I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”

I-Neonicotinoids: ukukhathazeka okukhulayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoJanuwari 10, iThe Guardian lashicilela le ndaba mayelana nomphakathi omncane wasemaphandleni waseNebraska obelokhu unenkinga okungenani iminyaka emibili nokungcola okuhlanganiswe nembewu yommbila eboshwe nge-neonicotinoid. Umthombo uyisitshalo sendawo se-ethanol ebesizikhangisa njengesihlelekile “Ukwenza kabusha” indawo yezinkampani zembewu ezinjengeBayer, iSyngenta kanye nezinye ezazidinga indawo yokulahla okweqile kwalezi zitoko zembewu ephethwe yi-pesticide. Umphumela, abantu basemadolobheni bathi, indawo ehlanganiswe namazinga aphakeme ngokumangalisayo ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula kubantu nasezilwaneni. Besaba ukuthi umhlaba wabo namanzi manje sekonakele ngendlela engalungiseki.

Iziphathimandla zezemvelo zombuso zirekhode amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ku- izingxenye ezimangazayo ezingama-427,000 ngezigidigidi (ppb) ekuhlolweni kwelinye lamagquma amakhulu emfucuza esizeni sesakhiwo se-ethanol. Lokho kuqhathanisa namabhentshimakhi wokulawula athi amazinga kufanele abe ngaphansi kuka-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengaphephile.

Bona leli khasi ukuthola eminye imininingwane nemibhalo.

Inganekwane yomgwaqo eMead, eNebraska, iyisibonakaliso sakamuva nje sokuthi ukwenganyelwa kokulawulwa kwezwe neonicotinoids kudinga ukuqiniswa, ngokusho kwabameli bezemvelo nabaphenyi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi aseMelika.

Impikiswano ngesigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-neonicotinoids, noma ama-neonics, ibilokhu ikhula eminyakeni yamuva nje futhi isiphenduke impikiswano yomhlaba wonke phakathi kwama-behemoth ezinkampani athengisa ama-neonics kanye namaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi ama-insecticide anesibopho sezempilo ebanzi yemvelo kanye neyabantu ukulimaza.

Kusukela yethulwa ngawo-1990s, ama-neonicotinoids abe yisigaba esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, esithengiswa emazweni angama-120 okungenani ukusiza ukulawula izinambuzane ezilimazayo nokuvikela ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo. Izibulala-zinambuzane azifuthwa kuphela ezitshalweni kodwa futhi zimbozwe nembewu. Ama-Neonicotinoids asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo, kufaka phakathi irayisi, ukotini, ummbila, amazambane nosoya. Kusukela ngo-2014, ama-neonicotinoids amelwe ngaphezu kwe- Amaphesenti angama-25 omuthi wokubulala zinambuzane womhlaba wonke emakethe, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ngaphakathi kwekilasi, i-clothianidin ne-imidacloprid yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho kwephepha lowe-2019 elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Environmental Protection Agency yakhipha i- izinqumo eziphakanyisiwe zesikhashana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kanye thiamethoxam, izinambuzane ezithile ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe ibisebenza ukunciphisa inani elisetshenzisiwe ezitshalweni ezihambisana "nobungozi bezemvelo obungahle bube khona," ibeke umkhawulo lapho izibulala-zinambuzane zingasetshenziswa ekutshalweni kwezitshalo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobufakazi besayensi ukhombisa ukuthi ama-neonicotinoids ayimbangela ekusakazekeni i-colony collapse disorder yezinyosi, okuyizinambuzane ezibalulekile lapho kukhiqizwa ukudla. Babukwa futhi okungenani njengengxenye yokusolwa kwe- an “I-apocalypse yezinambuzane. Ama-insecticide nawo aboshelwe emaphutheni amakhulu ngezinyamazane ezinomsila omhlophe, kujulisa ukukhathazeka ngamandla amakhemikhali okulimaza izilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nabantu.

I-European Union ivimbele ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid ne-thiamethoxam ngo-2018, kanye ne IZizwe Ezihlangene zithi Ama-neonics ayingozi kangangoba kufanele abekelwe imigoqo “ebucayi”. Kepha e-United States, ama-neonics ahlala esetshenziswa kabanzi.

Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: IFleishmanHillard, Ketchum, FTI Consulting

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kuthunyelwe ekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; ibuyekezwe ngoNovemba 2020

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe, i-US Right to Know ilandelela amahlazo okukhohlisa omphakathi ahlanganisa amafemu e-PR ukuthi imidondoshiya yezolimo iBayer AG neMonsanto bathembele kuyo ngemikhankaso yabo yokuvikela umkhiqizo: Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, uKetchum PR noFleishmanHillard. Lawa mafemu banemilando emide yokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza izinhloso zezepolitiki zamakhasimende abo, kubandakanya nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, imikhankaso yezokuvikela imboni kawoyela.

Amahlazo wakamuva

I-NYT idalula amasu e-FTI Consulting firm's shady embonini kawoyela: Phakathi ku Novemba 11, 2020 indatshana yeNew York Times, UHiroko Tabuchi wembula ukuthi i-FTI Consulting “isize kanjani ukuklama, abasebenzi nokuqhuba izinhlangano namawebhusayithi axhaswe yizinkampani zamandla ezingabonakala zimelela ukwesekwa emazingeni aphansi kohlelo lwezinto ezimbiwa phansi.” Ngokususelwa ezingxoxweni zakhe nabayishumi nababili ababengabasebenzi be-FTI namakhulu emibhalo yangaphakathi, uTabuchi ubika ngendlela i-FTI eyayiqapha ngayo izishoshovu zezemvelo, yaqhuba imikhankaso yezepolitiki ye-astroturf, yabamba izingosi ezimbili zezindaba nemininingwane futhi yabhala izindatshana ezisekela umkhakha mayelana nokuthwebula, ukumangalelwa kwesimo sezulu nokunye okushisayo Izinkinga zebutton ngesiqondiso esivela ku-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kanye namafemu ayo e-PR bahlela umzamo we-GOP wokwesabisa abacwaningi bomdlavuza: U-Lee Fang kubikwe iThe Intercept ku-2019 kumadokhumenti aphakamisa ukuthi abalawuli abamelene neMonsanto futhi basebenzise ingcindezi yokwenza ucwaningo lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Indaba ibika ngamasu akhohlisayo e-PR, kufaka phakathi indlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo incwadi emayelana nesayensi ye-glyphosate esayinwe ngusihlalo omkhulu we-GOP.

Imibhalo yeMonsanto yembula amaqhinga okudicilela phansi uphenyo lwentshisekelo yomphakathi: Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhishwe ngamacala enkantolo ngo-Agasti 2019 iveze amasu amaningi inkampani kanye namafemu ayo e-PR asetshenziselwe ukukhomba izintatheli nabanye abathonya abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO, futhi bazama ukuphikisa uphenyo ngemisebenzi yabo yi-US Right to Know.

