Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu ngokugxambukela kwesayensi

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ilalela izimpikiswano ngokulahleka kwecala lokuqala kukaMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isinqumo sejaji laseCalifornia esola umuthi wokubulala ukhula waseMonsanto ngesifo somdlavuza wasesikoleni saba nephutha kakhulu futhi asihambisani nomthetho, ummeli waseMonsanto utshele iphaneli lamajaji okudluliswa kwamacala ngoLwesibili.

Imithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani esekwe eglyphosate - edume kakhulu ngokuthi yiRoundup - isekelwa ngokugcwele yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye "nabalawuli emhlabeni jikelele," kusho ummeli uDavid Axelrad etshela amajaji neNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseCalifornia Isifunda Sokuqala Sokudlulisa Amacala.

U-Axelrad uthe iMonsanto ayinaso isibopho sokuxwayisa noma ngubani ngengozi yomdlavuza okusolakala ukuthi inengcuphe yokunikwa umdlavuza uma kunesivumelwano esivumelanayo sokuthi ababulali balo babephephile.

“Empeleni akulungile ukubamba iMonsanto icala nokuyijezisela ilebula lomkhiqizo elingakhombisi ngokunembile ukuzimisela kwe-EPA kuphela kodwa nokuvumelana komhlaba wonke ukuthi i-glyphosate ayiyona eyomdlavuza,” kusho yena ekulaleleni kwehora lonke. Lokhu kuqhubeka kubanjwe ngocingo ngenxa yemikhawulo ye-COVID-19 ekufinyeleleni enkantolo.

U-Associate Justice uGabriel Sanchez ubuze ubuqiniso bale mpikiswano: "Unezifundo zezilwane… i-mechanism studies, unezifundo zokulawula amacala," esho, ekhuluma nommeli kaMonsanto. “Kunenqwaba yezifundo ezishicilelwe ezibuyekeziwe zontanga… eziphakamisa ubudlelwano obubalulekile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-lymphoma. Ngakho-ke angazi ukuthi ngivumelana nawe ukuthi kunokuvumelana ngazwi linye. Impela izinhlaka ezilawulayo zibonakala zisohlangothini olulodwa. Kepha kunobunye ubufakazi obuningi kokunye. ”

Isikhalazo sisuselwa esinqumweni sejaji sango-2018 e-San Francisco Superior Court esayalela uMonsanto ukuthi akhokhe u- $ 289 million ku-Dewayne “Lee” Johnson, kufaka phakathi ama-dollar ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujeziswa.

Ijaji eliqulile icala likaJohnson lehlise umklomelo waba yizigidi ezingama- $ 78.5. Kepha iMonsanto wadlulisa isinqumo, ukucela inkantolo ukuthi iguqule isinqumo secala bese ifaka isinqumo seMonsanto noma ihlehlise futhi ibuyisele icala ecaleni elisha noma okungenani inciphise kakhulu umonakalo. UJohnson wadlulisa icala efuna ukubuyiselwa umklomelo ophelele wejaji.

UJohnson ungomunye wamashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu abavela e-United States abamangalele uMonsanto bethi i-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate enziwe yinkampani enza i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi inkampani yachitha amashumi eminyaka ihlanganisa izingozi.

UJohnson uthole isikhundla “sokuthandwa” ngoba odokotela bathe isikhathi sakhe sokuphila sifushane nokuthi kungenzeka afe kungakapheli izinyanga eziyi-18 kuqulwe icala. UJohnson ujabhise odokotela futhi usaqhubeka ephila futhi elashwa njalo.

Ukulahlekelwa kukaMonsanto kuJohnson kumake ukulahlekelwa kwecala lokuqala kweRoundup enkampanini, elatholwa yiBayer AG yaseJalimane ngoJuni 2018 njengoba kwaqala ukuqulwa kwecala likaJohnson.

Ijaji ecaleni likaJohnson lithole ngokukhethekile - phakathi kwezinye izinto - ukuthi iMonsanto ibinobudedengu ngokwehluleka ukuxwayisa uJohnson ngengozi yomdlavuza yokubulala ukhula kwayo. Kodwa uMonsanto uthi lesi sinqumo sasinephutha ngenxa yokungafakwa kobufakazi obubalulekile nalokho abameli benkampani abakubiza ngokuthi “ukuhlanekezelwa kwesayensi ethembekile.”

Uma inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ingalaleli ukuqulwa kwecala elisha, uMonsanto ucele ukuthi okungenani amajaji anciphise ingxenye yomklomelo wamajaji "ngomonakalo ongekho kwezomnotho wangomuso" kusuka ku- $ 33 million kuya ku- $ 1.5 million nokusula umonakalo wokujeziswa ngokuphelele.

Abameli bakaJohnson babethi kufanele athole ama- $ 1 million ngonyaka ngezinhlungu nokuhlupheka kule minyaka engu-33 eyengeziwe abengayiphila ukube akazange awuthole umdlavuza.

Kepha abameli bakaMonsanto bathe uJohnson kufanele athole u- $ 1 million kuphela ngonyaka ngezinhlungu nokuhlupheka ngesikhathi sakhe sokuphila uqobo noma u- $ 1.5 million esikhathini esizayo sezinyanga eziyi-18 esilindelekile.

NgoLwesibili, u-Axelrad uphinde waliphinda lelo phuzu: "Impela ummangali angalulama ngesikhathi esaphila ngenxa yobuhlungu nokuhlupheka okungabangelwa ukwazi ukuthi usenesikhathi esifushane sokuphila," utshele iphaneli lezobulungiswa. "Kodwa ngeke ululame ngenxa yobuhlungu nokuhlupheka okungenzeka kwenzeke eminyakeni lapho uzobe ungasahlali khona futhi yilokho ummangali akuthola kuleli cala."

U-Axelrad utshele abahluleli ukuthi le nkampani ibipendwe ngamanga njengokuzibandakanya nokungaziphathi kahle kodwa empeleni ilandele isayensi nomthetho ngendlela efanele. Uthe, ngokwesibonelo, yize ummeli kaJohnson ayesole uMonsanto ngokubhala okuyizipoki amaphepha esayensi, ososayensi bezinkampani babenze "iziphakamiso zokuhlela" kuphela zamaphepha amaningi ashicilelwe ezincwadini zesayensi.

"Ukuthi iMonsanto ibingaba nokuqhamuka kakhulu ekuboneni ukubandakanyeka kwayo kulezo zifundo umongo wukuthi lezo zifundo azivelanga lwazi olungelona iqiniso noma oludukisayo futhi akukho okukhombisa ukuthi omunye wababhali balezo zifundo ubezoshintsha umbono wakhe ukube iMonsanto enganikelwanga ukuphawula komhleli, ”kusho yena.

U-Axelrad uthe abukho ububi futhi akukho sizathu somonakalo wokujeziselwa iMonsanto. Ukuvikela kwenkampani imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yayo eglyphosate eminyakeni edlule "bekufanele futhi kuthembekile," esho.

“Abukho neze ubufakazi bokuthi iMonsanto isabalalise ulwazi olungelona iqiniso, oludukisayo noma olungaphelele, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi izenzo zalo zivimbele ukusatshalaliswa kolwazi ezinhlanganweni ezilawulayo ezidingekayo ukuze kubuyekezwe ubufakazi besayensi, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi izenzo zalo zaphazamisa isinqumo sokugcina futhi akukho bufakazi ukuthi iMonsanto yenqabile ukwenza isivivinyo noma isifundo ukuze kufihlwe ulwazi ngengozi yokulimala noma ukuvimbela ukutholakala kolwazi olusha mayelana nesayensi ye-glyphosate, ”kusho yena.

Ummeli kaJohnson uMike Miller uthe abameli bakaMonsanto bazama ukwenza inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala ukuthi izame futhi amaqiniso aleli cala, okungeyona indima yalo.

“IMonsanto ayiwuqondi kahle umsebenzi wokudluliswa kwamacala. Akukona ukuphinda ucabangele amaqiniso. Amaqiniso asanda kuphikiswa abameli bakaMonsanto enqatshwe ngokuphelele yijaji futhi enqatshwa yijaji lecala… ”kusho uMiller.

Inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala kufanele ihambisane nomonakalo owanikezwa yijaji, kubandakanya nomonakalo wokujeziswa, ngoba indlela uMonsanto aziphatha ngayo mayelana nesayensi nokuphepha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-glyphosate "yayiyimbi," kusho uMiller.

Ubufakazi obethulwe ecaleni likaJohnson bukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto ubambe iqhaza ekubhalweni komoya kwamaphepha esayensi ngenkathi yehluleka ukuhlola ngokwanele umuthi wokubulala ukhula we-glyphosate ngobungozi be-carcinogenicity. Le nkampani yabe isiqala ukuhlaselwa "okungakaze kube khona" ekwethembekeni kososayensi bomdlavuza bamazwe omhlaba ababeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015, utshele iphaneli lezobulungiswa.

“Emonakalisweni yokujeziswa, njengoba uhlola ukwethembeka kweMonsanto kumele ubandakanye ingcebo yeMonsanto. Nomklomelo kumele wenele ukuluma, ”kusho uMiller. "Ngaphansi komthetho waseCalifornia ngaphandle uma kuguqula indlela yokuziphatha akuhambelani nenhloso yokulimala kwesijeziso."

Iphaneli yokudlulisa amacala inezinsuku ezingama-90 zokukhipha isinqumo.

I-IFIC: Ukudla Okukhulu Kakhulu Kuphikisa Kanjani Izindaba Ezimbi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know neminye imithombo ikhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke (IFIC), iqembu lezentengiselwano elixhaswe izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nezolimo, kanye "nengalo yalo yezemfundo yomphakathi" engenzi nzuzo Isisekelo se-IFIC. Amaqembu e-IFIC aqhuba izinhlelo zocwaningo nezokuqeqesha, akhiqiza izinto zokumaketha futhi axhumanise amanye amaqembu embonini ukuxhumana nomkhakha wezokuphepha mayelana nokuphepha kokudla nokondleka. Ukulayeza kufaka phakathi ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ushukela, ukudla okusetshenzwe, okokunandisa okokufakelwa, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza wezibulala-zinambuzane weMonsanto 

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sendlela i-IFIC ebambisana ngayo nezinkampani ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezolimo kanye nokuphazamisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza, lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-IFIC njenge- “Umlingani wezimboni” ohlelweni lobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iqembu labacwaningi ngomdlavuza leWorld Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze “kuvikelwe isithunzi” seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IMonsanto ibhale i-IFIC njengoMlingani “wezimboni” weTier 3 kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla.

IFICIC izama kanjani ukudlulisa umyalezo wayo kwabesifazane.

La maqembu akhonjwa njengengxenye “yethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement” elingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugoma” likaMonsanto ngombiko womdlavuza we-glyphosate.

