2013 kwi-glyphosate ne-NHL, uBlair ukuqinisekisile ukuthi imininingwane engashicilelwanga idinga “ukutolikwa okuqaphile” uma kubhekwa inani lamacala avezwe emaqenjini amancane "lincane" (ikhasi 289).
  • UKelland uthi "I-IARC itshele iReuters ukuthi, yize bekukhona imininingwane emisha nge-glyphosate, ibihambisana nokutholakele kwayo," iphakamisa isimo se-cavalier. Isitatimende esinjalo sidukisa ngokuphelele. Yini iARC empeleni wathi bekungumkhuba wayo ukungacabangi okutholakele okungashicilelwanga nokuthi ingahlola kabusha izinto lapho umzimba omkhulu wedatha entsha ushicilelwa ezincwadini.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene:

Imibhalo ezihlobene

Ukufakwa okuqoshwe ngevidiyo kuka-Aaron Earl Blair, Ph.D., Mashi 20, 2017

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Yini Eyabulala uJack McCall? Kufa Umlimi; Icala Elimelene neMonsanto Lithatha Umsuka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

ECAMBRIA, eCalif. - Emi ogwini obheke ipulazi lakhe elisenkabeni yeCalifornia, umfelokazi omusha uTeri McCall ubona umyeni wakhe uJack cishe yonke indawo. Lapho, esicongweni segquma eliphakeme kakhulu, yilapho abashadikazi abashada khona ngo-1975- ababili abazichaza ngokuthi “ama-hippies” ababazi kangcono ngokuntweza phezu kwepulazi. Futhi ngaphezulu lapho, kuzungezwe ulamula, izihlahla ze-avocado nezi-orenji uJikhophi kaJack mccalli-ack itshaliwe, ihlala indlu engamamitha-skwele angama-800 umakadebona osemusha waseVietnam eyakhele umakoti wakhe nomndeni okhule waba namadodana amabili nendodakazi. Ama-solar solar Jack asungulwe ngotshani obumiswe yilanga ngamandla epulazi ngenkasa.

Futhi ezansi lapho, kufihlwe emgodini wesigodi esiluhlaza se-velvet kuhlala indlu yasepulazini eneminyaka eyikhulu uJack noTeri ekugcineni benza ikhaya labo unomphela. UJack ufake iwindi lengilazi elinamabala elinenhliziyo nezimbali ngaphezulu komnyango wangaphambili.

“Ngempela izikhathi ezingamakhulu ngosuku, kunokuthile okungikhumbuza ngaye,” kusho uMcCall, ngenkathi yena nesivakashi behamba bengena ezingadini zezithelo ekuseni ekuseni libalele entwasahlobo. "Le yingxenye yokuthi kungani kunzima ukukholwa ... angisophinde ngimbone."

U-Anthony 'Jack' McCall, 69, ushone ngoDisemba 26 ngemuva kwempi ebuhlungu futhi exakayo ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ukulahleka nakanjani, kulungiswa unomphela ebuhlungwini benhliziyo bomndeni wakhe. Kepha imibuzo yokuthi kungani washaywa kanjani nokuthi kanjani - indoda engakaze ibheme, ukuhlala iphilile futhi engenawo umlando wesifo somdlavuza emndenini wayo - iyingxenye yalokho abanye ochwepheshe bezomthetho abakubona njengophawu olungaba yingqophamlando isimangalo esisemthethweni ngokumelene nenye yezinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo emhlabeni, iMonsanto Co.

UMcCall ugweme ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane epulazini lakhe, ngaphandle kwe-herbicide ebizwa ngeRoundup - emakethwa yiMonsanto njengenobuthi obuphansi ngokweqile. Wayesebenzisa i-Roundup njalo, ezitshiza yena epulazini ukubuyisa ukhula olukhathazayo. Waze wancoma i-Roundup kubangani, ebatshela ukuthi kufanele iphephe kakhulu kunezinye izindlela emakethe, futhi athi ukusebenza kwayo.