Bona amashidi weqiniso we-USRTK, ngokuya ngemibhalo etholwe kuphenyo lwethu, ukubika ngabantu besithathu ababambe iqhaza ekuvikeleni imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane: Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane.

NgoMeyi 2019, sabika ngamahlazo amaningi afaka amafemu eBayer PR:

Isikhalazo se 'Monsanto File'

Izintatheli at ULe Monde wabika ngoMeyi 9 ukuthi bathole "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde ufake isikhalazo nehhovisi lomshushisi waseParis lisola ukuthi lo mbhalo ubandakanya ukuqoqwa nokuqhutshwa kwemininingwane yomuntu ngokungemthetho, okugqugquzela ihhovisi lomshushisi vula uphenyo lobugebengu. “Lokhu kutholakala okubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu anenhloso yokuthulisa amaphimbo aqinile. Ngiyabona ukuthi bebezama ukungihlukanisa, ” Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okusohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 TV.

"Lokhu kutholakale kubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu afanele okuvala umsindo."

UFrancois Veillerette, isazi sezemvelo nasohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 ukuthi iqukethe imininingwane yokuxhumana yomuntu siqu, imibono nezinga lokuzibandakanya maqondana neMonsanto. "Lokhu kushaqisa kakhulu eFrance," esho. "Asicabangi ukuthi lokhu kuvamile." IBayer isivele yavuma ukuthi uFleishmanHillard waqamba “'uhlu lwamawashi 'lwezibalo ze-pro- noma anti-pesticides”Emazweni ayisikhombisa kulo lonke elaseYurophu, kubika i-AFP. Lezi zinhlu zaziqukethe imininingwane ngezintatheli, osopolitiki namanye amaqembu athintekayo. I-AFP ithe yafaka isikhalazo enkampanini yezomthetho yaseFrance ngoba ezinye zezintatheli zayo zazisohlwini olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa futhi wakusho kwamiswa ubudlelwano bayo namafemu athintekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kanye nePublicis Consultants, kusalindwe uphenyo. "Okusemqoka kakhulu kithi ukudala obala," Kusho uBayer. "Asikubekezeleli ukungaziphathi kahle enkampanini yethu." (Amafemu kamuva asulwa ekwenzeni okungalungile yinkampani yabameli eqashwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli ekuhlolweni komdlavuza waseMonsanto

Ukwengeza ezinkingeni zeBayer PR, i-AFP ibike ngoMeyi 18 ukuthi umsebenzi wenye inkampani "yokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele" PR isebenza neBayer neMonsanto - FTI Consulting - wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ezimele ecaleni likahulumeni waseSan Francisco elaphela ngo Isahlulelo esingu- $ 80 million ngokumelene neBayer ngenxa yokukhathazeka komdlavuza we-glyphosate.

Isisebenzi se-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonakale exoxa nezintatheli ngemibono yezindaba ecaleni. Uthe usebenzela i-BBC futhi akazange adalule ukuthi empeleni usebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UKetchum noFleishmanHillard basebenzisa i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, imboni yezolimo yathinta uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabili ababengabakwa-Omnicom, ukuzokwakha PR kuyacasula ukuvuselela isithombe yemikhiqizo yayo ehlanganisiwe ye-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Kukhethwe iMonsanto UFleishmanHillard ukuze "akhe kabusha" igama lakhe phakathi "kokuphikisana okukhulu" nokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ngokusho kweHolmes Report. Cishe ngaso leso sikhathi, uFleishmanHillard naye waba yi- I-ejensi ye-PR yerekhodi leBayer, kanye noMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo (i-CBI) - iqembu lokuhweba kuxhaswe ngemali IBayer (iMonsanto), iCorteva (iDowDuPont), iSyngenta neBASF - baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yakwaKetchum ukuze yethule umkhankaso wokumaketha obizwa nge-GMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujija aqashwe yila mafemu afaka phakathi “wooing mama Blogger”Nokusebenzisa amazwi ochwepheshe okuthiwa“ abazimele ”ku-“susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Mayelana nama-GMO. Kodwa-ke, kwavela ubufakazi bokuthi amafemu e-PR ahlela futhi abhalele abanye ochwepheshe "abazimele". Isibonelo, imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa lokho Kubhalwe uKetchum okuthunyelwe kwe GMO Izimpendulo ezisayinwe ngu- Uprofesa wase-University of Florida owathi uzimele njengoba wayesebenza ekusithekeni neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. Iphini likamongameli omkhulu eFleishmanHillard kuhlelwe inkulumo a UC Davis uprofesa futhi wamqeqesha kanjani "ukunqoba abantu ekamelweni" at an Impikiswano ye-IQ2 ukukholisa umphakathi ukwamukela ama-GMO. UKetchum naye unikeze uprofesa amaphuzu okukhuluma kwinhlolokhono yomsakazo mayelana nocwaningo lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa beziyizithunywa ezibalulekile zemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni ukuthi ziphikisane nokulebula kwe-GMO, kubika i INew York Times ngo-2015. "Osolwazi / abacwaningi / ososayensi banesigqoko esikhulu esimhlophe kule mpikiswano kanye nokwesekwa ezifundazweni zabo, kusuka kosopolitiki kuya kubakhiqizi," uBill Mashek, iphini likamongameli eKetchum, wabhalela uprofesa wase-University of Florida. "Qhubeka nomsebenzi omuhle!" Iqembu lezentengiselwano le-CBI lisebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-11 zamaRandi kwi-GMO Answers kaKetchum kusukela ngo-2013, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela.

Impumelelo ye-GMO Answers 'management management'

Njengophawu olulodwa lwempumelelo yalo njengethuluzi le-PR spin, Izimpendulo zeGMO zazikhona kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO ngo-2014 esigabeni se- “Crisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uziqhayisa ngokuthi kucishe kwaphindaphindeka kanjani ukunakwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO kanye "nokulinganisa okungu-80% kokusebenzisana" ku-Twitter. Okuningi kwalokhu kuxhumana okuku-inthanethi kuvela kuma-akhawunti abonakala ezimele futhi awadaluli ukuxhumana kwawo nomkhankaso we-PR wemboni.

