I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umlando Omude Wokukhathazeka
Izifundo Eziyinhloko Zesayensi ku-Aspartame
Imizamo ye-PR PR
Izinkomba Zesayensi

Imininingwane ebalulekile Ngokwe-Diet Soda Chemical 

Yini i-Aspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yi-sweetener esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iphinde idayiswe njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona kokungaphezulu kwe- 6,000 imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango nezinye iziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela; Imikhiqizo ye-Jell-O engenashukela; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kanye neminye imikhiqizo eminingi yezinsini ezingenashukela; Amaswidi aqinile angenashukela; iziphuzo ezinoshukela ophansi noma ongenashukela njengama-ketchups nokugqoka; imithi yezingane, amavithamini kanye namaconsi okukhwehlela.
  • I-Aspartame yikhemikhali lokwenziwa elenziwe ngama-amino acid phenylalanine ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Lapho idliwe, i-methyl ester yehla ibe yi-methanol, engaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka eyishumi yezifundo iphakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-Aspartame

Njengoba i-aspartame yaqala ukwamukelwa ngo-1974, bobabili ososayensi be-FDA kanye nososayensi abazimele baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona kanye nokushiyeka kusayensi ethunyelwe ku-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (IMonsanto ithenge iSearle ngo-1984).

Ngo-1987, i-UPI yashicilela uchungechunge lwama-athikili okuphenya nguGregory Gordon ebika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo, kufaka phakathi izifundo zakuqala ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nezinkinga zempilo, izinga elibi locwaningo oluxhaswe imboni olwaholela ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kanye nobudlelwano bomnyango obuzungezayo phakathi kwezikhulu ze-FDA kanye nemboni yokudla. Uchungechunge lukaGordon luyisisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuqonda umlando we-aspartame / NutraSweet:

Amaphutha ekuhlolweni kwe-European Food Safety Authority

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha ku-Archives of Health Public, Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseSussex banikeze ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwe-aspartame kwe-EFSA ngonyaka ka-2013 bathola ukuthi iphaneli linciphise njengokungathembeki esifundweni ngasinye kwezingu-73 ezikhombisa ukulimala, futhi lasebenzisa izindlela zokuxegisa kakhulu ukwamukela ukuthembeka okungu-84% wezifundo lokho akubutholanga ubufakazi bokulimala. "Uma kubhekwa ukushiyeka kokuhlolwa kobungozi be-aspartame kwe-EFSA, kanye nokushiyeka kwakho konke ukuhlolwa kwangaphambilini okuyingozi okusemthethweni kwe-aspartame, kungaphambi kwesikhathi ukuphetha ngokuthi kuphephile ngokwamukelekayo," kuphetha ucwaningo.

Bona Impendulo ye-EFSA nokulandelwa ngabaphenyi u-Erik Paul Millstone no-Elizabeth Dawson ku-Archives of Public Health, Kungani i-EFSA yehlise i-ADI yayo ye-aspartame noma yancoma ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kungabe kusavunyelwa? Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

  • Ochwepheshe bathi “isiphuzo sopopayi esithandwa kakhulu emhlabeni kufanele sinqatshelwe. Ochwepheshe ababili bezokuphepha kokudla bacele ukuthi iswidi yokufakelwa esetshenziswa kabanzi, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK futhi babuze ukuthi kungani kubonakale kwamukelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” I-New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufanele kumiswe': I-EFSA esolwa ngokwenzelela ekuhloleni ukuphepha," nguKaty Askew, I-Navigator Yezokudla (7.27.2019)

Imiphumela Yezempilo Nezifundo Eziyinhloko ku-Aspartame 

Ngenkathi izifundo eziningi, ezinye zazo zixhasiwe, azibikanga zinkinga nge-aspartame, inqwaba yezifundo ezizimele ezenziwa amashumi eminyaka zixhumanise i-aspartame nohlu olude lwezinkinga zempilo, kufaka phakathi:

Cancer

Ocwaningweni olunzulu lomdlavuza kuze kube yimanje nge-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zokuphila ezenziwa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center yeRamazzini Institute, zinikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bokuba nomdlavuza kumagundane adalulwe kulokho.

  • I-Aspartame “ingumenzeli we-carcinogenic onamandla amaningi, noma ngabe isilinganiso sansuku zonke se-… singaphansi kakhulu kokudla kwansuku zonke okwamukelekayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwempilo ka-2006 Impilo Yemvelo.1
  • Ucwaningo olulandelwayo ngo-2007 luthole ukwanda okuphathelene nomthamo okuphawulekayo kumaqhubu amabi kwamanye amagundane. "Imiphumela ... iqinisekisa futhi iqinisa ukubonakaliswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe- [aspartame's] okungajwayelekile kwe-carcinogenic ezingeni lomthamo eliseduze kokudla okwamukelekayo kwabantu nsuku zonke ... lapho ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila kuqala ngesikhathi sokuphila kwengane, imiphumela yayo ebanga umdlavuza iyanda," kubhala abacwaningi. phakathi Impilo Yemvelo.2
  • Imiphumela yocwaningo lwempilo yango-2010 "iqinisekisa ukuthi [i-aspartame] iyisakhi se-carcinogenic ezindaweni eziningi kumagundane, nokuthi lo mphumela wenziwa ezinhlotsheni ezimbili, amagundane (abesilisa nabesifazane) kanye namagundane (abesilisa)," kusho abacwaningi ku Ijenali YaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni.3

Abaphenyi baseHarvard ngo-2012 babika ubudlelwano obuhle phakathi kokudla kwe-aspartame kanye nengozi eyengeziwe ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ne-myeloma eminingi emadodeni, kanye ne-leukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Okutholakele "kugcina amathuba okuba nomthelela omubi ... kumdlavuza okhethiwe" kepha "akuvumeli isinqumo esiphume njengenhlanhla," kubhala abacwaningi ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.4

Encazelweni ka-2014 ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni, Abaphenyi be-Maltoni Center babhala ukuthi izifundo ezithunyelwe yi-GD Searle ukuze zivunyelwe emakethe “azihlinzeki ngosizo olwanele lwesayensi kwezokuphepha [kwe-aspartame]. Ngokuphambene nalokho, imiphumela yakamuva ye-life-span carcinogenicity bioassays kumagundane namagundane ashicilelwe kumajenali abuyekezwa ngontanga, kanye nocwaningo olulindelekile lwe-epidemiological, lunikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bamandla we-carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ngokwesisekelo sobufakazi bemiphumela engaba khona ye-carcinogenic… ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwesimo samanje sezinhlangano ezilawula umhlaba wonke kufanele kuthathwe njengendaba ephuthumayo yezempilo yomphakathi. ”5

Brain izimila

Ngo-1996, abacwaningi babika ku- Ijenali yeNeuropathology & Yokuhlola Neurology kubufakazi besifo esixhuma ukwethulwa kwe-aspartame ekwandeni kohlobo olunolaka lwamathumba anobuchopho. "Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izinto ezithinta ezemvelo ezixhunyaniswe nezicubu zobuchopho, i-aspartame yokufakelwa ingumlingisi othembisayo ochaza ukwanda kwamuva kwesimo kanye nezinga lokulimala kwezicubu zobuchopho… Siphetha ngokuthi kunesidingo sokuhlaziya amandla we-aspartame we-carcinogenic."6

  • Isazi sezinzwa uDkt John Olney, ongumlobi oholayo wocwaningo, utshele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kube nokwanda okumangazayo kwezehlakalo zamathumba anobuchopho (eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kulandela ukuvunyelwa kwe-aspartame)… kunesisekelo esanele sokusola i-aspartame ukuthi kumele ihlolwe kabusha. I-FDA idinga ukuyihlola kabusha, kulokhu, i-FDA kufanele ikwenze kahle. ”

Izifundo zakuqala ze-aspartame ngawo-1970 zathola ubufakazi bamathumba obuchopho ezilwaneni zaselebhu, kepha lezo zifundo azilandelwanga.

Izifo Zezinhliziyo 

Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners wokufakelwa, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”7 Bona futhi:

  • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
  • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 ku I-Physiology nokuziphatha kubika, “kukhona ukuhlangana okuvusa amadlingozi phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo lwezilwane kanye nenqwaba yezifundo ezinkulu, zesikhathi eside zokuhlola kubantu, ekutholeni ukukhuphuka kwesisindo, ukuthambekela, ukubhebhetheka kokukhuluphala, ingozi ye-cardiometabolic, kanye nokufa okuphelele phakathi kwabantu abantu abanokuchayeka okungapheli, nsuku zonke kumakhemikhali anekhalori eliphansi - futhi le miphumela iyakhathaza. ”8

Abesifazane abaphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwezimbili zokudla ngosuku “babenobungozi obukhulu bezifo [zenhliziyo nemithambo yegazi]… [isifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi] ukufa… kanye nokufa jikelele,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2014 lweWomen Health Initiative olushicilelwe ku I-Journal of General Medicine Internal.9

Unhlangothi, Dementia kanye Izifo ze-Alzheimer

Abantu abaphuza i-soda yokudla nsuku zonke cishe babenamathuba aphindwe kathathu okuba nesifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo njengalabo abasiphuza masonto onke noma ngaphansi. Lokhu kufaka ingozi enkulu yokushaywa yischemic, lapho kuthinteka khona imithambo yegazi ebuchosheni, kanye nesifo sengqondo i-Alzheimer's dementia, okuyindlela ejwayelekile yokuwohloka komqondo, kubika i Ucwaningo luka-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona futhi: Ividiyo yaseBoston University School of Medicine ocwaningweni olwenziwe yisazi sezinzwa uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetshenziswa Kwansuku Zonke KwamaSodas, Iziphuzo Zezithelo kanye Nama-Sodas Okungelona Owenziwe Kuthinta Ingqondo.”
  • "Ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-diet soda engcupheni ephezulu yokushaywa yisifo sohlangothi, ukuwohloka komqondo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-methyl ester ese-aspartame ihlangana nayo i-methanol bese-ke ingaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, exhunywe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ucwaningo oluyizingxenye ezimbili olushicilelwe ngo-2014 ku I-Journal yezifo ze-Alzheimer kuxhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwe-methanol engapheli ekulahlekelweni kwememori kanye nezimpawu ze-Alzheimer's Disease kumagundane nezinkawu.

  • "Amagundane aphethwe yi-ethanol anikezwe izimpawu ezifana ne-AD… Lokhu okutholakele kunezela ebuningini obukhulayo bobufakazi obuxhumanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Ingxenye 1)11
  • "Ukudla [i-ethanol] kudale ushintsho oluhlala isikhathi eside noluphikelelayo lwezifo olwaluhlobene [nesifo i-Alzheimer's]… lokhu okutholakele kusekela ubufakazi obandayo obuxhumanisa i-methanol ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo [isifo se-Alzheimer's] pathology." (Ingxenye 2)12

ukuquleka

“I-Aspartame ibonakala inyusa inani le-EEG spike wave ezinganeni ezinokuquleka okungekho. Izifundo ezengeziwe ziyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ngabe lo mphumela wenzeka ngamanani aphansi nakwezinye izinhlobo zokuquleka, ”ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1992 ku Neurology.13

I-Aspartame “inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuquleka ezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola izinto ezithinta… izehlakalo zokubanjwa,” ngokocwaningo lwango-1987 ku Impilo Yemvelo.14

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-aspartame “kungaphazamisa namathuba okuhlaselwa ngabantu abangenazimpawu kodwa abangenayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1985 I-Lancet. Ucwaningo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababephilile ngaphambili ababenesifo sokuwa okukhulu ngesikhathi besebenzisa imithamo ephezulu ye-aspartame.15

I-Neurotoxicity, Ukulimala kobuchopho kanye nokuphazamiseka kwemizwelo

I-Aspartame ixhunyaniswe nezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuqonda kubandakanya nezinkinga zokufunda, ikhanda, ukuquleka, i-migraines, imizwa ecasulayo, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, nokuqwasha, kubhale abacwaningi besifundo se-2017 ku I-Neuroscience Yezempilo. "Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Aspartame kudinga ukuthintwa ngokuqapha ngenxa yemiphumela engaba khona empilweni ye-neurobehavioral."16

“I-aspartame yomlomo ishintshe kakhulu ukusebenza, isimo sokulwa ne-oxidant kanye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kumagundane; futhi, kungenzeka ukuthi idale i-hippocampal neurogenesis yabantu abadala, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2016 I-Neurobiology yokufunda neyeMemori.17 

“Phambilini, kuye kwabikwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kungadala ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa nokuziphatha kubantu ababucayi. Ukuphathwa yikhanda, ukuqwasha nokuquleka nakho kungeminye yemithelela yezinzwa eke yabhekana nayo, ”kusho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngo-2008 ku I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "Siphakamisa ukuthi ukungenisa ngokweqile kwe-aspartame kungabandakanyeka ekutholakaleni kwezifo ezithile zengqondo… kanye nasekufundeni okweqile nasekusebenzeni ngokomzwelo."18 

"(N) izimpawu zezemvelo, kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokufunda nezinkumbulo, kungenzeka zihlobene nokugxila okuphezulu noma okunobuthi kwe-sweetener [aspartame] metabolites," kusho ucwaningo lwango-2006 ku Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha.19

I-Aspartame "ingaphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi ilimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala," ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2000 olushicilelwe ku Izincwadi Zobuthi.20

"(Mina) nabantu abanezinkinga zemizwelo bazwela kakhulu kulesi sithambisi sokuzenzela futhi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kulesi sibalo kufanele kungadikibali," kusho ucwaningo lwango-1993 kwiphephandaba. Ijenali ye-Biological Psychiatry.21

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-aspartame “kungadala ushintsho olukhulu emithanjeni yegazi,” kubika ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1984 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.22

Ukuhlolwa kukhombise ukulimala kobuchopho kumagundane ezingane kulandela ukungeniswa ngomlomo kwe-aspartate, futhi kukhombisa ukuthi "i-aspartate [inobuthi] kubuthi begundane ezinganeni emazingeni aphansi kakhulu okudla ngomlomo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1970 ku Nature.23

Izinsizwa ze-Head and Migraines

“I-Aspartame, isiphuzo esidumile sokudla, ingacasula ikhanda kwabanye abantu abasengozini. Lapha, sichaza izigameko ezintathu zabesifazane abasebasha abane-migraine ababika ukuthi bangaphathwa yikhanda ngokuhlafuna inhlaka engenashukela equkethe i-aspartame, ”kusho iphephandaba lango-1997. Ikhanda Journal.24

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo eshicilelwe ngo-1994 ku Neurology, “Inikeza ubufakazi bokuthi, phakathi kwabantu abanezinhlungu zokuzibika eziphathwa ikhanda ngemuva kokuminza i-aspartame, i-subset yaleli qembu ibika amakhanda amaningi lapho ihlolwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala sengathi abanye abantu bathinteka kakhulu ekhanda elibangelwa i-aspartame futhi bangafuna ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo. ”25

Ucwaningo lweziguli eziyi-171 eMontefiore Medical Center Headache Unit luthole ukuthi iziguli ezine-migraine “zibike i-aspartame njenge-precipitant kaninginingi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunalezo ezinezinye izinhlobo zekhanda… Siphetha ngokuthi i-aspartame ingaba yinto ebalulekile yokudla ikhanda kwabanye abantu, ”1989 isifundo ku Ikhanda Journal.26

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo kumvamisa namandla we-migraines "kukhombise ukuthi ukungena kwe-aspartame ngama-migraineurs kubangele ukwanda okukhulu kokuvama kwekhanda kwezinye izifundo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1988 ku Ikhanda Journal.27

Umsebenzi Wezinso Uyancipha

Ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakalo ezingaphezu kwezimbili ngosuku lwesoda eyenziwe ngoshukela “kuhlotshaniswa nokungezwani okuphindwe kabili kokuncipha kokusebenza kwezinso kwabesifazane,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2 ku I-Clinical Journal ye-American Society of Nephrology.28

Ukuzuza Isisindo, Ukudla okwengeziwe kanye nokukhuluphala Izinkinga Ezihlobene

Izifundo eziningana zixhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala. Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso: Ukudla kweSoda Chemical Okuboshwe Ekuzuzeni Isisindo.

Le sayensi exhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwemikhiqizo equkethe i-aspartame njengokudla "noma izinsiza zokwehlisa isisindo. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission futhi FDA ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo. Bheka izindaba ezihlobene ukumboza, impendulo evela ku-FTC, Futhi impendulo evela ku-FDA.

