Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu ngokugxambukela kwesayensi

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

Izilingo zomdlavuza weRoundup zisasongela iBayer, kepha izingxoxo zokuxazulula ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abameli bomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG kanye nabamangali abamangalela uMonsanto batshele ijaji lombuso ngoLwesine ukuthi bayaqhubeka nokwenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni amacala asezweni lonke alethwe ngabantu abathi iMoonanto's Roundup ibenze baba nomdlavuza.

Ekulalelweni kwevidiyo, ummeli weBayer uWilliam Hoffman utshele iJaji Lesifunda lase-US uVince Chhabria ukuthi inkampani ifinyelele kwizivumelwano - noma isizofinyelela kwizivumelwano - ukuxazulula amacala angaphezu kuka-3,000 XNUMX aqoqelwe enkantolo yamacala amaningi (MDL) afakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda yase-US isifunda esiseNyakatho yeCalifornia.

Le nkampani ngokwehlukana isivele ixazulule izinkulungwane zamacala angaphandle kwe-MDL, amacala abelokhu eqhubeka ezinkantolo zombuso. Kodwa impikiswano nokuphikisana kuye kwaphazamisa ukunikezwa kokukhokhelwa ngokuphelele, ngezinsolo ezivela kumafemu abanye abamangali okuthi iBayer ibuyise izivumelwano ezifinyelelwe ezinyangeni ezedlule, kanti amafemu abanye abamangali angafuni ukuvumelana nalokho abakubheka njengokungeneli okwenziwe yiBayer.

Akukho obekuxoxwa ngakho ngalezo zikhalazo, nokho, ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine, izinhlangothi zombili ziveza imibono ethembayo.

“Inkampani iqhubekele phambili yaphothula izivumelwano eziningana namafemu…. sethemba nokuthi sizophothula ezinye izivumelwano ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”kusho uHoffman etshela ijaji.

“Lapho sikhona njengamanje… lezi zibalo zilinganiselwe ngandlela thile kodwa ngicabanga ukuthi zisondele ngokufanelekile: Kunamacala angaba ngu-1,750 angaphansi kwezivumelwano eziphakathi kwenkampani nezinkampani zabameli namanye amacala abalelwa ku-1,850 kuya ku-1,900 asezigabeni ezahlukahlukene zengxoxo njengamanje, ”kusho uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukwenza uhlelo lokusheshisa izingxoxo futhi ngethemba lokuthi sizoletha izivumelwano nalawo mafemu."

Ummeli wabamangali uBrent Wisner utshele ijaji ukuthi kubalulekile ukuthi wazi ukuthi kusele “amacala ambalwa” ngaphakathi kwe-MDL angakaxazululwa kuze kube manje. Kodwa, uthe - "Silindele ukuthi bazoba khona maduze."

IJaji uChhabria uthe ngokwenqubekela phambili uzoqhubeka nokuhlala kwamacala eRoundup kuze kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uzoqala ukuhambisa amacala enkantolo uma engaxazululwa yilelo phuzu.

Ukusebenza Okubi kweBayer Kusolwa Ngokuthi

Ithoni yokubambisana evezwe ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine ibikude kakhulu nokulalelwa okwenziwe ngenyanga edlule lapho ummeli wabamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokuhlala okwenziwe okwesikhashana ezenziwe ngoMashi futhi bezihlose ukuphothulwa ngoJulayi.

IBayer yamemezela ngoJuni ukuthi ifinyelele esivumelwaneni samaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi namafemu abameli baseMelika ukuxazulula iningi lezicelo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezingaphezu kuka-10. Kodwa ngaleso sikhathi amafemu abameli abaphambili kuphela ababehola amacala ayenezivumelwano zokugcina ezazisayinwe neBayer kwakunguMiller Firm neWeitz & Luxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifike ku- $ 849 wezigidi ukumboza izimangalo zamakhasimende angaphezu kuka-5,000 XNUMX Roundup, ngokusho kwemibhalo yezokukhokha.

Ezinze eCalifornia Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman Inkampani yezomthetho; i Andrus Wagstaff iqinile evela eColorado; kanye ne- Moore Law Group YaseKentucky yayinezivumelwano zokuzama kodwa hhayi izivumelwano zokugcina.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe enkantolo, uBayer ucele ukwelulwa kaninginingi kuze kube yilapho isivumelwano nenkampani yakhe sihluleka maphakathi no-Agasti. Ngemuva kokubika izindaba kuJaji Chhabria, izingxoxo zokuxazulula izinkinga zaqala futhi zaba ekugcineni ixazululwe ngamafemu amathathu kulenyanga.

Imininingwane ethile lokuthi izindawo zokuhlala izophathwa zifakwe ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto enkantolo eMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., eyenza ibhizinisi njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, izosebenza njenge-
"Umlawuli Wokuxazululwa Kwamanga, ” ngokwesibonelo, kumakhasimende ka-Andrus Wagstaff amadola akhe okuzokhokha azodinga ukuthi asetshenziswe ngokwengxenye noma ephelele ukubuyisa izindleko zokwelashwa komdlavuza ezikhokhwe yi-Medicare.

UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 ngesikhathi kuqala ukuhlolwa komdlavuza we-Roundup. Selokhu lalahlekelwa zontathu lezi zivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi selilahlekelwe imizamo yokuqala yokudlulisa amacala efuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto enza umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

IBayer ibisabise ngokuthi izofaka izicelo zokuqothuka uma kungatholakali indawo yokuhlala yonke, ngokusho kwezokuxhumana kusukela kumafemu wabamangali kuya kumakhasimende abo.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala iyasenqaba isicelo seMonsanto sokuqulwa kwamacala eRoundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ngoLwesibili wenqaba oweMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa u- $ 4 million kusuka enanini lemali elikweleta umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia onenkinga yokuphila nomdlavuza owatholwa yijaji kubangelwa ukuvezwa kwale ndoda kumuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup.

INkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda Sokuqala Sokudluliswa Kwamacala eCalifornia nayo isichithile isicelo senkampani sokuthi lolu daba ludingidwe kabusha. Isinqumo senkantolo silandele isinqumo saso ngenyanga edlule eshaya uMonsanto  ngokwenqaba kwayo amandla obufakazi bokuthi ababulali bayo bokhula base-glyphosate abangela umdlavuza. Kuleso sinqumo sangoJulayi, inkantolo yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wethule ubufakazi “obuningi” bokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umdlavuza wakhe. "Ingcweti ngemuva kokuthi isazi sinikeze ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-Roundup iyakwazi ukudala i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... futhi yabangela umdlavuza kaJohnson ikakhulukazi," kusho inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala esinqumweni sayo sangoJulayi.

Kuleso sinqumo sangenyanga edlule, inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, isike umklomelo wokweleta uJohnson, yayalela uMonsanto ukuthi akhokhe ama- $ 20.5 million, kwehle kusuka ku- $ 78 million eyalwe yijaji lecala futhi kwehla kusuka ku- $ 289 million eyalwe yijaji elanquma isinqumo sikaJohnson icala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ngaphezu kwemali engu- $ 20.5 million iMonsanto ekweleta uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuthi ikhokhe u- $ 519,000 ngezindleko.

IMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer AG e2018, yayine unxuse inkantolo ukusika umklomelo kuJohnson uye ku- $ 16.5 million.

Isinqumo sikaDicamba naso sisamile

Isinqumo senkantolo sangoLwesibili silandele a Isinqumo sikhishwe ngoMsombuluko yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye ekuphika ukuthi kuzokhulunywa kabusha ngesinqumo senkantolo sangoJuni sokuthi shiya imvume komkhiqizo wokubulala ukhula osuselwa ku-dicamba uBayer azuze njengefa eMonsanto. Leso sinqumo sangoJuni siphinde savimbela ngempumelelo ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe nge-dicamba okwenziwe yi-BASF kanye neCorteva Agriscience.

Izinkampani bezifake isicelo sokuthi iqembu elibanzi lamajaji emajaji wesekethe lesishiyagalolunye liqhubeke nokuzijwayeza leli cala, bethi isinqumo sokuhoxisa ukuvunywa kwemithetho yemikhiqizo besingafanele. Kodwa inkantolo yasenqaba ngokusobala leso sicelo sokulalela kabusha.

Esinqumweni sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye lithe i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

Isinqumo senkantolo esivimbela imikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba sabangela isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe yiMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana nezitshalo ezibekezelela i- “Roundup Ready” glyphosate, izitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba zivumela abalimi ukuthi bafafaze i-dicamba emasimini abo ukuze babulale ukhula ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo.

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yakhipha isinqumo sayo ngoJuni.

IBayer icela inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukuthi iphinde isike umklomelo wokulimala we-Roundup okweletwa umgcini wezindawo zaseCalifornia onomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UBayer ucela inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ukuthi inciphise u- $ 4 million kusuka enanini lemali elikweleta umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia onenkinga yokuphila nomdlavuza owatholwa yinkantolo yecala eyadalwa ukutholakala kwale ndoda emithini yokubulala ukhula i-Roundup kaMonsanto.

Kwi "isicelo sokulalelwa kabusha”Ufake uMsombuluko eNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yesiFunda Sokuqala Sokudlulisa Amacala eCalifornia, abameli beMonsanto nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG bacele inkantolo ukuthi yehlise isamba esisuka ku- $ 20.5 million siye ku- $ 16.5 million womonakalo owanikezwa uDewayne“ Lee ”Johnson.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala "ifinyelele esinqumweni esiyiphutha ngokuya ngephutha lomthetho," ngokusho kokufakwa kukaMonsanto. Udaba luguquka ngokuthi kulindeleke ukuthi aphile isikhathi eside kangakanani uJohnson. Ngenxa yokuthi ubufakazi ecaleni lathola ukuthi uJohnson wayelindelwe ukuthi aphile “kungadluli iminyaka emibili,” akufanele athole imali yezinhlungu zesikhathi esizayo nokuhlupheka okwabiwe isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka emibili - yize eqhubeka nokuphila ukubikezela, inkampani iyaphikisana.

Ngaphansi kwezibalo ezicelwe yiMonsanto, inkantolo kufanele isike kusuka ku- $ 4 million kuya ku- $ 2 million inani eli-odelwe ukulinyazwa okungekho komnotho esikhathini esizayo, (ubuhlungu nokuhlupheka.) Lokho kunganciphisa umonakalo jikelele wenhlawulo (owedlule nowesikhathi esizayo) uye ku- $ 8,253,209. Ngenkathi usagcizelela ukuthi akufanele ikweletwe noma yimuphi umonakalo wokujeziswa, uma kukhishwa imijeziso yokujeziswa kufanele ithunyelwe ngaphandle kwesilinganiso esingu-1-to-1 uma kuqhathaniswa nesinxephezelo, okuletha ingqikithi ku- $ 16,506,418, uMonsanto uphikisa ekufayeleni kwayo.

Ekuqaleni uJohnson wanikezwa amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-289 ngamajaji ngo-Agasti 2018, okwamenza waba ngummangali wokuqala ukuwina ezingeni lecala ngenxa yezimangalo zokuthi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto glyphosate kubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi iMonsanto ifihle izingozi. Ijaji eliqulile icala lehlise lo mklomelo waba ngama- $ 78 million. IMonsanto idlulise icala ifuna ukulingwa okusha noma umklomelo owehlisiwe. UJohnson wadlulisa icala efuna ukubuyiselwa umklomelo wakhe ophelele womonakalo.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ubuse ngenyanga edlule ukuthi kunobufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup, yimbangela yomdlavuza kaJohnson. Futhi inkantolo ithole ukuthi "kwakukhona ubufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda bokuthi uJohnson wahlupheka, futhi usazoqhubeka nokuhlupheka impilo yakhe yonke, ubuhlungu obukhulu nokuhlupheka."

Kodwa inkantolo ithe umonakalo kufanele wehliswe ube yisamba esingu- $ 20.5 million ngenxa yenkinga yokuphila isikhathi esifushane kukaJohnson.

Ngokuhambisana nesidingo sayo sokwehliswa okuthe xaxa komonakalo, iMonsanto icela inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukuthi inikeze ithuba lokulungiselela kabusha "ukulungisa ukuhlaziywa kwayo" nokuthi "iguqule isahlulelo ngezinkomba zokungena esahlulelweni
eyeMonsanto noma, okungenani, shiya umklomelo womonakalo wokujeziswa. ”

Icala likaJohnson limbozwe abezindaba emhlabeni jikelele futhi lafaka obala imizamo kaMonsanto yokukhohlisa irekhodi lesayensi ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup nemizamo yalo yokuthula abagxeki nokuthonya abalawuli. Abameli bakaJohnson banikeze ama-jurors ama-imeyili enkampani yangaphakathi namanye amarekhodi akhombisa ososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngamaphepha esayensi abhala ghost ukuze bazame ukuxhasa ukusekelwa kokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yenkampani, kanye nezinhlelo zokuxhumana ezinemininingwane yokuhlambalaza abagxeki, nokuqeda ukuhlolwa kukahulumeni ubuthi be-glyphosate, ikhemikhali eliyisihluthulelo emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto.

Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabamangali afake icala kuMonsanto enza izimangalo ezifana nezikaJohnson, kanti sekunezilingo ezimbili ezengeziwe selokhu kwaqulwa icala likaJohnson. Zombili lezo zilingo nazo ziholele ekutheni kukhishwe izinqumo ezinkulu ngokumelene neMonsanto. Bobabili nabo bangaphansi kwesikhalazo.

Izenzo zikaBayer zokunciphisa imiklomelo yemiklomelo yokulahleka kwecala likaMonsanto kuza njengoba inkampani ifuna ukukhokhela izimangalo zomdlavuza we-Roundup ezingaba ngu-100,000 XNUMX ezisalinde i-United States ezinkantolo ezehlukene. Abanye abamangali abajabule ngokuhlala imigomo, futhi basabisa ngokungavumi ukuthengiselana.

Isenzo ekudlulisweni kwesikhalazo sePilliod

Esenzweni esihlukile sokudluliswa kwamacala esihlobene nokuqulwa kwamacala eRoundup, ngesonto eledlule abameli baka-Alva no-Alberta Pilliod wafaka isikhashana icela inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ukuthi i-oda imivuzo yemiklomelo yabashadayo isamba esingu- $ 575 million. Lezi zithandani esezikhulile - zombili ziphethwe umdlavuza obuthakathaka ezisola ngokuvezwa yiRoundup - zithole ngaphezu kuka- $ 2 billion ngesikhathi kuqulwa icala, kepha ijaji lecala bese wehlisa umklomelo wejaji kuya ku- $ 87 million.

Ukushaywa komklomelo womonakalo kwakweqile, ngokusho kwabameli abamele lezi zithandani, futhi akujezisi ngokwanele uMonsanto ngokona kwayo.

"Amajaji amathathu aseCalifornia, amajaji amane okuqulwa kwamacala, namajaji amathathu okudluliswa kwamacala ababuyekeze ukungaziphathi kahle kukaMonsanto bavumelane ngazwi linye ukuthi kukhona" ubufakazi obuningi bokuthi uMonsanto wenza ngokunganaki nokuphepha ukuphepha kwabanye ngamabomu, "kusho umbiko kaPilliod. "Isimangalo seMonsanto sokuthi iyisisulu" sokungabi nabulungisa "kulokhu sizwakala siyize ngenxa yalokhu okutholwe ngazwi linye futhi okuphindaphindiwe."

Abameli bacela inkantolo ukuthi inikeze isilinganiso semali engu-10 kuya ku-1 yomonakalo wesijeziso kumonakalo wokukhokha.

"Izisulu zangempela zokungabi nabulungisa kuleli cala yiPilliods, bobabili abahlaselwe yisifo esibuhlungu futhi esiqeda amandla ngenxa yokungahambi kahle kukaMonsanto," kusho lo mfushane. "Ijaji, ekunqumeni ukuthi izakhamizi ezihloniphekile akudingeki zikubekezelele ukuziphatha okuyihlazo kukaMonsanto, liphethe ngokufanele ukuthi kungumonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kuphela ongajezisa futhi uvimbele iMonsanto."

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala isekela ukuhlolwa kwesifo somdlavuza se-Roundup esivikela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kokunye ukulahleka kwenkantolo komnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yenqabile umzamo wenkampani wokuguqula ukunqoba kwecala okwenziwe ngumgcini wesikole saseCalifornia owasola ukuthi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala uketshezi iMonsanto glyphosate kwamenza waba nomdlavuza, yize inkantolo yathi umonakalo kufanele usike ku- $ 20.5 million.

Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda Sokuqala Sokudlulisa Amacala eCalifornia kusho uMsombuluko ukuthi izimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacabangi futhi uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqoqa imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 10.25 kumonakalo wesinxephezelo kanye nezinye izigidi ezingama- $ 10.25 kumonakalo wokujezisa. Lokho kwehle kusamba semali engu- $ 78 million esehlulelwe yijaji.

"Ngokubona kwethu, uJohnson wethule ubufakazi obuningi - futhi obukhulu - bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako zemikhiqizo yeRoundup, yimbangela yomdlavuza wakhe," kusho inkantolo. "Isazi ngemuva kokuthi isazi sinikeze ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-Roundup iyakwazi ukudala i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... futhi yabangela umdlavuza kaJohnson ikakhulukazi."

Inkantolo yaqhubeka yathi “kwakukhona ubufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda bokuthi uJohnson wahlupheka, futhi usazoqhubeka nokuhlupheka impilo yakhe yonke, ubuhlungu obukhulu nokuhlupheka.”

Inkantolo ithe impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuthi okutholwe yisayensi mayelana nezixhumanisi ze-glyphosate nomdlavuza yakha "umbono omncane" awusekelwa.

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yanezela ukuthi bekufanele kulinyazwe isijeziso ngoba kunobufakazi obanele bokuthi uMonsanto wenza “ngamabomu nangokungahloniphi ukuphepha kwabanye.”

UMike Miller, inkampani yakhe yabameli baseVirginia emele uJohnson ngesikhathi kuqulwa icala kanye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman firm yaseLos Angeles, uthe uthokozile ngesiqinisekiso senkantolo sokuthi uJohnson waba nomdlavuza ngokusebenzisa kwakhe iRoundup nokuthi inkantolo yaqinisekisa umklomelo wesijeziso umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha kabi ngamabomu kukaMonsanto.”

“UMnu Johnson uqhubeka nokuhlushwa ukulimala kwakhe. Siyaziqhenya ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungiswa, ”kusho uMiller.

IMonsanto ikweleta inzalo yaminyaka yonke ngesilinganiso samaphesenti ayi-10 kusuka ngo-Ephreli we-2018 ize ikhokhe isinqumo sokugcina.

Ukwehliswa komonakalo kuhlanganiswe nengxenye yokuthi odokotela batshele uJohnson ukuthi umdlavuza wakhe awupheli futhi akulindelekile ukuthi aphile isikhathi eside kakhulu. Inkantolo ivumelane neMonsanto ukuthi ngenxa yokuthi umonakalo okhokhelwayo wenzelwe ukunxephezela ubuhlungu besikhathi esizayo, ukuhlupheka kwengqondo, ukulahlekelwa yinjabulo yempilo, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njll. kumele yehliswe.

UBrent Wisner, ongomunye wabameli bakaJohnson ecaleni lakhe, uthe ukwehliswa komonakalo kuwumphumela "wephutha elijulile emthethweni waseCalifornia."

"Ngokuyisisekelo, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuthi alulame isikhathi esifushane sokuphila," kusho uWisner. “Lokhu kuvuza kahle ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, kunokumlimaza nje. Kuwumsangano. ”

Ukugqama kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyizinyanga ezimbili nje ngemuva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, lapho ijaji elilodwa unikeze uJohnson u- $ 289 million, kufaka phakathi amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 emonakalweni wokujeziswa, ukuthola ukuthi akubulali nje kuphela imithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ebangele ukuthi uJohnson athuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kepha nokuthi inkampani ibazi ubungozi bomdlavuza futhi yehluleka ukuxwayisa uJohnson. Icala lalibandakanya imikhiqizo emibili yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto glyphosate - iRoundup neRanger Pro.

Ijaji lecala lehlisa isinqumo esiphelele saba ngama- $ 78 million kodwa uMonsanto wasidlulisa isamba esincishisiwe. UJohnson cross unxuse ukuthi kubuyiswe isinqumo sango- $ 289 million.

Icala likaJohnson lambozwa abezindaba emhlabeni jikelele futhi labeka obala ekuziphatheni okungabazekayo kweMonsanto. Abameli bakaJohnson banikeze ama-jurors ama-imeyili enkampani yangaphakathi namanye amarekhodi akhombisa ososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngamaphepha esayensi abhala ghost ukuze bazame ukuxhasa ukusekelwa kokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yenkampani, kanye nezindlela zokuxhumana ezinemininingwane yokuhlambalaza abagxeki, nokuqeda ukuhlolwa kukahulumeni ubuthi be-glyphosate, ikhemikhali eliyisihluthulelo emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto.

Imibhalo yangaphakathi ibuye ikhombise ukuthi iMonsanto ibilindele ukuthi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer ihlukanise i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu okungenzeka noma kungenzeka ngoMashi ka-2015 (ukuhlukaniswa kwaba njenge-carcinogen okungenzeka kube khona) futhi yahlela isu kusengaphambili lokuhlambalaza ososayensi bomdlavuza ngemuva bakhipha ukuhlukaniswa kwabo.

Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabamangali afake icala kuMonsanto enza izimangalo ezifana nezikaJohnson, kanti sekunezilingo ezimbili ezengeziwe selokhu kwaqulwa icala likaJohnson. Zombili lezo zilingo nazo ziholele ekutheni kukhishwe izinqumo ezinkulu ngokumelene neMonsanto. Bobabili nabo bangaphansi kwesikhalazo.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi isifinyelele ku-  isivumelwano sokuxazulula nabameli abamele amaphesenti angama-75 wabantu abacishe bafike ku-125,000 abafakelwe izicelo futhi abasazofakwa izicelo ezaqalwa ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukutholakala kweM Roundanto kaMonsanto ngokuthuthukisa kwabo i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IBayer ithe izohlinzeka ngo- $ 8.8 billion kuya ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula icala. Kepha abameli abamele ngaphezulu kwabamangaleli abangaphezulu kuka-20,000 XNUMX bathi abavumanga ukuvumelana neBayer futhi lawo macala kulindeleke ukuthi aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yohlelo lwenkantolo.

Esitatimendeni esikhishwe ngemuva kwesinqumo senkantolo, uBayer uthe kusekela ukuphepha kukaRoundup: “Isinqumo senkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukwehlisa umonakalo okhokhelwayo nesijeziso siyisinyathelo esiqonde ngqo, kepha siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ukuthi isinqumo sejaji kanye nomonakalo imiklomelo ayihambisani nobufakazi obusecaleni nasenkantolo. IMonsanto izobheka izinketho zayo ezingokomthetho, kufaka phakathi nokufaka isicelo sokuphikisa iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia. ”

I-EPA isusa igama lesikhulu sase-US ekuxwayiseni ngezixhumanisi zomdlavuza we-glyphosate

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Vuselela ngencazelo ye-EPA)

Esenzweni esingajwayelekile, i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) isule igama lesikhulu sezempilo sase-US emazwini omphakathi axwayisa ngezixhumanisi zomdlavuza namakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate futhi afuna ukuthi kumiswe ukusetshenziswa kocwaningo kwezimboni.

Ukuphawula komphakathi okukhulunywa ngakho kwathunyelwa ku-EPA futhi kwathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi yale nhlangano ngaphansi kwegama likaPatrick Breysse, umqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health kanye ne-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). I-ATSDR iyingxenye yoMnyango Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu e-US.

Ukuphawula ngaphansi kwegama likaBreysse kwafakwa nyakenye ne-EPA ukuphendula ukubuyekezwa kwe-ejensi ye-glyphosate futhi yanxusa inkampani ukuba ibuyekeze "ubufakazi obubhalwe phansi" bokuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi futhi kufanele ivinjelwe.

Kwaphela izinyanga ukuphawula kuhleli kuwebhusayithi ye-EPA ngaphansi kwegama likaBreysse. Kungemva kokuba i-US Right to Know ifune ukuphawula ngesonto eledlule kuBreysse mayelana nesitatimende sakhe lapho i-EPA yalisusa khona igama lakhe. Amazwana manje kuthiwa "Akaziwa," ngemuva kokuthi umqashi kaBreysse enqume ukuthi ayithunyelwanga yena uqobo, ngokusho kwe-EPA.

I-Glyphosate iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup nakwamanye ama-herbicides futhi yathandwa yi-Monsanto, iyunithi yeBayer AG. Kubhekwa njengekhambi elisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Futhi ingenye yezimpikiswano enkulu futhi ingundabamlonyeni wamacala alethelwe amashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu abathi baba nomdlavuza ngenxa yokuchayeka ku-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides e-glyphosate enziwe yiMonsanto.

I-EPA ivikele ngokuqinile ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate yize kutholwe ososayensi abaningi abazimele ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingadala ukugula nezifo ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ukuphawula ngaphansi kwegama likaBreysse kuphikisana nesimo se-EPA:

“Ucwaningo oluningi luxhumanise ukusetshenziswa kwalo nokwanda kwama-lymphomas, futhi sekuyisikhathi sokuthi siyeke ukuvumela imboni yamakhemikhali ukuthi isebenzise ucwaningo ukuze izisebenzele yona. Izakhamizi zase-US zidinga ukwethemba i-Environmental Protection Agency ukuthi izosebenzela thina, okusho ukuthi kukala ubufakazi obuthathwa emithonjeni yesayensi engathathi hlangothi.

Ngokuphawulekayo, uBreysse futhi uyisikhulu se-ATSDR esasikhona icindezelwe izikhulu ze-EPA e-2015 ngokuyalelwa yiMonsanto ukumisa ukubuyekezwa kobuthi be-glyphosate bese kuqhubeka i-ATSDR. Ukucindezela ukubambezela ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR ye-glyphosate kweza ngoba uMonsanto wesaba ukuthi i-ATSDR izovumelana ne-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ekutholeni izixhumanisi zomdlavuza ku-glyphosate, imibukiso yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

I-imeyili yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ithe isikhulu se-EPA uJess Rowland utshele uMonsanto kufanele "athole indondo" uma ephumelele ekubulaleni ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR glyphosate.

Ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR empeleni kubambezelekile kwaze kwaba yi-2019 ngemuva kwengcindezi evela ezikhulwini zeMonsanto ne-EPA. Lapho lo mbiko ekugcineni ukhishwa, waqinisekisa ukwesaba kukaMonsanto, ukuxhasa ukuxhaswa kwezinkinga ze-IARC zango-2015 mayelana nezixhumanisi phakathi komdlavuza ne-glyphosate. Umbiko we-ATSDR usayinwe nguBreysse.

Lapho ibuzwa ngokushintshwa kokunikezwa kokuphawula komphakathi, i-EPA yathi isuse igama likaBreysse ngemuva kweCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, eyengamele i-ATSDR, itshele i-EPA ukuthi ukuphawula akuzange kuthunyelwe nguBreysse futhi yacela ukuthi isuswe noma ihlelwe. Esikhundleni sokususa ukuphawula, i-EPA ikhethe ukugcina ukuphawula kudokodo kodwa yaguqula igama lalowo ohambise lo mbhalo ukuthi "ingaziwa."

I-EPA ithe ayihluzi noma iqinisekise imibono efakiwe.

Ihhovisi labezindaba leNational Center for Environmental Health nalo lithe uBreysse akazange afake le nkulumo okukhulunywa ngayo. UBreysse akazange aphendule esicelweni sokuqinisekisa noma ukuphika ukuthi ungumbhali wamazwana akwiwebhusayithi ye-EPA.

Ukuphawula kwangempela nalokhu okushintshiwe kuboniswe ngezansi:

Inkantolo iyakwenama ukuhlawuliswa kukaBayer okuhlongozwayo ngezigaba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ijaji likahulumeni ngoMsombuluko belinamagama ahlabayo ngohlelo lukaBayer AG lokulibazisa amacala omdlavuza weRoundup angaba khona kanye nokuvimba izivivinyo zamajaji, egxeka isiphakamiso esingajwayelekile esenziwe yiBayer neqembu elincane labameli babamangali njengokuthi kungenzeka kube kungahambisani nomthethosisekelo.

“INkantolo iyakungabaza ukufaneleka nokulunga kwalesi sivumelwano esihlongozwayo, futhi ithambekele ekuphikiseni lesi sicelo,” kufundeka umyalelo wokuqala okhishwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia. Isikhundla sejaji sibukeka siyishaya ngamandla iBayer nemizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula ifa lamacala abhekene neMonsanto, iBayer eyathenga eminyakeni emibili eyedlule.

Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukuvezwa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) nokuthi iMonsanto kudala yazi futhi yafihla izingozi zomdlavuza.

Izilingo ezintathu zamajaji ziye zabanjwa eminyakeni emibili eyedlule kanti iMonsanto yalahlekelwa yibo bobathathu ngamajaji anikezela ngaphezu kuka- $ 2 billion kumonakalo. Wonke amacala manje asedlulisiwe futhi iBayer ibilokhu ihilizisana ukugwema ukuqulwa kwecala labasizi besikhathi esizayo.

Ngenyanga edlule iBayer ithe ikwenzile izivumelwano ezifinyelelwe ukuxazulula iningi lamacala afakwe njengamanje futhi abhale uhlelo lokusingatha amacala okungenzeka ukuthi azofakwa ngokuzayo. Ukusingatha le nkantolo njengamanje uBayer uthe kuzokhokha imali efinyelela ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula cishe amaphesenti angama-75 ezicelo zamanje futhi uzoqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula okusele.

Ehlelweni lokusingatha amacala angaba khona esikhathi esizayo, IBayer ithe isebenzisana neqembu elincane labameli babamangali abamele ukwenza imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-150 ngenhloso yokuvumelana “nokuma” kweminyaka emine emacaleni okufaka amaphepha. Lolu hlelo luzosebenza kubantu abangatholwa ngokuzayo nge-NHL abakholelwa ukuthi kungenxa yokuchayeka kwe-Roundup. Ngokuphikisana nokukhokhwa kukaMonsanto ngamacala asalindile, ukukhokhelwa kwalesi senzo esisha "sekusasa" kudinga ukuvunywa yinkantolo.

Ngaphezu kokubambezela izivivinyo eziningi, isivumelwano sidinga ukuthi kusungulwe “iphaneli lesayensi” elinamalungu amahlanu elizothatha noma ikuphi okutholakele esikhathini esizayo ngezimangalo zomdlavuza ezandleni zamajaji. Esikhundleni salokho, kuzokwakhiwa i- “Class Science Panel” ezonquma ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup ingadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi uma kunjalo, ngamazinga aphansi okuvezwa. IBayer izokwazi ukuqoka amalungu amabili kwamaphaneli amahlanu. Uma ngabe iphaneli linqume ukuthi akukho ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kwe-Roundup ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma lapho-ke amalungu ekilasi azovinjelwa ekufuneni okuzayo esikhathini esizayo.

Amalungu amaningana ezinkampani zabameli abahola phambili abawine izivivinyo ezintathu zomdlavuza weRoundup aphikisana nohlelo oluhlongozwayo lokuxazulula izinyathelo, bethi luzophuca abamangali besikhathi esizayo amalungelo abo ngenkathi kunothisa idlanzana labammeli abebengakaze babe phambili ecaleni leRoundup.

Lolu hlelo ludinga ukuvunywa kweJaji uChhabria, kodwa umyalelo okhishwe ngoMsombuluko ukhombise ukuthi akahlelile ukunikeza imvume.

“Endaweni lapho isayensi ingahle ithuthuke, bekungafaneleka kanjani ukukhiya i-
isinqumo esivela eqenjini lososayensi kuwo wonke amacala azayo? ” kubuza ijaji ngokulandelana kwalo.

Ijaji lithe lizobamba ukulalelwa ngoJulayi 24 ngesicelo sokuphasiswa kokuqala kokuxazululwa kwesenzo sabantu abasesigabeni. "Uma kubhekwa ukungabaza kweNkantolo njengamanje, kungaphikisana nentshisekelo yawo wonke umuntu ukubambezela ukulalelwa kwamacala ngaphambi kokuthola imvume yokuqala," ubhale kanjalo.

Ngezansi kwengcaphuno yomyalo wejaji:

Abamangali besifo somdlavuza baseRoundup balinde ngabomvu izindaba zokuhlala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkulungwane zeziguli ezinomdlavuza nemindeni yazo ezungeze i-United States zaziswe kuleli sonto ukuthi kufanele kumenyezelwe isinqumo esiphelele sezimangalo zabo ababebhekene neMonsanto Co yangaphambili ngaphambi kokuphela kwenyanga.

Yize inani elithile lokukhokhwa kwabamangali lisazobekwa, amaqembu abamangali atshelwe ukuthi alindele imininingwane yesivumelwano sezimali esizomenyezelwa esidlangalaleni ngaphambi komnqamulajuqu kaJuni 30 obekelwe ukuqeda izingxoxo zonyaka wonke. Zonke izinsolo bakha i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kokuchayeka kumuthi wokubulala ukhula osuselwa eMonsanto's glyphosate-based, njenge-Roundup. Baphinde basola ukuthi inkampani ibazi ngobufakazi besayensi obukhombisa izingozi zomdlavuza ezihambisana nemikhiqizo yayo, kepha yasebenza ukucindezela imininingwane ukuvikela inzuzo yayo.

Abameli bomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG kanye nabameli abamele abangaphezu kuka-50,000 XNUMX babamangali babambe iqhaza ezingxoxweni eziphikisanayo, zokuqala nokuma mayelana nokuxazululwa kwezinyanga ezimbalwa, kuphazamisa imindeni edonsa kanzima ngokwezimali nangokomzwelo ngezinkinga zokulwa nomdlavuza.

Abamangali abaningi balahlekelwe yimisebenzi namakhaya njengoba besebenza ngezindlela ezibiza kakhulu zokwelashwa komdlavuza kanti abanye bafe besalinde ukuxazululwa kwamacala abo, amarekhodi asenkantolo akhombisa. Isaziso se- ukufa kommangali onjalo yenziwe enkantolo yenhlangano eseSan Francisco ngoJuni 1.

Amafemu amaningi ahola phambili anezikhalazo ezinkulu avumile ngemibandela yesivumelwano esifuna ukuthi u- $ 8 billion- $ 10 billion akhokhwe yiBayer ngenhloso yokuthola isivumelwano sokuthi lawo mafemu ngeke afake izicelo ezintsha zomdlavuza kule nkampani, ngokusho imithombo esondelene necala.

Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye alitholayo lizoncika ezintweni eziningana. Izindawo zokuhlala kulindeleke ukuthi zihleleke ngakho-ke ngeke zikhokhiswe intela kwabamangali.

Ezinye izinkampani zabameli ezinabamangali bakwaRoundup kusamele ziphothule isivumelwano, futhi imihlangano yokuxazulula ubusaqhubeka ngesonto eledlule, kufaka phakathi nenkampani ezinze eLouisiana ePendley, Baudin & Coffin, ngokusho kwemithombo esondelene necala.

Okhulumela iBayer uChris Loder ngeke asiqinisekise isikhathi noma imigomo yanoma yisiphi isimemezelo, ethi kuphela ukuthi inkampani seyenze inqubekela phambili ezingxoxweni kodwa "ngeke aqagele ngemiphumela yezindlu noma isikhathi."

Uthe noma yisiphi isixazululo kufanele sibe "nesilinganiso sezezimali" futhi sinikeze "inqubo yokuxazulula amacala angaba khona esikhathini esizayo."

IBayer, eyathenga iMonsanto ngoJuni ka-2018, ibilokhu ifuna ukuqeda udaba lwamacala amakhulu olwehlise isitokwe senkampani, lwakhuthaza izinxushunxushu zabatshalizimali, futhi lwabeka nokuziphatha okungabazekayo kwezinkampani emphakathini. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaholela ekulahlekelweni kwemiklomelo yeMonsanto neyamajaji okungaphezulu kwama- $ 2 billion, yize amajaji wecala kamuva ayinciphisa kakhulu imiklomelo. IMonsanto idlulise ukulahlekelwa ngakunye kwalokhu okuthathu futhi manje ilinde isinqumo sokwedluliswa kwesinqumo ecaleni lokuqala - UJohnson v. Monsanto - ngemuva kwe- Juni 2 ukuphikisana ngomlomo. 

Yize kube nezingxoxo zokuxazulula izinkinga, inqubo yasenkantolo ibilokhu iqhubeka ngamacala amaningi. Kusanda kudluliswa amacala asuka ezinkantolo zombuso aya ezinkantolo zombuso ze-Roundup enkantolo yase-US District for the Northern District of California eSan Francisco. Futhi abameli beBayer bebelokhu bematasa befaka izimpendulo zabo ezinkantolo.

Edolobheni laseSt. Louis, Mo., idolobha lasekhaya lakudala likaMonsanto, icala likaTimothy Kane v. Monsanto linenkantolo yokulalelwa kwesimo ngoJuni 15 kanti icala lejaji lizoqala ngoJuni 29. Futhi yize kubonakala kungenakwenzeka Icala lizoqhubeka, ngoLwesithathu abameli balesi sikhondlakhondla samakhemikhali bafaka isicelo sokukhipha ubufakazi bokuthi omunye walabo bafakazi bamangalelwa.

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Ukufakwa okusha kwezomthetho mayelana nezingozi ezisolwa nge-Roundup phakathi kokubambezeleka kwenkantolo kwe-coronavirus

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Noma ukusabalala kwe-coronavirus kuvala iminyango yenkantolo emphakathini nakubameli, ukuqhutshwa kwezomthetho kuyaqhubeka ngaphezu kwezimangalo zengozi ehlobene nokubulala ukhula okususelwa e-glyphosate okusekelwe eMonsanto.

Amaqembu amabili wokungenzi inzuzo, i-Center for Food Safety (CFS) kanye ne-Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), wafaka isikhashana i-amicus egameni lesiguli somdlavuza u-Edwin Hardeman ngoMashi 23. UHardeman uzuze isinqumo sejaji ngokumelene neMonsanto se- $ 80 million ngo-Mashi ka-2019, eba ngummangali wesibili owinile ecaleni le-Roundup. Ijaji lecala lanciphisa umklomelo wejaji laba ngu- inani lama- $ 25 million. IMonsanto idlulise umklomelo nokho, ebuza inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala ukuguqula isinqumo.

Isifinyezo esisha somthetho esisekela izibalo zikaHardeman eyodwa efakwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) esekela iMonsanto ekudlulisweni kwesicelo sikaHardeman.

Isifinyezo se-CFS kanye ne-CBD sithi iMonsanto ne-EPA bobabili abalungile ukuthi bagunyaze ukuthi ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kwe-glyphosate herbicides kuvimbela izinselelo ekuphepheni kwemikhiqizo:

        "Ngokuphikisana nalokho okushiwo nguMonsanto, icala likaMnu Hardeman alincishiswa yisiphetho se-EPA maqondana ne-glyphosate ngoba iRoundup iyindlela yokwakheka kwe-glyphosate i-EPA engakaze iyicubungulele ubucayi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaphutha amakhulu nokubandlulula kulimaze ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA mayelana ne-glyphosate's carcinogenicity kanye nenkantolo yesifunda kwakuqinisile ngokuvumela ubufakazi balokho, ”kusho umfishane.

         "IMonsanto ifuna leNkantolo ikholelwe ukuthi" i-glyphosate "iyafana ne-'Roundup. ' Isizathu silula: uma la magama eguquguquka, bayaphikisana, ukuthola kwe-EPA ukuthi i-glyphosate "akunakwenzeka ukuthi ibangelwe yi-carcinogenic" izosebenza ku-Roundup futhi ingahle ilalele icala likaMnu Hardeman. Kodwa-ke njengoba ubufakazi obethulwe ecaleni bekhonjisiwe, "i-glyphosate" ne "Roundup" kakhulu azifani, kanti i-Roundup inobuthi obukhulu kune-glyphosate. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-EPA ayikaze ihlole i-Roundup ye-carcinogenicity. Ukwakhiwa kweGlyphosate, njenge-Roundup, kuqukethe izithako ezingeziwe (ama-co-formulants) ukwenza ngcono ukusebenza ngandlela thile. I-EPA iyaqonda ukuthi ukwakheka okunobuthi kune-glyphosate kukodwa, kepha nokho kugxile ekuhloleni komdlavuza wayo ku-glyphosate emsulwa… ”

Hlukanisa amagama enkantolo e-EPA

Kwisenzo somthetho esihlukile, ngesonto eledlule isikhungo sokuphepha kokudla sifake isimangalo kuhulumeni mayelana ne-EPA ngokuqhubeka nokuxhaswa kwe-glyphosate. Isimangalo esenziwe egameni lomfelandawonye wabasebenzi basemapulazini, abalimi kanye nabalondolozi bemvelo, sithi i-EPA yephula umthetho iFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, neRodenticide Act kanjalo ne-Endangered Species Act ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate.

"Ngenkathi i-EPA ivikela i-glyphosate, amajaji emajele ambalwa ayitholile ukuthi idala umdlavuza, ikhipha isinqumo esivuna labo abathintwe ukuvezwa," kusho iCFS ekukhulumeni nabezindaba. “Izinhlobo zeGlyphosate ezifana neRoundup nazo zisungulwe kahle njengezinemithelela eminingi kwezemvelo. Ngemuva kwenqubo yokubukezwa kokubhaliswa ethathe isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi, i-EPA yavumela ukumaketha okuqhubekayo kwezibulala-zinambuzane naphezu kokuhluleka kwe-ejensi ukuhlola ngokugcwele amandla okuphazamisa i-hormone ka-glyphosate noma imiphumela yayo ezinhlotsheni ezisongelwayo nezisengozini yokuqothulwa. ”

UBill Freese, umhlaziyi wenqubomgomo yesayensi kwaCFS uthe: "Kunokuthintana 'nesayensi engcono kunazo zonke,' njengoba kusho i-EPA, le nhlangano ithembele cishe ngokuphelele ezifundweni zeMonsanto, ikhetha imininingwane ehambisana nenhloso yayo futhi ichitha yonke eminye."

Ukuphazamiseka kwenkantolo okuhlobene negciwane

IMonsanto nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG bebelokhu bezama ukuzama ukulungisa inani elikhulu lamashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo zomdlavuza weRoundup zilethwe ezinkantolo zase-US. Lowo mzamo uyaqhubeka, futhi izindawo zokuhlala ezithile sezivele zitholakele kubamangali abathile, ngokusho kwemithombo ethintekayo ezingxoxweni. I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kubika ekuqaleni kukaJanuwari ukuthi amaqembu abesebenzela ukukhokhela cishe ama- $ 8 billion kuya ku- $ 10 billion.

Kodwa-ke, amanye amacala amaningi ayaqhubeka nokusebenza ngendlela yohlelo lwenkantolo, kufaka phakathi isikhalazo sikaDewayne “Lee” Johnson, ummangali wokuqala ukuwina iMonsanto ecaleni laseRoundup. Abameli bakaJohnson babenethemba lokuthi iNkantolo yokuDluliswa kwamaCala yaseCalifornia izobamba izingxoxo zomlomo uma uMonsanto edlulisa isinqumo sokuthi uJohnson anqobe ngo-Ephreli. Kepha lokho manje kubonakala kunethuba elikhulu njengoba amanye amacala ahlelelwe uMashi manje esefakwa ku-Ephreli.

Futhi, zonke izikhathi zokuzibonela mathupha zezimpikiswano zomlomo enkantolo yezikhalazo njengamanje zimisiwe. Umeluleki okhetha ukwethula impikiswano ngomlomo kumele akwenze lokho ngocingo, kusho inkantolo.

Khonamanjalo, izinkantolo ezifundeni eziningi zaseCalifornia zivaliwe futhi amacala amajaji amisiwe ukuzama ukuvikela abantu ekusakazekeni kwaleli gciwane. Inkantolo yombuso eSan Francisco, lapho kuphakathi kwamacala amaningi we-Roundup, ivaliwe emphakathini, kufaka phakathi ukumiswa kwamacala, kuze kube nguMeyi 1. Abahluleli basengakhipha izinqumo, noma kunjalo, futhi babambe ukulalelwa ngocingo.

EMissouri, lapho iningi lamacala ezinkantolo zombuso i-Roundup asuselwa khona, zonke izinqubo zamacala enkantolo (ngaphandle kokumbalwa) zimisiwe ngo-Ephreli 17, ngokusho kweNkantolo eNkulu yaseMissouri oda. 

Elinye icala laseMissouri ebelizongena enkantolo ngoMashi 30 eNkantolo yaseSt. Louis City manje linosuku lokuqulwa kwecala elibekelwe u-Ephreli 27. Leli cala nguSeitz v Monsanto # 1722-CC11325.

Ukuyala ushintsho, iJaji uMichael Mullen ubhale wathi: “NGENXA YOMBANGO KAZWELONKE WE-COVID-19 VIRUS KANYE NOKUTHOLAKALA KWAMAJOROR KULESI SIKHUNGO INKANTOLO EBHEKILE ISUSA LELI CALA KUMATSHI 30, 2020 ICALA LOKUZAMA. IZIMBANGELA ZIHLELELWE UMHLANGANO WOKUHLELWA KOKULINGA NGOMSOMBULUKO, APRILI 27, 2020 @ 9:00 AM. ”