Yize ividiyo kaKetchum ithi Izimpendulo zeGMO "zizokuchaza kabusha obala" ngolwazi oluvela kochwepheshe "abangenalutho oluhlungiwe noma olucutshunguliwe, futhi kungekho mazwi athulisiwe," uhlelo lweMonsanto PR luphakamisa ukuthi inkampani ibheke izimpendulo zeGMO ukusiza imikhiqizo yayo ngendlela efanele. I- idokhumenti kusuka ku-2015 kubhalwe Izimpendulo ze-GMO phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza; esigabeni "sezinsizakusebenza" esisekhasini 4, lolu hlelo lubhale izixhumanisi eziya kuzimpendulo ze-GMO kanye nemibhalo yeMonsanto engadlulisa umyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyona i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-CLIO futhi yasuswa ngemuva kokuyinaka.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Imlando yokukhohlisa: UFleishmanHillard, uKetchum

Kungani noma iyiphi inkampani ingabeka uFleishmanHillard noma uKetchum, bobabili abaphethwe yi-PR conglomerate Omnicom, phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwethembana kunzima ukuyiqonda. Zombili lezi zinkampani zinomlando omude wenkohliso ebhaliwe. Ngokwesibonelo:

Kuze kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayengu- PR ngokuqinile eRussia kanye noVladimir Putin. Ngokuvumelana ne imibhalo etholwe yiProPublica, UKetchum wabanjwa ebeka ama-pro-Putin op-eds ngaphansi kwamagama "ochwepheshe ababonakala bezimele" ezindaweni ezahlukene zezindaba. Ngo-2015, i- Uhulumeni waseHonduran ohlangene waqasha uKetchum ukuzama ukuvuselela isithunzi sayo ngemuva kwesigameko senkohlakalo esabiza izigidi zamadola.

Imibhalo idalulwe kuMama Jones kukhombisa ukuthi uKetchum usebenze nenkampani yonogada ezimele "ehlola iGreenpeace nezinye izinhlangano zemvelo kusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990s okungenani ngonyaka ka-2000, bephanga imibhalo emigqonyeni kadoti, bezama ukutshala izinkampani ezifihlekile ngaphakathi kwamaqembu, ukufaka amahhovisi amahhovisi, ukuqoqa amarekhodi efoni ezishoshovu, nemihlangano eyimfihlo engena ngaphakathi. ” UFleishmanHillard uphinde wabanjwa esebenzisa amaqhinga angekho emthethweni wokulwa nabameli bezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabameli bokulawulwa kukagwayi egameni lenkampani kagwayi iRJ Reynolds, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe nguRuth Malone ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomphakathi. Inkampani i-PR ize yaqopha ngokufihla umsindo imihlangano nezingqungquthela zokulawulwa kukagwayi.

UFileishman uHillard wayenjalo inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yeThe Tobacco Institute, okuyinhlangano eyinhloko yezimboni zikagwayi, iminyaka eyisikhombisa. Embhalweni ka-1996 Washington Post, uMorton Mintz elandisa le ndaba ngendlela iFleishmanHillard neTobacco Institute abaguqula ngayo iSikhungo Sempilo esincomekayo saba yiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha kagwayi emzamweni wawo wokuqeda ukukhathazeka komphakathi ngobungozi bokubhema intuthu kagwayi. UKethum futhi wasebenzela imboni kagwayi.

Womabili la mafemu kwesinye isikhathi asebenze ezinhlangothini zombili zodaba. UFleishmanHillard ubelokhu kuqashwe imikhankaso yokulwa nokubhema. Ku-2017, uKetchum wethule i- i-spin-off firm ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Cultivate ukwenza imali emakethe yokudla ephilayo ekhulayo, noma ngabe izimpendulo ze-GMO zikaKetchum zikuhlambalazile ukudla okungokwemvelo, zithi abathengi bakhokha “imali ephezulu” yokudla okungcono kunokudla okulinywa ngokujwayelekile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana kwe-FTI: ukukhohlisa kwesimo sezulu, izibopho zikagwayi

I-FTI Consulting, "ukuphathwa kwezinhlekelele" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer futhi okwakungumsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ocwaningweni lwakamuva lomdlavuza weRoundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuningana noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kufaka phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwamaqhinga okucasha, ukungabi sobala kanye nomlando wokusebenzisana nomkhakha kagwayi.

Ifemu yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-ExxonMobil yokubalekela ukubhekana nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Njengo-Elana Schor no-Andrew Restuccia kubikwe ePolitico ngo-2016:

“Ngaphandle kuka [Exxon] uqobo, ukuvimba okukhulu kwezwi kulokho okuvelayo kuqhamuke e-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani egcwele abasizi bakudala beRiphabhulikhi esize ukuhlanganisa i-GOP ekuvikeleni izibaseli. Ngaphansi kwesibhengezo se-Energy in Depth, okuwumsebenzi owenzelwe i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI ifake izintatheli ngama-imeyili aphakamisa “ukuhlangana” phakathi kwezishoshovu eziluhlaza kanye nama-AGs ombuso, futhi yaphakamisa imibuzo mayelana noxhaso lwe-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. ”

Abasebenzi bakwa-FTI Consulting bake babanjwa bezenza izintatheli phambilini. UKaren Savage ubike Januwari 2019 kuzindaba Zesimo Sezulu Sezulu, “Osomaqhinga ababili bezobudlelwano nomphakathi abamele i-Exxon muva nje bazenze izintatheli emzamweni wokuxoxisana nommeli omele imiphakathi yaseColorado emangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo ohlobene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Osomaqhinga — uMichael Sandoval noMatt Dempsey — baqashwe yi-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani ende exhumene nemboni kawoyela negesi. ” Ngokusho kwe-Climate Liability News, la madoda amabili abhalwe njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi ephethwe yizintshisekelo zikawoyela futhi enabasebenzi be-FTI Consulting, ebuye inikeze abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ucwaningo olwenziwe ngophethiloli umkhankaso wokufinyelela emphakathini. ”

I-Energy In Depth yaziveza njenge "mama ne-pop shop" emele abahlinzeki bamandla amancane kepha yadalwa yizinkampani ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ukunxenxa ukuqedwa komthetho, I-DeSmog blog ibike ngo-2011. Iqembu le-Greenpeace lathola i Imemo yomkhakha we-2009 ichaza I-Energy In Depth “njengomkhankaso omusha womkhakha obanzi wemboni… wokulwa nemithetho emisha yezemvelo, ikakhulukazi maqondana nokuqhekeka kuka-hydraulic” “obekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokuzibophezela kwezezimali kusenesikhathi” kwezintshisekelo ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ezibandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (manje ephethwe yi-ExxonMobil).