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame ihlukaniswa ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo) ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism. Kulolu cwaningo, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini abo okuphuza athola isisindo esiningi futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-metabolic syndrome ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kwesisindo esilindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."29

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

Ocwaningweni olwalandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela kanye neziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. “Izindlela eziqinile zokubeka engcupheni i-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuwo wonke ama-quartiles e- ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinhlobo zombili zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku- I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.31

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."33

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku I-PLOS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”34

 Ukukhulelwa Okungajwayelekile: Ukuzalwa Kwangaphambi kwesikhathi 

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2010 lweqembu lama-59,334 labesifazane abakhulelwe baseDenmark elishicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic, "Bekukhona ukuhlangana phakathi kokutholwa kweziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngoshukela nezingezona ezekhaboni kanye nengozi enkulu yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi." Ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuphuza nsuku zonke iziphuzo ezithambile ezinoshukela kungenza ingozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi."35

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Downing Diet Soda Iboshelwe Ekuzalweni Ngaphambi Kokuzalwa," ngu-Anne Harding, I-Reuters (i-7.23.2010)

Izingane Ezikhuluphele

Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobuciko ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kuxhunyaniswe nenkomba yomzimba ephezulu yezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2016 I-JAMA Pediatrics. "Ngokwazi kwethu, sinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bomuntu bokuthi ukusetshenziswa komama okokunandisa okokufakelwa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungathonya i-BMI yezinsana," kubhala abacwaningi.36

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Diet Soda Ekukhulelweni Ixhunyaniswe Nezingane Ezikhuluphele ngokweqile," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini kokuqala

I-National Heart, Lung, ne-Blood Institute Growth and Health Study ilandele amantombazane we-1988 iminyaka eyishumi ukuhlola izinhlangano ezingaba phakathi kokudla ushukela one-caffeine nongeyona i-caffeine- neziphuzo ezithambile ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nokuya esikhathini kokuqala. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela bekuhlanganiswa nobungozi bokushesha ukuya esikhathini eqenjini laseMelika lamantombazane ase-Afrika aseMelika naseCaucasus," kuphetha ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngo-10 ku Ijenali ye-American Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukulimala Kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okuphawulekayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda kwezilwane eziphathwa njenge-aspartame kubonwe uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kanye nokulawulwa kwe-MTX," ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi ama-aspartame metabolites angaba nomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative ku-epididymal sperm."38

Ukulimala Kwesibindi Nokuqedwa KweGlutathione

Ucwaningo lwegundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo I-Redox Biology kubika, "Ukuphathwa okungapheli kwe-aspartame… kubangele ukulimala kwesibindi kanye namazinga anciphisiwe we-glutathione ancishisiwe, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kanye ne-metabolites eminingi yendlela ye-trans-sulphuration…"39

Ucwaningo lwamagundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo Ucwaningo Lokudla kutholakale ukuthi, “Ukudla okuphuzwayo okungatheni noma i-aspartame okubangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kanye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia… Kutholakale izinguquko ezimbalwa zesakhiwo se-cytoarchitecture esibindini, kufaka phakathi ukonakala, ukungena, i-necrosis, ne-fibrosis, ikakhulu i-aspartame. Le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ukuphuza isikhathi eside isiphuzo esiphuzo noma ukulimala kwe-aspartame okubangelwa i-aspartame kungahle kulandelwe ngokufakwa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqongelela i-lipid, kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwama-adipocytokines. ”40

Isexwayiso sabantu abasengozini

Ukubuyekezwa kwemibhalo yango-2016 kuma-sweeteners okufakelwa ku- I-Indian Journal ye-Pharmacology kubika, “kukhona okungahambelani ubufakazi bokusekela iningi lokusetshenziswa kwabo kanye nolunye ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwaveza nokuthi lezi zinzuzo ebezikhona ngaphambili… kungenzeka zingabi yiqiniso. ” Abantu abasolayo njengabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, izingane, abanesifo sikashukela, i-migraine kanye neziguli ezinesifo sokuwa “kufanele basebenzise le mikhiqizo ngokuqapha okukhulu.”41

Imizamo Yezimboni PR namaqembu angaphambili 

Kusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamuva iMonsanto neNutraSweet Company) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR anolaka ukumaketha i-aspartame njengomkhiqizo ophephile. Ngo-Okthoba 1987, uGregory Gordon kubikwe ku-UPI:

"INutraSweet Co. ibuye ikhokhe imali efinyelela ku- $ 3 million ngonyaka ngomzamo wokuxhumana nomphakathi wabantu abayi-100 ngamahhovisi aseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owake wasebenza enkampanini ye-PR eNew York. Isisebenzi sathi uBurson Marsteller uqashe ososayensi nodokotela abaningi, imvamisa eba ngu- $ 1,000 XNUMX ngosuku, ukuvikela isinambitheka ezingxoxweni zabezindaba nakwezinye izinkundla zomphakathi. UBurson Marsteller wenqabile ukuxoxa ngezinto ezinjalo. ”

Ukubika kwakamuva okususelwa emibhalweni yangaphakathi embonini kuveza ukuthi izinkampani zeziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola nazo zikhokhela kanjani izithunywa ezivela eceleni, kufaka phakathi odokotela nososayensi, ukuthi bathuthukise imikhiqizo yabo futhi basuse icala lapho isayensi ibophezela imikhiqizo yabo ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

Bona ukubikwa kuka-Anahad O'Connor kufayela le- New York Times, UCandice Choi kufayela le- Associated Press, nokutholakele kusuka ku- Uphenyo lwe-USRTK mayelana nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha kashukela nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Izindatshana zezindaba mayelana nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini yesoda:

Buka konke izindaba zezindaba mayelana ne-aspartame:

AmaSpredishithi Eqiniso e-USRTK

Imibiko ngamaqembu angaphambili nemikhankaso ye-PR

Izinkomba Zesayensi

[1] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Degli Esposti D, Lambertini L, Tibaldi E, Rigano A. "Ukuboniswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwemiphumela eminingi ebanga umdlavuza ye-aspartame enikezwe kokuphakelwa kwamagundane eSprague-Dawley." Umbono Wezempilo We-Environ. 2006 Mar; 114 (3): 379-85. I-PMID: 16507461.esihlokweni)

[2] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. "Ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila emazingeni aphansi e-aspartame aqala ngesikhathi sokubeletha kwandisa imiphumela yomdlavuza kumagundane." Umbono Wezempilo We-Environ. 2007 Septhemba; 115 (9): 1293-7. I-PMID: 17805418.esihlokweni)

[3] Soffritti M et al. "I-Aspartame ehlinzekwa ekudleni, iqala ngokubeletha isikhathi eside sokuphila, inciphisa umdlavuza wesibindi namaphaphu kumagundane angamaduna aseSwitzerland." Am J Ind Med. UDisemba ka-2010; 53 (12): 1197-206. I-PMID: 20886530. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[4] Schernhammer ES, Bertrand KA, Birmann BM, Sampson L, Willett WC, Feskanich D., "Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphungumzimba sokufakelwa-- nesoda equkethe ushukela kanye nengozi ye-lymphoma neleukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. 2012 Dis; 96 (6): 1419-28. I-PMID: 23097267.abstract / esihlokweni)

[5] Soffritti M1, Padovani M, Tibaldi E, Falcioni L, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F., "Imiphumela ye-carcinogenic ye-aspartame: Isidingo esiphuthumayo sokuhlolwa kabusha komthetho." Am J Ind Med. 2014 Ephreli; 57 (4): 383-97. i-doi: 10.1002 / ajim.22296. I-Epub 2014 Jan 16. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[6] U-Olney JW, uFarber NB, uSpitznagel E, uRobins LN. "Ukwenyuka kwamazinga ama-tumor ebuchosheni: ingabe kukhona ukuxhumana ne-aspartame?" UJ Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Nov; 55 (11): 1115-23. PMID: 8939194. (I-PMID)abstract)

[7] U-Azad, Meghan B., et al. Ama-sweeteners angenamsoco kanye nempilo ye-cardiometabolic: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile nokuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe kanye nezifundo ezizayo zeqembu. I-CMAJ July 17, 2017 vol. 189 cha. I-28 doi: I-10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[8] I-Fowler SP. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-sweetener yekhalori ephansi nebhalansi yamandla: Imiphumela evela ezifundweni zokuhlola ezilwaneni, nasezifundweni ezinkulu ezenzelwe abantu. UPhysiol Behav. 2016 Okthoba 1; 164 (Pt B): 517-23. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2016.04.047. I-Epub 2016 Ephreli 26. (abstract)

[9] UVyas A et al. "Ukusetshenziswa Kokuphuza Okudliwayo Nengozi Yemicimbi Yezinhliziyo: Umbiko ovela kwi-Women's Health Initiative." J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Ephreli; 30 (4): 462-8. i-doi: 10.1007 / s11606-014-3098-0. I-Epub 2014 Dec 17. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[10] UMatthew P. Pase, PhD; UJayandra J. Himali, PhD; I-Alexa S. Beiser, i-PhD; UHugo J. Aparicio, MD; UClaudia L. Satizabal, PhD; URamachandran S. Vasan, MD; USudha Seshadri, MD; UPaul F. Jacques, DSc. “Iziphuzo ezinoshukela nezenziwe ngendlela engeyona eyokuzenzela kanye nobungozi besifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo. Isifundo Seqembu Elilindelekile. ” Unhlangothi. 2017 Ephreli; I-STROKEAHA.116.016027 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[11] Yang M et al. "Isifo i-Alzheimer's and Methanol Toxicity (Ingxenye 1): Ukondliwa KweMethanol Okungalapheki Kuholele Ekukhubazekeni Kwememori naseTau Hyperphosphorylation Kumagundane." UJ Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Ephreli 30. (abstract)

[12] Yang M et al. "Isifo i-Alzheimer's and Methanol Toxicity (Ingxenye 2): Izifundo Esizithola Ku-Four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Engapheli Yondla iMethanol." UJ Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Ephreli 30. (abstract)

[13] UCamfield PR, uCamfield CS, uDooley JM, uGordon K, uJollymore S, uWeaver DF. "I-Aspartame ikhulisa ukuphuma kwe-EEG spike-wave ezinganeni ezinesifo sokuwa jikelele: isifundo esilawulwa izimpumputhe." Neurology. Ngo-1992 uMeyi; 42 (5): 1000-3. I-PMID: 1579221.abstract)

[14] UMaher TJ, uWurtman RJ. "Imiphumela engaba khona yemizwa ye-aspartame, isithasiselo sokudla esisetshenziswa kakhulu." Umbono Wezempilo We-Environ. 1987 uNov; 75: 53-7. I-PMID: 3319565.abstract / esihlokweni)

[15] UWurtman RJ. "I-Aspartame: umphumela ongaba khona ekuthini utholakale kalula." I-Lancet. 1985 Novemba 9; 2 (8463): 1060. I-PMID: 2865529.abstract)

[16] UChoudhary AK, u-Lee YY. "Izimpawu ze-Neurophysiological ne-aspartame: Yini ukuxhumana?" UNutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15: 1-11. i-doi: 10.1080 / 1028415X.2017.1288340. (abstract)

[17] Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ, Nwoha PU. "I-Aspartame ne-hippocampus: Ukudalula ukuguquguquka kokuziphatha kanye nokwesimo sokuncika kwamagundane." I-Neurobiol Funda uMem. 2017 Mar; 139: 76-88. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.nlm.2016.12.021. I-Epub 2016 Dec 31. (abstract)

[18] UHumphries P, uPretorius E, uNaudé H. "Imiphumela yeselula eqondile nengaqondile ye-aspartame ebuchosheni." Umsoco we-Eur J Womtholampilo. 2008 Ephreli; 62 (4): 451-62. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[19] UTsakiris S, uGiannoulia-Karantana A, uSimintzi I, uSchulpis KH. "Umphumela wama-metabolites we-aspartame emsebenzini womuntu we-erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase." IPharmacol Res. 2006 uJan; 53 (1): 1-5. I-PMID: 16129618 (.abstract)

[20] Ipaki CH et al. "I-Glutamate ne-aspartate kuphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi kulimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala." I-Toxicol Lett. 2000 Meyi 19; 115 (2): 117-25. PMID: 10802387. (I-PMID)abstract)

[21] UWalton RG, Hudak R, Green-Waite R. "Ukusabela okungahambi kahle ku-aspartame: inselelo ephindwe kabili ezigulini ezivela kubantu abasengozini." J. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Julayi 1-15; 34 (1-2): 13-7. I-PMID: 8373935. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[22] UYokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. "Imiphumela ye-aspartame nokuphathwa kwe-glucose emazingeni obuchopho ne-plasma ama-amino acid amakhulu angathathi hlangothi nobuchopho ama-5-hydroxyindoles." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. Ngo-1984 uJul; 40 (1): 1-7. I-PMID: 6204522.abstract)

[23] U-Olney JW, Ho OL. "Ukulimala Kobuchopho Emagundeni Ezinsana Ngokulandela Ukutholwa Ngomlomo kweGlutamate, i-Aspartate noma iCysteine." Imvelo. Ngo-1970 u-Aug 8; 227 (5258): 609-11. I-PMID: 5464249 (.abstract)

[24] IBlumenthal HJ, iVance DA. "Ukuhlafunwa yinsini." Ubuhlungu bekhanda. 1997 uNov-Dec; 37 (10): 665-6. I-PMID: 9439090. (I-PMID)abstract/esihlokweni)

[25] UVan den Eeden SK, uKoepsell TD, uLongstreth WT Jr, u-van Belle G, uDaling JR, uMcKnight B. "Ukungeniswa kwe-Aspartame kanye nekhanda: isilingo esingahleliwe." Neurology. 1994 Okthoba; 44 (10): 1787-93. I-PMID: 7936222. (I-PMID)abstract)

[26] ILipton RB, iNewman LC, uCohen JS, uSolomon S. "I-Aspartame njengesisusa sokudla sekhanda." Ubuhlungu bekhanda. 1989 Feb; 29 (2): 90-2. I-PMID: 2708042.abstract)

[27] Koehler SM, Glaros A. "Umphumela we-aspartame ekhanda le-migraine." Ubuhlungu bekhanda. Ngo-1988 uFebhu; 28 (1): 10-4. I-PMID: 3277925. (I-PMID)abstract)

[28] UJulie Lin noGary C. Curhan. "Izinhlangano zeShukela kanye ne-Artificially Sweetened Soda ne-Albuminuria ne-Kidney Function Yehla Kwabesifazane." Umtholampilo J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 uJan; 6 (1): 160-166. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[29] UGul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Ukuvinjelwa kwe-enzyme yamathumbu i-alkaline phosphatase yamathumbu kungachaza ukuthi i-aspartame ikukhuthaza kanjani ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose nokukhuluphala kwamagundane." I-Appl Physiol Nutrab Metab. 2017 uJan; 42 (1): 77-83. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. I-Epub 2016 Nov 18. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[30] USusan E. Swithers, "Amaswidi okufakelwa akhiqiza umphumela wokuphikisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba." Amathrendi we-Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Septhemba; 24 (9): 431–441. (esihlokweni)

[31] UGuy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezinoshukela ezenziwe ngoshukela noshukela nohlobo lwesigameko sesifo sikashukela e-Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale – European Prospective Investigation ku-Cancer and Nutrition cohort." Ngingu-J Clin Nutriti. 2, uJan 2013; i-doi: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (abstract/esihlokweni)

[32] USuez J et al. "Amaswidi okwenziwa enza ukungabekezelelani koshukela ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota." Imvelo. 2014 Okthoba 9; 514 (7521). I-PMID: 25231862.abstract / esihlokweni)

[33] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokungabekezelelani okukhulu kweglucose kubantu abakhuluphele ngokweqile." I-Appl Physiol Nutrab Metab. 2016 Julayi; 41 (7): 795-8. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. I-Epub 2016 Meyi 24. (abstract)

[34] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Low-Dose Aspartame Ukusetshenziswa ngokuhlukile kuthinta ukusebenzisana kwe-Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic kuRat-Induced Obese Rat. I-PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (esihlokweni)

[35] IHalldorsson TI, iStrøm M, uPeteren SB, u-Olsen SF. "Ukudla iziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nengozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi: isifundo sabantu abazoba ngamaqoqo kwabesifazane abakhulelwe abangama-59,334." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. 2010 Sep; 92 (3): 626-33. I-PMID: 20592133. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[36] UMeghan B. Azad, PhD; Atul K. Sharma, MSc, MD; URussell J. de Souza, RD, ScD; et al. "Ukuhlangana Phakathi Kokusetshenziswa Kwesiphuzo Esenziwe Ngokwenziwe Ngesikhatsi Sokukhulelwa Nesikhombi Semisa Yomzimba Yezinsana." I-JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170 (7): 662-670. (abstract)

[37] UMueller NT, uJacobs DR Jr, iMacLehose RF, uDemerath EW, uKelly SP, uDreyfus JG, uPereira MA. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela kuhlotshaniswa nengozi yokuya esikhathini ekuqaleni." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. 2015 Septhemba; 102 (3): 648-54. i-doi: 10.3945 / ajcn.114.100958. I-Epub 2015 Julayi 15. (abstract)

[38] UAshok I, Poornima PS, Wankhar D, Ravindran R, Sheeladevi R. Int J Impot Res. 2017 Ephreli 27. doi: 10.1038 / ijir.2017.17. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[39] Finamor I, Pérez S, Bressan CA, Brenner CE, Rius-Pérez S, Brittes PC, Cheiran G, Rocha MI, da Veiga M, Sastre J, Pavanato MA., "Ukudla okungapheli kwe-aspartame kubangela ushintsho ku-trans- indlela yokuqhaqhazela, ukuncipha kwe-glutathione nokonakala kwesibindi kumagundane. ” I-Redox Biol. 2017 Ephreli; 11: 701-707. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.redox.2017.01.019. I-Epub 2017 Feb 1. (abstract/esihlokweni)

[40] ULebda MA, uTohamy HG, u-El-Sayed YS. "Isiphuzo esithambile sesikhathi eside nokudla kwe-aspartame kubanga ukulimala kwesibindi ngokusebenzisa ukungahanjiswa kahle kwama-adipocytokines kanye nokuguqulwa kwesimo se-lipid nesimo se-antioxidant." I-Nutr Res. 2017 Ephreli 19. pii: S0271-5317 (17) 30096-9. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.nutres.2017.04.002. [I-Epub ngaphambi kokuphrinta] (abstract)

[41] USharma A, u-Amarnath S, uThulasimani M, uRamaswamy S. "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa njengezinto ezithatha indawo kashukela: Ingabe ziphephile ngempela?" I-Indian J Pharmacol 2016; 48: 237-40 (esihlokweni)

I-IFIC: Ukudla Okukhulu Kakhulu Kuphikisa Kanjani Izindaba Ezimbi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know neminye imithombo ikhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke (IFIC), iqembu lezentengiselwano elixhaswe izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nezolimo, kanye "nengalo yalo yezemfundo yomphakathi" engenzi nzuzo Isisekelo se-IFIC. Amaqembu e-IFIC aqhuba izinhlelo zocwaningo nezokuqeqesha, akhiqiza izinto zokumaketha futhi axhumanise amanye amaqembu embonini ukuxhumana nomkhakha wezokuphepha mayelana nokuphepha kokudla nokondleka. Ukulayeza kufaka phakathi ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ushukela, ukudla okusetshenzwe, okokunandisa okokufakelwa, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza wezibulala-zinambuzane weMonsanto

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sendlela i-IFIC ebambisana ngayo nezinkampani ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezolimo kanye nokuphazamisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza, lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-IFIC njenge- “Umlingani wezimboni” ohlelweni lobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iqembu labacwaningi ngomdlavuza leWorld Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze “kuvikelwe isithunzi” seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IMonsanto ibhale i-IFIC njengoMlingani “wezimboni” weTier 3 kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla.

IFICIC izama kanjani ukudlulisa umyalezo wayo kwabesifazane.

La maqembu akhonjwa njengengxenye “yethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement” elingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugoma” likaMonsanto ngombiko womdlavuza we-glyphosate.

AmaBlogs kamuva athunyelwa ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-IFIC khombisa ukuthunyelwa kweqembu "ungakhathazeki, sethembe" imiyalezo kwabesifazane. Okungenayo kufaka phakathi, “izindlela eziyi-8 zobuhlanya abazama ukukwesabisa ngazo ngezithelo nemifino,” “Ukusika imfuhlumfuhlu ku-glyphosate,” nokuthi “Ngaphambi kokuba sidangele, ake sibuze ochwepheshe… ochwepheshe bangempela.”

Abaxhasi bezinkampani

I-IFIC isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 22 esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu kusukela 2013-2017, ngenkathi i-IFIC Foundation ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5 kuleyo minyaka emihlanu, ngokusho kwamafomu entela afakwe kwi-IRS. Izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni asekela i-IFIC, ngokusho kwe- ukudalulwa komphakathi, kufaka phakathi i-American Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kanye nePepsiCo.

Amarekhodi wentela esalungiswa e-IFIC Foundation, atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso, uhlu lwezinkampani ezixhase iqembu 2011, 2013 noma zombili: I-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Coca-Cola, i-ConAgra, i-General Mills, i-Kellogg, i-Kraft Foods, i-Hershey, i-Mars, i-Nestle, i-PepsiCo ne-Unilever. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US unikeze i-IFIC Foundation imali engu- $ 177,480 yabakhokhi bentela e 2013 ukukhiqiza "umhlahlandlela wezokuxhumana”Yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-IFIC iphinde icele imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso ethile yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Le imeyili ka-Ephreli 28, 2014 kusuka kumphathi we-IFIC kuya kuhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yezinkampani ucela iminikelo engu- $ 10,000 yokuvuselela i- "Understanding our Food" isinyathelo ukwenza ngcono ukubukwa kwabathengi kokudla okusetshenzisiwe. I-imeyili ibhala abasekeli bezimali bangaphambilini: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo neDuPont.