Kodwa manje ekufeni kwakhe, uMcCall ungomunye wabamangali abaningana emacaleni angaphezu kweshumi nambili athi isithako esisebenzayo eRoundup - ikhemikhali elibizwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate - sabanikeza umdlavuza, nokuthi iMonsanto kudala yaziwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate idala "izingozi ezinkulu empilweni yabantu, kuhlanganise nengozi yokudala umdlavuza. ”

Amacala, abalethwe ngabamangali ku California, EFlorida, MissouriDelaware, EHawaii,nakwezinye izindawo ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, isimangalo seMonsanto sinobufakazi obufihliwe, futhi sisebenzise abalawuli nomphakathi ukuthi bakholelwe ekuphepheni kwe-glyphosate, eletha minyaka yonke cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5, noma ingxenye yesithathu yokuthengiswa okuphelele, komkhulu wezamabhizinisi ezolimo. NjengoMcCall, abaningi balima, noma basebenza emisebenzini yezolimo lapho babehlala besebenzisa khona noma bevezwa yi-glyphosate.

Izimangalo ziza ngesikhathi esibucayi seMonsanto nomkhiqizo wayo wesiginesha njengabalawuli e-United States nakwamanye amazwe abheka ukuthi aqhubeke yini nokuvumela ukubulala ukhula lwe-glyphosate. Ngonyaka odlule ochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation bahlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu. Leli thimba, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), lithe i-glyphosate ikhombisa a “Ukuhlangana okuhle” kwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 

Imiphumela yempi yezomthetho kanye nokubuyekezwa kwemithetho ingaba nemithelela ebanzi. IGlyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, efuthwa emasimini okutshala izitshalo ezifana nommbila, ubhontshisi kanye nokolweni, kanye nezinhlobonhlobo zezithelo, amantongomane nezitshalo zemifino ezinjengama-alimondi, ama-apula, ama-cherry namawolintshi.

Leyo ndima etholakala yonke indawo edlalwe yi-glyphosate isho ukuthi ukumangalelwa, kusho abameli babamangali, kukhomba ukuqala kwegagasi lezenzo zomthetho ezibhekiswe kuMonsanto. Amaqembu abameli abelokhu ewela izwe lonke egcwala abamangali abathi bangaba ngamakhulu futhi mhlawumbe izinkulungwane. Kungumkhuba ovivinywe isikhathi ngabameli babamangali abalethe izenzo ezifanayo esikhathini esedlule mayelana nezimboni zikagwayi, ezemithi nezamakhemikhali.

"IMonsanto ifihle ngamabomu noma icindezele imininingwane ngezingozi zomkhiqizo wayo," kusho ummeli wokungcola kwemvelo namakhemikhali uRobert F. Kennedy Jr., osiza ekubhekaneni namacala e-glyphosate. “Lokhu kukhulu. Kukuwo wonke amapulazi emhlabeni. ”

UKennedy ubikezela ukuthi amacala esikweletu se-glyphosate azosabalala njengoba sekube ngamashumi eminyaka enkantolo nge-asbestos, ebonakala emibuthanweni yezomthetho njengesenzo esithatha isikhathi eside kunazo zonke emlandweni wase-US. I-asbestos yayisetshenziswa iminyaka njenge-retardant ephephile futhi esebenzayo embonini yezokwakha kepha iboshwe kwizifo zamaphaphu nomdlavuza, futhi yakhipha amakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi kwizicelo zomthetho.

Icala le-glyphosate ngokwengxenye liyizibuko zempi yasenkantolo iMonsanto ibilokhu ilwa iminyaka eminingi ibandakanya ama-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB akade enziwa. Abamangali kulawo macala nabo bathi ama-PCB abangele ukuthi bagule ngenkathi uMonsanto efihla izingozi. IMonsanto ithi abamangali abakwazi ukuxhumanisa ngokuqinisekile ukugula nokuchayeka kwe-PCB.

PHAKATHI KWEZINKETHO EZIPHEPHILE
Ilungelo lobunikazi yiMonsanto futhi yathengiswa ngonyaka we-1974, i-glyphosate herbicide sekuyisikhathi eside icatshangelwa njengezindlela eziphephe kakhulu zokubulala izinambuzane emakethe. Umbulali wokhula uqhamuke nelungelo lobunikazi ngo-2000 futhi manje ususetshenziswa emikhiqizweni engaphezu kuka-700 emhlabeni jikelele, ithandwa ngabalimi, abaninikhaya nabagcini bamabala. Leli khemikhali umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni onamakhilogremu alinganiselwa ku-1.8 billion asetshenziswe ngo-2014, aphindaphindwe ama-12 kusukela ngo-1994, ngokusho kocwaningo olusanda kushicilelwa.