Esinye isici esifana nalawa mafemu yizinhlangano zawo zemboni kagwayi. I-FTI Consulting “inomlando omude wokusebenzisana nemboni kagwayi,” ngokusho kuka AmaTactics Tactics.org. Ukuseshwa kwelabhulali ye-UCSF Tobacco Industry Documents uletha amadokhumende angaphezu kuka-2,400 XNUMX ephathelene ne-FTI Consulting.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubikwa okuningi kumahlazo kaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFulentshi

Ukufunda ngesiNgisi

ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Izimpendulo zeGMO ngumkhankaso wokumaketha nowokuxhumana nomphakathi wezinkampani ezibulala izinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izibuyekezo:

kuphendula u-ketchum gmo

Izimpendulo ze-GMO ikhokhiswa njengesithangami lapho abathengi bangathola khona izimpendulo eziqondile kochwepheshe abazimele ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanti ezinye izintatheli zikuthatha ngokungathi sína njengomthombo ongachemile. Kepha iwebhusayithi iyithuluzi lokumaketha lezimboni eliqonde ngqo ukuhambisa ama-GMO ngendlela efanele.

Ubufakazi bokuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lepropaganda elilawula ukubhekana nezinkinga elingenakwethenjelwa.

Izimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa umbono womphakathi ngokuthanda ama-GMO. Ngokushesha ngemuva kokuba iMonsanto kanye nabalingani bayo behlule isinyathelo sokuvota sika-2012 sokuqamba ama-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto umemezele izinhlelo ukwethula umkhankaso omusha wobudlelwano nomphakathi wokwakha kabusha idumela lama-GMO. Baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) ukuthola i umkhankaso wabayisikhombisa.

Njengengxenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR iKetchum (nayo ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) yaqashwa yi-Council for Biotechnology Information - ixhaswe iMonsanto, BASF, Bayer, Dow, Dupont neSyngenta - ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isayithi lithembise uku susa ukudideka futhi ususe ukungathembani mayelana nama-GMO asebenzisa amazwi angahleliwe okuthiwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Kepha bazimele kangakanani labo ngoti?

Iwebhusayithi igawula amaphuzu okuxoxa aqanjwe ngokucophelela axoxa indaba enhle ngama-GMO ngenkathi edlala phansi noma engazinaki izingozi zezempilo nezemvelo. Isibonelo, lapho ubuzwa ukuthi ngabe ama-GMO aqhuba ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, leli sayithi linikeza u-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwemininingwane ebuyekezwe ngontanga ekhombisa ukuthi, yebo, empeleni, kunjalo.

Izitshalo ze- "Roundup Ready" ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a mhlawumbe umdlavuza womuntu, by amakhulu ezigidi zamaphawundi. Uhlelo olusha lwe-GMO / pesticide olubandakanya i-dicamba seluholele ekubhujisweni kwe izitshalo zesoya phesheya kwe-US, kanye ne-FDA ibamba iqhaza kulo nyaka ukusetshenziswa kathathu ka-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enobuthi, ngenxa yezitshalo ezintsha ze-GMO ezenzelwe ukumelana nayo. Konke lokhu akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo, ngokusho kwe-GMO Answers.

Imibuzo ephathelene nokuphepha iphendulwa ngezitatimende ezingamanga ezifana nokuthi "zonke izinhlangano zezempilo ezihola phambili emhlabeni zisekela ukuphepha kwama-GMO." Asitholanga kukhulunywa ngesitatimende esisayinwe ososayensi, odokotela kanye nezifundiswa ezingama-300 abathi kukhona “akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO,”Futhi asizitholanga izimpendulo zemibuzo esiyithumele ngalesi sitatimende.

Izibonelo zivele lokho I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye izimpendulo ze-GMO lawo asayinwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Uhlu olufushane lomklomelo we-PR wokulawulwa kwezinkinga

Njengobunye ubufakazi isiza siyimoto ye-spin: Ngo-2014, Izimpendulo ze-GMO kwaba njalo kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO esigabeni se- "Public Relations: Crisis Management & Issue Management."

Futhi inkampani ye-PR edale izimpendulo ze-GMO yazishaya isifuba ngethonya layo kwizintatheli. Ku-video efakwe kwi-website ye-CLIO, uKetchum uzishaye isifuba ngokuthi i-GMO Answers “icishe yakuphinda kabili ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO.” Le vidiyo isuswe ngemuva kokuthi i-US Right to Know iyinakile, kepha thina uyigcine lapha.

Kungani izintatheli zingayethemba imoto yokumaketha eyakhiwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekile kunzima ukuyiqonda. Ketchum, okwaze kwaba yi-2016 PR ngokuqinile eRussia, kufakiwe ku imizamo yobunhloli ngokumelene nokungenzi inzuzo ukhathazekile ngama-GMO. Awusiwona umlando ozibandakanya ekuqedeni ukungathembani.

Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lokumaketha elenziwe futhi lixhaswe yizinkampani ezidayisa ama-GMO, sicabanga ukuthi kungumdlalo ofanele ukubuza ukuthi: Ngabe “ochwepheshe abazimele” ababoleka ukwethembeka kuwebhusayithi - abaningi babo abasebenzela amanyuvesi kahulumeni futhi abakhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela - ozimele ngokweqiniso futhi osebenzela umphakathi? Noma basebenza ngokubambisana nezinkampani kanye namafemu obudlelwano bomphakathi ukusiza ukuthengisa umphakathi indaba ye-spin?

Ekufuneni lezi zimpendulo, i-US Right to Know ifake izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act Ukufuna ukuxhumana kosolwazi abaxhaswa ngemali ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com noma basebenze kweminye imizamo yokukhuthaza i-GMO. Ama-FOIA yizicelo ezincanyana ezingafaki imininingwane yomuntu siqu noma yezifundo, kepha kunalokho funa ukuqonda ukuxhumana okukhona phakathi kosolwazi, izinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ama-GMO, izinhlangano zazo zezohwebo kanye nama-PR kanye namafemu okusiza aqashelwe ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nokulwa nokufakwa amalebula ngakho-ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngalokho esikudlayo.

Landela imiphumela ye- Uphenyo lwase-US Right to Know lapha.

Bona wethu I-Pesticide Industry Propaganda Tracker ukuthola eminye imininingwane mayelana nabadlali ababalulekile emikhakheni yamakhemikhali emizamweni yokuxhumana nomphakathi.

Ungasiza ukwandisa uphenyo lweLungelo Lokwazi ngo wenza umnikelo ongadonswa ngentela namuhla

IBayer ixazulula icala le-US Roundup, dicamba kanye ne-PCB ngemali engaphezu kwama- $ 10 billion

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ekuhlanzweni okubizayo kwezinkinga zamacala eMonsanto, iBayer AG ithe ngoLwesithathu izokhokha imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo zaseMelika ezilethwe iMonsanto nge-Roundup herbicide, kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-10 ukuxazulula amacala ngaphezu kweMonsanto i-dicamba herbicide kanye ne- $ 400 million yezimangalo zokungcola kwe-PCB.