Kukhuthaza ama-GMO ezinganeni zesikole

IFIC iqondisiwe Amaqembu we-130 nge Ukubambisana Ukondla Ikusasa emizamweni yokuthumela imiyalezo "yokuthuthukisa ukuqonda" ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka phakathi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, lo Umkhandlu Wokulawulwa Kwekhalori, the Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla kanye ne-The Nature Conservancy.

I-Alliance to Feed the Future inikeze ngezifundo zamahhala zemfundo ukufundisa abafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kufaka phakathi “Isayensi Yokondla Umhlaba”Kothisha be-K-8 kanye ne-“Ukuletha i-Biotechnology empilweni”Zamabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezinsizakalo ze-IFIC's PR

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know unikeze umuzwa wokuthi i-IFIC isebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuze ivule izindaba ezimbi futhi ivikele imikhiqizo yabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani.

Ixhuma izintatheli kososayensi abakhokhelwa yimboni  

  • Meyi 5, 2014 imeyili kusuka kuMat Raymond, umqondisi omkhulu wezokuxhumana, uxwayise ubuholi be-IFIC kanye "neqembu lezingxoxo zabezindaba" "ngezindaba ezisezingeni eliphakeme lapho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona manje" ukusiza ukuhambisa izindaba ezingezinhle, kufaka phakathi ukuphendula i-movie ethi Fed Up. Uphawule ukuthi baxhume intatheli yeNew York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, uchwepheshe wethu odumile emkhakheni woshukela. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqembu elincane lososayensi abafundile baseCanada abathole amakhulu ezinkulungwane oxhaso kubenzi beziphuzo ezithambile, izinhlangano zokuhweba ngokudla okuhlanganisiwe kanye nomkhakha kashukela, okwenza izifundo nezihloko zemibono ezivame ukuqondana nezintshisekelo zalawo mabhizinisi, ” ngokusho kweNational Post.
  • Ama-imeyili avela ku- 2010 futhi 2012 ziphakamisa ukuthi i-IFIC incike eqenjini elincane lososayensi abaxhunywe embonini ukubhekana nezifundo eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Kuwo womabili ama-imeyili, uBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngubani uthole izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO, kweluleka i-IFIC ukuthi ingaphendulwa kanjani ezifundweni eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

Isikhulu seDuPont siphakamisa isu lobuchule lokulwa nemibiko yabathengi

  • Phakathi ku Februwari 3, 2013 imeyili, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqembu lobudlelwano nabezindaba" ukuthi Imibiko Yabathengi ibike ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela wezemvelo wama-GMO. UDoyle Karr, Umqondisi wenqubomgomo ye-biotechnology kaDuPont nephini likamongameli webhodi ye Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, wathumela i-imeyili kusosayensi onombuzo ngemibono yokuphendula, futhi waphakamisa ukubhekana Nemibiko Yabathengi ngaleli qhinga lokwenza okuthile: nezitatimende ze- (Consumer Reports ') mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela kwezemvelo. ?? ”

Ezinye izinsizakalo ze-PR IFIC inikeza embonini

  • Kusabalalisa amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini edukisayo: April 25, 2012 thumela kumalungu ayi-130 e-Alliance Ukondla Ikusasa “egameni lelungu le-Alliance Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa ” yathi uhlelo lokuvota lwaseCalifornia lokufaka ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo “lungavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi ezinkulungwane emikhiqizo yokudla eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuthi inamalebula akhethekile.”
  • Ibhekana nezincwadi ezibucayi ngokudla okusetshenzisiwe: February 20, 2013 I-imeyili ichaza isu le-IFIC lokuphotha izincwadi ezimbili ezigxeka imboni yezokudla, “Usawoti, Ushukela, Amafutha” kaMichael Moss, kanye ne “Lunchbox kaPandora” kaMelanie Warner. Izinhlelo zazihlanganisa ukubhala ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ukusabalalisa izindawo zokukhuluma kanye "nokuhlola ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ukuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zedijithali kulinganiswa ubukhulu bokusabalala." Ku-imeyili kaFebhuwari 22, 2013, umphathi we-IFIC welulela izifundiswa ezintathu - URoger Clemens wase-University of Southern California, UMario Ferruzzi wasePurdue University futhi UJoanne Slavin wase-University of Minnesota - ukubacela ukuthi batholakalele izingxoxo nabezindaba mayelana nezincwadi. I-imeyili inikeze izifundiswa izifinyezo zalezi zincwadi ezimbili nezindawo zokukhuluma ze-IFIC ezivikela ukudla okwenziwe. “Sizokuthokozela ukuthi nihlanganyele noma yimaphi amaphuzu athile okuxoxa ngezindaba ezithile zesayensi eziphakanyiswe ezincwadini,” kusho i-imeyili evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, iphini likamongameli omkhulu we-IFIC wezokudla nokuvikeleka kokudla.
  • Ucwaningo nocwaningo ukusekela izikhundla ezimbonini; isibonelo esisodwa ngocwaningo lwango-2012 olathola ukuthi abathengi abangama-76% “abakwazi ukucabanga nganoma yini eyengeziwe abangathanda ukuyibona kulebula” esetshenziswa amaqembu embonini ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.
  • “Ungakhathazeki, sethembe” izincwajana zokumaketha, njenge lena echaza ukuthi izithasiselo zokudla nemibala akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo. Amakhemikhali nodayi “babambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekwehliseni ukusweleka okukhulu kwabathengi,” ngokusho kwencwajana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano sokubambisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

okokuqala kuthunyelwe ngoMeyi 31, 2018 futhi kuvuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

I-American Council on Science and Health iyiCorporate Front Group

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kubuyekezwe ngoJulayi 2019

I-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) kuzibiza "inhlangano yokukhuthaza abathengi abathengi besayensi" kanye nabezindaba bavame ukucaphuna iqembu njengomthombo ozimele wesayensi; kodwa-ke, imibhalo echazwe kuleli qiniso ibonisa ukuthi i-ACSH iyiqembu eliphambili lezinkampani elicela imali ezinkampanini zikagwayi, zamakhemikhali, zezimonyo, zemithi kanye nezinye ukuze zivikele futhi zithuthukise imikhiqizo yazo. Leli qembu alizidaluli izimali zalo.

Imibhalo esemqoka:

  • Ama-imeyili avela ku-2015 akhishwe ngokutholakala aveza lokho IMonsanto exhaswe yi-ACSH futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi siza ukuvikela i-glyphosate.
  • Imibhalo yezimali eputshukile kusukela ngo-2012 kusungulwa ukuthi i-ACSH icela imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Abanikeli bahlanganisa izinkampani eziningi ezahlukahlukene kanye namaqembu ezimboni.
  • Ama-imeyili asuka ku-2009 khombisa ukuthi i-ACSH icele ama- $ 100,000 kwaSyngenta ukuthi babhale iphepha futhi babhukhe ngomuthi wokubulala izinambuzane waseSyngenta. Ngo-2011, i-ACSH yakhipha i- incwadi kaJon Entine kufana nephrojekthi echazwe ku-imeyili.
  • ISyngenta neMonsanto bebelokhu benikela njalo ku-ACSH kule minyaka edlule, ama-imeyili akhombisa.

IMonsanto ixhasa i-ACSH ukuvikela imikhiqizo yeMonsanto

Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngo-Ephreli 2019 aveza lokho IMonsanto yavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ngo-2015 futhi ngacela iqembu ukuthi lisize ukuvikela i-glyphosate ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza okuphakanyiswe yi-International Agency for Research. I-ACSH ivumile ukwenza lokho, kwathi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi yahlasela lo mbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi “ukukhwabanisa kwesayensi. ” Ama-imeyili akhanyisa ukuthembela kwe-ACSH emalini yezinkampani kanye nemizamo yokujabulisa abaxhasi bayo. Owayengumphathi obambile we-ACSH uGil Ross (ngubani wachitha isikhathi ejele Ukukhwabanisa kweMedicaid) wabhalela isikhulu seMonsanto, "Usuku nosuku, sisebenza kanzima ukukhombisa ukubaluleka kwethu ezinkampanini ezinjengeMonsanto." URoss wabhala:

Ama-imeyili akhombisa lokho Abaphathi beMonsanto bakhokha i-ACSH yize bengaphathekile kahle eqenjini. Ohola phambili kwezesayensi kwaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein waphokophela i-ACSH kozakwabo, futhi wabathumela izixhumanisi ezihlokweni ezingama-53 ze-ACSH, izincwadi ezimbili kanye nokubuyekezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane akuchaze ngokuthi “KUSEBENZISA KAKHULU.” UGoldstein wabhala:

Isidlali esiyinhloko kunethiwekhi yenkulumo-ze kaMonsanto

Uphenyo oluthola imiklomelo olwenziwe nguLe Monde eMonsanto “impi nesayensi”Ukuvikela i-glyphosate eqanjwe i-American Council on Science and Health phakathi kwamawebhusayithi“ we-propaganda awaziwayo ”adlale indima enkulu ekuhlaseleni ososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza. NgoMeyi 2017, abameli babamangali abamangalela uMonsanto mayelana nokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza we-glyphosate Kusho kafushane: “IMonsanto ifaka buthule imali 'yamathangi okucabanga' njenge 'Genetic Literacy Project' kanye 'ne-American Council on Science and Health,' izinhlangano ebezihlose ukuhlazisa ososayensi nokuqhakambisa imininingwane ewusizo eMonsanto nakwabanye abakhiqizi bamakhemikhali.”

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know aveza ukuthi iMonsanto yaqala yakhetha i-ACSH ukuthi ishicilele uchungechunge lwamaphepha e-pro-GMO anikezwa osolwazi nguMonsanto futhi "athengiswa" yinkampani ye-PR ukuze ibakhuthaze kakhulu njengabazimele. Isikhulu seMonsanto u-Eric Sachs ubhalele osolwazi: “Ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amaphepha anomthelela omkhulu, i-American Council for Science and Health ibambisene neCMA Consulting ukuqhuba lo msebenzi. Izinqubomgomo zenqubomgomo ezigcwalisiwe zizonikezwa kuwebhusayithi ye-ACSH… i-CMA ne-ACSH nayo izothengisa ngezifinyezo zenqubomgomo, kufaka phakathi ukwakhiwa kwezinto ezithile zemidiya, ezinjenge-op-eds, ukuthunyelwa kwama-blog, izingxoxo zokuxoxa, imicimbi, ama-webinar, njll. ” I- ekugcineni amaphepha ashicilelwa by Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwendima kaMonsanto.

Phakathi ku umbiko ovela eNdlu yabamele i-US, abaphenyi bebandla bathi iMonsanto isebenzisa “amaqembu ezentengiselwano, njengeCropLife namaqembu aphambili embonini, njengeGenetic Literacy Project kanye ne-Academics Review njengamapulatifomu okusekela abakhulumela imboni.”

Imibhalo ye-ACSH evuzayo iveza isu lezezimali lezokuvikela

U-2012 oputshukile Isifinyezo sezezimali se-ACSH ibikwe umama Jones uveze ukuthi i-ACSH ithole uxhaso kwinani elikhulu lezinkampani kanye namaqembu ezimboni anengxenye yezezimali ekuthumeleni imiyalezo i-ACSH ikhuthaza - futhi ikhombise ukuthi i-ACSH icela kanjani iminikelo yenkampani yemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Isibonelo, idokhumenti ichaza:

  • Izinhlelo zokufaka iVinyl Institute “ngaphambili eyayisekela umbiko we-chlorine nowezempilo”
  • Izinhlelo zokufaka izinkampani zokudla ngomkhankaso wemiyalezo wokuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO
  • Izinhlelo zokufaka izinkampani zezimonyo ukulwa "nengcindezi yokuguqula kabusha" eMkhankasweni Wezokuphepha Eziphephile
  • Imizamo yenkantolo yezinkampani zikagwayi neze-e-cigaret

UMama Jones ubike ukuthi, "Abanikeli be-ACSH kanye nalabo abangabaxhasa iqembu bekulokhu kubhekiswe kubo ukuthi ngubani-ngubani wezamandla, ezolimo, izimonyo, ukudla, i-soda, amakhemikhali, amakhemikhali, kanye nezinkampani zikagwayi." Imininingwane yezimali:

  • Abaxhasi be-ACSH engxenyeni yesibili yonyaka ka-2012 bahlanganisa i-DRM, Coca-Cola, iBristol Myers Squibb Foundation, uDkt Pepper / Snapple, Bayer Cropscience, Procter noGamble, Syngenta, 3M, McDonald's, kanye ne-coconferate e-Altria. I-ACSH iphinde yafuna ukwesekwa kwezezimali yiPepsi, Monsanto, British American Tobacco, DowAgro, ExxonMobil Foundation, Philip Morris International, Reynolds American, i-Koch elawulwa ngumndeni uClaude R. Lambe Foundation, i-Dow-linked Gerstacker Foundation, iBradley Foundation neSearle Freedom Ukwethemba.
  • UReynolds American noPhillip Morris International yibona ababengabanikeli abakhulu kunabo bonke ababalulwe kule mibhalo.

Ukuxhaswa kweSyngenta, ukuzivikela kweSyngenta

Ngo-2011, i-ACSH yashicilela incwadi ekhuluma nge “chemophobia” eyabhalwa nguJon Entine, manje ongumqondisi omkhulu we IGenetic Literacy Project, elinye iqembu eliphambili lokho kusebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi ka-Entine's ACSH ivikele i-atrazine, isibulala-zinambuzane esenziwe yiSyngenta, ebixhasa i-ACSH.

A 2012 Isihloko sikaMama Jones ichaza izimo eziholela encwadini. Ichazwa indatshana kaTom Philpott, esekwe ngokwengxenye emibhalweni yenkampani yangaphakathi etholwe yiCentre for Media and Democracy Imizamo kaSyngenta PR ukuthola ababambisene nabo abavela eceleni ukusakaza izindaba zabezindaba we-atrazine.

Ngesinye imeyili kusuka ngo-2009, Abasebenzi be-ACSH bacele iSyngenta imali eyengeziwe engu- $ 100,000 - “ehlukile futhi ehlukile kunokwesekwa kokusebenza okujwayelekile iSyngenta ibilokhu inikela ngokukhululeka eminyakeni edlule” - ukukhiqiza iphepha elilungele i-atrazine kanye ne "ncwajana elungele abathengi" ukusiza ukufundisa abezindaba nososayensi.

I-imeyili evela emsebenzini ka-ASCH uGil Ross eya eSyngenta mayelana nephrojekthi ye-atrazine ehlongozwayo:

Ngemuva konyaka nohhafu, i-ACSH yashicilela incwadi ka-Entine ngokukhishwa kwabezindaba lokho kuzwakala kufana nephrojekthi uRoss echazwe kweyakhe ukucela i-imeyili eSyngenta: “UMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo uyajabula ukumemezela incwadi entsha nomngane wephepha lokuma elinobungane, elifushanisiwe” ngokuphendula “ukwesaba okungenangqondo kwamakhemikhali.” Umbhali uJon Entine ubuphikile ubudlelwano bakhe noSyngenta futhi watshela uPhilpott ukuthi “akazi” ukuthi uSyngenta uxhasa i-ACSH.

Abasebenzi be-ACSH

  • Isikhathi eside se-ACSH “UMqondisi Wezokwelapha / Ophethe" UDkt Gilbert Ross utholwe enecala lokuqola uhlelo lweMedicaid ngaphambi kokujoyina i-ACSH. Bona imibhalo yasenkantolo mayelana nokuningi kukaDkt. Ross ukulahlwa ngamacala okukhwabanisa futhi ukugwetshwa, nendatshana kuMama Jones “Kufaka uDkt Ross”(2005). UDkt. Ross watholakala "engumuntu ongathembeki kakhulu" yijaji elasekela ukukhishwa kukaDkt Ross eMedicaid iminyaka eyishumi (bheka okungeziwe izinkomba futhi umbhalo wenkantolo).
  • Ngo-Juni 2015, Hank campbell uthathe ubuholi be-ACSH kusuka esebenza Umongameli (futhi owalahlwa yicala) UDkt Gilbert Ross. UCampbell usebenzile izinkampani ezithuthukisa ama-software ngaphambi kokuqala iwebhusayithi iScience 2.0 ngo-2006. Ngo incwadi yakhe yango-2012 no-Alex Berezow, "Isayensi Ishiywe Ngemuva: Zizwa Amanga Ahle kanye Nokuphakama Kwesobunxele Kwesayensi," uCampbell uchaza imvelaphi yakhe: "eminyakeni eyisithupha eyedlule… nginqume ukuthi ngifuna ukubhala isayensi kwi-Intanethi ... ngaphandle kwentshiseko nomqondo, ngaya emhlabeni abantu abadumile ngokungisiza ngakhe kabusha indlela isayensi engenziwa ngayo, futhi bakwenza mahhala. ” UCampbell uhambe ngokuzumayo ngaphansi kwezimo ezingaziwa ngoDisemba 2018. Funda kabanzi mayelana neCampbell lapha.
  • Umbhali wencwadi kaCampbell, U-Alex Berezow, manje usekela mongameli wezindaba zesayensi e-ACSH. Ungumhleli wokusungula weReal Clear Science futhi usebhodini labahleli be-USA Today kodwa yi-USA Today ayikudaluli ukuhlangana kwe-ACSH neBerezow noma uxhaso lwezinkampani lwe-ACSH yize kunezikhalazo eziphindaphindwayo (imininingwane eminingi ngezansi).

Abaholi nabeluleki: izibopho zikagwayi nokwenqatshelwa kwesayensi yezulu  

I-ACSH ibhodi labaphatheli kuhlanganisa UFred L. Smith Jr., umsunguli we-Competitive Enterprises Institute, ohola phambili umgqugquzeli wokwenqatshelwa kwesayensi yezulu neqembu eline ithole izigidi zamaRandi kusuka ku-Exxon Mobile kanye imoto yokuxhasa ngemali emnyama Abaxhasi Trust.  USmith no-CEI futhi banomlando wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi nokucela imali embonini kagwayi, ngokusho kwemibhalo evela ku Ingobo yomlando ye-UCSF yeQiniso leMboni kaGwayi. 

UJames Enstrom futhi UGeoffrey Kabat, odokotela bezifo ezimbili abathathe imali ezinkampanini zikagwayi babhala izifundo bavikela imikhiqizo kagwayi, nabo banobudlelwano be-ACSH. UDkt Enstrom uyilungu le-ACSH ibhodi labaphatheli futhi uDkt. Kabat usebenzaibhodi lezempilo labeluleki besayensi“. Bobabili ososayensi “banezixhumano ezinde zezezimali nobunye bokusebenzisana nomkhakha kagwayi,” ngokusho kuka- iphepha ku-BMJ Tobacco Control.