AmaBlogs kamuva athunyelwa ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-IFIC khombisa ukuthunyelwa kweqembu "ungakhathazeki, sethembe" imiyalezo kwabesifazane. Okungenayo kufaka phakathi, “izindlela eziyi-8 zobuhlanya abazama ukukwesabisa ngazo ngezithelo nemifino,” “Ukusika imfuhlumfuhlu ku-glyphosate,” nokuthi “Ngaphambi kokuba sidangele, ake sibuze ochwepheshe… ochwepheshe bangempela.”

Abaxhasi bezinkampani  

I-IFIC isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 22 esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu kusukela 2013-2017, ngenkathi i-IFIC Foundation ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5 kuleyo minyaka emihlanu, ngokusho kwamafomu entela afakwe kwi-IRS. Izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni asekela i-IFIC, ngokusho kwe- ukudalulwa komphakathi, kufaka phakathi i-American Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kanye nePepsiCo.

Amarekhodi wentela esalungiswa e-IFIC Foundation, atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso, uhlu lwezinkampani ezixhase iqembu 2011, 2013 noma zombili: I-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Coca-Cola, i-ConAgra, i-General Mills, i-Kellogg, i-Kraft Foods, i-Hershey, i-Mars, i-Nestle, i-PepsiCo ne-Unilever. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US unikeze i-IFIC Foundation imali engu- $ 177,480 yabakhokhi bentela e 2013 ukukhiqiza "umhlahlandlela wezokuxhumana”Yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-IFIC iphinde icele imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso ethile yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Le imeyili ka-Ephreli 28, 2014 kusuka kumphathi we-IFIC kuya kuhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yezinkampani ucela iminikelo engu- $ 10,000 yokuvuselela i- "Understanding our Food" isinyathelo ukwenza ngcono ukubukwa kwabathengi kokudla okusetshenzisiwe. I-imeyili ibhala abasekeli bezimali bangaphambilini: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo neDuPont.

Iphromotha ama-GMO ezinganeni zesikole  

IFIC iqondisiwe Amaqembu we-130 nge Ukubambisana Ukondla Ikusasa emizamweni yokuthumela imiyalezo "yokuthuthukisa ukuqonda" ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka phakathi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, lo Umkhandlu Wokulawulwa Kwekhalori, the Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla kanye ne-The Nature Conservancy.

I-Alliance to Feed the Future inikeze ngezifundo zamahhala zemfundo ukufundisa abafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kufaka phakathi “Isayensi Yokondla Umhlaba”Kothisha be-K-8 kanye ne-“Ukuletha i-Biotechnology empilweni”Zamabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezinsizakalo ze-IFIC's PR 

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know unikeze umuzwa wokuthi i-IFIC isebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuze ivule izindaba ezimbi futhi ivikele imikhiqizo yabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani.

Ixhuma izintatheli kososayensi abakhokhelwa yimboni  

  • Meyi 5, 2014 imeyili kusuka kuMat Raymond, umqondisi omkhulu wezokuxhumana, uxwayise ubuholi be-IFIC kanye "neqembu lezingxoxo zabezindaba" "ngezindaba ezisezingeni eliphakeme lapho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona manje" ukusiza ukuhambisa izindaba ezingezinhle, kufaka phakathi ukuphendula i-movie ethi Fed Up. Uphawule ukuthi baxhume intatheli yeNew York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, uchwepheshe wethu odumile emkhakheni woshukela. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqembu elincane lososayensi abafundile baseCanada abathole amakhulu ezinkulungwane oxhaso kubenzi beziphuzo ezithambile, izinhlangano zokuhweba ngokudla okuhlanganisiwe kanye nomkhakha kashukela, okwenza izifundo nezihloko zemibono ezivame ukuqondana nezintshisekelo zalawo mabhizinisi, ” ngokusho kweNational Post.
  • Ama-imeyili avela ku- 2010 futhi 2012 ziphakamisa ukuthi i-IFIC incike eqenjini elincane lososayensi abaxhunywe embonini ukubhekana nezifundo eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Kuwo womabili ama-imeyili, uBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngubani uthole izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO, kweluleka i-IFIC ukuthi ingaphendulwa kanjani ezifundweni eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

Isikhulu seDuPont siphakamisa isu lobuchule lokulwa nemibiko yabathengi

  • Phakathi ku Februwari 3, 2013 imeyili, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqembu lobudlelwano nabezindaba" ukuthi Imibiko Yabathengi ibike ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela wezemvelo wama-GMO. UDoyle Karr, Umqondisi wenqubomgomo ye-biotechnology kaDuPont nephini likamongameli webhodi ye Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, wathumela i-imeyili kusosayensi onombuzo ngemibono yokuphendula, futhi waphakamisa ukubhekana Nemibiko Yabathengi ngaleli qhinga lokwenza okuthile: nezitatimende ze- (Consumer Reports ') mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela kwezemvelo. ?? ”

Ezinye izinsizakalo ze-PR IFIC inikeza embonini

  • Kusabalalisa amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini edukisayo: April 25, 2012 thumela kumalungu ayi-130 e-Alliance Ukondla Ikusasa “egameni lelungu le-Alliance Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa ” yathi uhlelo lokuvota lwaseCalifornia lokufaka ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo “lungavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi ezinkulungwane emikhiqizo yokudla eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuthi inamalebula akhethekile.”
  • Ibhekana nezincwadi ezibucayi ngokudla okusetshenzisiwe: February 20, 2013 I-imeyili ichaza isu le-IFIC lokuphotha izincwadi ezimbili ezigxeka imboni yezokudla, “Usawoti, Ushukela, Amafutha” kaMichael Moss, kanye ne “Lunchbox kaPandora” kaMelanie Warner. Izinhlelo zazihlanganisa ukubhala ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ukusabalalisa izindawo zokukhuluma kanye "nokuhlola ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ukuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zedijithali kulinganiswa ubukhulu bokusabalala." Ku-imeyili kaFebhuwari 22, 2013, umphathi we-IFIC welulela izifundiswa ezintathu - URoger Clemens wase-University of Southern California, UMario Ferruzzi wasePurdue University futhi UJoanne Slavin wase-University of Minnesota - ukubacela ukuthi batholakalele izingxoxo nabezindaba mayelana nezincwadi. I-imeyili inikeze izifundiswa izifinyezo zalezi zincwadi ezimbili nezindawo zokukhuluma ze-IFIC ezivikela ukudla okwenziwe. “Sizokuthokozela ukuthi nihlanganyele noma yimaphi amaphuzu athile okuxoxa ngezindaba ezithile zesayensi eziphakanyiswe ezincwadini,” kusho i-imeyili evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, iphini likamongameli omkhulu we-IFIC wezokudla nokuvikeleka kokudla.
  • Ucwaningo nocwaningo ukusekela izikhundla ezimbonini; isibonelo esisodwa ngocwaningo lwango-2012 olathola ukuthi abathengi abangama-76% “abakwazi ukucabanga nganoma yini eyengeziwe abangathanda ukuyibona kulebula” esetshenziswa amaqembu embonini ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.
  • “Ungakhathazeki, sethembe” izincwajana zokumaketha, njenge lena echaza ukuthi izithasiselo zokudla nemibala akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo. Amakhemikhali nodayi “babambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekwehliseni ukusweleka okukhulu kwabathengi,” ngokusho kwencwajana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano sokubambisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

okokuqala kuthunyelwe ngoMeyi 31, 2018 futhi kuvuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

Amaqembu Ezobuchwepheshe, Abezokwelapha Namapulazi Bacela Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala ukuguqula Isinqumo Esimelene neMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaqembu amele izintshisekelo zepulazi, ezokwelapha kanye ne-biotechnology afake iziyalezo eNkantolo Yokudluliswa kwamacala yaseCalifornia, ehambisana neMonsanto ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi iguqule isinqumo senkantolo eledlule esathola ukuthi i-glyphosate-herbicides kaMonsanto idala umdlavuza futhi yanquma ukuthi inkampani ichithe iminyaka ihlanganisa izingozi .

La maqembu anxusa inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukuthi iphose ukunqoba ijaji laseSan Francisco elinikeze umgcini wezinkundla zesikole uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngo-Agasti ka-2018 noma lenze ukuba umthetho weMonsanto ukhokhe umonakalo wokujezisa uJohnson. Icala likaJohnson kwaba ngowokuqala ngokumelene neMonsanto ngenxa yezimangalo zokuthi ukhula lwayo lwe-glyphosate olususelwa ku-Roundup lungadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

UJohnson ungomunye wabamangali abangaphezu kuka-18,000 abenza izimangalo ezifanayo. Amacala athi uMonsanto wayazi ngocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuhlangana phakathi kokubulala ukhula nomdlavuza kodwa kunokuba axwayise abathengi inkampani isebenze ukucindezela lolu cwaningo nokusebenzisa izincwadi zesayensi.

Ijaji ecaleni likaJohnson linqume ukuthi uMonsanto kufanele akhokhe amadola ayizigidi ezingama-289, kufaka phakathi u- $ 250 million kumonakalo wokujezisa. Ijaji lecala kuleli cala kamuva lanciphisa inani lokulimala kwesijeziso, lanciphisa umklomelo ophelele waba ngu- $ 78 million. Amanye amajaji amabili ezilingweni ezalandela ngaphezu kwezimangalo ezifanayo nabo bathole abamangali futhi bayalela umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweMonsanto.

IMonsanto yadlulisa icala isinqumo futhi UJohnson wadlulisa icala, efuna ukubuyiselwa imali eyi- $ 289 million ephelele. Ukuphikisana ngomlomo kulindeleke kule nkantolo yokudlulisa amacala lokhu kuwa nesinqumo esingavela enkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ngaphambi kokuphela konyaka.

Elinye lamaqembu afaka okufushane okusekela isikhundla sikaMonsanto yiGenentech Inc., inkampani yaseSan Francisco enokwakhiwa kwe-biotech enomlando wokwenza ucwaningo ngemithi yokwelapha umdlavuza. Ekudluliseni icala enkantolo, UGenentech uyaphikisana ukuthi inolwazi lobuchwepheshe "njengenkampani yesayensi" futhi ibona ukuthi isinqumo sikaJohnson siyisongo enqubekweni yesayensi. "Izinkantolo kumele ziqinisekise ukuthi isayensi isetshenziswa ngendlela efanele enkantolo ukuze izinto zithuthuke emakethe…" kusho umbiko kaGententech.

I-Genentech umemezele ngasekuqaleni konyaka isibuyekezo esisheshayo esivela ku-Food and Drug Administration sokwelashwa kwezidakamizwa kubantu abane-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ekusekeleni isikhalazo sikaMonsanto, uGenentech wenanela izikhalazo zikaMonsanto zokuthi abameli bakaJohnson ababethulanga kahle ubufakazi besayensi: “UGenentech ubhala ukugqamisa ukubaluleka kokuhlolwa okufanele kobufakazi besazi sezinkampani ezinemikhiqizo emisha ngokwesayensi kanye nabathengi abathembele emisha yabo. ”

Le nkampani iphinde yasebenzisana neMonsanto odabeni lomonakalo wesijeziso, ithi izinkampani akumele zibhekane nomonakalo wesijeziso uma umkhiqizo wazo ubuyekezwe yi-ejensi yokulawula efana ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kwatholakala ukuthi ayinabungozi impilo yomuntu.