Izinqumo kuza eminyakeni emibili ngemuva kokuthi iBayer ithenge iMonsanto ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 futhi cishe ngokushesha yabona ukwehla kwamanani ezabelo ngenxa yesikweletu seRoundup.

IBayer imemezele ukuthi izokhokha imali eyizigidigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyisi-RNUMX ukuxazulula cishe amaphesenti angama-10.1 wezimangalo zabantu abalinganiselwa kwabangu-10.9 abasola ukutholakala kwababulali bokhula baseMonsanto bakaRoundup ababangele ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lesi sivumelwano sibandakanya abamangali abagcine abameli ngenhloso yokufaka amacala kodwa amacala abo engakafakwa, kusho uBayer. Ngaphakathi kwenani eliphelele, ukukhokhwa kwe- $ 75 billion kuya ku- $ 125,000 billion kuzoxazulula amacala akhona manje kanti u- $ 8.8 billion ubekelwa eceleni ukuxhasa amacala angaba khona esikhathini esizayo, kusho inkampani.

Abamangali abafakiwe kulesi sivumelwano yilabo abasayinwe namafemu abelokhu behola i-Roundup federal multi-district litigation (MDL) kanti bahlanganisa iMiller Firm yaseVirginia, inkampani yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman yaseLos Angeles kanye ne-Andrus Wagstaff firm waseDenver, eColorado.

"Ngemuva kweminyaka yamacala abalwa kanzima kanye nonyaka wokulamula okukhulu ngiyajabula ukubona amakhasimende ethu esezonxeshezelwa," kusho uMike Miller, wenkampani yabameli bakwaMiller.

Inkampani yakwaMiller kanye neBaum Hedlund basebenze ngokubambisana ukunqoba icala lokuqala lokuqulwa kwecala, lelo lika-Dewayne “Lee” Johnson wase-California. U-Andrus Wagstaff unqobe ukuqulwa kwecala lesibili kwathi iMiller Firm yalinqoba icala lesithathu lokuthi liqulwe. Sekukonke, lezi zilingo ezintathu zaholela ekutheni izinqumo zabasizi zifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2.3, yize abahluleli ecaleni ngalinye behlisa izinqumo.

Amajaji kuzo zonke lezi zivivinyo ezintathu athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto, njenge-Roundup, abangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi iMonsanto yahlanganisa izingozi futhi yehluleka ukuxwayisa abasebenzisi.

Isigwebo ngasinye kulawa mathathu sesidlula kwinqubo yokudluliswa kwamacala manje kanti uBayer uthe abamangali kulawo macala abafakiwe esivumelwaneni.

UBayer uthe izimangalo zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo zizoba yingxenye yesivumelwano sekilasi esivunyelwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia, owayalela inqubo yokulamula yonyaka wonke eyaholela ekuxazululeni.

Isivumelwano sizothatha noma yikuphi okutholakele esikhathini esizayo mayelana nezicelo zomdlavuza ezandleni zamajaji, kusho uBayer. Esikhundleni salokho, kuzoba nokwakhiwa kwe "Class Science Panel" ezimele. IClass Science Panel izonquma ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup ingadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi uma kunjalo, ngamazinga aphansi okuvezwa. Bobabili abamangali besenzo sekilasi neBayer bazoboshwa ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel. Uma iClass Science Panel inquma ukuthi alukho uxhumano oluyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma lapho-ke amalungu ekilasi azovinjelwa ukuthi afune ngenye indlela kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo elibhekene neBayer.

UBayer uthe ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel kulindeleke ukuthi kuthathe iminyaka eminingana futhi amalungu ekilasi ngeke avunyelwe ukuqhubeka nezimangalo zeRoundup ngaphambi kwalesi sinqumo. Futhi abakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa, kusho uBayer.

"Izivumelwano zeRoundup ™ zakhiwe njengesinqumo esakhayo nesifanelekile enkantolo eyingqayizivele," kusho uKenneth R. Feinberg, umlamuli oqokwe yinkantolo wezingxoxo zokuhlala.

Ngisho nalapho bememezela ukukhokhiswa, izikhulu zeBayer zaqhubeka nokuphika ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides kaMonsanto ibangela umdlavuza.

"Iningi lesayensi likhomba ukuthi iRoundup ayiwudali umdlavuza, ngakho-ke, akuyena obhekene nezifo okusolakala ukuthi zibhekene naleli cala," kusho isikhulu seBayer uWerner Baumann esitatimendeni.

Ukusebenzisana kukaDicamba

I-Bayer iphinde yamemezela isivumelwano se-mass tort sokuxazulula amacala e-US dicamba drift, okubandakanya izimangalo ezivela kubalimi ezisebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides akhiqizwe yi-Monsanto ne-BASF ukuthi afuthwe ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezakhiwe yi-Monsanto zidale ukulahleka nokulimala kwezitshalo okwandile.

Ekulingweni ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka, iMonsanto kwathiwa akhokhe $ 265 million kumlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift engadini yakhe yezithelo.

Bangaphezu kwekhulu abanye abalimi abafake izicelo ezifanayo zomthetho. IBayer ithe izokhokha imali efinyelela ezigidini ezingama- $ 100 ukuxazulula udaba lwamacala ezifundazwe ezehlukene ezisalindwe eNkantolo yesiFunda saseMelika esifundeni saseMpumalanga yeMissouri, nezicelo zeminyaka yokulima ka-400-2015. Abamangali kuzodingeka ukuthi banikeze ubufakazi bokulimala komkhiqizo wezitshalo nobufakazi bokuthi bekufanele kungenxa yedicamba ukuze iqoqwe. Le nkampani ilindele umnikelo ovela kummangalelwa kanye nayo, i-BASF, kule ndawo yokuhlala.

Lesi sivumelwano sizohlinzeka "ngezinsizakusebenza ezidingeka kakhulu kubalimi" abake balahlekelwa isivuno ngenxa yokukhukhula kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho ummeli uJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yabameli bePeiffer Wolf, emele abalimi abanezimangalo ze-dicamba.

"Isivumelwano esimenyezelwe namuhla yisinyathelo esibalulekile sokwenza izinto zilunge kubalimi abafuna nje ukuthi bakwazi ukubeka ukudla etafuleni laseMelika nasemhlabeni," kusho uPeiffer.

Ekuqaleni kwalenyanga a inkantolo yenhlangano yanquma ukuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma ama-dicamba herbicides enziwe yiMonsanto, BASF kanye neCorteva Agriscience. Inkantolo ithole i-EPA ingazinaki izingozi zomonakalo we-dicamba.

