Ucwaningo olusha luthola izinguquko ezihlobene ne-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lwezilwane olwenziwe iqembu labaphenyi baseYurophu lithole ukuthi amazinga aphansi okhula olubulala ukhula amakhemikhali glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo osuselwa ku-glyphosate-based Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo.

Leli phepha, ishicilelwe ngoLwesithathu kulo magazini Impilo Yemvelo, ibhalwe ngabaphenyi abayi-13, kubandakanya nomholi oqhuba izifundo uDkt.Michael Antoniou, oyinhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group eMnyangweni Wezokwelapha Nemolekyuli Yezakhi zofuzo eKing's College eLondon, noDkt. iqembu elifanayo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy, babambe iqhaza ocwaningweni njengoba kwenza ososayensi baseFrance nabaseNetherlands.

Imiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome itholwe ukuthi ibangelwe yindlela efanayo yokusebenza lapho i-glyphosate isebenza ukubulala ukhula nezinye izitshalo, kusho abacwaningi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta esinomthelela emisebenzini yokuzivikela ezifweni nakwezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile, nokuphazamiseka kwalolo hlelo kungaba nomthelela ezigulini zezifo, kusho abacwaningi.

"Kokubili i-glyphosate ne-Roundup kube nomthelela ekubunjweni kwenani lamagciwane," kusho u-Antoniou kusho engxoxweni. “Siyazi ukuthi amathumbu ethu ahlala ezinkulungwaneni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nokulinganisela ekwakhekeni kwawo, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwawo, kubalulekile empilweni yethu. Ngakho-ke noma yini ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kabi, i-gut microbiome… inamandla okudala impilo ebuthaka ngoba sisuka ekusebenzeni okulinganiselayo okulungele impilo kuya ekusebenzeni okungalingani okungaholela ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezifo ezahlukahlukene. ”

Bona ingxoxo kaCarey Gillam uDkt. Michael Antonoiu noDkt. Robin Mesnage ngocwaningo lwabo olusha olubheka umthelela we-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe banqume ukuthi, ngokungahambisani nokunye okushiwo ngabagxeki bokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge-antibiotic, ibulala amagciwane adingekayo emathunjini.

Esikhundleni salokho, bathola - okokuqala ngqa, bathi - ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane siphazamise ngendlela engaba yingozi kakhulu emzileni wamakhemikhali wamakhemikhali wamathumbu amabhaktheriya ezilwane ezisetshenziswe ekuhlolweni. Lokho kuphazamiseka kwaqokonyiswa ngoshintsho ezintweni ezithile esiswini. Ukuhlaziywa kwamathumbu negazi biochemistry kuveze ubufakazi bokuthi lezi zilwane zingaphansi kwengcindezi ye-oxidative, isimo esihambisana nokulimala kwe-DNA nomdlavuza.

Abaphenyi bathi akucaci ukuthi ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi kwegciwane le-microbiome kuthinte kanjani ukucindezela komzimba.

Inkomba yengcindezi ye-oxidative yacaca kakhulu ekuhlolweni kusetshenziswa i-herbicide esekwe eglyphosate ebizwa ngeRoundup BioFlow, umkhiqizo womnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG, kusho ososayensi.

Ababhali bokucwaninga bathi benza izifundo eziningi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ingcindezi ye-oxidative abayibonayo nayo ilimaza i-DNA, ezonyusa ingozi yomdlavuza.

Ababhali bathe kudingeka ucwaningo olwengeziwe ukuqonda kahle imithelela yempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ekhazimulayo nokunye ukuphazamiseka kwemethambo ku-gut microbiome nasegazini kepha ukutholwa kokuqala kungasetshenziswa ekwakhiweni kwama-bio-markers wezifundo ze-epidemiological kanye nokuqonda uma i-glyphosate herbicides ingaba nemiphumela yezinto eziphilayo kubantu.

Ocwaningweni, amagundane abesifazane anikezwa i-glyphosate nomkhiqizo we-Roundup. Amanani ahanjiswa ngamanzi okuphuza ahlinzekwa izilwane futhi anikezwa emazingeni amele ukungena nsuku zonke okwamukelekayo okubhekwa njengokuvikelekile ngabalawuli baseYurophu nabaseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe imiphumela yocwaningo yakhela kolunye ucwaningo olwenza kucace ukuthi izilawuli zithembele ezindleleni eseziphelelwe yisikhathi lapho kunqunywa ukuthi yimaphi amazinga “aphephile” e-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekudleni nasemanzini. Izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kwezolimo zivame ukutholakala ebangeni lokudla okusetshenziswa njalo.

"Abalawuli kumele bangene ekhulwini lama-XNUMX leminyaka, bayeke ukuhudula izinyawo zabo… bamukele izinhlobo zokuhlaziya esikwenzile kulolu cwaningo," kusho u-Antoniou. Uthe ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana, okuyingxenye yegatsha lesayensi eyaziwa ngokuthi “OMICS,” kuguqula isisekelo solwazi mayelana nemithelela ukuchayeka kwamakhemikhali okunayo empilweni.

Isifundo segundane kodwa esakamuva ochungechungeni lwezivivinyo zesayensi ezihlose ukunquma ukuthi ngabe i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides - kufaka phakathi i-Roundup - ingaba yingozi kubantu, ngisho nasemazingeni abalawuli be-exposure bathi baphephile.

Izifundo eziningi ezinjalo zithole ukukhathazeka okuningi, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eyanyatheliswa ngoNovemba  ngabaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland abathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate.

Njengoba abacwaningi banda bheka ukuqonda i-microbiome yomuntu neqhaza eliyidlalayo empilweni yethu, imibuzo mayelana nemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome bekungeyona nje impikiswano emibuthanweni yesayensi, kodwa futhi nasezinkantolo.

Ngonyaka odlule, iBayer bavuma ukukhokha u- $ 39.5 million ukuxazulula izimangalo zokuthi iMonsanto inezikhangiso ezidukisayo eziqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme ezitshalweni futhi ayinakuba nomthelela ofanayo ezifuyweni nakubantu. Abamangali kuleli cala kuthiwa i-glyphosate babhekise enzyme etholakala kubantu nasezilwaneni eziqinisa amasosha omzimba, ukugaya nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe ngabantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe ama- $ 11 billion ukukhokhela izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000.

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

Ikhanda likaBayer's Monsanto liyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-migraine eyiMonsanto ibonakala ingahambi nganoma yisiphi isikhathi maduze kuBayer AG.

Imizamo yokuxazulula inqwaba yamacala alethwe e-United States ngamashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu abathi imithi yokubulala ukhula i-Roundup yabanikeza umdlavuza iyaqhubeka nokuqhubekela phambili, kepha ababheki kuwo wonke amacala asele, futhi nabamangali abanikezwanga ngezindawo zokuhlala ezivumelana nabo.