"Ukuvumela amajaji ukuba anikeze umonakalo wokujeziswa kwemikhiqizo ehlolwe ngokukhethekile futhi yamukelwa yi-ejensi yokulawula idala ingozi enkulu yokudideka ezinkampanini ezisebenza ngesayensi futhi kungavimbela inqubekela phambili yesayensi," kusho uGenentech kafushane. "Uma kuvunyelwe imiklomelo enjalo yokujeziswa, izinkampani zibhekana nengozi yokulimala kakhulu ngaphandle kokuba ziqagele izinqumo zokuphepha zabalawuli."

NgoLwesibili iCalifornia Farm Bureau Federation ifake isicelo ngamafuphi ukusekela iMonsanto. Ihhovisi lepulazi, elithi limele amalungu angama-36,000, lithe leli cala "libakhathaza kakhulu" abalimi nabafuyi bezolimo "abathembele kumathuluzi okuvikela izitshalo ukutshala ukudla nefayibha."

Noma isinqumo sikaJohnson singakuthinti ukulawulwa kwe-glyphosate herbicides, ihhovisi lepulazi liphikisa ngamafuphi ukuthi imboni yesaba imikhawulo kumakhemikhali. Iqembu lasepulazini libuye lathi “isinqumo senkantolo yokuqulwa kwecala asiwunaki umthetho wobumbano, kanye nomthetho wombuso…” ngoba uphikisana nokutholwa yi-EPA kokuthi i-glyphosate ayinakubanga umdlavuza.

Ngokwengeziwe, izinhlangano zaseCalifornia ezimele odokotela, odokotela bamazinyo nezibhedlela singene ngaphakathi egameni likaMonsanto ephikisa ngokuthi isinqumo sejaji ecaleni likaJohnson "sasingaphansi kokukhohliswa ngokomzwelo" futhi sasingasekelwe "ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi."

“Impendulo yombuzo wesayensi oyinkimbinkimbi obekumele ixazululwe yijaji kuleli cala bekufanele isuselwe ebufakazini besayensi obamukelekayo nasekubonisaneni okunesayensi okuqinile, hhayi ukukhetha kwenqubomgomo yejaji. Okubi kakhulu wukuthi kunesizathu sokusola ukuhlaziywa kwejaji kususelwa ekucabangeni nasekuzizweleni, ”kusho ososeshini ngamafuphi.

Ummeli kaJohnson, uMike Miller, uthe uzizwa "emuhle impela" ngamathuba okunqoba enkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala futhi uchaze isifinyezo esivela eCalifornia Medical Association "njengesifinyezo esifanayo abasifaka ngokumelene nazo zonke izisulu zobudedengu."

Isivivinyo SaseMissouri Singaqhubeka

Ngesenzo esihlukile eMissouri, inkantolo ephakeme yombuso ngoLwesibili ithe Isivivinyo siqala ukuqala ngomhlaka-15 Okthoba edolobheni laseSt. Louis kungaqhubeka njengoba kuhlelwe egameni lommangali uWalter Winston. Abanye abamangali abebejoyine isikhalazo sikaWinston ngeMonsanto kulindeleke ukuthi banqunywe futhi / noma baphuze amacala abo, ngokwesinqumo yiNkantolo Ephakeme YaseMissouri. UMonsanto wayecele inkantolo ephakeme ukuthi ivimbele ukuqulwa kwecala ngenxa yokuthi abamangali abaningana abahlali kule ndawo.

INkantolo Ephakeme iyalele iJaji iSt. Louis City, uMichael Mullen, ukuthi "angabe esazithatha ezinye izinyathelo" ngalesi sikhathi emacaleni abamangali abayi-13.

IMonsanto yatholwa yiBayer AG ngoJuni ka-2018, kanti amanani entengo kaBayer ehla kakhulu kulandela isinqumo sikaJohnson futhi ahlala ecindezelekile. Abatshalizimali bacindezela ukuthi kuxazululwe umhlaba wonke ukuze kuphele icala.

UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto.

Umcimbi wango-2017 wokukhangisa uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” kufakwe uDkt Fedoroff futhi ososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: isibonelo, i-AAAS Board of Directors ngaphansi kukasihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esasibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokufakwa kophawu lweGMO ngonyaka ka-2012. Ngenkathi engumongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011. , UDkt Fedoroff usize ukwehlula isiphakamiso se-EPA sase-US ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ”

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi;
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo.

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. I-EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ”

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.”

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF:

Ukubika okuhlobene 

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012)

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

Indaba Eyiqiniso - USolwazi ukwala ukulungisa amaphutha ku-New Scientific Paper Ukuthola Izinkinga ngeGlyphosate

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(KUbuyekezwe ngoJuni 5 ngamazwana avela kuScientific Reports)

Ababhali bencwadi ye- iphepha elisanda kushicilelwa Ukuhlola imithelela yokuchayeka kwi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kumemezele izindaba ezishaqisayo.

The iqembu elivela eWashington State IYunivesithi ithole ukuthi inzalo yamagundane evezwe kumakhemikhali i-glyphosate ithuthukise i-prostate, izifo zezinso kanye nama-ovari, ukukhuluphala ngokweqile nokuzalwa okungajwayelekile. Okutholakele, kushicilelwe ngo-Ephreli kumagazini wesayensi Imibiko yeSayensi, Kwengezwe empikiswaneni yomhlaba mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup kaMonsanto nabanye ababulali bokhula abasuselwa e-glyphosate.

Kodwa mhlawumbe okumangalisa kakhulu kunalezo zindaba, iqembu labacwaningi liphinde lasho ephepheni labo ukuthi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ingcweti yesayensi engungqondongqondo yeWorld Health Organisation, "ikuhoxisile" ukutholwa kwayo ukuthi i-glyphosate ibingumuntu umdlavuza.

Iphutha lingenye yamaphepha abikwe kubalobi esikhathini esingaphezu kwenyanga edlule okusamele kulungiswe. Kepha akekho, mhlawumbe, ogqame kakhulu kunaleyo emayelana ne-IARC.

I-IARC ibikhiphile iphepha elide ngo-2015 okuphethe ngokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-2A carcinogen yomuntu. Lokho kuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kwaqubula izinkulungwane zamacala abhekiswe kuMonsanto, umethuli wesikhathi eside weRoundup namanye ama-herbicides e-glyphosate futhi kwabhebhezela impikiswano emhlabeni wonke. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kuphinde kwasiza ukukhuthaza amazwe amaningi aseYurophu ukuthi aqale ukuhambisa ukukhawulela noma ukuvimbela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate. Amadolobha, izifunda zezikole nabathengisi kulo lonke elase-United States nabo bayekile ukusebenzisa noma ukuthengisa imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate. Umnikazi waseMonsanto waseGerman uBayer AG ulahlekelwe ngamaphesenti angama-40 wenani lamasheya akhe ngenxa yokukhathazeka okuqhubekayo mayelana nokubulawa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides.

Kepha ngokusho kwethimba le-WSU, ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC okudale konke kwahoxiswa ngo-2016. Babhala:

“NgoMashi 2015 i-International Agency of Research on Cancer yahlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen ka-Grade 2a ngokususelwa ekudlangaleni kwezimila zesibindi nezinso ezifundweni ezingapheli zokudla. Ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho, lesi sitatimende sahoxiswa ngo-2016. "

Ukuhoxiswa kabusha yi-IARC kokutholakele kwayo kungaba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu. Impela, iMonsanto e-2015 yafuna ukuhoxa kodwa i-IARC ivikele umsebenzi wayo, njengososayensi abaningi abazimele abavela emazweni amaningi. Futhi okuphawuleka, i-IARC ayikaze ihoxise ukutholakala kwayo kwe-glyphosate njenge-2A engaba nomdlavuza.

"Ukuhlelwa akukashintshwa futhi kusasebenza," kusho okhulumela i-IARC uVeronique Terrasse.

Ithimba labacwaningi laseWashington State beliholwa ngu UMichael Skinner, uprofesa weWSU School of Biological Sciences. Kubonakala sengathi iphutha kuzoba lula ukulilungisa. Kodwa ngesikhathi ethintwa ngaleli phutha, uSkinner uthe akazimisele ngokulungisa lesi sitatimende ngoba asikho isidingo sokulungiswa. Uthe utshele ososayensi abaphakamise lolu daba naye ukuthi babhalele umhleli wephephabhuku.

"Incazelo yeRetract ifaka phakathi" Ukudweba noma ukubuyiselwa emuva noma ukubuyela emuva "noma" ukuhoxisa noma ukubuyela emuva "noma" ukucabanga kabusha noma ukubuyela emuva ", yingakho leli gama lisetshenziswe kulo mongo," kusho uSkinner ku-imeyili impendulo.

Imibiko Yesayensi iyingxenye yeMvelo, iphephabhuku lamazwe omhlaba wonke elizibiza ngokuthi "lishicilela ucwaningo oluhle kakhulu olubukezwa kontanga kuyo yonke imikhakha yesayensi nobuchwepheshe ..."

Okhulumela i- Imibiko Yesayensi, wathi: "Lapho kukhona noma yiziphi izinkinga eziphakanyiswayo nge Imibiko yeSayensi ngamaphepha esiwashicilele, siwaphenya ngokucophelela futhi sizothatha izinyathelo lapho kufanele khona. ”

Uveze lokho Imibiko yeSayensi uyimagazini eku-inthanethi, evulekile ukufinyelela “kumndeni wamajenali Wocwaningo Lwemvelo” kodwa ihlelwe ngokuhlelekile yiNdalo.

Ososayensi abaningana abangaphandle bathole amanye amaphutha ayiqiniso ephepheni, futhi bathi basabisa ngokucekela phansi ukwethembeka kokutholakele sekukonke.

"Lokhu kufanele kuthathwe ukubuyekezwa kontanga," kusho UChuck Benbrook, isazi sezomnotho kwezolimo kanye nochwepheshe we-glyphosate ocwaningo lwakhe lwesayensi olukhonjiswe ngokungalungile yithimba leSkinner ephepheni labo. UBenbrook uxhumane noSkinner ngo-Ephreli ngokushesha ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwephepha ebeka amaphutha amaningi adinga ukulungiswa. UBenbrook uqaphele ukuthi zonke izinkinga azaziyo zazisethulweni sephepha futhi zazingahlangene neziphetho zesayensi.

“Kungani engazange asheshe alungise amaphutha ayiqiniso… kunzima ukuwaqonda,” kusho uBenbrook.

Phakathi kwamanye amaphutha ayiqiniso:

* Leli phepha lathi i-glyphosate ibala cishe amaphesenti angama-72 okusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, icaphuna ucwaningo lukaBenbrook. Ucwaningo lukaBenbrook alukusho lokho, kepha luthi amaphesenti angama-72 e-glyphosate afuthwe emhlabeni wonke asetshenzisiwe eminyakeni eyishumi edlule.