Ngo-2003 ocashunwe kabanzi iphepha kwaBMJ, Kabat nase-Enstrom baphethe ngokuthi intuthu kagwayi ayikhuphuli ingozi yomdlavuza wamaphaphu nesifo senhliziyo. Ucwaningo beluxhaswe ngokwengxenye yiCentre for Indoor Air Research (CIAR), okuyiqembu lomkhakha kagwayi. Yize leyo mali yadalulwa, kwalandelwa ukuhlaziywa ku-BMJ Tobacco Control kutholakale ukuthi ukudalulwa ngu-Enstrom noKabat “akuzange kunikeze umfundi isithombe esigcwele sokubandakanyeka kwemboni kagwayi nababhali bezocwaningo.” Leli phepha lichaza izibopho eziningi zezezimali phakathi kwe-Enstrom nemboni kagwayi.

I-Enstrom iziphikisile lezi zimangalo ku- I-athikili ka-2007 ku-Epidemiological Perspectives and Innovation, ephikisa ngokuthi ukuxhaswa kwakhe nezintshisekelo ezincintisanayo kuchazwe ngokusobala nangendlela efanele ephepheni leBMJ lango-2003, nokuthi imali yezimboni zikagwayi ayizange ibe nomthelela ocwaningweni lwakhe. "Kuze kube manje, akukho okungahambi ngendlela, ukwenzelela noma ukungenzi okuthile okutholakele ohlelweni lokubuyekeza futhi akukho phutha emiphumeleni ekhonjwe ephepheni," kusho u-Enstrom.

Ama-imeyili avela ku-2014 afaka uDkt Enstrom ekhuluma nomphiki odumile wesayensi yezulu uFred Singer imibono yoku ukuhlasela nokudicilela phansi ososayensi ababili ababebambe iqhaza kule filimu “Abathengisi Bokungabaza: Indlela Ososayensi Abambalwa Abalitholile Ngayo Iqiniso Ezindabeni Ezisuka Emoyeni Wogwayi Kuya Ekushiseni Komhlaba Wonke, ”Nokuthi uzama yini ukumisa ukukhishwa kwefilimu ngecala. Ngeminye imininingwane, bona ibhulogi yakwaDeSmog, “Isibhamu Sikagwayi Sokuqasha UJames Enstrom, uWillie Ngokushesha kanye Nabahlaseli Besimo Sezulu Bahlasela Abathengisi Bokungabaza”(Mashi 2015).

UDkt Kabat futhi usebhodini labaqondisi lenhlangano yabazali ye- I-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu eliphambili esebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngenkathi ithi izimele. Funda kabanzi ngomsebenzi wakhe ekhasini lethu lamaqiniso, Izibopho zikaGeoffrey Kabat kumaQembu Wezimboni Zikagwayi Namakhemikhali

Izitatimende ezingalungile ngesayensi 

UMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo ubanga ukuthi:

  • "Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi ukuhogela intuthu kagwayi kuhlanganisa ukuhlaselwa yinhliziyo noma ukuboshwa kwenhliziyo." Ijenali kaWinston-Salem, 2012
  • “Akukho ukuvumelana okungokwesayensi mayelana nokufudumala kwembulunga yonke.” ACSH, 1998 (IGreenpeace ine kuchazwe i-ACSH iqembu lokuqala "lokuphika isimo sezulu seKoch Industries")
  • "Akukaze kube nezehlakalo zokugula ezihlobene nokusetshenziswa nokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kuleli." Umtapo Wezincwadi Zikagwayi, i-UCSF, Intuthuko Yokubumbana Kwesayensi Yomsindo ikhasi lombhalo 9, 1995
  • "Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi i-BPA [bisphenol A] emikhiqizweni yanoma yiluphi uhlobo, okubandakanya amarisidi erejista yemali, iyingozi empilweni." ACSH, 2012
  • ukuchayeka kwi-mercury, i-neurotoxin enamandla, “ekudleni kwasolwandle okuvamile akulimazi abantu.” ACSH, 2010.

Imiyalezo yakamuva ye-ACSH iyaqhubeka esihlokweni esifanayo, iphika ubungozi obuvela emikhiqizweni ebalulekile kumakhemikhali, ugwayi nezinye izimboni, nokwenza ukuhlaselwa kaningi kososayensi, izintatheli nabanye abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka.

  • I-2016 "top junk science" iposi nge-ACSH iyaphika ukuthi amakhemikhali angadala ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine; ivikela i-e-cigarettes, vaping ne-soda; futhi ihlasela izintatheli kanye neJenali ye-American Medical Association.

I-USA Namuhla inika i-ACSH ipulatifomu 

I-USA Today iyaqhubeka nokushicilela amakholomu ngabasebenzi be-ACSH uHank Campbell no-Alex Berezow ngaphandle kokudalula izibopho zabo zokuxhasa ngezimali ezinkampanini ezivikela izintshisekelo zazo. NgoFebhuwari 2017, Amaqembu ezempilo, ezemvelo, ezabasebenzi kanye nezintshisekelo zomphakathi ezingama-30 ubhalele abahleli be-USA Today ecela leli phepha ukuthi liyeke ukunikeza i-ACSH iplatifomu esemthethweni noma okungenani linikeze ukudalulwa okugcwele mayelana nokuthi ngubani oxhasa iqembu.

Incwadi ithi:

  • “Sibhala sizwakalisa ukukhathazeka kwethu ngokuthi i-USA Today iyaqhubeka nokushicilela amakholomu abhalwe ngamalungu e-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), okuyiqembu elixhaswe ngezinkampani elinomlando omude wokukhuthaza ama-ajenda ezinkampani aphikisana nesayensi enkulu . I-USA Today akufanele isize leli qembu liphakamise ubunikazi balo obungamanga njengomthombo othembekile, nozimele kusayensi. Abafundi bakho bafanelwe ulwazi olunembile mayelana nokuthi leli qembu limele ini nokuthi ngubani, njengoba becabanga ngokuqukethwe yikholomu. ”
  • “Lezi akuzona izinsolo ezingenamsebenzi. Amaqembu amaningi asayinwe ngaphansi kwezempilo, ezemvelo, ezabasebenzi kanye nezintshisekelo zomphakathi abelandela umsebenzi we-ACSH eminyakeni edlule. Sizibhale phansi izimo lapho iqembu lisebenze khona dicilela phansi isayensi yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu, nokuphika izinsongo zezempilo ezihambisana nemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi intuthu kagwayiukukhwabanisaizibulala-zinambuzane futhi industrial Amakhemikhali - konke ngaphandle kokucaca mayelana nabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani. ”
  • Siyakuqaphela lokho zezimali amadokhumenti okutholwe nguMama Jones kukhombisa ukuthi i-ACSH ithole uxhaso ezinkampanini zikagwayi, zamakhemikhali, zemithi nezikawoyela. Amaqembu anentshisekelo yomphakathi anakho kubika ukuthi i-ACSH ithole uxhaso kwiKoch Foundations phakathi kuka-2005-2011, futhi yakhululwa imibhalo yangaphakathi okukhombisa ukuthi i-ACSH yacela ama- $ 100,000 kwaSyngenta ngo-2009 ukuthi ibhale kahle ngomkhiqizo wayo i-atrazine - umnikelo owawuzobekwa “uhlukane futhi uhluke ekusekelweni okujwayelekile kokusebenza kweSyngenta bekulokhu kunikelwa ngokukhululeka eminyakeni edlule.”
  • “Ngesikhathi lapho umphakathi ungabaza ukuba semthethweni kwemithombo yezindaba, sikholwa ukuthi kubalulekile ukuthi izincwadi ezifana ne-USA Today zilandele imigomo ephakeme kakhulu yokuziphatha kwezintatheli futhi zisebenzele umphakathi ngeqiniso elikhulu nangokusobala ngangokunokwenzeka. Sikucela ngenhlonipho ukuthi uyeke ukushicilela ezinye izinhlu ezibhalwe amalungu e-American Council on Science and Health, noma okungenani zidinga ukuthi abantu babone le nhlangano ngokunembile njengeqembu elixhasa ngezimali lenkampani. ”

Kusukela ngoDisemba 2017, umhleli wekhasi labahleli be-USA Today uBill Sternberg wenqabile ukumisa ukushicilela amakholomu e-ACSH kanti nephepha selinikezele kaninginingi ukudalulwa okunganembile noma okungaphelele kwamakholomu, futhi wehluleka ukwazisa abafundi bawo ngezimali ze-ACSH ezivela ezinkampanini ezikhuthaza uhlelo lwazo.

I-Grocery Manufacturers Association - amaqiniso asemqoka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifinyezo


* I-GMA yiqembu elihola phambili lezokuhweba embonini yokudla okungenamsoco

* I-GMA ifihla uhlu lwamalungu ayo ezinkampani

I-GMA itholwe inecala lokushushumbisa imali

Umthetho ophikisayo wokulwa nobugqila bezingane

* Ngaphandle kokuthinta: Amaphesenti angama-93 amaMelika asekela ukufakwa ilebula kwe-GMO, kepha i-GMA iyaphikisana nakho

Simelana nokulebula okuyisibopho kokudla, sisekela ukulawulwa kokuzithandela

Izinkulumo ezihlanzekile zokuqeda ukukhuluphala kwengane

Ukusetshenziswa okusekelwayo kwe-rBST / rBGH obisini, i-hormone yokufakelwa evinjelwe e-EU / Canada

Uxhaswe umkhankaso wamanga wokulwa ne-ethanol

I-GMA Ifihla Uhlu Lwezinkampani ZamaLungu Wenkampani

IGMA ayisazibhalisi izinkampani ezingamalungu ayo kuwebhusayithi yayo. Nalu uhlu lwakamuva olutholakala esidlangalaleni lwe- [Amalungu e-GMA. Iwebhusayithi ye-GMA nge-archive.org, efakwe kungobo yomlando 12/23/13]

UMongameli we-GMA Wenza imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 2 Million ngonyaka

Kusukela ngoJanuwari 2009, uPamela Bailey usebenze njengoMongameli kanye ne-CEO yeGrocery Manufacturers Association. Kusukela ngo-Ephreli 2014, uBaley wenza amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-2.06 ngonyaka. [Isiphathimandla sikahulumeni, 4/14] UBailey umemezele ngo-2018 ukuthi uzothatha umhlalaphansi ngemuva kweminyaka eyishumi elawulwa yiGMA. [I-Grocer eqhubekayo, 2 / 12 / 2018]

I-GMA Ithole Inecala Lokukhwabanisa Imali

Ngo-Okthoba 2013, uMmeli Jikelele waseWashington State uBob Ferguson wafaka icala elibhekisa kwi-GMA ngokutholakala kwemali ngokungemthetho. Leli cala lisola ukuthi i-GMA “iqoqe ngokungemthetho futhi yachitha imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyisikhombisa ngesikhathi ivikela abanikeli bayo.” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-Attorney General, 10 / 16 / 13]

Ngo-2016, i-GMA yatholwa inecala lokushushumbisa imali yayalelwa ukuthi ikhokhe u- $ 18 million, okukholakala ukuthi iyinhlawulo ephezulu kakhulu yokwephula umkhankaso wezezimali emlandweni wase-United States. [USeattle PI, 11/2/2016]

I-GMA Yembula Abanikeli Ngaphansi Kwengcindezi, Ibonisa Ngaphezu Kwemali Eyisigidi Esigidini ngasinye kusuka kwaPepsi, Nestle, naseCoca-Cola

Ngo-Okthoba 2013, i-GMA yakhipha uhlu lwayo lwabaxhasi ngaphansi kwengcindezi, ikhombisa ukuthi uPepsi, uNestle, noCoca-Cola ngamunye wanikela ngaphezu kwe- $ 1 million.

“IGrocery Manufacturers Association ngoLwesihlanu iveze ukuthi uPepsiCo, Nestle USA kanye neCoca-Cola ngamunye unikele ngeminikelo efihlekile engaphezulu kuka- $ 1 million emkhankasweni wokulwa nomkhankaso waseWashington ozodinga ukufakwa ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Usoseshini uvumile ukubeka emphakathini uhlu olude lwabanikeli emkhankasweni wabo wokulwa nokufakwa kophawu ngemuva kokumangalelwa kuleli sonto nguMmeli Jikelele waseWashington uBob Ferguson. ” [The Oregonian, 10 / 18 / 13]

I-GMA Isolwa Ngokufihla Izigidi Zamadola Ngaphezu Kokukholelwa Ekuqaleni

NgoNovemba 2013, uMmeli Jikelele uFerguson uchibiyele isikhalazo sokuqala ukuthi sikhuphuke sisuka ku- $ 7.2 million saya ku- $ 10.6 million isamba okusolwa ukuthi sasifihlwa yiGMA. [Times Seattle, 11 / 20 / 13; Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-Attorney General, 11/20/13]

I-Counter-Suit Egcwalisiwe Ifuna Ukungavumeli Imithetho Yomkhankaso Wezezimali Edinga Ukudalulwa Kwabaxhasi

NgoJanuwari 2014, i-GMA yaphendula enkantolo yaseWashington Attorney General ngecala elibhekene nokufuna ukwenza imithetho yezimali yomkhankaso wombuso ingasebenzi mayelana nokudalulwa kwabaxhasi.

“Ngemuva kokuzama ukuthonya ngasese imiphumela yevoti ku-Initiative 522, iGrocery Manufacturers Association manje isiphonsela inselelo imithetho yezimali yomkhankaso kahulumeni. NgoJanuwari 3, i-GMA yaphendula enkambisweni yokudalulwa komkhankaso weWashington State Attorney General emelene neGMA ngencwadi ephikisayo. I-GMA iphinde yafaka isikhalazo esihlukile samalungelo omphakathi ngokumelene noMmeli Jikelele waseWashington State uBob Ferguson. I-GMA ithi uFerguson uphoqelela umthetho waseWashington ngokungqubuzana nomthethosisekelo futhi uphonsela inselelo umthethosisekelo wokuthi iGMA ibhalise njengekomiti lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokucela nokwamukela iminikelo yokuphikisana ne-Initiative 522, okuyisinyathelo ebesizodinga ukuthi kubhalwe ukudla kokudla okunofuzo. ” [I-Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1 / 13 / 14]

Umthetho Wezimangalo we-GMA Ofuna Ukudalulwa Kwabaxhasi kwakungavumelani noMthethosisekelo

Ukuphikiswa kweGMA kubanga ukuthi ukucelwa ukuthi udalule abanikeli bayo akuhambisani nomthethosisekelo.

“Kuleli cala eliphikisayo nelamalungelo omphakathi, i-GMA ithi lokhu okulandelayo akuhambisani nomthethosisekelo njengoba kusetshenzisiwe kuleli cala: Umthetho waseWashington ofuna iGMA ifake ikomidi lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokuqoqa izimali kumalungu ayo ukwenza umsebenzi othile wezepolitiki eWashington; Umthetho waseWashington odinga ukuthi i-GMA idalule izinhlangano ezinikele esikhwameni sayo sezombusazwe esikhethekile nokuthi zinikele ngamalini; nomthetho waseWashington odinga ukuthi i-GMA ivikele imali engu- $ 10 yeminikelo kubavoti abayi-10 abahlukene ababhalisiwe baseWashington njengengxenye yekomidi layo lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokunikela elinye ikomidi lezepolitiki. [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kweWashington State Office of the Attorney General, 1/13/14]

Ijaji Linqabe Umzamo Wokuchitha Icala NgoJuni 2014

NgoJuni 2014, iJaji laseThurston County uChristine Schiller wenqaba isiphakamiso esivela kwi-GMA sokuchitha icala elibhekene nokushintshana ngemali.

IJaji laseThurston County ngoLwesihlanu liyichithile imizamo yeGrocery Manufacturers Association yokuchitha icala lapho uMmeli Jikelele wombuso uBob Ferguson esola khona isigungu esizinze eWashington, DC ngokukhwabanisa izigidi zamadola emkhankasweni owedlule. … Ijaji uChristine Schaller usichithile isicelo sososeshini sokuchitha icala. "Isinqumo sanamuhla siyisinyathelo esibalulekile emsebenzini wethu wokubopha iGrocery Manufacturers Association ngecala lokufihla umkhankaso elikhulu kunawo wonke emlandweni waseWashington," kusho uFerguson. [I-Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 6 / 13 / 14]

Icala Lezinqumo Lommeli Jikelele we-Attorney Lizoqhubeka Lizame

Ngemuva kwesinqumo seJaji uSchaller, uMmeli Jikelele uBob Ferguson uthe icala le-GMA lizoqhubeka nokuqulwa kwecala "ngokufanele."

“[IJaji uChristina] Schaller usichithile isicelo sokuthi sichithwe, wanquma ukuthi imithetho yomkhankaso wezezimali yomkhankaso edinga ukuthi kusungulwe ikomidi lezepolitiki nokudalulwa okuhlobene nakho kusetshenziswe ngokomthethosisekelo kuleli cala. Icala manje lizoqhubekela phambili ngokufaneleka kwalo. ” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kweWashington State Office of the Attorney General, 6/13/14]

UMthethosivivinywa Ophikisayo Oveze Ukuqashwa Kwezingane Okufana Nezigqila Emasimini Okhokho

Ngokusho the Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, ngo-2001 i-GMA, kanye nomkhakha woshokoledi, baphoqelela umthetho we-US Congress owawuzodalula imikhuba efana nokugqilazwa kwezingane emasimini kakhokho e-Afrika. [Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, 8 / 1 / 01]

Umthetho ohlongozwayo ubuyimpendulo yophenyo lweKnight Ridder oluthola ukuthi abanye abafana abancane abaneminyaka eyi-11 bayathengiswa noma bakhohliswe ebugqilini bokuvuna ubhontshisi we-cocoa e-Ivory Coast, izwe laseNtshonalanga Afrika elinikezela ngamaphesenti angama-43 kakhokho wase-US. UMnyango Wezwe walinganisela ukuthi zingama-15,000 izingane eziyizigqila ezisebenza emapulazini kakhokho, kakotini nekhofi e-Ivory Coast. [Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, 8 / 1 / 01, Isevisi Yokucwaninga Nge-DRM, 7/13/05]

I-GMA iphelelwe yisikhathi: Amaphesenti angama-93 aseMelika asekela ilebula…

Ngokusho the New York Times ngo-2013, “abaseMelika bakusekela kakhulu ukufaka ilebula kokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo noma okwenziwe, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe yiNew York Times kulo nyaka, ngamaphesenti angama-93 abaphendulile abathi kufanele kudalulwe ukudla okunezithako ezinjalo.” [New York Times, 7 / 27 / 13]

… Kodwa i-GMA iphikisana nemithetho yokuphoqeleka yokuphawula

NgoJuni 2014, i-GMA nezinye izinhlangano ezintathu zomkhakha wezokudla baphonsela inselelo umthetho waseVermont odinga ukuthi amalebula okudla akhombe imikhiqizo enezithako ze-GMO.