In incwadi eya kwiJaji Lesifunda laseMelika uVince Chhabria, Ummeli wase-Arizona uDavid Diamond uthe izethulo ezenziwe ngabameli ezihola izingxoxo zokuxazulula iBayer egameni labamangali azikhombisi ngokunembile isimo samakhasimende akhe. Ubalule “ukuntuleka” “kokuhlangenwe nakho okuhlobene nokuhlala” neBayer futhi wacela ukuthi iJaji uChhabria aqhubekele phambili ngamacala amaningi kaDiamond ukuze aqulwe.

“Izethulo zobuholi maqondana nokukhokhwa kwemali azimele izivumelwano zamakhasimende ami
okuhlangenwe nakho okuhlobene, izintshisekelo noma isikhundla, ”kusho uDiamond etshela ijaji.

UDiamond ubhale kule ncwadi ukuthi unamakhasimende angama-423 Roundup, afaka phakathi angama-345 anamacala asalindwe phambi kukaChabria ecaleni lamacala amaningi (MDL) eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia. Eceleni kwe-MDL kunezinkulungwane zabamangali amacala abo asalindile ezinkantolo zombuso.

Ukufinyelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandele ukulalelwa ngasekupheleni kwenyanga edlule lapho amafemu amaningana aholayo enkantolo kanye nabameli bakaBayer batshele uChabria ukuthi sebesondele ekuxazululeni iningi lamacala, uma kungewona wonke, phambi kwejaji.

IBayer ifinyelele ezindaweni ezibalulekile namafemu abameli ahamba phambili abamele ingxenye enkulu yezimangalo ezilethwe iMonsanto. NgoJuni, iBayer yathi izonikeza u- $ 8.8 billion kuya ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula icala.

Kepha impikiswano nokuphikisana kuye kwacindezela ukunikezwa kokukhokha konke.

Abamangali abaningana abamele amafemu amakhulu nabakhulume ngombandela wokuthi amagama abo angasetshenziswa, bathe abahambisani nemibandela yezindawo zokuhlala, okusho ukuthi amacala abo azobhekiswa ekulamuleni futhi, uma lokho kwehluleka, ukulingwa.

Ngemuva kokuthenga iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo efaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebibhekene nazo kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. AmaJury kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides aseMonsanto's glyphosate, afana neRoundup, abangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Izinkinga Zilokhu Zanda  

IBayer isabise ngokuthi izofaka ukuqothuka uma ingakwazi ukuvala icala leRoundup kanti ngoLwesithathu inkampani ikhiphe isexwayiso senzuzo futhi yamemezela izigidigidi zokuncishiswa kwezindleko, icaphuna “umbono ophansi kunalindelekile emakethe yezolimo” phakathi kwezinye izinto. Lezi zindaba zithumele amasheya enkampanini ewayo.

Ekubikeni izinkinga zikaBayer UBarron uqaphele: “Izinkinga zilokhu zanda njalo kuBayer nakubatshalizimali bayo, okumanje kumele basebenzise njalo izindaba ezingadumisi. Isitokwe manje sehle ngaphezu kuka-50% selokhu isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwakamuva kunezela ecaleni lokuthi isivumelwano seMonsanto sibe ngesinye sezimo ezimbi kakhulu emlandweni wezinkampani."

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala iyasenqaba isicelo seMonsanto sokuqulwa kwamacala eRoundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ngoLwesibili wenqaba oweMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa u- $ 4 million kusuka enanini lemali elikweleta umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia onenkinga yokuphila nomdlavuza owatholwa yijaji kubangelwa ukuvezwa kwale ndoda kumuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup.

INkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda Sokuqala Sokudluliswa Kwamacala eCalifornia nayo isichithile isicelo senkampani sokuthi lolu daba ludingidwe kabusha. Isinqumo senkantolo silandele isinqumo saso ngenyanga edlule eshaya uMonsanto  ngokwenqaba kwayo amandla obufakazi bokuthi ababulali bayo bokhula base-glyphosate abangela umdlavuza. Kuleso sinqumo sangoJulayi, inkantolo yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wethule ubufakazi “obuningi” bokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umdlavuza wakhe. "Ingcweti ngemuva kokuthi isazi sinikeze ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-Roundup iyakwazi ukudala i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... futhi yabangela umdlavuza kaJohnson ikakhulukazi," kusho inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala esinqumweni sayo sangoJulayi.

Kuleso sinqumo sangenyanga edlule, inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, isike umklomelo wokweleta uJohnson, yayalela uMonsanto ukuthi akhokhe ama- $ 20.5 million, kwehle kusuka ku- $ 78 million eyalwe yijaji lecala futhi kwehla kusuka ku- $ 289 million eyalwe yijaji elanquma isinqumo sikaJohnson icala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ngaphezu kwemali engu- $ 20.5 million iMonsanto ekweleta uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuthi ikhokhe u- $ 519,000 ngezindleko.

IMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer AG e2018, yayine unxuse inkantolo ukusika umklomelo kuJohnson uye ku- $ 16.5 million.

Isinqumo sikaDicamba naso sisamile

Isinqumo senkantolo sangoLwesibili silandele a Isinqumo sikhishwe ngoMsombuluko yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye ekuphika ukuthi kuzokhulunywa kabusha ngesinqumo senkantolo sangoJuni sokuthi shiya imvume komkhiqizo wokubulala ukhula osuselwa ku-dicamba uBayer azuze njengefa eMonsanto. Leso sinqumo sangoJuni siphinde savimbela ngempumelelo ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe nge-dicamba okwenziwe yi-BASF kanye neCorteva Agriscience.

Izinkampani bezifake isicelo sokuthi iqembu elibanzi lamajaji emajaji wesekethe lesishiyagalolunye liqhubeke nokuzijwayeza leli cala, bethi isinqumo sokuhoxisa ukuvunywa kwemithetho yemikhiqizo besingafanele. Kodwa inkantolo yasenqaba ngokusobala leso sicelo sokulalela kabusha.

Esinqumweni sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye lithe i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

Isinqumo senkantolo esivimbela imikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba sabangela isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe yiMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana nezitshalo ezibekezelela i- “Roundup Ready” glyphosate, izitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba zivumela abalimi ukuthi bafafaze i-dicamba emasimini abo ukuze babulale ukhula ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo.

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yakhipha isinqumo sayo ngoJuni.

Ummeli we-Roundup womdlavuza ulivuma icala lokuzama ukuqola

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ummeli waseVirginia owasiza ukumela ummangali wokuqala womdlavuza weRoundup ukuthatha uMonsanto ayokumangalela ecaleni wavuma icala ngoLwesihlanu ngokuzama ukudlulisa imali engamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-200 kumthengisi wezinkampani zamakhemikhali aye eMonsanto.