* Iphepha leSkinner lithi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate kwakususelwa ekusakazekeni kwezimila zesibindi nezinso ezifundweni zokondla ezingalapheki. Eqinisweni, ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, njengoba kuchazwe ephepheni le-IARC, kusho ukuthi ukuhlukaniswa kwakususelwa emininingwaneni evela ezifundweni zezilwane, izifundo ze-epidemiology, kanye "nobufakazi obuqinile" bezinqubo zesenzo se-genotoxic.

* Futhi, leli phepha lakhomba embhalweni waphansi iphepha eliphikisana nokutholwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen wadalulwa cishe eminyakeni emibili eyedlule njengomsebenzi obhalwe ghost ososayensi baseMonsanto. Iphepha likaSkinner alikuphawulanga lokho leli phepha, enesihloko esithi "Ukubuyekezwa kwePhaneli yochwepheshe beGenotoxicity: isisindo sokuhlolwa kobufakazi be-genotoxicity ye-glyphosate, ukwakheka okususelwa ku-glyphosate, ne-aminomethylphosphonic acid," bekuyinkinga kakhulu ngokungabi bikho kokudalulwa kokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto kangangokuba iphephabhuku elalikushicilela - Critical Reviews in Toxicology - ukhiphe i- “Ukuzwakalisa ukukhathazeka"Futhi a isitatimende sokulungisa.

Ucwaningo lukaSkinner lwalusekelwa yisibonelelo esivela kuJohn Templeton Foundation. Yena nozakwabo baveza amagundane akhulelwe ku-glyphosate phakathi kwezinsuku zabo eziyisishiyagalombili nezili-14 bezithwele. Umthamo, abathi uyingxenye yenani okulindeleke ukuthi ungakhombisi imiphumela emibi, awuzange uveze imiphumela emibi ebonakala kubazali noma esizukulwaneni sokuqala senzalo. Kodwa abacwaningi babone ukwanda okuphawulekayo “kwezifo eziningana ezithinta isizukulwane sesibili nesesithathu,” ngokusho kuka ukukhululwa kwezindaba ukugqugquzela isifundo.

Ucwaningo seluthole ukunakwa impela. Imithombo yezindaba eminingana ibike ngalolu cwaningo, icaphuna uSkinner. IBayer AG, inkampani yaseJalimane eyathenga iMonsanto ngonyaka odlule, ithe isifundo sikaSkinner asithembekile. Kepha uSkinner uvikele ukunemba zocwaningo, ecaphuna iqiniso lokuthi kubuyekezwe ontanga futhi kwashicilelwa kumagazini wesayensi ogunyaziwe.

(Isigaba siqale ukuvela ngomhlaka- I-EcoWatch.)

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli nombhali, futhi ungumcwaningi onentshisekelo yomphakathi ka Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi, iqembu lokucwaninga ngemboni yokudla elingenzi inzuzo. Mlandele ku-Twitter ku @sbahle_mpisane.

I-Glyphosate Spin Check: Izimangalo Zokulandelela Mayelana Nokubulala Ukhula Okusetshenziswa Kakhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Phakathi kwempikiswano yomhlaba jikelele mayelana nokuphepha kwe-herbicides esekwe ku-glyphosate efana neMonsanto's Roundup, kwenziwa izimangalo eziningi ukuvikela ukuphepha komkhiqizo. Ekuvukeni kwe- izinqumo ezimbili zakamuva zamajaji othole ukuthi i-Roundup iyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ekudaleni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sihlole ezinye zalezi zimangalo futhi sazihlola ukuthi zinembile yini.

Uma unezibonelo eziningi ze-glyphosate spin ongathanda sizihlole, sicela ubathumele i-imeyili ku-stacy@usrtk.org noma tweet kithi @USRighttoKnow.

UMark Lynas, uCornell Alliance weSayensi

ICornell Alliance yeSayensi iwebhusayithi (Novemba. 2017)

Lo mbhalo kaMark Lynas uqukethe izitatimende eziningi ezinganembile nezidukisayo. Njengabaningi abagqugquzela imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate, izimangalo lapha zigxile ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ebeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015.

FAKA ISICELO: I-IARC "yigatsha elincane elaziwayo futhi elincanyana le-World Health Organisation" "elithola cishe yonke into ebanga umdlavuza"

IQINISO: I-IARC yisikhungo esikhethekile sokucwaninga ngomdlavuza se-WHO esinamaphaneli ochwepheshe aqukethe ososayensi abazimele abavela emikhakheni ehlukahlukene yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Eminyakeni yayo engama-50 umlando, IARC inayo kuhlolwe izinto eziyi-1,013 futhi kutholakale ama-49% alabo "bengahlukaniswa ngokuya komzimba wayo kubantu"; Ama-20% ahlukaniswa njengaziwa noma mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic kubantu.

FAKA ISICELO: "Okusalungiswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kuguqulwe kakhulu ngesikhathi sekwephuzile ukukhomba ekutholeni umdlavuza - noma ngabe isayensi abebeyihlola ikhomba kude nalokhu"

IQINISO: Lesi simangalo sitholwe ngombiko weReuters onamaphutha kaKate Kelland wokuthi washiya amaqiniso abalulekile, kuhlanganise iqiniso lokuthi iningi lemininingwane i-IARC engazange iluthathe kusuka “kokungakapheli kokuqala” kwakusuka esihlokweni sokubuyekeza esabhalwa ngokubambisana ngusosayensi waseMonsanto. I-athikili yokubukeza "ayizange inikeze imininingwane eyanele yokuhlola okuzimele iziphetho ezafinyelelwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto nabanye ababhali," Kusho IARC. UKelland ubhalile izindaba eziningana ukugxeka i-IARC; imibhalo ekhishwe ngo-2019 qinisekisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayenesandla ngasese kokunye ukubika kwakhe.

U-Lynas usebenzise omunye umthombo ukuvikela izimangalo zakhe ngokungalungile e-IARC: UDavid Zaruk, owake waba khona umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali owake wasebenzela inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller.

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “iyikhemikhali eliyingozi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni”

IQINISO: Lesi sitatimende asisekelwe kusayensi. Izifundo zixhuma i-glyphosate ku-a uhla lwezinkinga zezempilo kufaka phakathi umdlavuza, ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine, isifo sesibindi, ukukhulelwa okufushane, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa kanye nokulimala kwamabhaktheriya amathumbu azuzisayo. Ukukhathazeka kwezemvelo kufaka nemithelela emibi ku inhlabathi, izinyosi futhi izimvemvane.

SOURCE: UMark Lynas uyi owayeyintatheli waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha ngemikhiqizo yezolimo. Usebenzela i- ICornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ebekwe eCornell University exhaswa yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

ACSH iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2017)

FAKA ISICELO: Umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity we-glyphosate wawuyicala "lokukhwabanisa kwesayensi"

IQINISO: I-ACSH isekele izimangalo zayo "zokukhwabanisa" emithonjeni emibili efanayo uMark Lynas weCornell Alliance for Science osetshenziswe ngenyanga eyodwa kamuva ukuhlasela i-IARC kuwebhusayithi yeCornell: eyokuqala umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali UDavid Zaruk kanye ne alungile ku-Reuters ukuthi kulandele amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuthi UMonsanto unikeze intatheli.

SOURCE: Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo a iqembu langaphambili ethola uxhaso kusuka amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani, futhi ifaka izinsizakalo zayo kumaqembu ezimboni ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo, ngokusho kwe- kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi. Ama-imeyili asuka ku-2015 asungula lokho IMonsanto yayixhasa i-ACSH futhi ngacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Umsebenzi we-ACSH uphendule ngokuthi bese bevele bebandakanyekile emkhakheni wokushicilelwa wenkantolo ephelele mayelana ne-agrichemicals, phthalates kanye ne-diesel.

UYvette d'Entremont, owaziwa nge- "Sci Babe"

I-Self Magazine esihlokweni (Okthoba 2018)

IZIMANGALO: “Ngezifundo ezingaphezu kuka-800 kuyo, alukho ucwaningo oluye lwabonisa izingxenye ze-Roundup ezidala umdlavuza”… “akuzange kube nezifundo ezinkulu ezithembekile ezibonisa ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup nomdlavuza.”

IQINISO: Izifundo eziningi ezithembekile zixhumanisa iRoundup noma ingxenye yayo eyinhloko yeglyphosate nomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olwethulwe ku-EPA ngawo-1980s ukuthi ososayensi be-EPA ngaleso sikhathi bathi kwakuwubufakazi bokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza. Kunezifundo eziningi kakhulu ongazibala, kepha izingcaphuno zingatholakala ku-2015 I-International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph eGlyphosate.

Ngokwengeziwe, i- wide ukuhlaziywa kwesayensi wamandla okubanga umdlavuza we-glyphosate herbicides eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 2019 athola ukuthi abantu abanokuchayeka okuphezulu baba nengozi eyengeziwe yokuthola uhlobo lomdlavuza obizwa nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

SOURCE: U-Yvette d'Entremont "ungumhleli onikelayo" kuSelf Magazine onekholamu ebizwa nge- “SciBabe Explains.” ISelf Magazine ayivezi kubafundi bayo ukuthi iSciBabe abalingani nezinkampani ezikhiqiza imikhiqizo yazo. Ngo-2017, inkampani enandisa yokufakelwa iSplenda ihlangene neSciBabe ukusiza "ukunika amandla abalandeli be-SPLENDA® Brand ukuthi babambe iqhaza elibonakalayo ekuqhakambiseni izinganekwane mayelana ne-sucralose." Izinkampani zamakhemikhali zixhase ezinye zezingxoxo zakhe zokukhuluma ezingqungqutheleni zokulima.

UGeoffrey Kabat, udokotela wezifo zezifo

Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “icwaningisiswe kahle kakhulu ngobuthi kanti ukugxila okutholakala kubantu kuphansi kakhulu kangangoba asikho isidingo sokuqhubeka nokufunda… akukho lutho olusele ukufakazela olunye ucwaningo!”

IQINISO: Ebufakazini obufungelwe bufakazelwa ubufakazi obubhekene namacala aqhubekayo abhekene noMonsanto nomnikazi wayo uBayer AG, owayeyi-CEO yeMonsanto UHugh Grant wavuma inkampani ayikaze yenze ucwaningo lwe-epidemiology lwe-glyphosate-based herbicide formulations inkampani ethengisa. Le nkampani iphinde yafuna ukuvimba i- Ukuhlola ubuthi yokwakheka kwe-glyphosate yi-Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, lawa mazwana, uDkt Kabat awasho njengomthombo ongaziwa, awawanaki amaqiniso amabili abalulekile: izifundo ezizimele zixhuma i-glyphosate ezinhlotsheni eziningi izinkinga zezempilo nokukhathazeka kwemvelo, kanye nobufakazi obuvela emafayilini enkantolo buveza ukuthi iMonsanto iphazamise ukuhlolwa kwesayensi nokulawulwa kwe-glyphosate (bona izibonelo nemithombo lapha, lapha, lapha, Futhi lapha).