“Namuhla, iGrocery Manufacturers Association (GMA), kanye neSnack Food Association, i-International Dairy Foods Association kanye neNational Association of Manufacturers, bafaka isimangalo enkantolo yesifunda eVermont bephikisana nomthetho ophoqelela ukufakwa kophawu lweGMO. I-GMA ikhiphe lesi sitatimende ngokuhlangana nokugcwaliswa okusemthethweni. ” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-GMA, 6/13/14]

I-Federal Ban esekelwayo ku-State GMO Labeling Laws

Ngo-Ephreli 2014, i-GMA yakhuthaza ukuvinjelwa kombuso emithethweni yezwe ukuthi kudinge ukuphawulwa okuyimpoqo kwe-GMO.

“Imidondoshiya embonini yezokudla yaseMelika echithe izigidi zabantu ilwa nemizamo yombuso nezwe yokugunyaza amalebuli amasha ezinto ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo bathatha ikhasi kubaphikisi babo futhi bafuna umthetho wesifundazwe we-GMO. Kodwa iGrocery Manufacturers Association, emele abaholi bokudla neziphuzo abanjengoConAgra, uPepsiCo noKraft, ayihlangani ncamashi nenhlangano elwa ne-GMO. Kunconywa ukuthi kube nomthetho ovumela imboni, umthetho onezinga lokuzithandela - okuyisinyathelo izishoshovu zokudla ezikubona njengokuthathwa kwamandla yimboni eye yazama ukubulala imizamo yokufaka amalebuli e-GMO. ” [I-Politico, 1 / 7 / 14]

Umthethosivivinywa Wowezi-2014 Wethulwe Ukuvimbela Izwe Ekufuneni Amalebula E-GMO

Ngo-Ephreli 2014, kwafakwa umthethosivivinywa eCongress ozovimbela amazwe ukuthi enze imithetho yabo yokufaka ilebula ye-GMO.

“Umthethosivivinywa owethulwe ngoLwesithathu uzobeka uhulumeni wesifundazwe ekuphathweni kokwengamela ukufakwa kwelebheli lokudla ngezithako ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ukuvimbela amazwe ukuthi enze imigomo yawo yokulawula izithako ezinempikiswano. … Kodwa amaqembu abathengi athembisa ukuthi bazolwa nomthetho, abawubona njengomzamo wokubukela phansi imizamo yokudlulisa izinhlelo zokuvota zombuso ezigunyaza ukubhalwa kwemikhiqizo eminingi enezithako ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo. ” [USA Today, 4 / 9 / 14]

UMongameli we-GMA Ubizwa Ngokuthi Ukunqotshwa Kwesakhiwo 37 “Okubaluleke Kakhulu Kakhulu”

Ngo-2012, uMengameli we-GMA uPam Bailey wathi ukwehlula iProp 37 kwaba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwi-GMA ngonyaka ka-2012.

"Enkulumweni yakamuva eya e-American Soybean Association (iningi lasoya elitshalwe e-US liguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo), uMongameli weGrocery Manufacturers Association uPamela Bailey uthe ukwehlula lolu hlelo 'yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwi-GMA kulo nyaka.'” [Huffington Post, 7 / 30 / 12]

Isekela Ngokuzithandela, Akuphoqelekile, Ukulebula Kokudla

Ngo-2014: I-GMA ne-Food Marketing Institute Yethulwe Umkhankaso Wokulebula Ngokuzithandela wama- $ 50 Million

NgoMashi 2014, i-GMA kanye neFood Marketing Institute baqala umkhankaso wokumaketha ongu- $ 50 million wokuqhakambisa uhlelo lwamaqiniso lokudla okunomsoco lwemboni.

“Imboni yokudla ibonakala ilungele ukuhlanganyela ekuphathweni kuka-Obama ngokwethula umkhankaso wezindaba kuzwelonke wokuqhakambisa amalebula ayo okunomsoco ngaphambili kwamaphakeji okudla. IGrocery Manufacturers Association kanye neFood Marketing Institute, ezimele izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nabathengisi, bazokhipha umkhankaso wokumaketha ohlangene, basebenzise imali engango- $ 50 million, ngoMsombuluko ukukhuthaza i-'Finance Up Front 'yabo, uhlelo lokuzithandela lomkhakha ngokunikeza imininingwane yokudla okunempilo ngaphambili kwamaphakeji okudla neziphuzo, I-POLITICO ufundile. ” [I-Politico, 3 / 1 / 14]

I-GMA icindezelwe i-Voluntary Federal GMO Labeling Standard

Ngo-2014, i-GMA, kanye nezinye izinhlangano zomkhakha wezokudla, yafuna ukuthi kube nelebuli ejwayelekile yokuzithandela yokuguqula ilebula lomzimba.

“Imidondoshiya embonini yezokudla yaseMelika echithe izigidi zabantu ilwa nemizamo yombuso nezwe yokugunyaza amalebuli amasha ezinto ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo bathatha ikhasi kubaphikisi babo futhi bafuna umthetho wesifundazwe we-GMO. Kodwa iGrocery Manufacturers Association, emele abaholi bokudla neziphuzo abanjengoConAgra, uPepsiCo noKraft, ayihlangani ncamashi nenhlangano elwa ne-GMO. Kunconywa ukuthi kube nomthetho ovumela imboni, umthetho onezinga lokuzithandela - okuyisinyathelo izishoshovu zokudla ezikubona njengokuthathwa kwamandla yimboni eye yazama ukubulala imizamo yokufaka amalebuli e-GMO. ” [I-Politico, 1 / 7 / 14]

I-Double Talk ye-GMA Yokuqeda Ukukhuluphala Kwezingane

I-Grocery Manufacturers Association izishaye isifuba ngokuthi "izibophezele ekwenzeni ingxenye yayo ekusizeni ukunciphisa ukukhuluphala eMelika - ikakhulukazi ukukhuluphala kwengane." [I-GMA Press Release, 12/16/09]

… Kepha Uphikisana Nemikhawulo Ekuthengisweni Kokudla Okungenamsoco, Isoda Ezikoleni

Ngokwencwadi kaMichele Simon Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, "I-GMA irekhodi eliphikisana cishe nayo yonke imali yombuso evimbela ukuthengiswa kokudla okungenamsoco noma isoda ezikoleni." [Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, ikhasi 223]

 … Futhi Wasebenzela Ukunqoba Imihlahlandlela Yesikole Yokunakekelwa Kwezikole EseCalifornia, Ithumela Umthethosivivinywa Wokunqotshwa Ngokuqokwa Kokugcina Kwemizuzu

Ngo-2004, imihlahlandlela yokudla okunomsoco ezikoleni zaseCalifornia yehlulekile ngokulandela ukunxenxa ngomzuzu wokugcina kusuka ku-GMA.

“Ngenyanga edlule nje, iCalifornia izamile ukusetha imihlahlandlela yokondleka kokudla okuthengiswa ngaphandle kohlelo lokudla lwenhlangano. Kepha sibonga ukunxenxwa ngomzuzu wokugcina ngabakwaGrocery Manufacturers of America (GMA), lowo mthetho wahluleka ngamavoti amahlanu nje, yize ubesekelwa yizinhlangano ezingama-80 ezingenzi nzuzo. Amaqembu amahlanu kuphela aphikisana nalesi silinganiso - wonke azuza ngokuthengisela izingane ukudla okungenamsoco. ” [UMichele Simon, Isevisi Yezindaba ZasePacific, 9 / 3 / 04]

… Futhi Kwaphikiswa Imihlahlandlela Yesikole Yokondliwa Kwezinye Izifundazwe

Ngokwencwadi Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, I-GMA iphikisana nemihlahlandlela yokudla esikoleni kwezinye izifundazwe, kufaka phakathi iTexas, i-Oregon neKentucky.

“Ukuseshwa kwegama elithi 'izikole' kwi-webhusayithi ye-GMA kuholele ekushayweni okungekho ngaphansi kwezingu-126, iningi lazo okulethwa kuzo ubufakazi noma incwadi efayelwe ephikisana nenqubomgomo yokudla okunempilo ehlobene nesikole. Nazi izibonelo ezimbalwa zezihloko zemibhalo: Incwadi ye-GMA ekuphikisweni kwe-Texas Food and Beverage Imikhawulo, i-GMA Letter ekuphikisweni kwe-Oregon School Restrictions Bills, i-GMA icela i-Veto ye-Kentucky School Restrictions Bill, ne-GMA Letter ekuphikisweni kwe-California School Nutrition Bill . ” [Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, Ikhasi 223]

… Futhi UnamaLobbyists Ezweni Lonke Enhloso Yokuhlulwa Komthetho

Ngaphezu kokunxenxwa kwayo nguhulumeni (okwakuma ku- $ 14 million ngo-2013), i-GMA inamalungu okubamba iqhaza kulo lonke izwe ehlose ukwehlula umthetho ovimbela imboni yezokudla. Ngezansi kunamanye ama-lobbyists wombuso wabo. [Isikhungo Sezombusazwe Esiphendulayo, opensecrets.org, ifinyelelwe ngomhla ka-12/22/14; Imithombo yombuso exhunywe ngezansi]

I-Lobbyist State
ULouis Finkel California
UKelsey Johnson Illinois
Ama-lobbyist ayi-7 aneRifkin, Livingston, Levitan & Silver Maryland
UKelsey Johnson Minnesota
AbakwaCapitol Group Inc. I-New York

I-GMA Ifune Ukwenza Kancane Ukuphoqelelwa Kwemithetho Yelebula

NgoDisemba 2011, i-GMA yacela abakwaFood and Drug Administration ukuthi bakhethe ngemithetho yokulebula mayelana namaqiniso ayisisekelo wokudla.

“Ucele ukuthi i-FDA isebenzise amandla ayo okuphoqelela maqondana nezici ezithile zemithethonqubo yokubeka ilebula yokudla ukuze kube lula ukuqaliswa kohlelo lwe-Nutrition Keys, okungukuthi: [1] Ukusetshenziswa kwezimpawu ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic (ama-calories, amafutha agcwele, i-sodium , noshukela ophelele), eyedwa noma ephelezelwa yizithonjana ezingafinyelela kwezimbili ze-Nutrition Keys Optional, ngaphandle kokumenyezelwa kwamafutha we-polyunsaturated nama-monounsaturated kuphaneli lamaNutrition Facts njengoba kudingwa yi-21 CFR 101.9 (c) (2) (iii) kanye (iv) . [2] Ukusetshenziswa kwezithonjana ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic, ezingahambisani nanoma iziphi izithonjana ze-Optional, ngaphandle kwesitatimende sokudalula esidingeka nge-§ 101.13 (h) lapho okuqukethwe kokudla okunomsoco kokudla kudlula amazinga athile wamafutha aphelele, amafutha agcwele, i-cholesterol, noma i-sodium . [3] Ukusetshenziswa kwezithonjana ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic, zodwa noma ezihambisana nezithonjana ze-Nutrition Keys Optional, ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwezinga lamafutha ne-cholesterol eseduze nesithonjana samafutha esigcwele njengoba kudingwa yi-§ 101.62 (c) . ” [Incwadi ye-FDA eya ku-GMA, 12/13/11]

Ukusetshenziswa KweHormone Okuvinjelwe eCanada, i-EU Ukukhuthaza Ukukhiqizwa Kwobisi Ezinkomeni

Ngo-1995, i-GMA yathi i-Food & Drug Administration ithole ukuthi i-hormone yokwenziwa i-rBST “iphephe ngokuphelele.” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-GMA, 4/25/95]

I-rBST / rBGH Kuvinjelwe e-EU, Canada

I-rBST / rBGH ivinjelwe kwimikhiqizo yobisi e-European Union naseCanada.

“I-Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) iyi-hormone yokwenziwa (eyenziwe ngabantu) emakethwa kubalimi bezobisi ukuze kwandiswe ukukhiqizwa kobisi ezinkomeni. Isetshenziswe e-United States selokhu yamukelwa yi-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ngo-1993, kodwa ukusetshenziswa kwayo akuvunyelwe e-European Union, eCanada nakwamanye amazwe. ” [Iwebhusayithi yeAmerican Cancer Society, umdlavuza.org]

Ummangali ku-Vermont Icala Lokumangalelwa Ngokubhalwa Kwe-rBST / rBGH

Ngokuya ngeThisLaw.com, uGMA wayengummangali osebenzisana ne-IDFA vs. Amnestoy, icala eliphathelene nokufakwa kophawu kwemikhiqizo yobisi ekhiqizwa ezinkomeni eziphathwe nge-rBST / rBGH. [TholaLaw.com, kufinyelelwe ku-12/17/14; INkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States, i-International Dairy Foods Ass'n v. Amestoy, Icala No. 876, Idokodo 95-7819, linqume umhla ka 8/8/96]

“'Umthetho ophoqayo wokufaka amalebuli eVermont undizela ekuzimiseleni kwe-FDA ukuthi i-rBST iphephe ngokuphelele nokuthi ukufakwa kwamalebula okuphoqelekile akufanele kudingeke,' kusho uJohn Cady, umongameli weNFPA. 'Umthetho kungenzeka udlulisele kubathengi umbono ongamanga futhi odukisayo maqondana nokuphepha nobumsulwa bobisi oluvela ezinkomeni ezenezelwe yi-rBST.' ”[Umbiko wezindaba we-GMA, 4/25/95]

Ubisi Lwelebula Oluphikisiwe Lukhiqizwa ngeHormone Growth

Ngokusho the St Louis Post-Dispatch, ngo-1993-94, i-GMA yaphikisana namalebula emikhiqizweni yobisi etholakala ezinkomeni ezijovwe ngeMonsanto eyimpikiswano yeBovine Growth Hormone (rBGH). [St Louis Post-Dispatch, 3/3/94]

I-GMA Iphikise Umthetho Welebula wase-Ohio owawushayeke phansi

Ngokuvumelana ne I-FoodNavigator-USA, I-GMA namanye amaqembu embonini yokudla aphikisana nomthetho wokulebula wase-Ohio owashaywa phansi yinkantolo yokudlulisa amacala. [I-FoodNavigator-USA, 4 / 25 / 08]

Umthetho wombuso wase-Ohio okukhulunywa ngawo uvimbele izitatimende ezinjenge- "rbGH Free," "rbST Free" kanye "ne-hormone yokufakelwa mahhala," okuhloswe ngayo ukunikeza abathengi ulwazi oludingekayo ukwenza izinqumo ezinolwazi. Isikhungo Sokuphepha Kokudla, 9 / 30 / 10

Umkhankaso Wokulwa ne-Ethanol Wenkohliso Oxhasiwe

NgoMeyi 2008, uSenenja Chuck Grassley waveza ukuthi umkhankaso wokulwa ne-ethanol okwakuthiwa "ungaphansi," empeleni wawusekelwa yinkampani ye-PR eyayiqashwe yi-GMA.

"Ngokwamaphepha amabili abhalwe kwi-website yenhlangano ka-Sen. Charles Grassley, i-R-IA, i-blitz 'anti-ethanol media blitz' ethinte amanani entengo okudla namuhla kuma-biofuel asekelwa ngabalimi iyimbumbulu njenge-astro-turf. Ngempela, uGrassley wachazela ozakwabo baseSenate ngesikhathi evuma umthethosivivinywa omusha wepulazi, 'Kuvela ukuthi imali engama- $ 15, eyizinyanga eziyisithupha yokugcina inkampani yaseBeltway yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yiyo ebambe iqhaza emkhankasweni wokugcona, oqashwe yiGrocery Manufacturers Association.' ” Izindaba ze-Aberdeen, 5 / 30 / 08

I-GMA Ifune Ukuthatha Inzuzo Yezintengo Zokudla Ezikhuphukayo

Ngokwesicelo sayo seziphakamiso, i-GMA ithe ikholelwa ukuthi ukunyuka kwamanani okudla kunikeze inhlangano ithuba lokushaya i-ethanol.

“I-GMA ibihola umkhankaso 'wobudlova' wobudlelwano bomphakathi ezinyangeni ezimbili ezedlule emzamweni wokubuyisela emuva igunya le-ethanol elaphasiswa kumthethosivivinywa wamandla nyakenye. Lo soseshini uqashe iGlover Park Group ukuthi iqhube umkhankaso wezinyanga eziyisithupha, ngokwesicelo seGMA sokuphakanyiswa kanye nempendulo yeGlover Park. 'I-GMA isiphethe ngokuthi ukukhuphuka kwentengo yokudla… kwakha iwindi lokushintsha imibono ngezinzuzo zama-bio-fuels kanye negunya,' kufundeka i-RFP enamakhasi amathathu, ikhophi yayo eyatholwa yiRoll Call. ” [I-Roll Call, 5 / 14 / 08]

Incwadi evulekile eya ku-STAT: Isikhathi Sokuba Namazinga Aqinile Wokubonisa Okusobala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Othandekayo uRick Berke noGideon Gil,

Ngesikhathi lapho umphakathi ubuza ukufaneleka kwemithombo yezindaba - nesayensi uqobo - kubalulekile ekushicilelweni kwezempilo nezesayensi okufana ne STAT ukusebenzela umphakathi ngeqiniso eliningi kanye nokwenza izinto obala ngangokunokwenzeka. Sikubhalela ukukucela ukuthi uqhubekele phambili njengabaholi ukubhekana nenkinga enkulu ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi: abafundi bacatshangelwa izinkampani eziphusha ama-ajenda enqubomgomo ngababhali be-PR abazenza ngathi bazimele kanti cha.

NgoFebhuwari 26, i-STAT yehluleka ukwenza umsebenzi wayo emphakathini ukuhlinzeka ngokusobala lapho ishicilela umbono ikholomu nguHenry Miller, noma ngabe uMiller wayekade ebanjwe eshicilela umsebenzi obhaliwe kaMonsanto-ghost ngaphansi kwegama lakhe eForbes.

Ngemuva kweNew York Times wembula ihlazo lokubhalwa kwesipoki sikaMiller ngo-Agasti 2017, iForbes yalahla uMiller njengombhali wephephandaba futhi yasusa zonke izindatshana zakhe ngoba wephule inqubomgomo yeForbes edinga ababhali bemibono ukuthi badalule ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, futhi bashicilele owabo umsebenzi kuphela - inqubomgomo i-STAT nayo kufanele yamukele. (Ukuvuselelwa: I-STAT inokushayisana kwezintshisekelo inqubomgomo yokudalula lapha futhi usazisa ukuthi uMiller akabikanga zingxabano.)

Kusukela isiqephu sokubhalwa komoya, umsebenzi kaMiller uqhubekile nokuphakamisa amafulegi abomvu abomvu.

Ikholamu yakhe yakamuva ihlasele imboni yezinto eziphilayo kuNewsweek itholwe ngemininingwane enikezwe yilowo owayekhulumela iMonsanto, uJay Byrne, obudlelwano bakhe neMonsanto abuzange buvezwe, futhi ikholomu kaMiller ilandele eduze imiyalezo uByrne ayenayo usebenze neMonsanto ngenkathi kusebenzisana ukusetha iqembu langaphambili yezifundiswa ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, ngokusho kwe- Ama-imeyili avuliwe ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Esihlokweni sakhe seNewsweek, uMiller uphinde wazama ukudicilela phansi isithunzi sikaDanny Hakim, intatheli yeNew York Times eveze ihlazo likaMiller lokubhala ngezipoki - ngaphandle kokusho ihlazo.