UTimothy Litzenburg, 38, wavuma uhlelo lapho yena nomunye ummeli babesabisa khona ngokuthi bazolimaza kakhulu umphakeli ngaphandle kokuthi leyo nkampani ikhokhele abameli ababili imali efinyelela ezigidini ezingama-200 ezifihliwe "njengesivumelwano sokubonisana."

Ngokusho eMnyangweni Wezobulungiswa wase-US, ILitzenburg kusolakala ukuthi itshele inkampani ukuthi uma beyikhokha le mali, ubezimisele "ukudilika" ngesikhathi efaka imali, ehlose ngamabomu amathuba okuba abamangali besikhathi esizayo bazame ukumangalela.

ILitzenburg ibekwe icala elilodwa lokuzama ukukhwabanisa, ukwakha itulo nokudlulisa ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi ngenhloso yokuqola. Yena wavuma unecala kwesinye isibalo sokudlulisa ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi ngenhloso yokuqola.

Ummeli uDaniel Kincheloe, 41, wavuma unecala ukukhokhiswa okufanayo ngokuhlanganyela kulolu hlelo. La madoda kuhlelwe ukuthi agwetshwe ngomhlaka-18 Septhemba eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US esifundeni saseWestern Virginia.

"Lesi yisimo lapho abameli ababili beshaye khona badlula umugqa wommeli onolaka futhi bawela bangena endaweni yokuqola okungekho emthethweni, emzamweni wobudlabha wokuzicebisa ngokukhipha izigidi zamadola enkampanini yezizwe ngezizwe," Umsizi Wommeli Jikelele uBrian A. UBenczkowski esitatimendeni. Uthe isicelo sikhombisa ukuthi "uma kwenziwa ubugebengu, amalungu ebhawa, njengawo wonke amalungu omphakathi, azobhekana nezenzo zawo."

ILitzenburg ibingomunye wabameli bakaDewayne “Lee” Johnson okwaholela ecaleni likaJohnson lika-2018 lokulwa neMonsanto, okwaholela ekutheni $ 289 million amajaji kuvuna uJohnson. (Ijaji kuleli cala lehlisa isinqumo futhi icala selidlulisiwe.)

Ukuqulwa kwecala bekungelokuqala kwezintathu ezenzekile ngokumelene neMonsanto ngezinsolo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani efana ne-Roundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IMonsanto, kanye nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG, balahlekelwe yizo zontathu lezi zilingo kuze kube manje kodwa badlulisa izinqumo.

Yize uLitzenburg ayesizile ukulungiselela uJohnson ukuqulwa kwecala, wayengavunyelwe ukubamba iqhaza ngesikhathi somcimbi ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha kwakhe okwakuphethwe yiMiller Firm, okwakungumqashi wakhe ngaleso sikhathi.

Inkampani yaseMiller ngabuye ngaxoshwa ILitzenburg futhi wafaka icala ekuqaleni kuka-2019 esola iLitzenburg ukuthi ibizenzela izinto zayo, kanye "nokuziphatha okungathembekile nokungahambi kahle." ILitzenburg iphendule ngo ukuphikisa isimangalo. Amaqembu axoxisana ngesivumelwano esiyimfihlo.

Isikhalazo sobugebengu esasibhekene neLitzenburg asizange sisho ukuthi inkampani iLezzenburg yazama ukuqola, kodwa yathi yaxhumana nale nkampani ngoSepthemba ka-2019 ngonyaka ithi yayilungiselela icala elalizosola ukuthi inkampani yahlinzeka ngamakhemikhali asetshenziswa iMonsanto ukudala iRoundup nokuthi inkampani beyazi ukuthi izithako ziyi-carcinogenic kodwa yehlulekile ukuxwayisa umphakathi.

Ngokwamacala ombuso, uLitzenburg utshele ummeli wale nkampani ukuthi uzama ukuqola ukuthi inkampani kumele ingene “ezinhlelweni zokubonisana” naye ukuze kudaleke ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okuzomvimba ekutheni afake icala elisabekayo.

U-Litzenburg ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi isivumelwano sokubonisana naye kanye nozakwabo esingu- $ 200 million “siyinani elifanele kakhulu,” ngokusho kwesikhalazo sobugebengu.

Abaphenyi bakahulumeni babhala ucingo neLetzenburg bexoxa ngezigidi ezingama- $ 200 ayezifuna, kusho isikhalazo. ILitzenburg kusolakala ukuthi yaqoshwa yathi: “Indlela engicabanga ukuthi niyacabanga ngayo futhi nicabange ngayo wukulondolozela uhlangothi lwenu. Angicabangi ukuthi lokhu kufakwa bese kuguqulwa kube yi-mass tort, noma ngabe nina niwina amacala bese nishayela inani eliphansi… Angicabangi ukuthi ikhona indlela yokuphuma kukho ngemali engaphansi kwezigidigidi zamaRandi. Ngakho-ke, niyazi, kimi, hawu, lena yintengo yokuthengisa umlilo okufanele niyicabangele… ”

ILitzenburg ithi imele cishe amakhasimende ayi-1,000 XNUMX amangalela iMonsanto ngezinsolo zomdlavuza weRoundup ngesikhathi eboshwa ngonyaka odlule.

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izindaba zakamuva: Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US umemezele ngo-Okthoba 27 kuzovumela abalimi base-US ukuthi baqhubeke nokufafaza izitshalo ngomuthi we-weerkiller we-Bayer AG osetshenziswe kuma-soya kabhontshisi we-GMO kanye ne-cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkantolo ovimba ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yanquma ukuthi I-EPA “ibubeke eceleni kakhulu ubungozi” bababulali bokhula be-dicamba. Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-US imangalela iBayer (phambilini eyayiyiMonsanto) kanye ne-BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa kakhulu kwe-dicamba. Sithumela imibhalo yokuthola nokuhlaziywa kwezilingo ku- Ikhasi le-Dicamba Papers.

Uhlolojikelele

I-Dicamba (I-3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) iyinhlangano ebanzi i-herbicide yaqala ukubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-herbicide isetshenziselwa izitshalo zezolimo, umhlaba olinywayo, amadlelo, i-turfgrass kanye ne-rangeland. IDicamba ibhaliswe futhi ekusetshenzisweni okungezona kwezolimo ezindaweni zokuhlala nakwezinye izindawo, ezinjengezinkundla zegalofu lapho isetshenziswa kakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamaqabunga abanzi njengama-dandelions, i-chickweed, i-clover kanye ne-ivy yomhlabathi.

Imikhiqizo engaphezu kwe-1,000 XNUMX edayiswa e-United States efaka phakathi i-dicamba, ngokusho kweNational Pesticide Information Center. Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-auxin agonist: ikhiqiza ukukhula okungalawuleki okuholela ekufeni kwezitshalo.