Ngokusho kweJaji uVince Chhabria, owengamele icala lakamuva lombuso elaphumela ekulimaleni kweMonsanto, amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-80, abamangali baveze ubufakazi obukhulu ukuthi iMonsanto ayisebenzisanga ngendlela efanelekile nokuphephile ekuphepheni komkhiqizo wayo. ” Ijaji wabhala futhi:

Mayelana nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kubantu, isayensi yakamuva ikhulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithethonqubo yamanje ayinikeli ngokuvikelwa kwezempilo okwanele. Bheka ukubikwa nguCarey Gillam, "Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma 'kuphephe' kungenzeka kungaphephi ngempela,”Nezincazelo zososayensi lapha, lapha futhi lapha.

SOURCE: UDkt Geoffrey Kabat ubuhlobo obude embonini kagwayi futhi ushicilele amaphepha avuna umkhakha kagwayi oxhaswe imboni kagwayi. Usebenza ebhodini labaqondisi benhlangano yabazali yeGenetic Literacy Project, okuyiyona isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. UKabat ubuye ebhodini lokweluleka leqembu langaphambili Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo.

UPatrick Moore, umxhumanisi we-PR

Ukuxoxwa ngevidiyo neCanal + (Mashi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ungaphuza ingxenye eyodwa kwezine ye- [glyphosate] futhi ngeke ikulimaze."

IQINISO: Ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate. Ngokusho kwale nkampani iwebhusayithi, “I-glyphosate ayisona isiphuzo futhi akumele ifakwe - njengoba nje ubungeke uphuze imoto yokugeza imoto. Kuhlale kubalulekile ukusebenzisa imikhiqizo ngenhloso ehlosiwe futhi njengoba kuqondiswe kwilebula. ” (Okuthunyelwe kuphinde kucacise ukuthi uMoore “akayena umuntu olwela amalungelo abantu waseMonsanto noma umsebenzi.”)

SOURCE: UMorell uvezwe njengomunye wabasunguli beGreenpeace "obiza iqembu lakhe langaphambili" njengoba ephikisana nokususwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi noma izimboni ezingcolisayo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, "Kwasukasukela, UDkt. Patrick Moore wayeyilungu laseGreenpeace lokuqala. Manje usengumxhumanisi wobudlelwano nomphakathi ezinkampanini ezingcolisa iGreenpeace esebenza ukuzishintsha. ” Ngo-2014, uMorey wafakaza ekomitini Lezigele laseMelika ukuthi abukho ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi imisebenzi yabantu ibangela ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke.

UKevin Folta, PhD, uprofesa e-University of Florida

Tweets 2015 futhi 2013

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngake ngaphuza i- [glyphosate] phambilini ukukhombisa ukungabi nabungozi”… “Ngikwenze bukhoma futhi ngizokwenza futhi. Kumele ixutshwe w / coke noma c-berry juice. Kunambitheka insipho. Ayikho i-buzz ”

IQINISO: Ngenkathi uDkt Folta kungenzeka ukuthi wayidla i-glyphosate, lesi iseluleko esibi esivela kumthombo ongathembekile. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngenhla, ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate.

SOURCE: USolwazi Folta uke udukise umphakathi ezikhathini eziningi mayelana nezixhumanisi zakhe zomkhakha wezolimo. Ku-2017, uDkt Folta wamangalela intatheli ephumelele i-New York Times nePulitzer-Prize u-Eric Lipton ngokubika Ukusebenzisana kukaFolta okungadalulwanga neMonsanto ukusiza ukunqoba ilebula ye-GMO. Icala lalikhona ixoshiwe.

U-Alison van Eenennaam, PhD, isazi sezakhi zofuzo, u-UC Davis 

ingxoxo yevidiyo kwiReal News Network (Meyi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngicabanga ukuthi kunezihlaziyo eziningana eziphelele kakhulu ze-meta eziye zenziwa muva nje ezibonisa ukuthi ayikho imiphumela eyingqayizivele yobuthi noma ye-carcinogenicity ehambisana nokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup. Kwakukhona i-German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment esanda kubuyekeza amakhulukhulu ezifundo zobuthi kanye nemibiko ecishe ibe yinkulungwane eshicilelwe, futhi yaphetha ngokuthi idatha ayikhombisanga i-carcinogenic noma i-mutagentic properties ye-glyphosate, futhi nokuthi i-glyphosate ayinabuthi ekuzaleni, ekuzaliseni, noma embryonic ukukhula kombungu ezilwaneni zaselebhu ... Futhi angizukubiza iJalimane njengezwe lapho ungalindela ukuthi benze khona ukuhlolwa kobungozi okungabhekanga ukuthi ithini imininingwane. ”

IQINISO: A Umbiko we-2019 ethunywe ngamaLungu ePhalamende e-European Union athola ukuthi i-ejensi yokuhlola ubungozi yaseJalimane "ikopisha futhi inamathisele amapheshana avela ezifundweni zeMonsanto." Bheka ukubika ku-Guardian ngu-Arthur Neslen, "Ukuvunyelwa kwe-EU glyphosate kwakususelwa embhalweni obhalwe uMonsanto, umbiko uthola."

SOURCE: UDkt van Eenennaam ungumgqugquzeli ohamba phambili wezilwane nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, futhi ungummeli oshisekayo wokwehliswa komthetho. Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uxhumanisile nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo obudlelwano bomphakathi ku-PR nokuthumela imiyalezo.

Ifilimu eliyi-Food Evolution 

Le documentary yobude besici ka-2017 ikhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo njengesixazululo sendlala emhlabeni kepha icwebezela impikiswano ebalulekile enkabeni yenkulumompikiswano ye-GMO: ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup, umuthi wokubulala ukhula izitshalo eziningi ze-GM ezenzelwe ukumelana nawo, ubangela umdlavuza. Le filimu ayikhulumi ngisho nangombiko we-IARC othole ukuthi i-glyphosate iyinto engaba ngumdlavuza womuntu, futhi ithembele emithonjeni emibili kuphela yokuthi i-glyphosate ayiyona inkinga.

FAKA ISICELO: Le filimu ikhombisa izithombe zikaMonsanto uRobb Fraley enikeza inkulumo; lapho ilungu lezilaleli limbuza ngezifundo ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza noma ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, uFraley waqhweba isandla sakhe ngokunganaki wathi zonke lezo zifundo "zingumbumbulu wesayensi."

IQINISO: Ubufakazi obuvela ezifundweni zezilwane kanye nemininingwane ye-epidemiological eshicilelwe emaphephabhukwini ahloniphekile axhumanisa i-glyphosate nemithelela emibi eminingi efaka umdlavuza kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa.

FAKA ISICELO: Umlimi uthi i-glyphosate “inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti. ”

IQINISO: Ukuqhathanisa ubuthi bokuvezwa kwesikhashana kwe-glyphosate ezintweni ezifana nekhofi noma usawoti akubalulekile futhi kuyadukisa; Ukukhathazeka ngezixhumanisi zomdlavuza kususelwa ekuvezweni okungapheli, okuhlala isikhathi eside ku-glyphosate.

SOURCE: IFood Evolution yakhiqizwa nguScott Hamilton Kennedy, elandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson futhi yaxhaswa yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu lezebhizinisi lezimboni. Izitshudeni eziningi ziyibize ngo ifilimu ye-propaganda, futhi abantu abaningana okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu bachaza i- inqubo yokuqopha ngobuqili nenenkohliso. UProfesa we-NYU uMarion Nestle ucele ukukhishwa kule filimu, kodwa umqondisi wenqaba.

Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele

IMF iwebhusayithi (Agasti 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: "Iqiniso liwukuthi, i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic."

IQINISO: Lo mbhalo kaJulie Gunlock awunikeli usekelo lwesayensi ngezimangalo zawo; okuwukuphela kwezixhumanisi okuholela kumabhulogi e-IWF angaphambilini asola amaqembu ezemvelo ngokuqamba amanga futhi "esabisa omama ngokungadingekile."

SOURCEIsithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane ithuthukisa imikhiqizo kagwayi, iphika isayensi yezulu kanye nabalingani neMonsanto emicimbini yokuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane. I-IWF ixhaswa kakhulu yizisekelo zamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisa.

I-International Food Information Council

IFIC iwebhusayithi  (Janawari 2016)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ukuzimisela kwe-IARC [ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yomuntu okungenzeka] kutholakale ngochwepheshe abaningi ukuthi bakhiphe ngaphandle inqwaba yezifundo ezingatholanga bufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate iyicancer. Ochwepheshe baphinde bathola ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kususelwa kusayensi enamaphutha nengenalusizo, abanye baze bafika ngisho ekutheni isiphetho 'besingalungile neze.' ”

IQINISO: I-IFIC incike emithonjeni yezimboni ngalezi zimangalo, exhumanisa nezindatshana zikaVal Giddings, PhD, owayengumphathi weqembu lezokuhweba waphenduka Umxhumanisi we-PR embonini yezolimo; noKeith Solomon, isazi sezobuthi owaye kuqashwe uMonsanto ukuhlola umbiko we-IARC.

SOURCE: The Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Wokudla Womhlaba Wonke, exhaswa yizinkampani ezinkulu zokudla namakhemikhali, ithuthukisa futhi ivikele ushukela, okokunandisa okokuzenzela, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane, ukudla okusetshenzwe nama-GMO. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lukhonjwe i-IFIC njengomunye "wabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza.

Lesi sithombe esithunyelwe ekhasini le-IFIC glyphosate (bese sisuswa ngemuva kokuthi sisinakile) siyisibonelo sohlobo lwemiyalezo umkhakha wezokudla oyisebenzisayo ukuzama ukukholisa abesifazane ukuthi bathembe “ochwepheshe” babo. 

Imibhalo emisha yeMonsanto idalula ukuxhumana okuthokomele nentatheli yeReuters

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Besazi ngemibhalo esivele ikhishwe ukuthi intatheli yeReuters uKate Kelland ubeyisixhumanisi esiyinhloko seMonsanto emzameni wayo wokubukela phansi nokuhlambalaza ososayensi beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ababeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engaba khona ngo-2015. unobufakazi obengeziwe bokuqina kokuxhumeka.

UKelland akazange abhale nje kuphela udaba lwango-2017 uMonsanto amcela ukuba alubhale ngqo ngendlela umphathi we-Monsanto uSam Murphey amcele ngayo ukuba ayibhale, (ngaphandle kokudalula kubafundi ukuthi uMonsanto wayengumthombo,) kepha manje sibona ubufakazi bokuthi uhlaka Indaba ehlukile uKelland ayenzile mayelana ne-glyphosate kwaba zilethwe eMonsanto  ngaphambi kokuthi ushicilelwe, umkhuba ovame ukubukelwa phansi yizikhungo zezindaba.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi indaba ebhalwe nguKelland yathunyelwa nge-imeyili kuMurphey enesihloko esithi “Uhlaka lwami, oluyimfihlo.”