Indawo Yokungcola Kwe-PCB

IBayer iphinde yamemezela uchungechunge lwezivumelwano ezixazulula amacala inkampani ethe zimelela kakhulu ukutholakala kwayo ezinkantolo ezibandakanya ukungcoliswa kwamanzi yi-PCB, okwenziwa yiMonsanto kwaze kwaba ngu-1977. Isivumelwano esisodwa sisungula isigaba esifaka bonke ohulumeni basekhaya abanezimvume ze-EPA ezibandakanya ukukhishwa kwamanzi okungakhubazekile Ama-PCB. IBayer ithe izokhokha isamba semali elinganiselwa ku- $ 650 million ekilasini, okuzodingeka ukuthi inkantolo ivume.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iBayer ithe ingene ezivumelwaneni ezihlukene noMmeli-Jikelele waseNew Mexico, Washington, kanye ne-District of Columbia ukuxazulula izimangalo ze-PCB. Kulezi zivumelwano, ezihlukile ekilasini, iBayer izokhokha ngokuphelele cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyi-170.

UBayer uthe ukuphuma kwemali okungahle kube khona ngeke kweqe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5 ngonyaka wezi-2020 kanye namaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5 ngonyaka wezi-2021 ngemali esele esele izokhokhwa ngo-2022 noma kamuva.

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

Isenzo Sombuso

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

Background

I-Dicamba ibisetshenziswa ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960 kodwa ngemikhawulo ebicubungule ukuthambekela kwamakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuthambeka- kusuka kude lapho kufuthwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula yaseMonsanto ethandwayo, efana neRoundup, iqala ukuphelelwa ngamandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo i-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo

Izidlakela zamakhemikhali ezethukile zifuna indlela enkantolo lapho kuvinjelwa ababulali babo bokhula

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bephawula “isimo esiphuthumayo,” imidondoshiya yamakhemikhali i-BASF ne-DuPont bacele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi ibavumele bangenelele ecaleni lapho inkantolo ekuqaleni kwenyanga yayalela ukuthi imithi yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ivinjelwe ngokushesha kanye nomkhiqizo we-dicamba owenziwe ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG .

Isenzo sezinkampani zamakhemikhali silandela a Isinqumo sangoJuni 3 yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye eyathi i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

I-EPA weqe lowo myalo, kodwa-ke, ukutshela abalimi ukuthi bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu amapulazi nabathengi abafake icala okokuqala bephikisana ne-EPA babuyela enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, ukucela umyalelo ophuthumayo ephethe i-EPA ngokudelela. Inkantolo yanikeza i-EPA kuze kuphele usuku ngoLwesibili, ngoJuni 16, ukuba iphendule.

Isiphithiphithi Ezweni Lepulazi

Umyalelo ovimbela imikhiqizo yezinkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lepulazi ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya nabakotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe yilaba abathathu izinkampani.

“Uhlelo lwezitshalo lwe-dicamba” luhlinzekela abalimi ukuthi batshale amasimu abo ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba, abangazifafaza “ngaphezulu-phezulu” ngombulali wokhula we-dicamba. Uhlelo luye lwacebisa izinkampani ezidayisa imbewu namakhemikhali futhi lusize abalimi abatshala ukotini okhethekile obekezelela i-dicamba noshuya ukubhekana nokhula olunenkani olumelana nemikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate-based Roundup.

Kepha kwinani elikhulu labalimi abangazitshali izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-dicamba herbicides kusho ukulimala nokulahleka kwezitshalo ngoba i-dicamba ithambekele ekukhuphukeni nasekukhukhulekeni amabanga amade lapho ingabulala khona izitshalo, izihlahla nezihlahlana hhayi ukuguqulwa kofuzo ukumelana nekhemikhali.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba drift. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi okonakele kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yaphawula kulesi sinqumo sayo.

Abalimi abaningi baqale bagubha isinqumo senkantolo futhi bakhululeka ukuthi amapulazi abo kanye nezithelo zabo zezithelo zizosinda kuleli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba ababhekane nawo ehlobo langaphambilini. Kepha ukukhululeka kube okwesikhashana lapho i-EPA ithi ngeke iphoqe ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa okunqunywe yinkantolo.

Ekugcwaliseni okwenziwe ngoLwesihlanu, IBASF incenge inkantolo hhayi ukuphoqelela ukuvinjelwa ngokushesha futhi watshela inkantolo ukuthi kuzodingeka ivalwe indawo yokukhiqiza eBeaumont, eTexas, okwamanje "esebenza amahora angama-24 ngosuku cishe ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" uma ingakwazi ukukhiqiza uhlobo lwayo lwe-dicamba herbicide olubiziwe Engenia. I-BASF isebenzise u- $ 370 million eminyakeni eyedlule ithuthukisa lesi sitshalo futhi iqashe abantu abayi-170 lapho, kusho inkampani.

Iqaphela "ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu" kumkhiqizo wayo, i-BASF iphinde yatshela inkantolo ukuthi kunokwanele komkhiqizo wayo njengamanje kuso sonke "isiteshi samakhasimende" sayo ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-26.7 kasoya nobotini. I-BASF inomkhiqizo owengeziwe obiza u- $ 44 million we-Engenia dicamba onawo, owanele ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-6.6 kabhontshisi nokotini, kusho inkampani.

UDuPont / Corteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, etshela inkantolo ekufayilini kwayo ukuthi ukuvinjelwa "kulimaza ngqo" inkampani "kanye nabalimi abaningi ezweni lonke abaphakathi nenkathi yokukhula." Kuzolimaza “isithunzi” senkampani uma kuvalwa umuthi wayo wokubulala ukhula, inkampani itshele inkantolo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukudala "imali engenayo" ngokuthengisa umuthi wayo we-dicamba, obizwa ngeFeXapan futhi uzolahlekelwa yileyo mali uma ukuvinjelwa kuphoqelelwa, kusho inkampani.

IMonsanto ibisebenza kuleli cala elisekela ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesinqumo, kepha bobabili i-BASF neDuPont bagomela ngokungeyikho ukuthi icala lasenkantolo lisebenza kuphela emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto hhayi kweyabo. Inkantolo ikubeke kwacaca nokho ukuthi i-EPA yamukele ngokungemthetho imikhiqizo eyenziwe yizo zontathu lezi zinkampani.