Ngaphezu kwalokhu kwehluleka kwakamuva ukudalula ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo zakhe, uMiller une- eside, umlando olotshiwe njengobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nokunxenxelwa ngokwesivumelwano kwezinhlangano.

Ku-1994 Imemo yecebo le-PR kuPhillip Morris, ama-APCO Associates abhekise kuMiller "njengomsekeli oqavile" emkhankasweni womhlaba wonke wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi. Ngo-1998, uMiller wabeka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR ezinkampanini ku "Uhlelo Lokusebenza Lokukhuthaza Isayensi Yomsindo Kwezempilo, Inqubomgomo Yezemvelo kanye ne-Biotechnology." U-2015 Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR "ukuhlela ukukhala" ngokumelene nososayensi bephaneli lomdlavuza le-IARC le-World Health Organisation elibalwe njengelokuqala ukukhishwa kwangaphandle: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller."

Ngabe izintshisekelo zebhizinisi nazo bezingemuva kombono kaMiller, oshicilelwe kuleli sonto yi-STAT, wokuthi iNational Institutes of Health akufanele isakhokhela izifundo ezihlanganayo zezempilo?

Ukunconywa kwendatshana ye-STAT kaMiller evela kokuthandwayo kwe- UJeff Stier, osebenzela i-Koch-esebenzisana ne-Consumer Choice Center, futhi URona Applebaum, owayengumphathi omkhulu weCoca-Cola ngubani ihlele iqembu langaphambili ukwenza isayensi ekukhuluphaleni ngokweqile, kwenza i-athikili ibonakale ifana nolunye uhlobo lweqembu eliphambili lenkampani.

Bekungeke kube okokuqala ukuthi imboni eyenza imithi ibaleke ngokusebenzisa i-STAT ukukhuthaza i-ajenda yayo yezepolitiki neyokuthengisa. NgoJanuwari owedlule, i-STAT yavumela amalungu amabili eqembu eliphambili lenkampani Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) ukuze opine ukuthi uhulumeni angavunyelwa ukuvimbela odokotela ekuchazeni i-OxyContin. Kepha le ndatshana ayidalulanga ukuthi i-ACSH isitholile uxhaso kusuka izinkampani ezidayisa izidakamizwa kanye izinkonzo zayo ezinkampanini ezivumelwaneni ze-quid proo zokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo kanye nama-ajenda enqubomgomo.

NgoSepthemba, i-STAT ihoxise udaba olushicilelwe ngaphansi kwegama likadokotela otuse abasebenza embonini yezemithi, ngemuva kokubhala kukaKevin Lomangino ku-HealthNewsReview.org ukuthi udokotela uthole ngaphezu kwama- $ 200,000 ezinkampanini zemithi. Uphenyo lwabe seludalula ukuthi inkampani yabakwa-PR ibhale isipoki ngendatshana kadokotela.

"Umzamo omkhulu ka-pharma wokubhala izipoki ku-STAT uphele kabi - kodwa hhayi ngokwanele," kusho uprofesa wezobuntatheli uCharles Seife kuSlate. "U-STAT uyihoxisile le ndaba, kodwa ngezizathu ezingalungile futhi ngaphandle kokuxazulula inkinga yangempela."

Isikhathi se-STAT sokubhekana nale nkinga, futhi sibe yingxenye yesixazululo ekuletheni iqiniso nokubonisa obala ekubikeni kwesayensi. Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi izinkampani zibhala nini, noma zenze nini izigxivizo zeminwe yabo yonke indawo imibono yezifundiswa ezithi zizimele.

"Njengoba nje omagazini bezokwelapha bebeqala ukuqinisa imithetho mayelana nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, bephoqa ukudalulwa okwengeziwe ngezinhloso ezifihlekile zezindatshana ezithile zocwaningo, imithombo yezindaba nayo kumele ibhekelele," kubhala uSeife kuSlate.

“Kumele bafunde ukuyeka ukukhulisa imiyalezo yamaqembu angaphambili bese beshaya iso ngemikhuba efana nokubhala ngezipoki emakhasini abo wokuhlela. Ngamafuphi, abezindaba kumele babone ukuthi njalo lapho bephindaphinda umyalezo wonodoli, kulimaza ngokuthembeka kwesitolo. ”

Ngokwethembeka kwe-STAT, nokwethenjwa kwabafundi bayo, sikunxusa ukuthi usebenzise inqubomgomo ecacile neqinile yokufuna bonke ababhali bakho ukuthi banikeze ukudalulwa okugcwele ngokushayisana kwezintshisekelo, kufaka phakathi izinkokhelo abazithola ezinkampanini, nomsebenzi abawenzayo ngemuva izigcawu ezinamabhizinisi noma amafemu abo e-PR ukukhuthaza ama-ajenda ezinkampani.

Ozithobayo,
UStacy Malkan
UGary Ruskin
Abaqondisi Bokubambisana, i-US Ilungelo Lokwazi

buyekeza: Qaphela kusuka UKevin Lomangino, umhleli ophethe i-HealthNewsReview.org: “Siyabonga ngokuqaphelisa umsebenzi wethu nalolu daba, engivuma ukuthi lubalulekile. Ukucaca, @ukhozi_fm baqinise izinqubomgomo zabo ze-COI / obala ukuphendula ekubikeni kwethu njengoba sibhale lapha, "I-STAT iba inhlangano yesi-3 yokubuyekeza izinqubomgomo ngemuva kokuhlolisisa kwethu. ” Kodwa-ke, kulokhu umlobi ngokusobala wehlulekile ukudalula iqhaza lababhali bomoya emisebenzini yakhe edlule, ngakho-ke anginasiqiniseko sokuthi i-STAT ingathemba / kufanele ithembe noma yisiphi isiqinisekiso asinikezile sokuthi okuqukethwe kungokoqobo. ” 

Impendulo ye-USRTK: Siyajabula ukubona i-STAT iqinisa inqubomgomo yayo ye-COI kepha kumele benze kangcono, njengoba icala likaMiller likhombisa. Minan ukwengeza ku-2017 ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki, UMiller unayo ukudalulwa okuyiphutha kwakamuva futhi umlando omude wokubekwa phambili kwezinkampani. Bona futhi eyethu impendulo kubahleli be-STAT mayelana nenqubomgomo yabo yokudalula i-COI. 

Landela uphenyo lwe-US Right to Know ngokubhalisela okwethu incwadi yezindaba lapha, futhi ngicela ucabangele ukwenza umnikelo ukusekela ukubikwa kwethu.  

Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto Kuzo Zonke I-Newsweek's Hit on Organic Food

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

buyekeza: Impendulo eyinqaba yeNewsweek

NguStacy Malkan

"Umkhankaso wokudla okuphilayo ngumkhonyovu okhohlisayo, obizayo," ngokusho komhlaka-19 Januwari Newsweek esihlokweni ebhalwe nguDkt.Henry I. Miller weSikhungo seHoover.

Uma lelo gama lizwakala lijwayelekile - uHenry I. Miller - kungahle kube ngoba New York Times muva iveze ihlazo okubandakanya uMiller: ukuthi ubanjwe eshicilela i-athikili ebhalwe ghost nguMonsanto ngaphansi kwegama lakhe ku Forbes. I-athikili, ebikhombisa kakhulu uhlaka olunikezwe uMonsanto, ihlasele ososayensi bephaneli lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation (IARC) labo isinqumo sokufaka ohlwini Amakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kaMonsanto, i-glyphosate, njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukubika ku ukushintshana nge-imeyili ekhishwe ngamacala neMonsanto mayelana nokukhathazeka komdlavuza, i- Izikhathi ' UDanny Hakim wabhala:

"UMonsanto ubuze uMnu. Miller ukuthi angathanda yini ukubhala indatshana ngalesi sihloko, futhi wathi, 'Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala kusuka embhalweni osezingeni eliphezulu.'

Lo mbhalo uvele ngaphansi kwegama likaMnu. Miller, nangokuthi 'imibono evezwe ngabakwa-Forbes Contributors ingeyabo.' Lo magazini awuzange ukhulume ngokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ekulungiseleleni lo mbhalo…

UForbes ususe lolu daba kwi-webhusayithi yakhe ngoLwesithathu wathi buqedile ubudlelwano bakhe noMnuz Miller phakathi kokudaluliwe. ”

Intambo yombono Iphrojekthi Syndicate kwalandela okufanayo, ngemuva kokuqala ukufaka isimangalo kumazwana kaMiller lapho aqaphela ukuthi ayezokwaliwa uma ukusebenzisana kwakhe noMonsanto kwakwaziwa.

Ithemba Lokwehlisa I-Organic

Ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki alikaze limnciphise uMiller; uqhubekile nokuhlunga okuqukethwe okwenyuswayo embonini yezolimo kusuka ezitolo ezinjenge Newsweek futhi The Wall Street Journal, ngaphandle kokudalula kubafundi ubuhlobo bakhe neMonsanto.

Noma kunjalo kaMiller Newsweek Ukudla okune-organic kunezigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto ngokusobala kuyo yonke indawo.

Okokuqala, uMiller usebenzisa imithombo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukwenza izimangalo ezingenabufakazi (nezindidayo) mayelana nezolimo eziphilayo - ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo "empeleni kuyingozi kakhulu emvelweni" kunokulima okuvamile, noma ukuthi ababambisene nabo bachitha u- $ 2.5 billion ngonyaka bekhankasa ngokumelene nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo eNyakatho Melika.

Umthombo kulesi simangalo esingalungile nguJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto (ongaziwa kanjalo kwi Newsweek athikili), manje oqondisa inkampani ye-PR ebizwa nge-v-Fluence Interactive.

Ukuhwebelana nge-imeyili kuveza ukuthi iMonsanto isebenza kanjani nabantu abanjengoJay Byrne - kanye noByrne ngqo - ukusunduza lolu hlobo lokuhlaselwa kwezitha zikaMonsanto ngenkathi kugcinwa ukubandakanyeka kwenkampani kuyimfihlo.

Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe iqembu lami Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi, U-Byrne wadlala indima enkulu ekusizeni iMonsanto ukuba isungule iqembu eliphambili lenkampani elibizwa nge-Academics Review elashicilela umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha - okuyisihloko ngqo kuMiller's Newsweek isihloko.

Uhlu lukaJay Byrne lwezitha zaseMonsanto. 

Umqondo weqembu langaphambili - kuchazwe ku- ama-imeyili engiwabike lapha - bekuzokwakha ipulatifomu enomsindo othembekile lapho izifundiswa zingahlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bethi zizimele, kepha zithola imali ngasese emaqenjini ezimboni. Ukucwayiza, ukucwayiza, ha, ha.

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhale umphathi weMonsanto ohilelekile ohlelweni.

Indima kaByrne, ngokusho kwama-imeyili, ibizosebenza njenge "moto yokuhweba" ukusiza ukuthola imali yenkampani. U-Byrne uphinde wathi uhlanganisa uhlu “lwamathuba” okuhlosiwe - abagxeka imboni yezolimo okungenzeka ukuthi "bafakwe umjovo" endaweni yesikhulumi sabafundi.

Abantu abaningana kuhlu lwamathuba ka-Byrne, noma kamuva bahlaselwa yi-Academics Review, babeyizisulu ku-Miller's Newsweek isihloko, futhi.

IMiller's Newsweek ucezu naye uzame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi we New York Times ' intatheli uDanny Hakim, ngaphandle kokudalula ukuthi kwakunguHakim owadalula ihlazo likaMiller lokubhala ngesipoki likaMiller.

Njengakamuva nje ukuhlaselwa kwemboni yemvelo, yonke iminwe ikhomba emuva ezinkampanini zezolimo ezizolahlekelwa kakhulu uma isidingo sabathengi siqhubeka nokukhuphuka kokudla okungenawo ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukusetshenziswa KukaMonsanto “Okuzimele Kwezemfundo”

UHenry Miller une- umlando omude wokusebenzisana no - no ebeka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR - izinkampani ezidinga usizo lokukholisa umphakathi ukuthi imikhiqizo yazo ayiyona ingozi futhi ayidingi ukulawulwa.

Futhi iMonsanto incike kakhulu kubantu abaneziqinisekiso zesayensi noma amaqembu azwakala engathathi hlangothi ukwenza lezo zingxabano - abantu abazimisele ukuxhumana nombhalo wenkampani ngenkathi bethi bangabalingisi abazimele. Leli qiniso lisungulwe ngokubika ku New York Times, Okwezwe, WBEZ, lo Ukuqhubeka phambili futhi ezinye izindawo eziningi eminyakeni yakamuva.

Idokhumenti esanda kukhishwa yeMonsanto inikeza imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokuthi inkulumo-ze kaMonsanto nokusebenza kokunxenxa kusebenza kanjani, kanye nendima esemqoka edlalwa nguHenry Miller kuyo.

Lo 2015 “uhlelo lokulungiselela”- ekhishwe abameli ezinkantolo zomdlavuza i-glyphosate - ibeka isu likaMonsanto le-PR" lokuhlela ukukhala "ngokumelene nososayensi bomdlavuza we-IARC ngombiko wabo we-glyphosate. Owokuqala ongakhishwa: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller."

Uhlelo luzoqhubeka lunezigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" - amaqembu ezokuhweba ayishumi nambili, amaqembu ezemfundo kanye namaqembu aphambili abonakala ezimele afana ne Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - lokho kungasiza "ukugoma" ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza futhi "kuvikele isithunzi… se-Roundup."

UMiller uhambisele iMonsanto ngoMashi 2015 esihlokweni eForbes - lo mbhalo kamuva wembula njengombhalo kaMonsanto - uhlasela ososayensi be-IARC. Ozakwethu bezimboni bebelokhu bephusha izimpikiswano ezifanayo ngemigudu ehlukahlukene kaninginingi, selokhu, ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi bomdlavuza.

Okuningi kwalokhu kugxeka kubonakale emphakathini njengokuvukela okuzenzekelayo kokukhathazeka, kungakhulunywa ngeqhaza likaMonsanto njengomqambi nomqhubi womlando: i-hoodwink yenkampani yakudala.

Njengoba eminye imibhalo ingena embusweni womphakathi - nge Amaphepha eMonsanto futhi uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi - iqhinga "lokufunda elizimele" kuzoba nzima ukuligcinela abasebenza embonini njengoHenry I. Miller, kanye nabezindaba nabenzi benqubomgomo abangayinaki.

Okwamanje, Newsweek ayihlehli. Ngisho nangemva kokubuyekeza imibhalo eqinisekisa amaqiniso akule ndatshana, Newsweek Umhleli wemibono uNicholas Wapshott ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi, “Ngiyakuqonda ukuthi wena noMiller ninomlando omude wokuphikisana ngalesi sihloko. Ukuphika ngokusobala okuqinisekisile. ”

UMiller noWapshott abaphendulanga eminye imibuzo.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu elibheka abathengi nelisebenza obala, i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry” (New Society, 2007). Ukudalulwa: I-US Right to Know ixhaswe ngokwengxenye yi-Organic Consumers Association eshiwo ku-athikili kaMiller futhi evela kuhlu olushaywayo lukaByrne.

AbakwaReuters babika ukuthi okutholwe yi-IARC 'okuhleliwe ngaphandle' kuyindaba engamanga

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izibuyekezo: Imibhalo emisha yeMonsanto idalula ukuxhumana okuhle kuMlobi weReuters, I-Roundup Trial Tracker (Ephreli 25, 2019)
I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters athikili, isitatimende se-International Agency for Research on Cancer (Okthoba 24, 2017)

Usuku lokuqala lokuthunyelwe: Okthoba 20, 2017

Eqhubeka naye irekhodi lokubika okuchema nemboni mayelana ne-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), intatheli yeReuters uKate Kelland uphinde wahlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ngomhlaka-19 Okthoba 2017 indaba bethi ososayensi bahlele idokhumenti esalungiswa ngaphambi kokukhipha ukuhlolwa kwabo kokugcina okuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu. I-American Chemistry Council, iqembu lezokuhweba embonini yamakhemikhali, yakhipha ngokushesha i- isitatimende sephephandaba bencoma indaba kaKelland, ethi "ilulaza iziphetho ze-IARC mayelana ne-glyphosate" futhi inxusa abenzi benqubomgomo ukuthi "bathathele i-IARC izinyathelo ngokukhwabanisa kwedatha ngamabomu."

Indaba kaKelland icaphune isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto esithi “amalungu e-IARC asebenzise kabi futhi ahlanekezela imininingwane yesayensi” kodwa ahlulekile ukusho inani elibalulekile lobufakazi obuvele Imibhalo kaMonsanto uqobo ngokutholwa kwenkantolo okukhombisa izindlela eziningi inkampani esebenze ngazo ukuphatha nokuhlanekezela idatha ku-glyphosate emashumini eminyaka.

Indaba futhi yehlulekile ukusho ukuthi ucwaningo oluningi olwehlisiwe yi-Monsanto ekhokhelwe umsebenzi eyayingenayo imininingwane eyanele yokuhlangabezana namazinga we-IARC. Futhi yize uKelland ecaphuna ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-1983 kanye negundwane lapho i-IARC yehluleke khona ukuvumelana nabaphenyi bokuqala, yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi lezi kwakuyizifundo ezazikhokhelwa iMonsanto. Uhlulekile nokusho imininingwane ebucayi yokuthi ocwaningweni lwamagundane ngo-1983, ngisho negatsha le-EPA le-toxicology akazange avumelane nabaphenyi bakaMonsanto ngoba ubufakazi be-carcinogenicity babunamandla kakhulu, ngokusho kwemibhalo ye-EPA. Bathe kumamemos amaningi ukuthi impikiswano kaMonsanto ibingamukeleki futhi iyasola, futhi banqume ukuthi i-glyphosate ibe yi-carcinogen.

Ngokushiya la maqiniso abalulekile, nangokuhlanekezela amanye cishe ngaphakathi, uKelland ubhale enye indatshana esebenza uMonsanto kahle, kepha ulahlekise umphakathi kanye nabenzi bezinqubomgomo abathembele kuzindawo zezindaba ezithembekile ukuthola imininingwane eyiyo. Okuwukuphela kwephuzu elikhuthazayo elizothathwa endabeni kaKelland ukuthi kulokhu uvumile ukuthi iMonsanto imnikeze imininingwane.

Izindaba ezihlobene nemibhalo:

I-Reuters vs. I-UN Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zebhizinisi Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwesayensi?

NguStacy Malkan

Kusukela lapho ihlukanisiwe i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni njenge “mhlawumbe ebanga umdlavuza kubantu,” iqembu lososayensi bamazwe eqenjini lokucwaninga ngomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation belingaphansi ukuhlaselwa okubunayo ngemboni yezolimo kanye nabazalelwayo.

Phakathi ku ikhasi lokuqala uchungechunge enesihloko esithi "Amaphepha eMonsanto," iphephandaba laseFrance Okwezwe (6/1/17) uchaze lokhu kuhlasela “njengempi ye-pesticide yesayensi,” futhi wabika, “Ukusindisa i-glyphosate, inkampani [iMonsanto] yathatha isinyathelo sokulimaza i-United Nations ejensi yomdlavuza ngazo zonke izindlela.”