Indaba, eyayinesihloko esithi "Ucwaningo olusha ngombulali wokhula waseMonsanto ukuze angene kuvoti elibalulekile le-EU," yayimayelana nokutholwa kokuqala kocwaningo olungashicilelwanga ngusosayensi wase-Italiya olukhombisa ukuthi amagundane okuhlola avezwe ku-glyphosate emazingeni alingana nalezo ezivunyelwe kubantu awakhombisanga kubi kwasekuqaleni ukusabela. Uhlobo lokugcina ishicilelwe ngo-Ephreli 13, i-2017.

Futhi enye i-imeyili esanda kukhishwa Imininingwane yokuthi izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto zazingenani ezinye izindaba ezimbili zaseKelland. I-imeyili kaMashi 1, 2016 ikhuluma ngokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto Umkhankaso we- "Red Flag"  endabeni esivele ishicilelwe yeReuters eyayigxeka i-IARC kanye nesifiso sokuthonya indaba yesibili efanayo iReuters yayihlela. IRed Flag yinkampani ese-Dublin-based PR kanye ne-lobbying firm esebenza ukuvikela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate futhi ikhuthaze imiyalezo ye-pro-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa abantu besithathu njengamaqembu abalimi.

Ngokwe-imeyili eyakhiwe kabusha, "kulandela ukubandakanyeka kweRed Flag ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, ucezu lokuqala lwalugxeka kakhulu i-IARC." I-imeyili iyaqhubeka: “Ungase futhi wazi ukuthi iRed Flag iyaxhumana neReuters mayelana nombiko wesibili ochungechungeni…”

Isikhathi esingaphezu kwenyanga kamuva, abakwaReuters bashicilela indaba kaKelland "Umbiko Okhethekile: Indlela i-World Health Organisation agency yomdlavuza edida ngayo abathengi." 

Lezo zambulo zilandela ukuvezwa ekuqaleni konyaka wezincwadi ze-imeyili ezichaza ukuthi uKelland wasiza kanjani uMonsanto ukuba aqhube indaba engamanga ngososayensi womdlavuza u-Aaron Blair endimeni yakhe njengenhloko yeqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC elahlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engenzeka. Ku-ternal Monsanto izincwadi yangomhla ka-Ephreli 27, 2017 ikhombisa ukuthi isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto uSam Murphey sathumela ukulandisa kwenkampani kuKelland nge indawo yesilayidi yamaphuzu okukhuluma nezingxenye zokufakwa kukaBlair ezingafakwanga enkantolo.

NgoJuni 14, 2017, uKelland wabhala indaba enempikiswano ngokususelwa kulokho athe “yimibhalo yasenkantolo,” lokho empeleni kwakuyimibhalo ayiphiwa nguMurphey. Ngoba imibhalo uKelland akhulume ngayo ayifakwanga ngempela enkantolo ibingatholakali esidlangalaleni ukuze ihlolwe amaqiniso ngabafundi. Ngokufaka ngamanga imininingwane ngokuthi isuselwa kumadokhumende asenkantolo wayegwema ukudalula iqhaza likaMonsanto ekuqhubeni le ndaba.

Lapho le ndaba iphuma, iveze uBlair njengokufihla "imininingwane ebalulekile" engatholi ukuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza ovela e-IARC. UKelland ubhale ukuthi ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisile ukuthi uBlair "uthe imininingwane ibizoguqula ukuhlaziywa kwe-IARC" noma ngabe ukubuyekezwa ukubekwa kwangempela kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair akashongo lokho.

UKelland akazange axhumanise nemibhalo ayikhombile, okwenza abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ukuthi uphambuke kangakanani ekunembeni.

Indaba yathathwa yimithombo yezindaba emhlabeni jikelele, futhi kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto kanye nabalingani bemboni yamakhemikhali. Izikhangiso zeGoogle zaze zathengwa zaphakamisa le ndaba. Le ndaba iphinde yasetshenziswa yiMonsanto ukuhlasela i-IARC ezingxenyeni eziningi, kufaka phakathi umzamo weMonsanto ukwenza iCongress ihlwithe imali kusuka ku-IARC.

Akukho lutho olungalungile ngokwemvelo ekwamukeleni iziphakamiso zezindaba ezizuzisa izinkampani ezivela ezinkampanini uqobo. Kwenzeka ngaso sonke isikhathi. Kepha izintatheli kumele zikhuthalele ukwethula amaqiniso, hhayi inkulumo-ze yenkampani.

Umhleli weReuters uMike Williams uvikele umsebenzi kaKelland futhi wenqabile ukukhipha ukucaciswa noma ukulungiswa kocezu luka-Aaron Blair. Uthe "Bekungucucu omkhulu, futhi ngimi eduze kwawo ngokuphelele." Umhleli “wezokuziphatha” wakwaReuters u-Alix Freedman naye uyayisekela indaba kaKelland kaBlair, yize kunobufakazi bokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto nokungadalulwa kwalokhu kubandakanyeka kubafundi. "Siyaziqhenya ngakho futhi simi ngemuva," kusho uFreedman nge-imeyili.

Ngokwami, ngichithe iminyaka eyi-17 ngiyintatheli eReuters ngifaka iMonsanto futhi ngishaqekile ngalokhu kwephulwa kwezindinganiso zobuntatheli. Kuyaphawuleka ikakhulukazi ukuthi u-Alix Freedman ungumuntu ofanayo ongitshele ukuthi angivunyelwe ukubhala ngezifundo eziningi ezizimele zesayensi ye-glyphosate kaMonsanto ekhombisa imiphumela emibi.

Okungenani, uKelland bekufanele athembeke kubafundi futhi avume ukuthi iMonsanto yayingumthombo wakhe - kuleyo ndaba, futhi ngokusobala abanye abaningi. AbakwaReuters bakweleta umhlaba - ne-IARC - ukuxolisa.

Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngalesi sihloko, bona lo mbhalo.

 

Funda ama-imeyili, imibhalo ekhombisa imizamo ye-EPA yokwehlisa ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR glyphosate

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuvuselelwa: I-ATSDR ishicilele eyabo bhala iphrofayili enobuthi ye-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2019. Bona ukumbozwa: Umbiko we-ATSDR Uqinisekisa izingozi zomdlavuza weGlyphosate, I-NRDC (4.11.2019); Ezinye izixhumanisi zomdlavuza eziboniswe ekubukezweni okusalungiswa kwe-pesticide ejwayelekile, IBloomberg (4.8.2019); Ama-imeyili Khombisa i-Monsanto Cozy ngama-Feds, Izindaba Zenkantolo (4.15.2019).

Lo mbhalo kaCarey Gillam wawunjalo eshicilelwe okokuqala eHuffington Post ngo-Agasti 2017:

Amarekhodi akhombisa Imizamo ye-EPA Yokwehlisa Ukubuyekezwa Kwe-Herbicide Kwafika Ngokusebenzisana NeMonsanto

Ezokuxhumana ze-imeyili zikahulumeni ezisanda kukhishwa zikhombisa umzamo ophikelelayo wezikhulu eziningi ngaphakathi kwe-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukwehlisa ukubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwe-ejensi kahulumeni emayelana nokubulala ukhula okuthe xaxa kukaMonsanto. Ngokuphawulekile, amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi imizamo ye-EPA yeza ngokuyalelwa yiMonsanto, nokuthi izikhulu ze-EPA zazisiza ngokwanele ukugcina i-giant giant ivuselelwa ngenqubekela phambili yabo.

Ezokuxhumana, iningi lazo zitholwe ngezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), zikhombisa ukuthi kwakusekuqaleni konyaka wezi-2015 ngenkathi i-EPA neMonsanto ziqala ukusebenza ngekhonsathi ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa ngobuthi obabuboshwe eCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) yayiqhuba nge-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup herbicide.   Imininingwane evezwe kule mibhalo iza njengoba iMonsanto izivikela yona amacala okusolwa ukuthi izamile ukufihla ubufakazi bokulimala ngemithi yayo yokubulala ukhula.

I-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), i-federal agency yezempilo yomphakathi kanye ne-CDC eyingxenye yoMnyango Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu e-US (HHS), ibekwe icala lokuhlola imiphumela emibi yezempilo yabantu kusukela ekuvezweni kuya izinto ezinobungozi emvelweni. Ngakho-ke kwaba nengqondo ukuthi i-ATSDR ibheke i-glyphosate, esetshenziswa kakhulu emapulazini ase-US, otshanini bokuhlala kanye nasezivandeni, ezinkundleni zokudlala nasezinkundleni zegalofu. IGlyphosate isetshenziswa kakhulu ekukhiqizeni ukudla kanti izinsalela ze-glyphosate zitholakele ekuhlolweni komchamo womuntu.

I-ATSDR yamemezela ngoFebhuwari 2015 ukuthi ihlela ukushicilela iphrofayli enobuthi ye-glyphosate ngo-Okthoba walowo nyaka. Kepha ngo-Okthoba, lokho kubuyekezwa bekumisiwe, futhi kuze kube manje akukho ukubuyekeza okunjalo okushicilelwe. (Ukuvuselela: the ukubuyekeza okusalungiswa kwagcina kushicilelwe ngo-Ephreli 2019.) Imibhalo iveze ukuthi lokhu kwakungeyona ingozi, akukho ukubambezeleka kwezomthetho, kepha kwakungumphumela womzamo wokusebenzisana phakathi kweMonsanto neqembu lezikhulu eziphezulu ze-EPA.

KwiMonsanto, isikhathi sokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR besikhathaza. NgoMashi 2015, i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) yamemezela ukuthi i-glyphosate ibe kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noMonsanto besaba ukuthi i-ATSDR ingaba nokukhathazeka okufanayo ngekhemikhali. Imibiko yangaphambilini bachazile ukuthi esinye isikhulu se-EPA, uJess Rowland, wakhuluma kanjani noMonsanto ngo-Ephreli 2015 ngokuzimisela kwakhe ukuzama ukubulala ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR. URowland, owathatha umhlalaphansi ngo-2016, wayeyiphini lomqondisi ophikweni oluphikisana nemiphumela yezempilo eHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA (OPP). Izinsolo zokubambisana phakathi kweRowland neMonsanto zinazo kudonse uphenyo yiHhovisi loMhloli Jikelele le-EPA.

Kodwa imibhalo eminingi esanda kutholakala ngaphakathi kwe-EPA ne-HHS ikhombisa ukuthi usizo oluya eMonsanto aluveli eRowland kuphela kodwa nasezikhulwini ze-EPA ezisezingeni eliphakeme. Esikhundleni sokukhuthaza nokusiza ukubuyekezwa kwe-toxicology ye-glyphosate, izikhulu ze-Monsanto ne-EPA zakhalaza kaninginingi ku-ATSDR naku-HHS ngokuthi ukubukeza okunjalo "kwakungokuziphindaphinda" ngokungadingekile futhi kufanele kubuyele emuva ekubuyekezweni kwe-EPA nakho okuqhubekayo.