Ukukhathazeka Ngezemvelo 

Izinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ngokushushumbisa kude nalapho zisetshenziswe khona, futhi ngokuvamile zazingasetshenziswa kabanzi phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele lapho zazingabulala khona izitshalo noma izihlahla ezazingahlosiwe.

I-Ejensi Yezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ivume ukubhaliswa kwamafomu amasha e-dicamba ngo-2016, kodwa-ke, ivumela ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ezitshalweni ezikhulayo ze-dicamba ezibekezelela ukotini nezimbotyi zesoya. Ososayensi baxwayise ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kuzoholela ekulimaleni kwe-dicamba drift.

Ukusetshenziswa okusha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kokumelana nokhula kabanzi emithini yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate, kubandakanya nomkhiqizo odumile weRoundup, owethulwe nguMonsanto ngawo-1970. Ngama-1990s, iMonsanto yethula izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate, yaphinde yakhuthaza abakwa-famers ukuthi basebenzise izinhlelo zabo zokutshala "Roundup Ready". Abalimi bangatshala isoya sikabhontshisi we-glyphosate obekezelela izakhi zofuzo zikaMonsanto, ummbila, ukotini nezinye izitshalo, bese befutha imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula efana ne-Roundup ngqo ngaphezulu kwezitshalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Uhlelo lwenza ukuphathwa kokhula kube lula kubalimi ngoba babekwazi ukufafaza amakhemikhali ngqo kuwo wonke amasimu abo ngenkathi yokukhula, kuqeda ukhula olwaluncintisana nezitshalo ukuthola umswakama nomsoco womhlabathi.

Ukuthandwa kohlelo lweRoundup Ready kwaholela ekwandeni kokumelana nokhula, kepha, kushiya abalimi ngezinsimu zokhula oluqinile ezazingasafi lapho zifuthwa nge-glyphosate.

Ku-2011 iMonsanto imemezele ukuthi i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Uthembele ebangeni elide ngokwako” futhi ithe ihlela ukusebenzisana neBASF nokwenza uhlelo lokutshala izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezizobekezelela ukufuthwa nge-dicamba. Ithi izokwethula uhlobo olusha lwe-dicamba herbicide olungeke lukhukhuleke luqhelelene namasimu lapho lufuthwe khona.

Kusukela kwethulwa uhlelo olusha, izikhalazo ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift sezikhuphukile ezifundeni eziningana zepulazi, kufaka phakathi izikhalazo eziningi ezivela e-Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri nase-Arkansas.

Embikweni wangomhla ziyi-1 ku-Novemba 2017, i-EPA ithe ithole uphenyo olusemthethweni lokulimala kwezitshalo ezingama-2,708 (njengokusho kweminyango yezolimo). Le nhlangano ithe bekungaphezu kwamahektare ayizigidi ezingama-3.6 kabhontshisi owathinteka ngaleso sikhathi. Ezinye izitshalo ezithintekile bekungotamatisi, ikhabe, ikantaloupe, izivini, amathanga, imifino, ugwayi, izingadi zokuhlala, izihlahla nezihlahlana

NgoJulayi 2017, uMnyango Wezolimo waseMissouri wakhipha okwesikhashana i- "Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order," kuyo yonke imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eMissouri. Umbuso wasusa lesi sinqumo ngoSepthemba 2017.

Le yimikhiqizo ethile ye-dicamba:

Ngo-Okthoba 31, 2018, i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yamemezela ukwelulwa kokubhaliswa kwe-Engenia, XtendiMax neFeXapan ngonyaka ka-2020 ukuze kusetshenziswe “ngaphezulu” ezindaweni ezingabekezeleleki zikakotini nezimboni zesoya. I-EPA ithe ithuthukise amalebuli wangaphambilini futhi yafaka ezinye izindlela zokuvikela ngomzamo wokukhulisa impumelelo nokusetshenziswa okuphephile komkhiqizo emkhakheni.

Ukubhaliswa kweminyaka emibili kusebenza ngokusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA isho lezi zinhlinzeko ezilandelayo:

  • Abafakizicelo abaqinisekisiwe kuphela abangafaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (labo abasebenza ngaphansi kweso lomfakisicelo oqinisekisiwe bangabe besakwazi ukwenza izicelo)
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi ezinsukwini ezingama-45 ngemuva kokutshala noma kuze kufike esigabeni sokukhula sika-R1 (ukuqhuma kokuqala), noma yikuphi okuza kuqala
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kukotini ezinsukwini ezingama-60 ngemuva kokutshala
  • Okotini, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kwezingu-XNUMX kuya kwezimbili
  • Kosabhontshisi, inani lezicelo ezisezingeni eliphezulu lihlala kwababili
  • Izicelo zizovunyelwa kusuka ehoreni elilodwa ngemuva kokuphuma kwelanga kuya emahoreni amabili ngaphambi kokushona kwelanga
  • Ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo zezilwane ezisengcupheni zingaba khona, isiphepho saphansi sizohlala ezinyaweni eziyi-110 futhi kuzoba ne-buffer entsha engamamitha angama-57 ezungeze ezinye izinhlangothi zensimu (i-110-foot downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza, hhayi kuphela ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo ezisengozini yokuphela zingaba khona)
  • Imiyalo yokuhlanza ithangi ethuthukisiwe yohlelo lonke
  • Amalebula athuthukisiwe okuthuthukisa ukuqwashisa kwabafakizicelo kumthelela we-pH ephansi ekushiseni okungenzeka kwe-dicamba
  • Ilebuli ihlanza kanye nokuvumelana ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuhambisana nokusebenza

Inkantolo Yesicelo Sokudlulisa Amacala yase-9 

NgoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokugunyaza ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe yi-Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Inkantolo kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo.

Imininingwane engaphezulu ingaba utholwe lapha.

Izinsalela Zokudla 

Njengoba nje ukutholakala kwe-glyphosate emasimini asepulazini kutholakale kushiya izinsalela ze-glyphosate kokudla okuphelile, okufana ne-oatmeal, izinkwa, okusanhlamvu, njll, izinsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuthi zishiye izinsalela ekudleni. Abalimi abakhiqiziwe kwabo kungcoliswe yizinsalela ze-dicamba nge-drift bazwakalise ukukhathazeka kwabo ngokuthi imikhiqizo yabo ingahle yenqatshwe noma ilimale ngenye indlela kwezentengiso ngenxa yenkinga yezinsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amazinga okubekezelela i-dicamba okusanhlamvu okuningana nenyama yemfuyo edla okusanhlamvu, kepha hhayi ngezithelo nemifino enhlobonhlobo. Ukubekezelelana kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi kusethwe ezingxenyeni eziyi-10 ngesigidi, ngokwesibonelo, e-United States, kanye nezingxenye ezi-2 ngesigidi sikakolweni wokusanhlamvu. Ukubekezelelana kungakwazi ubonwe lapha. 

I-EPA isikhiphile lesi sitatimende maqondana nezinsalela ze-dicamba ekudleni: "I-EPA yenze ukuhlaziywa okudingwa yi-Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) futhi yanquma ukuthi izinsalela zokudla" ziphephile "- okusho ukuthi kunesiqiniseko sokuthi akukho ukulimala kubantu, kufaka phakathi konke ukubonwa okungakhonjwa ngendlela efanelekile, kufaka phakathi izinsana nezingane, kusuka ekudleni nakwezinye izinto ezingekho emsebenzini ku-dicamba. ”

I-Cancer ne-Hypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic, kepha ezinye izifundo zithole ingozi eyengeziwe yomdlavuza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Bona lezi zifundo maqondana nemiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ye-dicamba:

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Dicamba kanye nesifo somdlavuza esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo: ukuhlaziywa okubuyekeziwe I-International Journal of Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Uma kuqhathaniswa nabafakizicelo ababika ukuthi abayisebenzisi i-dicamba, labo abasengozini ephakeme kakhulu yokuchayeka babe sengozini enkulu yomdlavuza wesibindi nowangaphakathi we-intrahepatic kanye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheli kanye nokwehla kwengozi ye-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye ne-Incident Hypothyroidism kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane eSifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (9.26.18)
"Kuleli qoqo elikhulu labalimi abebesengozini yokutholakala nezibulala-zinambuzane, sithole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezinambuzane ezine ze-organochlorine (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ama-insecticide amane e-organophosphate (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, ne-malathion), kanti imithi emithathu yokubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, ne-2,4-D) yayihlotshaniswa nengozi eyengeziwe ye-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane phakathi kwabasebenzisi bezinambuzane abazimele besilisa esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo. Ijenali Yemithi Yezemvelo Emsebenzini (10.1.14)
"Imithi yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, ne-oyela kaphethiloli konke kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwengozi ye-hypothyroidism"

Ukubuyekezwa kokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kuqoqo lezempilo leZolimo. Izindlela Zokuphila Zezemvelo (8.1.10)
“Sibuyekeze izifundo ezingama-28; iningi lezibulala-zinambuzane ezingama-32 ezihloliwe bezingahlangene kakhulu nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane. Izilinganiso zokukhuphuka kwamazinga (noma izingqinamba ezingavumelani) namaphethini okuphendula okuchayeka okuhle abikwe ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyi-12 okwamanje ebhaliswe eCanada kanye / noma e-United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- i-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafaka Izicelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KuDicamba Kwezempilo Yezolimo Isifundo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (7.13.06)
“Ukuvezwa kwezinto bekungahlobene nezehlakalo zomdlavuza jikelele futhi bezingekho izinhlangano eziqinile ezinoma yiluphi uhlobo lomdlavuza. Lapho iqembu lesethenjwa lalinabafakizicelo abadalulwe kancane, sabona ukuthambekela okuhle engcupheni phakathi kwezinsuku zokuvezwa kwempilo yonke kanye nomdlavuza wamaphaphu (p = 0.02), kepha azikho izilinganiso zamaphoyinti ngamunye ezaziphakanyiswe kakhulu. Siphinde sabona ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwengozi ekhulayo yomdlavuza wekoloni ezinsukwini zombili zokuvezwa kwempilo kanye nezinsuku zokuphila ezinesisindo, yize le miphumela ibangelwe kakhulu yingozi ephezulu ezingeni eliphakeme lokuchayeka.

I-non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma kanye nokuvezwa okuthe ngqo kwezibulala-zinambuzane emadodeni: IsiCross-Canada Study of Pesticides and Health. I-Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers kanye nokuvimbela (11.01)
“Phakathi kokuhlanganiswa ngakunye, ekuhlaziyweni kwe-multivariate, ubungozi be-NHL bunyuswe ngokweqile ngokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye izinhlobo zama-multivariate, ezibandakanya ukuvezwa kwamanye amakilasi amakhulu amakhemikhali noma izibulala-zinambuzane ngazinye, umdlavuza womuntu siqu owedlule, umlando womdlavuza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, nokuvezwa kwezingxube eziqukethe i-dicamba (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40– 2.75)… babeyizibikezelo ezibalulekile ezizimele zengozi eyengeziwe yeNHL ”

icala 

Ukukhathazeka ngomonakalo we-dicamba kudale amacala avela kubalimi ezifundazweni eziningi zase-US. Imininingwane ngecala ingatholakala lapha.

INKANTOLO ebuyekeziwe iguqula ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kwe-Bayer dicamba herbicide; uthi umlawuli "wehlise ubungozi"

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinesitatimende esivela ku-BASF)

Ngokukhuza okumangalisayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency, inkantolo yenhlangano ngoLwesithathu kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi yemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe ama-giants amakhemikhali iBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Lesi sinqumo sikwenza kube ngokungemthetho ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa umkhiqizo.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sathola ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleka ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza amaphutha amaningi ekunikezeni ukubhaliswa okunemibandela," kusho isinqumo senkantolo.

IMonsanto ne-EPA bebecele inkantolo, uma ivumelana nabamangali, ukuthi ingakushintshi ngokushesha ukugunyazwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula. Inkantolo imane yathi: “Siyenqaba ukwenza kanjalo.”

Icala lilethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali basola i-EPA ngokwephula umthetho ekuhloleni imithelela yohlelo olwakhiwe yiMonsanto, oluthengwe yiBayer ngo-2018, oludale ukulimala kwezitshalo “okusabalele” kulezi zinsuku ezimbalwa zasehlobo futhi luyaqhubeka nokusongela amapulazi ezweni lonke.

"Isinqumo sanamuhla siphumelele kakhulu kubalimi nakwezemvelo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell weCentre for Food Safety, ongumeluleki waleli cala. “Kuhle ukukhunjuzwa ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neMonsanto neTrump Administration azikwazi ukweqa umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi senhlekelele efana nalena. Usuku lwabo lokwahlulela selufikile. ”

Inkantolo ithole ukuthi phakathi kwezinye zezinkinga, i-EPA “yenqabile ukulinganisela inani lomonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza lowo monakalo njengokuthi 'kungenzeka' nokuthi 'kusolwa,' lapho ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi i-dicamba idale umonakalo omkhulu futhi ongenakuphikiswa.”

Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi i-EPA yehlulekile ukwamukela ukuthi imikhawulo ebekwe ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba ngeke ilandelwe, futhi inqume ukuthi i-EPA “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi obukhulu bokuthi ukubhaliswa kuzoba nemiphumela yokuncintisana kwezomnotho izimboni zesoya nokotini. ”

Ekugcineni, inkantolo ithe, i-EPA yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi bokuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba esungulwe nguMonsanto, BASF kanye noCorteva "kuzodabula imiphakathi yezolimo."

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto isiphakamisile leso sibambiso lapho yethula imbewu yesoya nekotini engabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele-sezulu.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezixwayiso, iMonsanto, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba herbicides yalolu hlobo olusakazwayo lokufafaza. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwethulwe izilimo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi wokulimala kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

Njengoba kubikezelwe, kube nezinkulungwane zezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodiwe ezifundazweni eziningi. Esinqumweni sayo, inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi ngo-2018, kumahektare ayizigidi eziyi-103 kabhontshisi nokotini otshalwe e-United States, cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-56 atshalwe nembewu nge-Micanto's dicamba-tolerance, kusuka ku-27 million acres ngonyaka owandulele 2017.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

IBayer ikhiphe isitatimende kulandela lesi sinqumo ithi iphikisana kakhulu nesinqumo senkantolo futhi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

"Isinqumo se-EPA esinolwazi esisekelwe kwisayensi siyakuqinisekisa ukuthi leli thuluzi libalulekile kubalimi futhi alilethi ubungozi obungenangqondo bokunyakaza okungasetshenziswanga uma kusetshenziswe ngokwemikhombandlela yelebula," kusho inkampani. "Uma isinqumo sizoma, sizosebenza ngokushesha ukunciphisa noma yimuphi umthelela kumakhasimende ethu kule sizini."

UCorteva uphinde wathi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ibidinga amathuluzi abalimi nokuthi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

I-BASF ibize umyalo wenkantolo “ngendlela engakaze ibonwe” futhi yathi “inamandla amakhulu okulimaza amashumi ezinkulungwane zabalimi.”

Abalimi bangalahlekelwa “yimali ebonakalayo” uma bengakwazi ukubulala ukhula ezindaweni zabo zesoya nezikakotini ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho inkampani.

"Sizosebenzisa zonke izindlela zomthetho ezitholakalayo ukuphonsela inselelo le-oda," kusho iBASF.

Okhulumela i-EPA uthe okwamanje le nhlangano ibuyekeza isinqumo senkantolo futhi “izothutha ngokushesha iyokhuluma nomyalelo weNkantolo.”

Inkantolo ivumile ukuthi lesi sinqumo singabiza kakhulu kubalimi asebethengile futhi / noma batshale imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini futhi yahlela ukusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kuyo ngoba isinqumo asikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima laba balimi abangaba nabo ekutholeni imithi yokubulala ukhula esebenzayo neyomthetho ukuvikela izitshalo zabo (ezibekezelela i-dicamba)…" kusho umbuso. “Babekwe kulesi simo ngaphandle kwephutha labo. Kodwa-ke, ukungabi bikho kobufakazi obuningi obusekela isinqumo se-EPA kusiphoqa ukuthi sikushiye ukubhaliswa. ”

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.

Njengoba kukhula amacala omdlavuza weRoundup, uMonsanto ulwela ukugcina umsebenzi we-PR uyimfihlo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba iMonsanto iqhubeka nokulwa nezimangalo zomthetho ngenxa yezingozi ezisolwa ngobuthi bayo obusetshenziswa kakhulu be-Roundup, inkampani izama ukuvimba ama-oda wokuguqula amarekhodi angaphakathi ngomsebenzi wayo nobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nosonkontileka bokubonisana ngamasu.

Phakathi ku uchungechunge lokufakwa eNkantolo Yesifunda yaseSt. Louis, uMonsanto uthi akufanele ihambisane nezicelo zokutholwa ezibandakanya ukusebenzisana okuthile phakathi kwayo nenkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi emhlabeni UmnumzanaHillard, yize i-master ekhethekile ithole ukuthi iMonsanto kufanele ihambise leyo mibhalo. IMonsanto iyaqinisa ukuthi ukuxhumana kwayo neFleishmanHillard kufanele kubhekwe “njengelungelo,” okufana nokuxhumana kommeli namakhasimende, nokuthi iMonsanto akufanele ikhiqize njengengxenye yokutholwa kwabameli abamele iziguli ezinomdlavuza ezimangalela iMonsanto.

UFleishmanHillard waba yi-ejensi yokuqopha umlando kaMonsanto “ngomsebenzi wenkampani owaziwayo” ngo-2013, futhi abasebenzi bayo bazibandakanya kakhulu nale nkampani, basebenza “emahhovisi kaMonsanto cishe nsuku zonke” futhi bathola “ukufinyelela ezinqolobaneni ze-inthanethi zolwazi oluyimfihlo olungeyona lomphakathi,” kusho inkampani. "Ukuthi okunye kwalokhu kuxhumana kubandakanya ukwenziwa kwemiyalezo yomphakathi akubaphuci ilungelo," kusho uMonsanto enkantolo.

UFleishmanHillard usebenze kumaphrojekthi amabili eMonsanto eYurophu maqondana nokubhaliswa kabusha kwe
glyphosate futhi wasebenza nabameli bakwaMonsanto “kwiprojekthi ethile yocwaningo lwamajaji.” Uhlobo lomsebenzi owenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi "ludinga ukuxhumana okulungile" nommeli kaMonsanto wezomthetho, kusho inkampani.

Ngasekuqaleni konyaka umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wathi buqeda ubudlelwane bukaMonsanto noFleishmanHillard ngemuva kwalokho kwaqubuka izindaba ukuthi inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi ibandakanyeke ohlelweni lokuqoqwa kwemininingwane eMonsanto eYurophu, ebhekise ezintatheli, osopolitiki kanye nabanye ababambiqhaza ukuzama ukuthonya inqubomgomo yokubulala izinambuzane.

IMonsanto ithathe isikhundla esifanayo maqondana nezokuxhumana ezibandakanya umsebenzi wayo nenkampani yokuphatha izithombe Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, iMonsanto eyayiqashe ngoJuni 2016. "Ukungabi khona kommeli kumadokhumende anelungelo nakho akwenzi ukuthi lowo mqulu ube sengozini yokuthola inselelo yelungelo," kusho uMonsanto ekufayeleni kwakhe.

Ngasekuqaleni konyaka, isisebenzi se-FTI sasikhona wabanjwa elingisa intatheli kwesinye sezivivinyo zomdlavuza weRoundup, ezama ukusikisela imigqa yezindaba yezinye izintatheli ukuba ziphishekele leyo Monsanto ethandekayo.

Le nkampani ifuna nokugwema ukunikezela ngemibhalo ethinta ubudlelwane bayo neNkampani yeScotts Miracle-Gro, ebilokhu ikhangisa futhi ithengisa iMonsanto's Roundup utshani nemikhiqizo yensimu kusukela ngo-1998.

Izisulu ezingaphezu kuka-40,000 zomdlavuza noma amalungu emindeni yazo manje sezimangalela uMonsanto esola ukutholakala kolayini wenkampani iRoundup herbicides ngezifo zabo, ngokusho kukaBayer. Amacala asolwa ngokuthi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kudale ukuthi abamangali bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi yize iMonsanto ibazi izingozi zomdlavuza, ngenhloso ayizange ixwayise abathengi.

Bayer ubambe ucingo lwengqungquthela nabatshalizimali ngoLwesithathu ukuxoxa ngemiphumela yekota yesithathu nokuvuselela abaninimasheya ecaleni leRoundup. Isimise umsindo oqinisekisayo, isikhulu esiphezulu seBayer uWerner Baumann uthe yize abatshalizimali bengamangala ngenani eliphezulu lamacala, "akumangazi kangako." Uthe abameli babamangali e-United States basebenzise amashumi ezigidi zamadola ukukhangisa ngamakhasimende.

"Lokhu kwanda kwenani lamacala akumele kushintshe ukuqiniseka kwethu ngephrofayili yezokuphepha ye-glyphosate futhi akuyona neze into ekhombisa ukufaneleka kwaleli cala," kusho uBaumann. Ukudluliswa kwamacala kuyaqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi inkampani ilahlekelwe ngamacala amathathu okuqala, futhi inkampani "iyakha" ngokulamula, ngokusho kukaBaumann. IBayer izovuma kuphela ngesivumelwano "esikahle ngokwezezimali" futhi esizoletha "ukuvalwa okufanelekile enkantolo isiyonke," esho.

Yize inkampani ibhekisela kuyo njengezikhalazo ze- "glyphosate", abamangali basola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo awubangekanga ngenxa yokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kuphela, kepha ukuvezwa yimikhiqizo eyenziwe nge-glyphosate eyenziwe yiMonsanto.

Izifundo eziningi zesayensi zikhombisile ukuthi ukwakheka kunoshevu kakhulu kune-glyphosate kukodwa. I-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ayizange ifune izifundo zesikhathi eside zokuphepha ekwakhiweni kwe-Roundup kuyo yonke iminyaka engama-40 kanye nemikhiqizo ebisemakethe, futhi ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi kwenkampani phakathi kososayensi baseMonsanto kutholwe ngabameli babamangali lapho ososayensi baxoxa ngokushoda kokuhlolwa kwe-carcinogenicity kwemikhiqizo ye-Roundup.

Izilingo eziningi ebezihlelelwe lokhu kuwa endaweni yaseSt. Louis, eMissouri ziye zabambezeleka kuze kube unyaka ozayo.

Isivivinyo Esisedolobheni Lasekhaya LaseMonsanto Ngo-Agasti Ngemuva Kokutholwa Isigidigidi esingu- $ 2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam

Ngemuva kokulahlekelwa yinkantolo kathathu eCarlifonia, impi esemthethweni ephathelene nokuphepha kwe-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto ibhekiswe edolobheni lenkampani, lapho izikhulu zezinkampani zingaphoqeleka ukuba zivele etafuleni lofakazi, kanti ukulandelwa komthetho kukhombisa umlando wokuphikisana- izahlulelo zenkampani.

"Izinto eziqhubeke lapha, ngifuna amajaji aseSt. Louis ezwe lokhu."

USharlean Gordon, owesifazane ophethwe umdlavuza osevile eminyakeni engu-50, ungummangali olandelayo njengamanje obhekene necala. UGordon v. Monsanto iqala ngo-Agasti 19 eSt. Louis County Circuit Court, ebangeni nje elingamakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka eSt. Louis, eMissouri-campus campus eyayiyikomkhulu lesikhathi eside lenkampani kuze kube yilapho iBayer ithenga iMonsanto ngoJuni odlule. Leli cala lafakwa ngoJulayi 2017 egameni labamangali abangaphezu kwama-75 kanti uGordon ungowokuqala walelo qembu ukuya enkantolo.

Ngokwesikhalazo, uGordon wathenga futhi wasebenzisa i-Roundup okungenani iminyaka eyi-15 eqhubekayo cishe ngo-2017 futhi watholakala enohlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2006. UGordon udlule ekufakweni kwezitofu ezimbili futhi wachitha unyaka ekhaya labadala iphuzu elilodwa ekwelashweni kwakhe.

Ukhubazeke kakhulu kangangokuba kunzima kuye ukuthi ahambe.

Icala lakhe, njengalezo zezinkulungwane zabanye abazungeze i-United States, lisola ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides kwamenza waba ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

"Usesesihogweni," kusho ummeli waseSt. Louis, u-Eric Holland, ongomunye wamalungu ethimba abamele uGordon, etshela i-EHN. “Ulimale kabi. Isibalo sabantu lapha sikhulu kakhulu. Ngicabanga ukuthi uSharlean uzobeka ngqo lokho okwenziwe nguMonsanto kubantu. ”

UHolland uthe ingxenye enzima kunazo zonke mayelana nokulungiselela ukuqulwa kwecala ukuthola ukuthi yibuphi ubufakazi obuzokwethulwa kumajaji esikhathini esingamasonto amathathu ijaji elibekele ukuqulwa kwecala.

"Lobu bufakazi obumelene nabo, nokuziphatha kwabo, kubi kakhulu engikubonile eminyakeni engu-30 ngenza lokhu," kusho uHolland. "Izinto eziqhubeke lapha, ngifuna amajaji aseSt. Louis ezwe lokhu."

Ukuthethwa kwecala likaGordon kuzolandelwa ukuqulwa kwecala langoSepthemba 9 nako eSt. Louis County ecaleni elethwe ngabamangali uMaurice Cohen noBurrell Lamb.

Izimpande ezijulile zeMonsanto emphakathini, kufaka phakathi isisekelo esikhulu sokuqashwa kanye neminikelo yokupha enomusa kuyo yonke le ndawo, ingavuna amathuba ayo ngamajaji endawo.

Kepha ohlangothini lwe-flip, iSt kuthathwa njengemibuthano esemthethweni njengenye yezindawo ezinhle kakhulu zabamangali zokuletha amacala ezinkampanini futhi kunomlando omude wezinqumo ezinkulu ezibhekiswe ezinkampanini ezinkulu. I-St. Louis City Court ibhekwa njengeyintandokazi kunazo zonke kepha iSt. Louis County nayo iyafunwa ngabameli babamangali.

Ukusondela kwecala lika-Agasti nangoSepthemba kuza ngemuva kwesinqumo esimangazayo esingu- $ 2 billion esikhishwe ngoMonsanto ngoMeyi 13. Kuleso simo, ijaji e-Oakland, eCalifornia, linikeze abashadikazi u-Alva no-Alberta Pilliod, bobabili abaphethwe umdlavuza, ama- $ 55 million emonakalweni wokunxeshezelwa kanye ne- $ 1 billion lilinye ekulimaleni kwesijeziso.

Ijaji lithole ukuthi iMonsanto isichithe iminyaka ifaka ubufakazi bokuthi i-herbicide yayo ibangela umdlavuza.

Leso sinqumo safika nje isikhathi esingaphezu kwenyanga ngemuva kokuthi ijaji laseSan Francisco liyalele uMonsanto ukuthi akhokhe amadola ayizigidi ezingama- $ 80 ku-Edwin Hardeman, naye owathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kokusebenzisa i-Roundup. Ehlobo eledlule, ijaji layalela uMonsanto ukuthi akhokhe u- $ 289 million kumgcini magceke uDewayne “Lee” Johnson owathola ukuxilongwa komdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa ukubulala ukhula eMonsanto emsebenzini wakhe.

U-Aimee Wagstaff, nowayengummeli ophethe ngokubambisana kuHardeman, kulindeleke ukuthi aqale icala likaGordon eSt. UWagstaff uthe uhlela ukubiza ososayensi abaningana beMonsanto ukuze bavele endaweni yamafakazi ukuze baphendule imibuzo phambi kwejaji.

Yena nabanye abameli abazama amacala aseCalifornia abakwazanga ukuphoqa abasebenzi baseMonsanto ukuthi bafakaze bukhoma ngenxa yebanga. Umthetho uhlinzekela ukuthi ofakazi abakwazi ukuphoqwa ukuthi bahambe ngaphezu kwamamayela ayi-100 noma baphume ezweni besuka lapho behlala noma basebenza khona.

Umhlangano wokulamula

Ukulahleka kwecala kushiye iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG bevinjezelwe. Abatshalizimali abathukuthele bacindezele amanani amasheya emazingeni aphansi cishe eminyakeni eyisikhombisa, esula amaphesenti angaphezu kwe-40 yenani lemakethe likaBayer.

Futhi abanye abatshalizimali bafuna ukuthi umphathi weBayer uWerner Baumann akhishwe ngenxa yokulwela ukutholwa kweMonsanto, eyavalwa ngoJuni wonyaka odlule njengoba icala lokuqala laliqhubeka.

Bayer ugcina ukuthi abukho ubufakazi obuvumelekile bokuthi umdlavuza ubangelwe yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, futhi uthi ukholelwa ukuthi uzophumelela uma kudluliswa icala. Kepha ijaji lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria iyale iBayer ukuqala izingxoxo zokulamula okuhloswe ngazo ukuxazulula inqwaba yamacala enkantolo ahlanganisa abamangali ababalelwa ku-13,400 e-United States kuphela.

Bonke abamangali bayizisulu zomdlavuza noma amalungu emindeni yabo futhi bonke basola ukuthi iMonsanto ibandakanyeka ezinhlobonhlobo zamasu akhohlisayo okufihla izingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa irekhodi lesayensi ngezifundo ezibhalwe ngemimoya, ukusebenzisana nabalawuli, nokusebenzisa abantu abangaphandle nezinhlangano ukukhuthaza ukuphepha kwemikhiqizo yayo kuyilapho kuqinisekiswa ukuthi kubonakale ngamanga ukuthi bezimele ngaphandle kwenkampani.

Ukulalelwa kukaMeyi 22 kubanjwa ngokwengxenye ukuchaza imininingwane yenqubo yokulamula. Bayer kukhombisile ukuthi izothobela lo myalo, kepha kungenzeka ingakakulungeli ukucubungula ukuxazululwa kwamacala yize kulahlekile enkantolo.

Khonamanjalo, amacala aqala e-United States eqe umngcele aya eCanada lapho umlimi waseSaskatchewan ehola khona icala lesenzo sesigaba ngokumelene neBayer neMonsanto benza izinsolo ezibonisa labo abasenkantolo yase-US.

“Indlovukazi Yomjikelezo”

U-Elaine Stevick wasePetaluma, eCalifornia kwakufanele abe ngowalandelayo abazothatha iMonsanto uma kuqulwa icala.

Kepha ngokomyalelo wakhe wokulamula, iJaji uChhabria uphinde washiya usuku lokuqulwa kwecala lakhe ngoMeyi 20. Usuku olusha lokuqulwa kwecala kuzobhungwa ngalo ekulalelweni kwamacala ngoLwesithathu.

UStevick nomyeni wakhe uChristopher Stevick wamangalela uMonsanto ngo-Ephreli ka-2016 futhi basho engxoxweni ukuthi balangazelele ukuthola ithuba labo lokubhekana nale nkampani ngomonakalo omkhulu abathi ukusetshenziswa kuka-Elaine ngeRoundup sekuwenzile empilweni yakhe.

Watholakala ngoDisemba 2014 eneminyaka engama-63 enezicubu eziningi zobuchopho ngenxa yohlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma olubizwa nge-central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL). U-Alberta Pilliod, osanda kuwina isivivinyo sakamuva kakhulu, ubuye waba nesimila ebuchosheni be-CNSL.

Lezi zithandani zathenga ikhaya elidala laseVictoria kanye nempahla ekhule ngokweqile ngo-1990 kanti ngenkathi uChristopher esebenza ekulungiseni ingaphakathi lendlu, umsebenzi ka-Elaine kwakuwukufafaza umbulali wokhula phezu kokhula no-anyanisi wasendle abashadikazi abathi bathatha ingxenye enhle yale ndawo.

Wafutha kaningi ngonyaka waze watholakala enomdlavuza. Akazange afake amagilavu ​​noma ezinye izingubo zokuzivikela ngoba wayekholelwa ukuthi iphephe njengokukhangiswa, esho.

UStevick okwamanje uxolile kodwa ucishe wafa ngesikhathi esisodwa ekwelashweni kwakhe, kusho uChristopher Stevick.

"Ngangimbiza ngokuthi 'indlovukazi yaseRoundup' ngoba wayehlala ehamba efutha izinto," utshele i-EHN.

Lo mbhangqwana uhambele izingxenye zombili zokulingwa kukaPilliod noHardeman, futhi uthe bayabonga iqiniso ngezenzo zikaMonsanto zokufihla ubungozi obuzobonakala emphakathini. Futhi bafuna ukubona iBayer neMonsanto beqala ukuxwayisa abasebenzisi ngezingozi zomdlavuza zeRoundup namanye ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate.

"Sifuna ukuthi izinkampani zibhekane nokuxwayisa abantu - noma ngabe kukhona ithuba lokuthi okuthile kungaba yingozi noma kube yingozi kubo, abantu kufanele baxwayiswe," kusho u-Elaine Stevick etshela i-EHN.