Iholwa yiCentre for Food Safety, isicelo esimelene ne-EPA silethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iCentre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Ngokucela inkantolo ukuthi ithole i-EPA ngokwedelela, i-consortium ixwayise ngomonakalo wezitshalo ozofika uma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ingavinjelwe ngokushesha.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukufafazwa kwamakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyi-16 ngaphezulu kwe-dicamba kanye nomonakalo odaleke ezigidini zamahektare, kanye nezingozi ezinkulu ezinhlotsheni zezilwane ezisengozini enkulu," kusho le nhlangano. “Kukhona okunye futhi okusengcupheni: umthetho. INkantolo kumele isebenze ukuvimbela ukungabi nabulungisa futhi ixhase ubuqotho benqubo yokwahlulela. Futhi ngenxa yokushaywa indiva kwe-EPA ngokusobala ngesinqumo seNkantolo, abafaki bezikhalazo banxusa iNkantolo ukuthi ibukele phansi i-EPA. ”

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izindaba zakamuva: Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US umemezele ngo-Okthoba 27 kuzovumela abalimi base-US ukuthi baqhubeke nokufafaza izitshalo ngomuthi we-weerkiller we-Bayer AG osetshenziswe kuma-soya kabhontshisi we-GMO kanye ne-cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkantolo ovimba ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yanquma ukuthi I-EPA “ibubeke eceleni kakhulu ubungozi” bababulali bokhula be-dicamba. Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-US imangalela iBayer (phambilini eyayiyiMonsanto) kanye ne-BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa kakhulu kwe-dicamba. Sithumela imibhalo yokuthola nokuhlaziywa kwezilingo ku- Ikhasi le-Dicamba Papers.

Uhlolojikelele

I-Dicamba (I-3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) iyinhlangano ebanzi i-herbicide yaqala ukubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-herbicide isetshenziselwa izitshalo zezolimo, umhlaba olinywayo, amadlelo, i-turfgrass kanye ne-rangeland. IDicamba ibhaliswe futhi ekusetshenzisweni okungezona kwezolimo ezindaweni zokuhlala nakwezinye izindawo, ezinjengezinkundla zegalofu lapho isetshenziswa kakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamaqabunga abanzi njengama-dandelions, i-chickweed, i-clover kanye ne-ivy yomhlabathi.

Imikhiqizo engaphezu kwe-1,000 XNUMX edayiswa e-United States efaka phakathi i-dicamba, ngokusho kweNational Pesticide Information Center. Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-auxin agonist: ikhiqiza ukukhula okungalawuleki okuholela ekufeni kwezitshalo.

Ukukhathazeka Ngezemvelo 

Izinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ngokushushumbisa kude nalapho zisetshenziswe khona, futhi ngokuvamile zazingasetshenziswa kabanzi phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele lapho zazingabulala khona izitshalo noma izihlahla ezazingahlosiwe.

I-Ejensi Yezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ivume ukubhaliswa kwamafomu amasha e-dicamba ngo-2016, kodwa-ke, ivumela ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ezitshalweni ezikhulayo ze-dicamba ezibekezelela ukotini nezimbotyi zesoya. Ososayensi baxwayise ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kuzoholela ekulimaleni kwe-dicamba drift.

Ukusetshenziswa okusha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kokumelana nokhula kabanzi emithini yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate, kubandakanya nomkhiqizo odumile weRoundup, owethulwe nguMonsanto ngawo-1970. Ngama-1990s, iMonsanto yethula izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate, yaphinde yakhuthaza abakwa-famers ukuthi basebenzise izinhlelo zabo zokutshala "Roundup Ready". Abalimi bangatshala isoya sikabhontshisi we-glyphosate obekezelela izakhi zofuzo zikaMonsanto, ummbila, ukotini nezinye izitshalo, bese befutha imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula efana ne-Roundup ngqo ngaphezulu kwezitshalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Uhlelo lwenza ukuphathwa kokhula kube lula kubalimi ngoba babekwazi ukufafaza amakhemikhali ngqo kuwo wonke amasimu abo ngenkathi yokukhula, kuqeda ukhula olwaluncintisana nezitshalo ukuthola umswakama nomsoco womhlabathi.

Ukuthandwa kohlelo lweRoundup Ready kwaholela ekwandeni kokumelana nokhula, kepha, kushiya abalimi ngezinsimu zokhula oluqinile ezazingasafi lapho zifuthwa nge-glyphosate.

Ku-2011 iMonsanto imemezele ukuthi i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Uthembele ebangeni elide ngokwako” futhi ithe ihlela ukusebenzisana neBASF nokwenza uhlelo lokutshala izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezizobekezelela ukufuthwa nge-dicamba. Ithi izokwethula uhlobo olusha lwe-dicamba herbicide olungeke lukhukhuleke luqhelelene namasimu lapho lufuthwe khona.

Kusukela kwethulwa uhlelo olusha, izikhalazo ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift sezikhuphukile ezifundeni eziningana zepulazi, kufaka phakathi izikhalazo eziningi ezivela e-Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri nase-Arkansas.

Embikweni wangomhla ziyi-1 ku-Novemba 2017, i-EPA ithe ithole uphenyo olusemthethweni lokulimala kwezitshalo ezingama-2,708 (njengokusho kweminyango yezolimo). Le nhlangano ithe bekungaphezu kwamahektare ayizigidi ezingama-3.6 kabhontshisi owathinteka ngaleso sikhathi. Ezinye izitshalo ezithintekile bekungotamatisi, ikhabe, ikantaloupe, izivini, amathanga, imifino, ugwayi, izingadi zokuhlala, izihlahla nezihlahlana

NgoJulayi 2017, uMnyango Wezolimo waseMissouri wakhipha okwesikhashana i- "Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order," kuyo yonke imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eMissouri. Umbuso wasusa lesi sinqumo ngoSepthemba 2017.

Le yimikhiqizo ethile ye-dicamba:

Ngo-Okthoba 31, 2018, i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yamemezela ukwelulwa kokubhaliswa kwe-Engenia, XtendiMax neFeXapan ngonyaka ka-2020 ukuze kusetshenziswe “ngaphezulu” ezindaweni ezingabekezeleleki zikakotini nezimboni zesoya. I-EPA ithe ithuthukise amalebuli wangaphambilini futhi yafaka ezinye izindlela zokuvikela ngomzamo wokukhulisa impumelelo nokusetshenziswa okuphephile komkhiqizo emkhakheni.

Ukubhaliswa kweminyaka emibili kusebenza ngokusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA isho lezi zinhlinzeko ezilandelayo:

  • Abafakizicelo abaqinisekisiwe kuphela abangafaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (labo abasebenza ngaphansi kweso lomfakisicelo oqinisekisiwe bangabe besakwazi ukwenza izicelo)
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi ezinsukwini ezingama-45 ngemuva kokutshala noma kuze kufike esigabeni sokukhula sika-R1 (ukuqhuma kokuqala), noma yikuphi okuza kuqala
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kukotini ezinsukwini ezingama-60 ngemuva kokutshala
  • Okotini, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kwezingu-XNUMX kuya kwezimbili
  • Kosabhontshisi, inani lezicelo ezisezingeni eliphezulu lihlala kwababili
  • Izicelo zizovunyelwa kusuka ehoreni elilodwa ngemuva kokuphuma kwelanga kuya emahoreni amabili ngaphambi kokushona kwelanga
  • Ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo zezilwane ezisengcupheni zingaba khona, isiphepho saphansi sizohlala ezinyaweni eziyi-110 futhi kuzoba ne-buffer entsha engamamitha angama-57 ezungeze ezinye izinhlangothi zensimu (i-110-foot downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza, hhayi kuphela ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo ezisengozini yokuphela zingaba khona)
  • Imiyalo yokuhlanza ithangi ethuthukisiwe yohlelo lonke
  • Amalebula athuthukisiwe okuthuthukisa ukuqwashisa kwabafakizicelo kumthelela we-pH ephansi ekushiseni okungenzeka kwe-dicamba
  • Ilebuli ihlanza kanye nokuvumelana ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuhambisana nokusebenza

Inkantolo Yesicelo Sokudlulisa Amacala yase-9 

NgoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokugunyaza ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe yi-Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Inkantolo kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo.

Imininingwane engaphezulu ingaba utholwe lapha.

Izinsalela Zokudla 

Njengoba nje ukutholakala kwe-glyphosate emasimini asepulazini kutholakale kushiya izinsalela ze-glyphosate kokudla okuphelile, okufana ne-oatmeal, izinkwa, okusanhlamvu, njll, izinsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuthi zishiye izinsalela ekudleni. Abalimi abakhiqiziwe kwabo kungcoliswe yizinsalela ze-dicamba nge-drift bazwakalise ukukhathazeka kwabo ngokuthi imikhiqizo yabo ingahle yenqatshwe noma ilimale ngenye indlela kwezentengiso ngenxa yenkinga yezinsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amazinga okubekezelela i-dicamba okusanhlamvu okuningana nenyama yemfuyo edla okusanhlamvu, kepha hhayi ngezithelo nemifino enhlobonhlobo. Ukubekezelelana kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi kusethwe ezingxenyeni eziyi-10 ngesigidi, ngokwesibonelo, e-United States, kanye nezingxenye ezi-2 ngesigidi sikakolweni wokusanhlamvu. Ukubekezelelana kungakwazi ubonwe lapha. 

I-EPA isikhiphile lesi sitatimende maqondana nezinsalela ze-dicamba ekudleni: "I-EPA yenze ukuhlaziywa okudingwa yi-Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) futhi yanquma ukuthi izinsalela zokudla" ziphephile "- okusho ukuthi kunesiqiniseko sokuthi akukho ukulimala kubantu, kufaka phakathi konke ukubonwa okungakhonjwa ngendlela efanelekile, kufaka phakathi izinsana nezingane, kusuka ekudleni nakwezinye izinto ezingekho emsebenzini ku-dicamba. ”

I-Cancer ne-Hypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic, kepha ezinye izifundo zithole ingozi eyengeziwe yomdlavuza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Bona lezi zifundo maqondana nemiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ye-dicamba:

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Dicamba kanye nesifo somdlavuza esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo: ukuhlaziywa okubuyekeziwe I-International Journal of Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Uma kuqhathaniswa nabafakizicelo ababika ukuthi abayisebenzisi i-dicamba, labo abasengozini ephakeme kakhulu yokuchayeka babe sengozini enkulu yomdlavuza wesibindi nowangaphakathi we-intrahepatic kanye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheli kanye nokwehla kwengozi ye-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye ne-Incident Hypothyroidism kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane eSifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (9.26.18)
"Kuleli qoqo elikhulu labalimi abebesengozini yokutholakala nezibulala-zinambuzane, sithole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezinambuzane ezine ze-organochlorine (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ama-insecticide amane e-organophosphate (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, ne-malathion), kanti imithi emithathu yokubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, ne-2,4-D) yayihlotshaniswa nengozi eyengeziwe ye-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane phakathi kwabasebenzisi bezinambuzane abazimele besilisa esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo. Ijenali Yemithi Yezemvelo Emsebenzini (10.1.14)
"Imithi yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, ne-oyela kaphethiloli konke kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwengozi ye-hypothyroidism"

Ukubuyekezwa kokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kuqoqo lezempilo leZolimo. Izindlela Zokuphila Zezemvelo (8.1.10)
“Sibuyekeze izifundo ezingama-28; iningi lezibulala-zinambuzane ezingama-32 ezihloliwe bezingahlangene kakhulu nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane. Izilinganiso zokukhuphuka kwamazinga (noma izingqinamba ezingavumelani) namaphethini okuphendula okuchayeka okuhle abikwe ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyi-12 okwamanje ebhaliswe eCanada kanye / noma e-United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- i-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafaka Izicelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KuDicamba Kwezempilo Yezolimo Isifundo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (7.13.06)
“Ukuvezwa kwezinto bekungahlobene nezehlakalo zomdlavuza jikelele futhi bezingekho izinhlangano eziqinile ezinoma yiluphi uhlobo lomdlavuza. Lapho iqembu lesethenjwa lalinabafakizicelo abadalulwe kancane, sabona ukuthambekela okuhle engcupheni phakathi kwezinsuku zokuvezwa kwempilo yonke kanye nomdlavuza wamaphaphu (p = 0.02), kepha azikho izilinganiso zamaphoyinti ngamunye ezaziphakanyiswe kakhulu. Siphinde sabona ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwengozi ekhulayo yomdlavuza wekoloni ezinsukwini zombili zokuvezwa kwempilo kanye nezinsuku zokuphila ezinesisindo, yize le miphumela ibangelwe kakhulu yingozi ephezulu ezingeni eliphakeme lokuchayeka.

I-non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma kanye nokuvezwa okuthe ngqo kwezibulala-zinambuzane emadodeni: IsiCross-Canada Study of Pesticides and Health. I-Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers kanye nokuvimbela (11.01)
“Phakathi kokuhlanganiswa ngakunye, ekuhlaziyweni kwe-multivariate, ubungozi be-NHL bunyuswe ngokweqile ngokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye izinhlobo zama-multivariate, ezibandakanya ukuvezwa kwamanye amakilasi amakhulu amakhemikhali noma izibulala-zinambuzane ngazinye, umdlavuza womuntu siqu owedlule, umlando womdlavuza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, nokuvezwa kwezingxube eziqukethe i-dicamba (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40– 2.75)… babeyizibikezelo ezibalulekile ezizimele zengozi eyengeziwe yeNHL ”

icala 

Ukukhathazeka ngomonakalo we-dicamba kudale amacala avela kubalimi ezifundazweni eziningi zase-US. Imininingwane ngecala ingatholakala lapha.