Umugqa wesikhathi olandelayo ukhombisa ukuthi izehlakalo zenzeka kanjani:

Meyi 19, 2015 - UMichael Dykes, ngaleso sikhathi owayeyiphini likamongameli wesikhathi eside kaMonsanto ezindabeni zikahulumeni, ubhalele ngqo uJim Jones we-EPA, Umsizi Womphathi Wehhovisi Lezokuphepha Kokuvikela Nokungcola. UJones ubengamele iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane le-EPA (OPP) futhi wayeqokwa njengomongameli owayephethe amandla amakhulu. Ntambama bekuncipha ngenkathi i-imeyili ingena ngo-3: 28 ntambama uDykes ukhumbuze uJones ukuthi basanda kuxoxa ngokubuyekezwa kwe-HHS 'ATSDR glyphosate emhlanganweni.

“Ubungazi ngokubuyekezwa kwabo. Ngabe kukhona okuthile okufundile ngemizamo yabo? ” UDykes ubuze.

UJones akazange achithe isikhathi. Cishe ngemuva kwehora udlulisele lo myalezo kuMqondisi we-OPP uJack Housenger, yekubhala “IMonsanto icabanga ukuthi i-atsdr yenziwa yi-glyphosate Assessment. Ningahlehlisa lokho? ” IHousenger iphendula ngokushesha: “Yebo. UJess uhlole nabo…. Kube nzima ukuthola imininingwane. ”

Kungakapheli ihora uJones wayala ilungu labasebenzi bakhe ukuthi limtholele imininingwane yokuxhumana nomphathi ophethe i-ATSDR. Uphendule ngakusasa ekuseni ukuthi uDkt Patrick Breysse wayengumuntu oyiphuzu. UBreysse ujoyine iCDC ngo-2014 njengomqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health, obhekele i-ATSDR ye-NCEH.

Kwangathi 20, 2015 Kwakungemuva nje kuka-8: 30 ekuseni kodwa uJones watshela umsebenzi ukuthi ayalele uHousenger ukuthi axhumane noBreysse, kwathi kungakapheli amahora amabili uHousenger wabhala i-imeyili kuBreysse echaza ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kabusha / ingozi yokuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kwase kuzophela, futhi kubuza uBreysse ukuthi “usasibona yini isidingo sokwenza ukuhlolwa kwakho.” UHousenger utshele uBreysse ukuthi usevele usefinyelele kumuntu obabelwe ukuhlolwa kwe-ATSDR futhi uveze ukuthi "uzosebenzisana" ne-EPA, kodwa lokho bekunganele. UHousenger akazange akhulume ngokufinyelela kukaMonsanto ku-EPA ngalolu daba, kodwa kunalokho wabuza “ukuthi lokhu kusetshenziswa kahle yini kwezinsiza zikahulumeni” ukuze i-ATSDR iqhubeke nokubuyekezwa kwayo. UBreysse uphendule ngokuthi uzobheka lokhu futhi uHousenger wambonga ngempendulo yakhe esheshayo. UBreysse wabe esexhumana nomqondisi wesigaba se-ATSDR ogama lakhe linguJames Stephens ukuhlela ingxoxo mayelana nesicelo se-EPA.

Kwangathi 21, 2015 UJames Stephens wabhalela emuva UPatrick Breysse ukuthi iqembu le-ATSDR licabanga ukuthi umsebenzi we-EPA “uyagqagqana kodwa awuphindi ngokuphelele…” futhi wathi iqembu le-ASTDR alikwazanga ukubona amakhophi okusalungiswa omsebenzi we-EPA. "Ngicabanga ukuthi sonke sizokwamukela ukuqhubeka kwezingxoxo ne-EPA kodwa singathemba ukuthi sizoyisebenzisela ukusisiza sithole kabanzi ngalokhu abakwenzayo," utshele uBreysse. Ngemuva kokuzwa kuStephens, UBreysse ubhale waphendula kuHousenger ethi abasebenzi be-ATSDR bazothintana ukuxoxa. UHousenger uphendule ngokubhala kwakhe ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR kuzoba "umzamo kahulumeni oyimpinda”Nokuthi uhlaka lwe-EPA luzophuma ngoJulayi ka-2015. (Njengalokhu kubhalwa, lokho kuhlolwa kokuqala kwe-EPA akukakhishwa, kepha ngo-2016 i-EPA yakhipha umbiko wokuhlolwa komdlavuza owamemezela ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingeke ibange umdlavuza.)

June 4, 2015 Ukucindezela inkinga, IHousenger ye-EPA iphinde yabhalela uBreysee ithi ayikaze izwe muntu okwamanje. UStephens we-ATSDR ubhale wazibophezela ethembisa ukuthi uzokuqinisekisa ukuthi “othile ukunikeza indandatho.”  Ama-imeyili angaphakathi eMonsanto kukhombisa ukuthi ngasikhathi sinye, uMonsanto wayephonsa futhi indaba "eyimpinda" ne-HHS, ehlangana ngoJuni 4 neSekela likaNobhala Womsizi we-HHS we-Global Health Mitchel Wolfe ukumcela ukuthi asize ekulahleni ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC futhi abone ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate "bekungeyona indima eyinhloko" ye-ejensi yakhe. “UDkt. UWolfe uthe uzolandela ukuthi kwenzekani nge-ATSDR futhi ukhuthazekile ukuthi abe nezingxoxo nabasebenzi be-EPA, ”futhi, imemo yaseMonsanto echaza kabanzi ngomhlangano.

June 9, 2015 UHenry Abadin, usosayensi ophethe i-ATSDR, kubika uStephens ukuthi ukhulume noHousenger futhi wachaza ukuthi le nhlangano ayikholwa ukuthi "ibizama ukwenza imizamo." Yize kunjalo, uthe utshele i-EPA, "asibanga nankinga ngokubeka imininingwane ye-glyphosate, kusalindwe umbiko wokugcina we-OPP."

June 19, 2015 Ukuqhubeka nokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR akuqhubekanga phambili, iDykes kaMonsanto iphinde yakhuluma noWolfe kaHHS, icela ukuvuselelwa ku-ATSDR. “Ngichazile… umbuzo wethu ubumayelana nenhloso nobubanzi bokubukeza okuphindwe kabili okwenziwe yi-ATSDR. Ngamtshela nokuthi sikhathazekile ngokuthi i-ATSDR ingaphuma noma yinini ngombiko. Ngiphinde ngagcizelela ukuthi sikhathazekile ngokuthi babuye babuyekeza ne-glyphosate njengabantu esikhulume nabo ku-EPA, ”kusho uDykes ebhalela ozakwabo.

June 21, 2015 KwakungeSonto, kepha iDonskes kaMonsanto yayisakhathazeke ngokwanele ngokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR ukukopisha ozakwabo abaningi nge-imeyili yasebusuku kakhulu ukubika ukuthi uqhubekile nokucindezela iphuzu "lokuziphindaphinda" ne-ATSDR kodwa ubekhathazekile ngokuthi "ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate kuza noma yiluphi usuku."  In umlayezo wombhalo wathumela ngalo lolo suku, usosayensi waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs wafinyelela kulowo owayekade eyisazi sobuthi se-EPA ogama lakhe linguMary Manibusan ecela oxhumana nabo e-ATSDR. “Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke kuleli qembu. angadinga usizo lwakho, ”kubhala uSachs. Imiyalezo ebithunyelwe ibiphakathi kwezinye amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto etholwe izisulu zomdlavuza ezimangalela iMonsanto ethi iRoundup idale izifo zabo.

June 23, 2015 NgoLwesibili, uJenkins kaMonsanto wayesenezindaba ezimnandi: Wayezwile kuHousenger ukuthi isikhulu se-EPA siphumelele ekutholeni isethembiso esivela ku-ATSDR sokubeka umbiko waso "umisiwe." Ukubuyekeza bekungafanga, noma kunjalo, wabhala: I-ATSDR ithi “inqubo yabo iyahlukaniswa hhayi ukuphindwaphindwa. Babheka iziphetho ezahlukahlukene base betshela i-EPA ukuthi “ababizi umdlavuza”, kodwa ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele siqhubeke nokuqapha. ”

Ngo-June 24, 2015 Usosayensi omkhulu kaMonsanto uWilliam Heydens uphendule: “'Uyabonakala futhi akaphindi'? Ngokuzimisela? Futhi ngizokukholwa ukuthi hhayi 'ukwenza ucingo ngomdlavuza' uma ngiwubona. Noma kunjalo, okungenani bayazi ukuthi bayabukwa, futhi ngethemba ukuthi lokho kubenza bangenzi noma yini ewubuphukuphuku… ”uJenkins ubhale waphendula, evuma ukuthi iMonsanto inokwesaba okukhulu okuvela ku-ATSDR kune-EPA njengoba lezi zinhlaka zombili zifike“ eziphethweni ezahlukahlukene ” kwezinye izindaba. Ubike ukuthi utshelwe ukuthi i-ATSDR "igcine kakhulu futhi i-IARC ithanda…"

By October 23, 2015 I-EPA neMonsanto babe nokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR ngokugcwele. Indlu ka-EPA ubhale ukuvuselela amaJonsins kaMonsanto: “Balinde i-glyphosate RA yethu. Futhi bavumile ukuhlanganyela lokho abakwenzayo. ”

Ngayo leyo nyanga, i-EPA's Cancer Assessment Review Committee (CARC), eyayiholwa yiRowland, yakhipha umbiko wangaphakathi othi okuphambene ne-IARC, ukubuyekezwa kwe-EPA nge-glyphosate kutholile "akunakwenzeka ukuthi zibangele umdlavuza kubantu. ”

I-EPA kusamele ikhiphe konke ukuhlolwa kwezinhlekelele yathi izophuma ngo-2015. Le nhlangano inikeze isikhathi esishintsha njalo sokuhlolwa, kodwa manje ithi ihlose ukukhipha uhlaka lokuhlola ubungozi esikhathini esithile kulo nyaka. Lokho kuzolandelwa yisikhathi sezinsuku ezingama-60 sokuphawula komphakathi. Ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuphawula komphakathi i-EPA izonquma ukuthi kukhona yini ukulawulwa kobungozi okudingekayo. Okwamanje, uMonsanto ukhombe ukuxhaswa kwe-EPA kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate njengokulahlwa kwe-IARC ekutholeni bobabili enkantolo kanye nabalawuli baseYurophu nabo ababheka izindaba zokuphepha ze-glyphosate.

I-EPA ayiphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula ngemizamo yayo yokubambezela umbiko we-ATSDR noma ukuxhumana neMonsanto maqondana nalowo mzamo.

Kodwa uBrent Wisner, ummeli omele izisulu eziningi zomdlavuza ezimangalela uMonsanto, uthe le mibhalo inikeza ubufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda bokuxhumana okungafanele phakathi kwe-EPA nenkampani yamakhemikhali. “Ngicabanga ukuthi kucace bha… ukuthi izikhulu ze-EPA kanye nabasebenzi baseMonsanto basebenze ndawonye ukufeza inhloso yokumisa lokho kuhlaziya e-ATSDR. Lokho kungukuhlanganyela. Angazi ukuthi yini enye ongayibiza ngalokho, ”kusho uWisner.

Ngokwengxenye yayo, i-ATSDR ithe kuleli sonto ukuthi ukubuyekezwa okuqale ngo-2015 “akuphelelanga” kepha kulindeleke ukuthi kukhishwe uhlaka lwephrofayili ye-glyphosate enobuthi ukuze umphakathi uphawule ngalo ngasekupheleni kwalo nyaka. Okhulumela le nhlangano unqabile ukuxoxa ngezimo ezithinta ukubambezeleka kokubuyekezwa.

Futhi uJones, omsebenzi wakhe we-EPA waphela lapho abaphathi bakaTrump sebethatha izintambo, wavikela ukuphendula kwakhe ekukhathazekeni kukaMonsanto mayelana nokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR, ethi lokhu kwakuhlobene kuphela "nokusetshenziswa kahle kwezinsiza zikahulumeni."

"Ukube likhona iqembu elangithinta langitshela ukuthi enye inhlangano ngaphakathi kwe-Administration yayihlola ngasikhathi sinye ikhemikhali njengenhlangano yami, ngangizongenelela," kusho uJones. “Akunanzuzo ukuthi uhulumeni ofanayo atshale imali elinganiselwe ukuze asebenze odabeni olufanayo. Njengoba wazi ukuthi izinsiza ezingeni likahulumeni zazikhona futhi ziyindlala okwenza ukuphinda kube yinkinga kakhulu. ” UJones uthe futhi "lapho izinhlangano ezimbili zihlola ikhemikhali elifanayo, maningi amathuba okuthi kube nokwehluka ekuhloleni kwazo.  Noma ngabe lokhu kwehluka akubalulekile ngombono wezempilo yomphakathi, kuchithwa amandla amakhulu kakhulu ukuzama ukuxazulula lokhu kungezwani ”futhi lokho akugcini nje ngokuthakazelisa umphakathi.

IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Related: Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza, nguStacy Malkan

Leli phepha lichaza okuqukethwe yiMonsanto uhlelo oluyimfihlo lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukudicilela phansi igama lophiko locwaningo lomdlavuza lwe-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ngenhloso yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iqembu lomhlaba wonke lochwepheshe kuphaneli ye-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubiza amagama angaphezu kweshumi nambili amaqembu "abalingani bezimboni" abaphathi benkampani abakuhlele "ukwazisa / ukugoma / ukubandakanya" emizamweni yabo yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono odumile, futhi "zinikeze ikhava yezinhlaka ezilawulayo. ” Ozakwethu bahlanganisa izifundiswa kanye namaqembu aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezokudla, amaqembu ezohwebo kanye namaqembu okubungaza - landela izixhumanisi ezingezansi kumashidi eqiniso anikeza imininingwane eminingi ngamaqembu ophathina.

Ngokubambisana la maphepha emininingwane ahlinzeka ngesense yokujula nobubanzi be-corporaukuhlaselwa kochwepheshe bomdlavuza we-IARC ngokwehlulwanse kaMi-onsanto edayisa kakhulu i-herbicide.

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto zokubhekana nesilinganiso se-IARC se-carcinogenicity se-glyphosate (ikhasi 5).

Background

Umbhalo osemqoka okhishwe ngo-2017 ngo izinqubo zomthetho ngokumelene neMonsanto kuchaza “uhlelo lokulungela nokuzibandakanya” kwenkampani ekuhlelweni komdlavuza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba isetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo. I- idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto - yangomhla kaFebhuwari 23, 2015 - yabela abasebenzi abangaphezu kwama-20 beMonsanto ezinhlosweni ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela wesinqumo," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kanye "nokuhola izwi 'kubani i-IARC' kanye ne-2B intukuthelo." NgoMashi 20, 2015, i-IARC yamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-Group 2A carcinogen, "mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu. "

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane, bheka: “Ukulungiswa Kanjani KweMonsanto Ekuhlukanisweni Komdlavuza Wamakhemikhali Okulindelekile,”NguCarey Gillam, uHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Isigaba 1-4 seMonsanto “Abalingani Bemboni”

Ikhasi 5 le- umbhalo weMonsanto ikhomba izingxenye ezine “zabalingani bemboni” abaphathi beMonsanto abebehlele ukuzibandakanya nohlelo lwayo lwe-IARC lokuzilungiselela. La maqembu ehlangene anokufinyelela okubanzi nomthelela ekuphusheni ukulandisa ngengozi yomdlavuza evikela inzuzo yezinkampani.

Umlingani womkhakha weTier 1 angama-lobby axhaswa ngezimboni kanye namaqembu e-PR.

Abalingani bezimboni zeTier 2 bangamaqembu angaphambili avame ukukhonjwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha basebenza nemboni yamakhemikhali ekusithekeni kobudlelwano bomphakathi nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Abalingani bemboni engu-Tier 3 bangamaqembu ezingenzi-nzuzo axhaswe izimboni zokudla. Lawa maqembu athakanyiswe kokuthi, “Xwayisa izinkampani zokudla ngethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement (IFIC, GMA, CFI) 'ngecebo lokutholwa' lokuhlinzeka ngemfundo yokuqala ngamazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibono eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Umlingani womkhakha we-Tier 4 "yizinhlangano zabakhiqizi abakhulu." Lawa ngamaqembu ezohwebo ahlukahlukene amele ummbila, isoya nabanye abatshali bezimboni nabakhiqizi bokudla.

Ukuhlela ukukhala ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza ku-glyphosate

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR uchaze izinhlelo zabo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kulungiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC."

Ukuthi lokho kudlalwe kanjani kungabonakala emibhalweni yozakwethu embonini amaqembu abesebenzisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile nemithombo ukusola i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza ngokungalungile nokuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abasebenza embikweni we-glyphosate.

Izibonelo zemiyalezo yokuhlasela zingabonakala kuwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Leli qembu lithi lingumthombo ozimele wesayensi, kepha, imibhalo etholwe ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lokho kusebenzisana. UJon Entine wethule leli qembu e2011 ngenkathi uMonsanto eyiklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. Lena iqhinga lakudala leqembu langaphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani ngeqembu elithi lizimele kepha akunjalo.

Uhlelo lucebisa i-Sense About Science ukuthi "ihole ukuphendula kwemboni"

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR ukhuluma ngezinhlelo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kuqondiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC." Lolu hlelo luphakamisa iqembu i-Sense About Science (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuthi "liholele ekuphenduleni kwemboni futhi linikeze inkundla yezingqapheli ze-IARC nokhulumela imboni."

I-Sense About Science iyisiza somphakathi esizinze eLondon lokho kuthiwa kuthuthukisa ukuqonda komphakathi ngesayensi, kodwa iqembu "laziwa ngokuthatha izikhundla buck ukuvumelana kwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala, ”Kubika uLiza Gross ku-The Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense About Science yethule inguqulo yase-US ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwe-  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onomlando omude wokungavumelani naye isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo ngamakhemikhali anobuthi.

I-Sense About Science ihlobene ne- Isayensi Media Center, isayensi PR agency eLondon ethola uxhaso lwezinkampani futhi yaziwa nge ukugcizelela imibono yenkampani yesayensi. Intatheli ephethe sisondelene neSayensi Media Center, UKate Kelland, ushicilele izindatshana eziningana kwiReuters ezigxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-IARC eyayisekelwe kuyo izindaba ezingamanga futhi ukubika okungaphelele okungaphelele. Izindatshana zeReuters zithuthukiswe kakhulu ngamaqembu kaMonsanto “abalingani bemboni” futhi zasetshenziswa njenge isisekelo se ukuhlaselwa kwezepolitiki ngokumelene ne-IARC.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • "I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters," Isitatimende se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Indaba ka-Reuters ka-Aaron Blair IARC ikhuthaza ukulandisa okungamanga, USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Isimangalo seReuters sokuthi i-IARC "ihlele kahle" okutholakele nakho kungamanga, USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngabe izibopho zezinkampani zinomthelela ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi?" Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Bandakanya uHenry Miller”

Ikhasi 2 lombhalo weMonsanto PR likhomba okwokuqala okulethwa ukuhlelela nokulungiselela: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller" "ukugoma / ukusungula umbono womphakathi nge-IARC nezibuyekezo."

"Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngokusalungiswa okuseqophelweni eliphezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, osebenza naye eHoover Institution kanye nomqondisi osungula iHhovisi Le-Biotechnology le-FDA, une umlando omude oqoshiwe wokusebenzisana nezinkampani ukuvikela imikhiqizo enobungozi. Uhlelo lweMonsanto lukhomba “umnikazi we-MON” womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi, ubuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe beMonsanto.

Imibhalo kamuva kubika iThe New York Times kwembule lokho amaSachs uthumele i-imeyili uMiller kusasele isonto ngaphambi kombiko we-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuthi ngabe uMiller wayenesifiso sokubhala "ngalesi sinqumo esiyimpikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngidalelwe ubuciko obusezingeni eliphezulu." Ngo-Mashi 23, uMiller uthumele isihloko kuForbes "okubonakala kakhulu" okusalungiswa okuhlinzekwe nguMonsanto, ngokusho kwe Times. IForbes inqamule ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngemuva kwesigameko sokubhala ngezipoki futhi ususe izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

Yize umqulu weMonsanto PR ungazange uqambe igama le- umkhandlu waseMelika oxhaswe ngezinkampani weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwabalingani bayo bezimboni," ama-imeyili akhishwe nge-litigation show ukuthi iMonsanto uxhase uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abaphathi beMonsanto bebengakhululekile ngokusebenzisana ne-ACSH kodwa benze njalo noma kunjalo ngoba, "asinabo abalandeli abaningi futhi asikwazi ukulahlekelwa yilabo abambalwa esinabo."

Umholi wesayensi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele ozakwabo ukuthi, “Ngingakuqinisekisa ukuthi anginabo bonke abantu abanenkanyezi nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yezinsumpa- kodwa: NGEKE UTHOLE UKUBALULEKA OKUNGCONO KWEDOLOLA LAKHO kune-ACSH” (kugcizelela yena). UGoldstein uthumele izixhumanisi zezinto eziningi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza futhi zivikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane azichaze ngokuthi “ZISEBENZISA KAKHULU.”

Bona futhi: Ukulandelela i-Agrichemical Industry Propaganda Network 

Landela okutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu embonini yokudla kanye nezifundiswa ku ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo ye-USRTK iyatholakala kufayela le- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.