Ngama-scoops amabili anikezwa izimboni kanye nombiko okhethekile, oqiniswa ukubika kwakhe okuvamile, uKelland uhlose isifufula sokubika okubucayi kwi-WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), eveza leli qembu nososayensi balo bengasakwazi ukuxhumana futhi izinsolo ezingekho emthethweni, nezilinganisanayo mayelana nokushayisana kwezintshisakalo kanye nemininingwane ecindezelwe ekuthathweni kwabo kwezinqumo.Isikhali esisodwa esisemqoka emkhakheni wezikhali embonini kube ukubikwa UKate Kelland, umakadebona Reuters intatheli ezinze eLondon.

Iqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC lososayensi alizange lenze ucwaningo olusha, kepha labuyekeza iminyaka yocwaningo olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ngontanga ngaphambi kokuphetha ngokuthi kunobufakazi obunqunyelwe bomdlavuza kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni komhlaba wangempela kuya ku-glyphosate nobufakazi "obanele" bomdlavuza ezifundweni izilwane. I-IARC iphinde yaphetha ngokuthi kunobufakazi obuqinile bokuthi i-genotoxicity ye-glyphosate iyodwa, kanye ne-glyphosate esetshenziswe ekwakhiweni okunjengeMonsanto's Roundup brand ye-herbicide, ukusetshenziswa kwayo kukhuphuke kakhulu njengoba iMonsanto ithengisile izinhlobo zezitshalo ziguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo ukuba "Roundup Ready."

Kepha ngokubhala ngesinqumo se-IARC, uKelland ushaye indiva ucwaningo oluningi olushicilelwe olusekela ukwahlukaniswa, wagxila emaphuzu okukhuluma embonini nasekugxekeni kososayensi ekufuneni ukunciphisa ukucubungula kwabo. Ukubika kwakhe kuncike kakhulu emithonjeni yezimboni ezixhasa umkhakha, ngenkathi yehluleka ukudalula ukuxhumana kwemboni yabo; kuqukethe amaphutha Reuters unqabile ukulungisa; futhi wethule imininingwane ekhethwe ngama-cherry emongweni evela kumadokhumenti angazange awanikeze abafundi bakhe.

Ukuphakamisa eminye imibuzo mayelana nokuzimisela kwakhe njengentatheli yesayensi yizibopho zikaKelland ku Isayensi Media Center (SMC), okuyinhlangano ephikisanayo engenzi nzuzo e-UK exhuma ososayensi nezintatheli, bese iyayithola indawo enkulu yezimali eziqhamuka emaqenjini nasezinkampanini, kufaka phakathi izintshisekelo zomkhakha wamakhemikhali.

I-SMC, ebizwa ngokuthi “i-ejensi ye-PR yesayensi, ”Eyethulwa ngo-2002 ngokwengxenye njengomzamo wokunciphisa izindaba ezithathwa amaqembu afana neGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth, ngokusho kwencwadi yayo umbiko wokusungula. I-SMC isolwa ngokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo kanye nempilo yabantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obuthile obunempikiswano, ngokusho kuka abacwaningi abaningi abafunde iqembu.

Ukuchema kukaKelland ngokuthanda leli qembu kuyabonakala, njengoba evela kwi-SMC ividiyo yephromoshini kanye ne-SMC umbiko wokuphromotha, uba khona njalo Ama-SMC amafushane, ukhuluma ku Amashabhu we-SMC futhi waba khona imihlangano eNdiya ukuxoxa ngokusungula ihhovisi le-SMC lapho.

Kelland noma abahleli bakhe akekho Reuters uzophendula imibuzo ephathelene nobudlelwano bakhe ne-SMC, noma ukugxekwa okuthile ngokubika kwakhe.

UFiona Fox, umqondisi weSMC, uthe iqembu lakhe alisebenzanga noKelland ezindabeni zakhe ze-IARC noma anikeze imithombo engaphezu kwaleyo efakwe emaphepheni eSMC. Kusobala nokho ukuthi ukubika kukaKelland nge-glyphosate ne-IARC kukhombisa imibono evezwe ngochwepheshe be-SMC namaqembu embonini kulezo zihloko.

I-Reuters ithatha usosayensi womdlavuza

Ngo-June 14, i-2017, Reuters ishicilelwe a umbiko okhethekile nguKelland osola u-Aaron Blair, ingcweti yezifo eziqhamuka e-US National Cancer Institute nosihlalo wephaneli le-IARC ku-glyphosate, ngokugodla imininingwane ebalulekile ekuhlolweni komdlavuza.

Indaba kaKelland ize yaveza nokuthi imininingwane okuthiwa ibanjiwe ibingasiguqula isiphetho se-IARC sokuthi i-glyphosate kungenzeka i-carcinogenic. Kodwa-ke imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo yayiyi-subset encane yedatha ye-epidemiology etholwe ngephrojekthi yesikhathi eside eyaziwa njenge Ucwaningo Lwezempilo Lwezolimo (AHS). Ukuhlaziywa kweminyaka eminingana yemininingwane emayelana ne-glyphosate evela ku-AHS kwakusivele kushicilelwe futhi kwabhekwa yi-IARC, kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha kwemininingwane engaqediwe, engashicilelwanga akuzange kubhekwe, ngoba imithetho ye-IARC ifuna ukuthembela kuphela kudatha eshicilelwe.

Umbono kaKelland wokuthi uBlair ubambe idatha ebalulekile ubuphikisana nemibhalo yomthombo lapho asekele khona indaba yakhe, kepha akazange anikeze abafundi izixhumanisi zanoma iyiphi yaleyo mibhalo, ngakho abafundi abakwazanga ukuzihlolela ubuqiniso bezimangalo ngokwabo. Izinsolo zakhe zamabhomu zasatshalaliswa kabanzi, zaphindwa yizintatheli kwezinye izindawo zezindaba (kufaka phakathi umama Jones) futhi yathunyelwa ngokushesha njenge- ithuluzi lokunxenxa ngomkhakha wezolimo.

Ngemuva kokuthola imibhalo yangempela, uCarey Gillam, owayekade eyi Reuters intatheli nomqondisi manje wocwaningo lwe-US Right to Know (iqembu elingenzi nzuzo lapho nami ngisebenza khona), Bekele ngaphandle amaphutha amaningi nokushiywa esiqeshini sikaKelland.

Ukuhlaziywa kunikeza izibonelo zezimangalo ezisemqoka ku-athikili kaKelland, kufaka phakathi nesitatimende okuthiwa senziwe nguBlair, esingasekelwa yikhasi elinamakhasi angama-300 ukubekwa kukaBlair eyenziwa ngabameli bakaMonsanto, noma eminye imibhalo yomthombo.

Isethulo sikaKelland sokukhetha isikhundla sikaBlair sibuye sanganaki obekuphikisana nomqondo wakhe — ngokwesibonelo, iziqinisekiso eziningi zikaBlair zocwaningo ezibonisa ukuxhumana kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, njengoba uGillam abhala Huffington Post i-athikili (6 / 18 / 17).

UKelland uchaze ngokungachazeki ukubeka kukaBlair nezinto ahlobene nazo ngokuthi “yimibhalo yasenkantolo,” okusho ukuthi zitholakala emphakathini; empeleni, azizange zifakwe enkantolo, futhi kungenzeka ukuthi zitholwe kubameli bakaMonsanto noma kuma-surrogatives. (Le mibhalo ibitholakala kuphela kubameli abathintekayo kuleli cala, futhi abameli bommangali bathe abayinikanga uKelland.)

Reuters unqabile ukulungisa amaphutha esiqeshini, kufaka phakathi isimangalo esingamanga mayelana nemvelaphi yemibhalo yomthombo kanye nencazelo enganembile yomthombo oyisihluthulelo, isazi sezibalo uBob Tarone, njengo "ozimele weMonsanto." Eqinisweni, uTarone wayenakho uthole inkokhelo yokubonisana kusuka eMonsanto ngemizamo yakhe yokwehlisa isithunzi i-IARC.

Ukuphendula isicelo se-USRTK sokulungisa noma ukuhoxisa i-athikili kaKelland, Reuters Umhleli wamabhizinisi omhlaba uMike Williams ubhale ku-imeyili kaJuni 23:

Sibuyekeze i-athikili kanye nokubika lapho ibisuselwa khona. Lokho kubika kufaka phakathi okubhekiswe kuwe, kepha bekungagcini kukho. Intatheli, uKate Kelland, naye wayexhumana nabo bonke abantu okukhulunywe ngabo endabeni nabanye abaningi, wafunda neminye imibhalo. Ngokwalokho kubuyekezwa, asithathi le ndatshana njengengalungile noma ukugunyaza ukuhoxiswa.

UWilliams wenqabile ukukhuluma ngendaba engamanga "yemibhalo yasenkantolo" noma incazelo engalungile yeTarone njengomthombo ozimele.

Kusukela lapho, ithuluzi lokunxenxa Reuters unikezwe uMonsanto ukhule imilenze futhi wagijima wasendle. NgoJuni 24 Umhleli by IDispatch yaseSt kungezwe amaphutha ngaphezulu kokubika okuvele kudukisa. Maphakathi noJulayi, amabhulogi wephiko langakwesokudla ayesebenzisa i- Reuters indaba yokusola i-IARC ye ukukhwabanisa abakhokhi bentela base-US, izingosi zezindaba ezixhasa umkhakha zazibikezela ukuthi le ndaba izoba “isipikili sokugcina ebhokisini lomngcwabo”Yezimangalo zomdlavuza mayelana ne-glyphosate, kanye no iqembu lezindaba zesayensi mbumbulu beyithuthukisa indaba kaKelland ku Facebook enesihloko esiyimbumbulu esithi i-IARC ososayensi babevumile ukuthi bazifihla.

Ukuhlaselwa kwebhekoni

Lesi bekungekhona okokuqala ukuthi uKelland athembele kuBob Tarone njengomthombo oyisihluthulelo, futhi wehluleka ukudalula ukuxhumana kwakhe embonini, ku-athikili ehlasela i-IARC.

Ngo-Ephreli 2016 uphenyo olukhethekile nguKelland, "Ngubani Othi Ibhekoni Limbi ?," uveze i-IARC njengenhlangano edidayo engalungile kusayensi. Ucezu lwakhiwe kakhulu kwizingcaphuno ezivela kuTarone, eminye imithombo emibili ye-pro-industry ukuxhumana kwezimboni nakho okungazange kudalulwe, kanye nombukeli oyedwa ongaziwa.

Izindlela ze-IARC “aziqondakali kahle,” “aziwusebenzeli kahle umphakathi,” kwesinye isikhathi zintula ubukhali besayensi, “azilungele isayensi,” “azilungele izinhlangano ezilawulayo” futhi zenza umphakathi “into embi,” kusho abagxeki.

UTarone uthe, le nhlangano "ayinazazi, uma kungezona ezesayensi" - icala elicindezelwe ngofeleba esihlokweni esincane.

I-Tarone isebenza kumkhakha we-pro Isikhungo se-International Epidemiology, futhi wake wabandakanyeka kwi ucwaningo lweselula oluyimpikiswano, exhaswe ingxenye yomkhakha womakhalekhukhwini, ongatholanga ukuxhumana komdlavuza nomakhalekhukhwini, okuphikisana ne- izifundo ezikhokhelwa ngokuzimela kumagazini ofanayo.

Abanye abagxeki endabeni yobhekeni lukaKelland kwakunguPaulo Boffetta, usosayensi owayengundabuzekwayo wakudala wase-IARC owabhala iphepha evikela i-asbestos ngenkathi futhi ukuthola imali yokuvikela imboni ye-asbesto enkantolo; noGeoffrey Kabat, owake waba khona ihlukaniswe nososayensi oxhaswe ngemali embonini kagwayi ukubhala iphepha ukuvikela intuthu kagwayi.

UKabat ubuye asebenze ebhodini lokweluleka le-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), a iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi. Usuku i Reuters indaba hit, i-ACSH ithumele into yebhulogi (4 / 16 / 17) eziqhayisa ngokuthi uKelland usebenzise umeluleki wakhe uKabat njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza i-IARC.

[Bona okuthunyelwe okuhlobene ngoMashi 2019: Izibopho zikaGeoffrey Kabat kumaQembu Wezimboni Zikagwayi Namakhemikhali

Ukuxhumana komkhakha wemithombo yakhe, nomlando wabo wokuthatha izikhundla ngokungqubuzana nesayensi ejwayelekile, kubonakala kufanelekile, ikakhulukazi njengoba ukudalulwa kwebhekoni le-IARC kwakumataniswa neKelland i-athikili mayelana ne-glyphosate lowo osola umeluleki we-IARC uChris Portier ngokwenzelela ngenxa yokuzibandakanya kwakhe neqembu lezemvelo.

Ukubiyelwa kwenzalo kwenzelwe ukudicilela phansi incwadi, ehlelwe nguPortier futhi isayinwe ososayensi abangama-94, lokho kuchaze "amaphutha amakhulu" ekuhlolweni kwezinhlekelele ze-European Union okukhipha i-glyphosate engozini yomdlavuza.

Ukuhlaselwa kwePortier, netimu enhle yesayensi / embi yesayensi, kwananela imboni yamakhemikhali Iziteshi ze-PR ngosuku olufanayo kwavela izindatshana zakwaKelland.

IARC ihlehlela emuva

Ngo-Okthoba 2016, kwenye iskoop ekhethekile, UKelland waveza i-IARC njengenhlangano eyimfihlo eyayicele ososayensi bayo ukuthi bayigodle imibhalo ephathelene nokubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate. Lo mbhalo ubususelwa ekubhaleni okunikezwe uKelland ngu iqembu lomthetho elixhasa umkhakha.

Ukuphendula, i-IARC yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthumela imibuzo kaKelland kanye ne izimpendulo ababemthumele zona, enikeze umongo oshiywe ngaphandle kwe- Reuters indaba.

I-IARC ichaze ukuthi abameli bakaMonsanto babecela ososayensi ukuthi baphendule amaphepha asalungiswa kanye nezinqumo, futhi ngenxa yamacala aqhubekayo kuMonsanto, "ososayensi bazizwa bengakhululekile ukukhipha lezi zinto, futhi abanye babona ukuthi bayasatshiswa." Le nhlangano ithe bake babhekana nengcindezi efanayo phambilini yokuthi bakhiphe amaphepha asalungiswa ukuze basekele izinyathelo zomthetho ezibandakanya i-asbestos nogwayi, nokuthi kunemizamo yokudonsela amaphepha e-IARC ngamacala enkantolo ye-PCB.

Indaba ayizange isho lezo zibonelo, noma ukukhathazeka mayelana nemibhalo yesayensi esalungiswa egcina isenkantolo, kepha ucezu lwalusinda ekuhlaziyweni kwe-IARC, ukuyichaza njengeqembu "eliphikisana nososayensi emhlabeni wonke," "elibangele impikiswano ”nokuhlolwa komdlavuza“ okungadala ukwesabeka okungadingekile kwezempilo. ”

I-IARC "inezinhloso eziyimfihlo" futhi izenzo zayo "bezihlekisa," ngokusho kwesikhulu seMonsanto esicashunwe endabeni.

IARC yabhala ukuphendula (ukugcizelelwa koqobo):

Lo mbhalo ngu Reuters kulandela iphethini yemibiko engaguquguquki kepha edukisayo mayelana nohlelo lwe-IARC Monographs kwezinye izingxenye zemidiya eziqala ngemuva kokuthi i-glyphosate ihlukaniswe njenge mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IARC futhi wahlehliselwa emuva Ukubika kukaKelland ngoBlair, ephawula ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo nomthombo wakhe iTarone futhi echaza ukuthi uhlelo lokuhlola umdlavuza lwe-IARC aluthathi imininingwane engashicilelwe, futhi "alusekeli ukuhlolwa kwalo emibonweni ethulwe emibikweni yabezindaba," kodwa "kumhlangano ohleliwe nokubuyekezwa kuzo zonke izifundo zesayensi ezitholakala esidlangalaleni nezisemqoka, ngochwepheshe abazimele, ezingenazintshisekelo ezitholakala kubo. ”

Ukulandisa kwe-ejensi ye-PR

I-Science Media Center-eyiKelland usho kanje kube nomthelela ekubikeni kwakhe — unezintshisekelo, futhi wagxekwa nangokuphikisa imibono yesayensi esekela umkhakha. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iBayer, iDuPont, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye nama-ejensi kahulumeni, izisekelo namayunivesithi.

Ngawo wonke ama-akhawunti, i-SMC inethonya ekwakheni ukuthi abezindaba bazifaka kanjani izindaba ezithile zesayensi, imvamisa ithola eyayo ukusabela kochwepheshe ucaphuna ezindabeni zemidiya nokusakazwa kokushayela nge cindezela ngamafushane.

Njengoba uKelland echaze ku-SMC ividiyo yephromoshini, "Ekupheleni kwesithangami, uyayiqonda ukuthi yini indaba nokuthi kungani ibalulekile."

Leli yiphuzu lomzamo weSMC: ukukhombisa izintatheli ukuthi izindaba noma izifundo ziyakufanele yini ukunakwa, nokuthi kufanele zakhiwe kanjani.

Kwesinye isikhathi, ochwepheshe be-SMC badlala ingozi futhi banikeza isiqinisekiso emphakathini mayelana nemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano; isibonelo, abacwaningi bagxeke imizamo yabezindaba ye-SMC ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Imikhankaso ye-SMC kwesinye isikhathi ifaka isandla emizameni yokunxenxa. Ngo-2013 Nature i-athikili (7 / 10 / 13) uchaze ukuthi iSMC iluguqule kanjani igagasi ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kwemibungu yezilwane / yabantu ehlukanisiwe nokukhathazeka kokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwayo njengethuluzi lokucwaninga — futhi ngaleyo ndlela yamisa imithetho kahulumeni.

Umcwaningi wabezindaba oqashwe yi-SMC ukuze ahlaziye ukusebenza kwalowo mkhankaso, u-Andy Williams wase-Cardiff University, wabona imodeli ye-SMC njengenkinga, wakhathazeka ngokuthi impikiswano evimbelwe. Williams kuchazwe izifinyezo ze-SMC njengemicimbi ephethwe ngokuqinile ecindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo.

Esihlokweni somngcipheko womdlavuza we-glyphosate, i-SMC inikeza ukulandisa okucacile ekukhishweni kwayo kwabezindaba.

Ukuhlukaniswa komdlavuza we-IARC, ngokusho kwe- Ochwepheshe be-SMC, "Yehlulekile ukufaka imininingwane ebucayi," ibisuselwa "ekubukezweni okukhethwayo" nakubufakazi "obubonakala buzacile" futhi "kukonke akusekeli ukuhlukaniswa kwezinga eliphezulu okunjalo." Monsanto kanye nezinye umkhakha Amaqembu kukhuthazwe izingcaphuno.

Ochwepheshe be-SMC babenombono omuhle ngokwengeziwe wokuhlolwa kobungozi okwenziwa yi-European Food Safety Authority (I-EFSA) kanye ne-European Chemicals Agency (I-ECHA), okususe i-glyphosate yokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza womuntu.