Kepha njengoba ukusetshenziswa kukhule, ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha nakho kuye kwanda. Izinsalela zibhalwe phansi ngabaphenyi bakahulumeni nabazimele ezindleleni zamanzi, emoyeni, ekudleni nasesiketsheni somzimba womuntu. Izifundo eziningi zesayensi zibophele ikhemikhali kumdlavuza nakwezinye izinkinga zempilo ngaphambi kokwahlukaniswa nge-IARC ngoMashi 2015.

Abameli babamangali emacaleni e-glyphosate bathi phakathi kobufakazi bokuthi ubuthi be-glyphosate kudala baziwa imemo ye-EPA echaza ukuthi i-glyphosate yahlukaniswa kanjani ososayensi bezinhlangano njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-1985 ngaphambi kokuhlukaniswa ngo-1991 "njengobufakazi bokuthi akuyona i-carcinogenicity" yabantu. Ukuhlukaniswa kwashintshwa yize amanye amalungu wokubuyekezwa kontanga engavumelani. Amacala abikwa futhi abeka nobufakazi bokukhwabanisa emalabhorethri asetshenziswa iMonsanto ukwenza izifundo zobuthi ze-glyphosate, futhi akhomba kwizigwebo zokukhwabanisa zabaphathi kulawo malabhu.

I-Monsanto ezinze eSt. Louis, indawo yezolimo yezolimo nembewu yomhlaba, icaphuna ubufakazi bayo obuphikisana nobuqotho bezinsolo ezisenkantolo, kanye nokutholwe yi-IARC. Ngonyaka odlule, inkampani waqasha iqembu lochwepheshe ukubuyekeza ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, futhi wathi lelo thimba akatholakalanga izixhumanisi zomdlavuza. 

"Ucwaningo olunzulu lwesikhathi eside lobuthi oluphindaphindwe eminyakeni engama-30 eyedlule luye lwabonisa kaninginingi ukuthi i-glyphosate ayinakwenzeka ukuthi ibe nomdlavuza kubantu," IMonsanto ithi kuwebhusayithi yayo. 'Iziphathimandla ezilawulayo kanye nochwepheshe abazimele emhlabeni jikelele babuyekeze izifundo eziningi zesikhathi eside / ukubulawa komzimba kanye nezifo ze-genotoxicity futhi bayavuma ukuthi kukhona abukho ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate… idala umdlavuza, ngisho nangezilinganiso eziphakeme kakhulu. ”

Abameli beMonsanto bebelokhu ukufuna ukuxosha kanye / noma ukubambezeleka amacala amaningana kuze kube manje afakwa, eqinisekisa ukuthi umthetho wesifundazwe kanye nokugunyazwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency yamalebula emikhiqizo ye-Roundup herbicide kuvikela iMonsanto kwizimangalo ezisenkantolo. Ezimpikiswaneni zakamuva eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho California, abameli baseMonsanto baphikisa ngokuthi "I-EPA iphindaphinde ukuthi i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogen." Kodwa ngo-Ephreli ijaji likahulumeni eCalifornia lakhipha isinqumo sokuthi iMonsanto yayingavikelekile ekubhalisweni kwe-EPA kanye namalebula avunyiwe.

In icala laseMissouri ukuthi iMonsanto nayo ayikwazanga ukuxoshwa, ukutholakala kuyaqala, futhi abameli babamangali balinde ngokulangazela lokho abanethemba lokuthi kuzoba yindawo yokugcina amagugu kumakhasimende abo.

Izimangalo zomthetho ziza ngasikhathi sinye lapho abalawuli base-Europe nabase-US bezihlola ngokwabo ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate futhi bebheka nemingcele, izinqubo eziye zagcwala ukuphikisana nezinsolo zokuchema kubo bobabili abalandeli nezitha ze-glyphosate. I-European Food Safety Authority (i-EFSA) kusho uNovemba lobo bufakazi buthi i-glyphosate akunakwenzeka ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic. Kepha iPhalamende laseYurophu lithe ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide kufanele kufakwe kabusha nge ukuvinjelwa ekusetshenzisweni okungewona okobungcweti namaphethelo namapaki okudlala ngenxa yezinkinga zezempilo.

I-EPA bekufanele ikhiphe ukuhlolwa okusha kobungozi ku-glyphosate cishe unyaka owedlule, kepha imise inqubo phakathi kwesiyaluyalu. Futhi ngendlela exakile ku-saga, ngo-Ephreli 29, i-ejensi uthumele idokhumenti yangaphakathi to iwebhusayithi yayo, ekhombisa ukuthi ochwepheshe be-EPA bokuhlola umdlavuza banqume ukuthi i-glyphosate “Akunakwenzeka ukuthi ibe yiCarcinogenic Kubantu.”

NgoMeyi 2, i-EPA yahoxisa imemo kwi-website yayo yathi bekungafanele ikhishwe ngoba ukuhlolwa komdlavuza kuyaqhubeka. Kepha iMonsanto imemezele ukukhishwa kwedokhumenti njengobufakazi balokho ebikusho ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

AbakwaWall Street bagcina iso elibukhali enkantolo. Kepha ngokuvamile ababukeli bezimakethe abanandaba kangako ngengozi yeMonsanto evela ekukhokhelweni kwesikweletu okungaba khona nangaphezulu nganoma iyiphi imali engenzeka yesikhathi eside uma abalawuli bezokhawulela noma bavimbele i-glyphosate, kusho umhlaziyi kaPiper Jaffray uBrett Wong, olandela amasu ebhizinisi kaMonsanto nempilo yezezimali. Izimpi zasenkantolo zingaba nomthelela kubalawuli, esho.

"Kusobala ukuthi kunamacala amaningi," kusho uWong. “Ababalulekile ekuthinteni ibhizinisi labo kepha kuhlale kunengcindezi yemizwa kubatshalizimali. Ukube bekungaba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwezomthetho futhi i-glyphosate ibingavunyelwe… lokho bekungaba nomthelela. ”

Ochwepheshe bezomthetho abanesipiliyoni sokuvikela imboni yamakhemikhali babheka la macala ngentshisekelo, futhi abaningi bathi ngenxa yokuntuleka kokusekelwa okulawula ukuxhumeka komdlavuza, abameli babamangali banokukhuphuka umqansa ukwenza lezo zimangalo zinamathele.

“Ubufakazi bokuxhasa lezi zimangalo abukho, kusho ummeli odumile, enqaba ukucashunwa ngegama. “Akusilo ubisi lomama nganoma iyiphi indlela. Bengingeke ngiyixube esiphuzweni sami, kodwa ingenye yamakhemikhali aphephe kakhulu laphaya, ”kusho yena.

Ummeli uBrent Wisner, omele umndeni wakwaMcCall, uthe uyaqiniseka ngamandla obufakazi obumelene noMonsanto. “Kuzoba ngamacala amakhulu ngokwedlulele uma konke kushiwo futhi kwenziwa. Siyethemba ukuthi sizokwazi ukukhombisa ukuthi ucwaningo lweMonsanto lwalulawula futhi lucindezela isayensi, ”kusho yena.

Emuva eCambria, indodana kaJack McCall uPaul McCall uqhuba ipulazi esikhundleni sikayise. Amehlo akhe adabuka ngokushesha lapho ebuzwa ngokutholakala kukayise ngoSepthemba 2015 nokufa ezinyangeni ezintathu kuphela kamuva, usuku olulandela uKhisimusi. Akafuni ukukhuluma ngecala, ngaphandle kokuthi akasenayo i-glyphosate manje, futhi ufuna ukuxwayisa abanye basuke kulo.

"Le yimpi okumele ilwiwe," esho.

Ukuthi icala likhulu kangakanani futhi ligazi kangakanani kusengumbuzo ovulekile. Ukumemeza okuvela ezinhlangothini zombili zezinkinga kuya ngokuya kuzwakala usuku ngalunye oludlulayo. Kepha imibuzo ejulile ngokuphepha kwalomuthi wokubulala ukhula ifanele ibuyekezwe ngokujulile nangokwesayensi njengoba izimpendulo zibamba iqhaza ekukhiqizeni kwethu ukudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yemindeni yethu esikhathini esizayo.

Lesi sihloko ekuqaleni savela Huffington Post

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli yakudala yeReuters, umbhali / umhleli wamanje ozimele kanye nomqondisi wezocwaningo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elicwaninga ngomkhakha wezokudla