Isiphetho se-EFSA yayisondelene kakhulu nesayensi, ibambisene futhi ilinganiselwe ”kunama-IARC, kanye ne Umbiko we-ECHA yayizimisele, izimele, iphelele futhi “ivunyelwe ngokwesayensi.”

Ukubika kukaKelland ku Reuters kunanela lezo zingqikithi zomkhakha wemboni, futhi kwesinye isikhathi basebenzise ochwepheshe abafanayo, njenge Indaba kaNovemba 2015 ngokuthi kungani ama-ejensi ase-Europe anikeze izeluleko eziphikisanayo mayelana nobungozi bomdlavuza we-glyphosate. Indaba yakhe icaphune ochwepheshe ababili ngokuqondile ku Ukukhishwa kwe-SMC, bese efingqa imibono yabo:

Ngamanye amagama, i-IARC inikwe umsebenzi wokugqamisa noma yini engase ibe ezimeni ezithile, noma ingajwayelekile, ikwazi ukudala umdlavuza kubantu. I-EFSA, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ikhathazekile ngezingozi zangempela zokuphila nokuthi, uma kwenzeka i-glyphosate, bukhona yini ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi uma isetshenziswa ezimweni ezijwayelekile, isibulala-zinambuzane sibeka ingozi engamukeleki empilweni yabantu noma emvelweni.

UKelland uhlanganise ukusabela okufushane okubili kwabezemvelo: IGreenpeace ibize ukubuyekezwa kwe-EFSA ngokuthi “mhlophe”, kanti uJennifer Sass woMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo uthe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC “bekuyinqubo eqinile, evikeleka ngokwesayensi futhi yomphakathi ebandakanya ikomidi lamazwe omhlaba lochwepheshe abangawona umkhakha . ” (An Isitatimende seNRDC ku-glyphosate ukubeka ngale ndlela: “IARC Got It Right, I-EFSA Ithole It Isuka eMonsanto.”)

Indaba kaKelland ilandelele ukuphawula kweqembu lezemvelo “nabagxeki be-IARC… bathi indlela yayo yokuhlonza izingozi isiba yinto engenamsebenzi kubathengi, abalwela ukusebenzisa iseluleko sayo empilweni yangempela,” futhi iphetha ngezingcaphuno zososayensi “othi intshisekelo usebenze njengomxhumanisi weMonsanto. ”

Lapho ebuzwa ngokugxekwa kwe-pro-industry bias ye-SMC, uFox waphendula wathi:

Silalela ngokucophelela noma ikuphi ukugxekwa okuvela emphakathini wezesayensi noma izintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK, kepha asikutholi ukugxekwa kokuchema ngemboni evela kulaba babambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokwenzelela embonini, futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3,000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi lezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba zesayensi ezinempikiswano enkulu, sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile.

Ukungqubuzana kwesazi

Ochwepheshe bezesayensi abahlali bedalula ukungqubuzana kwabo kwezintshisekelo ekukhishweni kwezindaba ezikhishwe yi-SMC, noma nasezindimeni zabo ezisezingeni eliphakeme njengabenza izinqumo ngengozi yomdlavuza yamakhemikhali afana ne-glyphosate.

Isazi esivela njalo se-SMC u-Alan Boobis, uprofesa wezemithi yamakhemikhali e-Imperial College London, unikeza imibono ekukhishweni kwama-SMC i-aspartame (“Hhayi ukukhathazeka”), glyphosate emchameni (akunandaba), ama-insecticide kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa (“Ngaphambi kwesikhathi ukuthola iziphetho”), utshwala, Ummbila we-GMO, trace izinsimbi, Ukudla kwama-rod rod futhi nokuningi.

The Isinqumo se-ECHA ukuthi i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogen "kufanele ihalaliselwe," ngokusho kukaBoobis, kanye ne Isinqumo se-IARC ukuthi mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic "ayisiyona imbangela yokwethuka okungafanele," ngoba ibingacabangi ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane zisetshenziswa kanjani emhlabeni wangempela.

UBoobis umemezele ukuthi akukho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekukhishweni kwe-IARC noma yikuphi ukukhishwa kwangaphambilini kweSMC okuphethe izingcaphuno zakhe. Kepha wabe esevusa a ihlazo lokungqubuzana kwenzalo ngesikhathi kuvela izindaba zokuthi ubephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a iqembu le-pro-industry, ngasikhathi sinye wabambisana nosihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyathola i-glyphosate akunakwenzeka ukubeka ingozi yomdlavuza ngokusebenzisa ukudla. (IBoobis okwamanje isitulo weBhodi Labaphathiswa be-ILSI, futhi iphini likamongameli isikhangiso sesikhashana Ye-ILSI / Europe.)

ILSI ithole iminikelo yabantu abayisithupha kusuka eMonsanto naseCropLife International, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. USolwazi Angelo Moretto, owayengusihlalo wesigungu se-UN ku-glyphosate kanye noBoobis, naye wabamba indima yobuholi ku-ILSI. Noma kunjalo iphaneli limenyezelwe akukho ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo.

UKelland akazange abike ngalezo zingxabano, noma kunjalo bhala mayelana okutholwe "ochwepheshe be-UN" abakhipha i-glyphosate engozini yomdlavuza, futhi wake wasebenzisa kabusha isicaphuna seBoobis Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-SMC ngendatshana ekhuluma ingulube yase-Ireland engcolisiwe. (Ubungozi kubathengi bebuphansi.)

Lapho ebuzwa mayelana nenqubomgomo yokudalula inzalo ye-SMC, nokuthi kungani ukuxhumana kweBoobis 'ISLI kungadalulwanga ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, uFox waphendula wathi:

Sicela bonke abacwaningi esibasebenzisayo ukuhlinzeka ngama-COI abo futhi senze ukuthi labo batholakalele izintatheli. Ngokuhambisana nezinye izinqubomgomo ze-COI eziningana, asikwazi ukuphenya yonke i-COI, yize samukela izintatheli ezikwenza lokho.

UBoobis akatholakalanga ukuphawula, kodwa utshele i- Guardian, "Indima yami ku-ILSI (kanye namagatsha ayo amabili) njengelungu lomkhakha womphakathi kanye nosihlalo wamabhodi abo abaphathiswa, izikhundla ezingaholi."

Kodwa ukungqubuzana "kubangele ukulahlwa okufutheka okuvela kuma-MEPs aluhlaza nama-NGO," i Guardian kubika, “kuqiniswe ukukhishwa kombiko [wephaneli le-UN] ezinsukwini ezimbili ngaphambi kokuba kuvunyelwe kabusha i-EU ukuvotela i-glyphosate, okuzobiza izimboni zamarandi ezigidigidi zamarandi.”

Futhi kunjalo nangewebhu ethintekile yethonya ebandakanya izinkampani, ochwepheshe besayensi, ukusakazwa kwabezindaba kanye nempikiswano esezingeni eliphakeme nge-glyphosate, manje edlala ezingeni lomhlaba njengeMonsanto ubhekene nokumangalelwa ngaphezulu kwamakhemikhali ngenxa yezimangalo zomdlavuza, futhi ifuna ukuqeda ifayili le- Isivumelwano esingu- $ 66 billion neBayer.

Okwamanje, e-US, njengoba Bloomberg kubika ngoJulayi 13: “Ingabe Umdlavuza Obulala Kakhulu Wezwe Uyimbangela Yomdlavuza? I-EPA kaTrump Izonquma. ”

Imilayezo eya Reuters kungathunyelwa le website (noma nge Twitter: @Reuters). Sicela ukhumbule ukuthi ukuxhumana ngenhlonipho kuphumelela kakhulu.

UKate Kelland weReuters ukhuthaze ukulandisa okungamanga nge-IARC no-Aaron Blair

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

QAPHELA uJanuwari 2019: Imibhalo efakwe enkantolo khombisa ukuthi iMonsanto kuhlinzekwe uKate Kelland enemibhalo yendaba yakhe kaJuni 2017 ekhuluma ngo-Aaron Blair futhi wamnika umugqa wesilayidi wamaphoyinti okukhuluma inkampani yayifuna ukumbozwa. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka Okuthunyelwe kukaCarey Gillam's Roundup Trial Tracker.

Ukuhlaziywa okulandelayo kwalungiswa nguCarey Gillam futhi kwathunyelwa ngoJuni 28, 2017:

NgoJuni 14, 2017 Reuters esihlokweni elibhalwe nguKate Kelland, elinesihloko esithi "I-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-WHO ishiye ebumnyameni phezu kobufakazi be-glyphosate," isole ngephutha usosayensi womdlavuza ngokugodla imininingwane ebalulekile ekuhlolweni kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate okwenziwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Indaba kaKelland iqukethe amaphutha ayiqiniso futhi isho iziphetho eziphikisana nokufundwa okugcwele kwemibhalo ayikhombise njengemithombo eyinhloko. Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi uKelland akazange axhumanise nemibhalo ayikhombile, okwenza abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ukuthi uphambuke kangakanani ekuchazeni. I- idokhumenti eyinhloko yomthombo iphikisana ngokusobala nomqondo wendaba kaKelland. Eminye imibhalo indaba yakhe ekhonjisiwe, kepha futhi ayixhumananga nayo, ingatholakala ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe.

Ingemuva: Indaba yeReuters yayingenye yochungechunge lwezingcezu ezibucayi i-ejensi yezindaba eyishicilele nge-IARC uKelland ayibhala ngemuva kokuthi i-IARC ihlukanise i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngoMashi 2015. IGlyphosate iyimboni yokubulala ukhula enenzuzo enkulu esetshenziswa njengesithako esiyinhloko emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup, kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Ukwahlukaniswa kwe-IARC kudale ukuqulwa kwamacala amakhulu e-United States alethwe ngabantu abasola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo ubangelwe yiRoundup, futhi kwagqugquzela abalawuli be-European Union kanye ne-US ukuthi bakhulise ukuhlolwa kwabo kwamakhemikhali. Ngokuphendula ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, futhi njengendlela yokuzivikela ekumangalelweni kwamacala kanye nokuqinisa ukwesekwa kwezomthetho, iMonsanto ifake izikhalazo eziningi nge-IARC efuna ukubukela phansi ukwethembeka kwe-IARC. Indaba ka-June 14 Kelland, eyacaphuna isikhulu esiphezulu se “Monsanto” se-Monsanto, yaqinisa leyo mizamo yamasu futhi yashiwo nguMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali njengobufakazi bokuthi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kunamaphutha.

Cabanga ngalokhu:

  • Ukufakwa kukasosayensi u-Aaron Blair, ukukhulumisana okungaqondakali kanye nokuxhumana nge-imeyili endabeni yakhe ngokuthi "amadokhumende asenkantolo" bekungeyona imibhalo yenkantolo kepha bekuyimibhalo eyakhiwe yatholakala njengengxenye yokutholwa enkantolo yamacala amaningi eza nezisulu zomdlavuza Umangalela uMonsanto. Le mibhalo ibiphethwe yithimba labameli bakaMonsanto kanjalo nethimba labammangali. Bheka i-docket US Court Court yesifunda esiseNyakatho neCalifornia, icala lokuhola 3: 16-md-02741-VC. Uma iMonsanto noma i-surrogate inikeze uKelland amadokhumende, lokho kufuna kufanele ngabe kushiwo. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi le mibhalo ayitholakalanga enkantolo, njengoba indaba kaKelland isho, kubonakala sengathi iMonsanto noma ama-surrogates batshala udaba lwendaba futhi banikeza uKelland imibhalo, noma okungenani izingxenye ezithile zemibhalo, kanye nokuhlolwa kwayo.
  • Umbhalo kaKelland unikeza ukuphawula nokuchazwa kwesikhundla esivela kuBob Tarone, uKelland amchaza ngokuthi “ozimele ngeMonsanto.” Nokho imininingwane inikezwe yi-IARC kusungula ukuthi iTarone isebenze njengomxhumanisi okhokhelwayo eMonsanto emizameni yayo yokuhlambalaza i-IARC.
  • I-Reuters ihlekise lolu daba ngalesi sitatimende: "Usosayensi ohola lokho kubuyekezwa wayazi ngemininingwane emisha engakhombisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza - kodwa akakaze akhulume ngayo futhi ne-ejensi ayizange iyinake." UKelland waveza ukuthi uDkt Blair wayefihla ngenhloso imininingwane ebucayi. Noma kunjalo ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakazile ukuthi imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo "ibingakalungeli" ukuthunyelwa kumagazini ukuze ishicilelwe futhi ngeke ivunyelwe ukuthi icutshungulwe yi-IARC ngoba ibingakaqedwa futhi ishicilelwe. Idatha eningi yaqoqwa njengengxenye yeSifundo Sezempilo Sezolimo Sase-US ebanzi futhi ibizofakwa eminyakeni eminingana yolwazi olushicilelwe ngaphambili oluvela ku-AHS olungakhombisi ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ummeli waseMonsanto ubuze uBlair ngokuthi kungani imininingwane ingashicilelwanga ngesikhathi esizobhekwa yi-IARC, ethi: “Unqume, nganoma yisiphi isizathu, ukuthi leyo datha ngeke ishicilelwe ngaleso sikhathi, ngakho-ke ayizange ibhekwe IARC, akunjalo? ” UBlair uphendule wathi: “Cha. Futhi uyayingcolisa le nqubo. ” “Esinqume ukuthi kube ngumsebenzi ebesiwenza kulezi zifundo ezahlukene ubungakabi - awukakulungeli ukuthunyelwa kumajenali. Noma usuthathe isinqumo sokuyithumela emaphephandabeni ukuze ibuyekezwe, awunqumi ukuthi izoshicilelwa nini. ” (Blair deposition transcript page 259) UBlair uphinde wathi kummeli weMonsanto: “Okungafanelekile ukusheshe uphuthume okuthile okungakahlaziywa ngokuphelele noma kucatshangelwe kahle” (ikhasi 204).
  • UBlair uphinde wethula ubufakazi bokuthi eminye imininingwane evela ku-AHS engakaqedwa, engashicilelwe "ibingabalulekanga ngokwezibalo" (ikhasi 173 lokufaka imali). UBlair uphinde wafakaza kulokho kufakwa mayelana nedatha ekhombisa ukuxhumana okuqinile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-NHL nayo engazange ivezelwe i-IARC ngoba ayizange ishicilelwe.
  • UBlair ufakazele ukuthi eminye imininingwane evela ocwaningweni lweProject Pooled Project ikhombise ukuthi ubudlelwane obuqinile kakhulu ne-NHL ne-glyphosate, enobungozi obuphindwe kabili nobuphindwe kathathu obuhambisana ne-pesticide ebonwa kubantu abasebenzisa i-glyphosate ngaphezu kokuphindwe kabili ngonyaka. Njengedatha ye-AHS, le datha nayo ayizange ishicilelwe noma inikezwe i-IARC (amakhasi 274-283 we-Blair deposition).
  • Umbhalo kaKelland uphinde wathi: “UBlair uphinde wathi imininingwane ibizoguqula ukuhlaziywa kwe-IARC. Uthe bekuzokwenza ukuthi kungabi namathuba amancane okuthi i-glyphosate ihlangabezane nemibandela ye-ejensi yokuchazwa ngokuthi 'mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic.' ”Lobo bufakazi (emakhasini 177-189 of deposition) abuzisekeli nhlobo lezo zitatimende. Ekugcineni uBlair uthi “mhlawumbe” ukuze abuze imibuzo evela kummeli kaMonsanto ebuza ukuthi ngabe idatha ye-AHS ka-2013 ifakiwe yini ekuhlaziyweni kwedatha ye-epidemiology ebhekwe yi-IARC, uma lokho “bekuzokwehlisa ubungozi bezihlobo ze-meta-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngisho nangaphezulu… ”Indaba kaKelland nayo ishiya isithombe sokuthi le datha ye-epidemiology engashicilelwe evela ocwaningweni olungakaqedwa ngabe ishintsha umdlalo we-IARC. Eqinisweni, ukufunda lokhu kufakwa ngokuphelele, bese ukukuqhathanisa nombiko we-IARC we-glyphosate, kugcizelela ukuthi lowo mbono ungamanga futhi udukisa kanjani. UBlair ufakaze kuphela kwimininingwane ye-epidemiology futhi i-IARC ibisivele ibubonile ubufakazi besi sifo obubonakala njengobuncane. Ukuhlukaniswa kwayo kwe-glyphosate kwabona ukubaluleka kwedatha yezilwane (i-toxicology) eyibuyekeza, ikubheka "njengokwanele."
  • UKelland uziba izingxenye ezibalulekile zokufakwa kukaBlair ngqo ocwaningweni olushicilelwe lowe-2003 olathola ukuthi “kwakukhona ukuphindeka kabili kwengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma kubantu ababekade bevezwa yi-glyphosate” (amakhasi 54-55 of the deposition).
  • UKelland akabunaki ubufakazi obethulwe eBlair mayelana "namaphesenti angama-300 engcupheni eyandisiwe" yomdlavuza ocwaningweni lwaseSweden (ikhasi 60 lokufakwa).
  • Ukufunda konke ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakaze ngezibonelo eziningi zezifundo ezibonisa ukuhlangana okuhle phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, konke uKelland akushaya indiva.
  • UKelland ubhala ukuthi ebufakazini bakhe bezomthetho, uBlair uphinde wachaza i-AHS "njengeyinamandla" futhi wavuma ukuthi imininingwane ayibonisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza. Uveze ukuthi ubekhuluma ngemininingwane ethile engashicilelwe yango-2013 kwi-NHL ne-glyphosate okuyi-subset encane yolwazi etholwe ku-AHS, lapho ubufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi wayekhuluma ngesambulela esikhulu somsebenzi se-AHS, ebesilandelela imindeni yasepulazini. nokuqoqa idatha kumayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane iminyaka eminingana. Lokho uBlair akusho empeleni nge-AHS ebanzi yilokhu: “Kungumsebenzi onamandla. Futhi kunezinzuzo. Angiqiniseki ukuthi ngingathi yiyona enamandla amakhulu, kodwa isifundo esinamandla. ” (ikhasi 286 lokufaka imali)
    • Ngaphezu kwalokho, lapho ekhuluma ngqo ngemininingwane ye-AHS ka-2013 kwi-glyphosate ne-NHL, uBlair ukuqinisekisile ukuthi imininingwane engashicilelwanga idinga “ukutolikwa okuqaphile” uma kubhekwa inani lamacala avezwe emaqenjini amancane "lincane" (ikhasi 289).
  • UKelland uthi "I-IARC itshele iReuters ukuthi, yize bekukhona imininingwane emisha nge-glyphosate, ibihambisana nokutholakele kwayo," iphakamisa isimo se-cavalier. Isitatimende esinjalo sidukisa ngokuphelele. Yini iARC empeleni wathi bekungumkhuba wayo ukungacabangi okutholakele okungashicilelwanga nokuthi ingahlola kabusha izinto lapho umzimba omkhulu wedatha entsha ushicilelwa ezincwadini.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene:

Imibhalo ezihlobene

Ukufakwa okuqoshwe ngevidiyo kuka-Aaron Earl Blair, Ph.D., Mashi 20, 2017

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ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

Related:

Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza