Kungani silandela izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokuvuselela amasistimu ethu okudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

kuvuselelwe Mashi 4

The Isisekelo seBill & Melinda Gates usebenzise imali engaphezu kwama- $ 5 billion emizameni yayo ukuguqula izindlela zokudla e-Afrika, nge ezitshaliwe okungukuthi “kuhloselwe ukusiza izigidi zabalimi abancane ukuba bazikhiphe endlaleni nakubumpofu. ” Iqembu elikhulayo labagxeki lithi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo esisekelo - ngokusekelwe ku Imodeli ye- "green revolution" yokwandiswa kwezimboni - ziphelelwe yisikhathi, ziyingozi futhi zivimba izinguquko eziguqukayo ezidingekayo ukondla umhlaba nokulungisa isimo sezulu.

Le mpi sekuphele isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi njengoba ukunyakaza kokubusa kokudla e-Afrika kumelane nomfutho wezolimo onamandla wamakhemikhali kanye nalabo abasekela imbewu enelungelo lobunikazi abathi bayadingeka ukuhlinzeka abalimi ngokukhetha nokukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kokudla.

Imodeli engcono, kusho ukunyakaza kokudla, kungatholakala kumaphrojekthi wezolimo wezemvelo ukwandisa umkhiqizo ngezindleko eziphansi kanye nemali ephezulu yabalimi. A iphaneli ephezulu yezazi ngoba iZizwe Ezihlangene kubizwe ukushintshwa kwepharadigm kude nezolimo zezimboni ezingasimami futhi zibheke imikhuba yezolimo bathi zingaveza ukwehluka kwezitshalo zokudla ngenkathi futhi zakha ukuqina kwesimo sezulu.

Inkulumompikiswano ilibhekise embukisweni weqembu Ingqungquthela Yezokudla Yomhlaba ka-2021 ye-UN. Esikhundleni sokulandela izeluleko zethimba labo lochwepheshe, i-UN ibonakala ihlela inkampani ukudlala amandla kwezamabhizinisi ezolimo eholwa izisekelo zeGates neRockefeller kanye neForamu Yezomnotho Yomhlaba.  Amaqembu omphakathi angaphezu kwama-500 kukhona ukuphikisana nesiqondiso seNgqungquthela anokuqokwa kuka-Agnes Kailibata, umongameli weGates Alliance exhaswa ngemali yiGreen Revolution in Africa (AGRA), njengo Isithunywa Esikhethekile ophethe ukuqondiswa kwamasu. 

Phakathi ku incwadi ebhekiswe kuNobhala-Jikelele we-UN u-António Guterres ngoFebhuwari owedlule, izinhlangano eziyi-176 ezivela emazweni angama-83 zafuna ukuthi akuhoxise ukuqokwa kukaKalibata. Bathe, "amasu ka-AGRA asebenza kakhulu ngemali, futhi asebenzisa uphethiloli ngezolimo," awekho esimeme ngaphezu kokuxhaswa njalo. " Nayi ingcaphuno evela encwadini: 

Ngo-Mashi, i Inhlangano Yomphakathi kanye Nabantu Bomdabu - umfelandawonye wamaqembu omphakathi angaphezu kwama-500 anamalungu angaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-300 - utshele iphephandaba iThe Guardian Bazoduba ingqungquthela base besungula umhlangano ofanayo.  “Asikwazi ukugxuma esitimeleni esiya endaweni engafanele. Siyabungabaza ubuqiniso bale ngqungquthela. Sathumela incwadi ngonyaka odlule kuNobhala Jikelele mayelana nokukhathazeka kwethu. Akuphendulwanga. Sithumele enye futhi ngenyanga edlule, nayo engaphendulwanga, ”kusho uSofía Monsalve Suárez, oyinhloko I-Fian International. "Ingqungquthela ibukeka ichemile ngokwedlulele ngenxa yalabo balingisi ababambe iqhaza enkingeni yokudla."

NgoJanuwari, umReporteur okhethekile we-UN oLungelo Lokudla uMichael Fakhri, uprofesa wezomthetho e-University of Oregon ubhale isikhalo kuKalibata ka-AGRA echaza ukukhathazeka kwakhe okukhulu ngokuqondiswa yiNgqungquthela.

UFakhri uchaze ukukhungatheka kwakhe ku ividiyo ezimbili izingxoxo:  "Ukuthi izinhlangano zomphakathi kanye namalungelo abantu baqale bashiywa ngaphandle base bengeniswa bekhishwa inyumbazane," kusho uFakri. “Kusithathe kahle cishe unyaka ukuthola amalungelo abantu ohlelweni. Engqungqutheleni Yezokudla ephuma ehhovisi likaNobhala-Jikelele we-UN, kusithathe unyaka ukuchaza, ukufundisa nokuqinisekisa ubuholi beSummit ukuthi amalungelo abantu abalulekile. ”

Yizwa uSolwazi Michael Fakhri chaza ukuthi yini okusengcupheni engqungqutheleni ye-UN World Food Summit nokuthi kungani amasistimu okudla eyinkinga enkulu futhi futhi eyisixazululo esibalulekile sokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

Ochungechungeni lwezindatshana eziqala namuhla, i-US Right to Know izohlola uBill Gates nezinhlelo zeGates Foundation zokuvuselela uhlelo lwethu lokudla.

Kungani sigxile kuBill Gates? UGates unamandla amakhulu ngokungaphezulu kwezinhlelo zethu zokudla, futhi uyakusebenzisa.  Amasango yi umnikazi omkhulu wamapulazi e-United States. Ungomunye futhi ohola phambili emhlabeni abatshalizimali ku-biotechnology izinkampani ezinelungelo lobunikazi lokuphila nokudla. IGates Foundation inethonya elikhulu ekutheni izinhlelo zokudla zikhula kanjani eGlobal South, nasezingxoxweni zepolitiki zomhlaba wonke nasezinhlakeni zokucwaninga ezinomthelela ekudleni esikudlayo nesikudlayo.

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene: Izinhlelo zeGates Foundation zokwenza kabusha izinhlelo zokudla zizolimaza isimo sezulu

bhalisela ngencwajana yethu yamahhala ukulandela izibuyekezo.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwezempilo yomphakathi. Sisebenza emhlabeni wonke ukuveza ububi bezinkampani kanye nokwehluleka kukahulumeni okusongela ubuqotho bohlelo lwethu lokudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yethu.

IGates Foundation's Failing 'Green Revolution' e-Afrika: Umbiko omusha 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha oluvela eTufts Global Development and Environment Institute luthola ukuthi i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika ayifezi izethembiso zayo 

Uhlobo olude lwalesi sihloko luqalile Agasti 14 ku-The Ecologist

NguStacy Malkan

Ukutshalwa kwemali okukhulu okusetshenzisiwe ukukhuthaza nokuxhasa imbewu yezentengiso nemikhiqizo yezolimo kulo lonke elase-Afrika kwehlulekile ukufeza inhloso yabo yokuqeda indlala nokukhipha abalimi abasafufusa ebuphofini, ngokusho kwephepha elisha elimhlophe elishicilelwe yi ITufts University Global Development and Environment Institute. Umbiko osuselwe kakhulu ocwaningweni, "Izithembiso Ezingamanga,”Yashicilelwa ngomhlaka-10 Julayi yizinhlangano ezingenzi nzuzo zase-Afrika nezaseJalimane ezifuna a shintsha ekusekeleni emikhubeni yokulima ngezolimo. 

Ucwaningo oluholwa nguTimothy A. Wise luhlola i-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), okuyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo yamazwe omhlaba eyethulwe yizisekelo zeBill & Melinda Gates kanye neRockefeller ngo-2006 ngezethembiso zokuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo yemindeni yabalimi abayizigidi ezingama-30 ngenkathi isika ukungavikeleki kokudla ngesigamu emazweni angama-20 ase-Afrika ngo-2020. 

Ekulandeleni lowo mbono, i-AGRA iqoqe cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi futhi yanikela ngemali engamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-1, ikakhulukazi emazweni ayi-524 ase-Afrika, ezinhlelweni ezikhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwembewu yezentengiselwano, umanyolo wamakhemikhali kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Le phakethe lobuchwepheshe le- “Green Revolution” liphinde lixhaswe yimixhaso; UWise ubika ukuthi ohulumeni bamazwe ase-Afrika basebenzise cishe ama- $ 13 billion ngonyaka emazweni abhekiwe ukuxhasa ukuthengwa kwembewu nezolimo.

Ngaphandle kokwesekwa ngumphakathi, i-AGRA ayinikanga ukuhlolwa okuphelele noma ukubika ngemithelela yayo. Abaphenyi baseTufts babencike emininingwaneni esezingeni likazwelonke ngomkhiqizo wezolimo, ubuphofu, indlala nokungondleki ukuze bahlole inqubekela phambili.

"Sithola ubufakazi obuncane benqubekela phambili esabalele kunoma yiziphi izinhloso ze-AGRA, okushaya umxhwele uma kubhekwa amazinga aphezulu emixhaso kahulumeni yokwamukelwa kobuchwepheshe," kubika abacwaningi. Leli phepha libhala ukukhula komkhiqizo okuhamba kancane, akukho ukunyuka okuphawulekayo kokutholakala kokudla noma umholo wabalimi abancane emazweni okubhekiswe kuwo, kanye nendlala ebhebhethekayo. 

“Kuyimodeli ehlulekayo, imiphumela ehlulekayo; sekuyisikhathi sokushintsha inkambo. ”

"Ubufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi i-AGRA yehluleka ngokwayo," kuphetha leli phephandaba. Engxoxweni, uWise wafingqa lokho akutholile nge-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa: “Kuyisibonelo esisehlulekayo, imiphumela ehlulekayo; sekuyisikhathi sokushintsha inkambo. ” 

I-AGRA ithe "idumele kakhulu" kulolu cwaningo. "Eminyakeni eyi-14 eyedlule, i-AGRA izuze impumelelo yayo, kodwa futhi ifunde okuningi," iqembu kusho esitatimendeni. I-AGRA ithe iphepha leTufts lehlulekile ukuhlangabezana “namazinga ayisisekelo okufundwa kontanga futhi lacela isifundo ukuthi liphawule ngalokho 'okutholakele,'” futhi lisola uWise ngokuba "nomlando wokubhala izinsolo ezingenasisekelo nemibiko engaqinisekisiwe nge-AGRA nomsebenzi wayo . ” Nge-imeyili, u-Andrew Cox, oyiChief of Staff and Strategy kwa-AGRA, uphinde wagxeka indlela yocwaningo ngokuthi “ayiyona ingcweti futhi ayinasimilo,” futhi wathi “bakhetha ukwenza izinto obala nokuxhumana nezintatheli nabanye ngqo mayelana nezinkinga.” Uthe i-AGRA "izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngokuqhathaniswa nezinhloso zayo nemiphumela" ekupheleni kuka-2021.

Hlakaniphile, kabani Incwadi ka-2019 ethi “Eating Tomorrow” wayegxeka izindlela zokusiza ezicindezela onobuhle bezimboni ezisezingeni eliphezulu ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo e-Afrika, wathi wafinyelela ku-AGRA amahlandla amaningi kusukela ngoJanuwari enemibuzo ngocwaningo lwakhe. "Uma i-AGRA noma iGates Foundation inemininingwane ephikisana nalokhu okutholakele, kufanele bakwenze kutholakale," kusho uWise.

Phakathi kokutholakele okubalulekile akubikile:   

  • Isibalo sabantu abalambile emazweni agxile ku-13 e-AGRA sikhuphuke ngamaphesenti angama-30 ngesikhathi se-AGRA exhaswe ngemali kahle yiGreen Revolution.
  • Ukukhiqiza kukhuphuke ngama-29% kuphela eminyakeni eyi-12 yommbila, isivuno esixhaswe kakhulu nesesekelwa kakhulu - kufushane kakhulu kunhloso yokwenyuka ngo-100%. 
  • Izitshalo eziningi eziqinisa isimo sezulu, ezinomsoco zisuswe ezindaweni zazo ngenxa yokwanda kwezitshalo ezisekelwayo ezifana nommbila. 
  • Ngisho nalapho ukukhiqizwa kommbila kuye kwanda, imali engenayo kanye nokutholakala kokudla akukaze kuthuthuke kulabo abacatshangelwa ukuthi bangabahlomuli be-AGRA: imindeni yabalimi abancane.
  • Yize iGates Foundation's bathembisa ukusiza izigidi zabalimi abasafufusa, iningi labo ngabesifazane, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi i-AGRA ifinyelela inani elikhulu labalimi abasafufusa. Ngenkathi amanye amapulazi asezingeni eliphakathi engabona ukukhiqizwa komkhiqizo, "labo bangabalimi kakhulu - ikakhulukazi abesilisa - ngokuthola umhlaba, izinsiza kanye nezimakethe."

UWise ukhomba iRwanda njengesibonelo salokho akuchaze ngokuthi “ukwehluleka kwe-AGRA.” Njengoba kubhekwa kabanzi njengempumelelo ye-AGRA, iRwanda ibone isivuno sommbila sikhula ngama-66%. Kodwa-ke, imininingwane ikhombisa ukuthuthuka kokukhiqiza okuphelele ezintweni eziyisisekelo njengoba abalimi belahla izitshalo zendawo ezinomsoco ukuze batshale ummbila. Khonamanjalo inani labantu abangondlekile lenyuke ngo-13% eminyakeni ye-AGRA. Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe wezoLimo eRwanda, u-Agnes Kalibata, manje usehola i-AGRA futhi usanda kuqokwa ukuba ahole uhlelo ebeluhlelelwe Ingqungquthela Yezwe Yezokudla e-2021.

"Imiphumela yocwaningo iyamcasula i-AGRA kanye nabaprofethi beGreen Revolution," kusho uJan Urhahn, uchwepheshe wezolimo eRosa Luxemburg Stiftung, owaxhasa ngocwaningo.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko, leli qembu kanye nabalingani balo abangenzi nzuzo e-Afrika naseJalimane banxuse ohulumeni abanikelayo ukuthi “bangabe besaphinde banikeze uxhaso lwezepolitiki nolwezimali ku-AGRA futhi basuse izimali zabo ezisuka ku-AGRA baye ezinhlelweni ezisiza abakhiqizi abadla ukudla okuncane, ikakhulukazi abesifazane nentsha, futhi bathuthukise isimo sezulu imikhuba yokulima egcina imvelo njenge-agroecology. ” 

Izindleko eziphakeme zomphakathi, ukwenza izinto obala okuphansi

Ngakho-ke ngubani okhokhela i-Alliance ye-Green Revolution e-Afrika? Emalini ecishe ibe ngu- $ 1 billion enikelwe le nhlangano kuze kube manje, iGates Foundation inikele cishe cishe izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu ($ 661 million kuya ku-2018), iningi lokunye okuhlinzekwa ngabakhokhi bentela e-US, UK nakwezinye izindawo. Uhulumeni wase-US unikele nge-90 million yezigidi ku-AGRA kusukela ngo-2006, ngokusho kukaCox. 

Njengobufakazi benqubekela phambili kanye nokwenza izinto obala, i-AGRA ikhomba emibikweni yayo yaminyaka yonke enikezela ngemininingwane yezinhloso zesikhashana esifushane, yize kungacacile - umbiko wango-2019 ngokwesibonelo kuveza “abalimi abancane abayisigidi esingu-4.7 abafinyelelwe ngokungenelela okuhlukahlukene” kanye “nezigidi ezingama-800 zezimali ezizimele ezihlinzekiwe.” Umbiko ifaka imininingwane ethile mayelana nenqubekela phambili ukubheka izindawo ze-AGRA zokugxila kwezamasu: ukwedlulisa izinqubomgomo zokwenza lula ibhizinisi, ukuzama ukukala ubuchwepheshe nokusebenzisana nabalingani. Umbiko uphawula ukubambisana okuhlukahlukene kwezinkampani kanye nemizamo yokwenza izimakethe zibe ngezakho.

Ukuhlaziywa kweTufts, uWise uthe uxhumane ne-AGRA kaningi ngokubambisana nezicelo zemininingwane yabo yokuqapha nokuhlola. Inhlangano ithe izonikeza imininingwane kepha yeka ukuphendula izicelo. 

Ekuphikisweni kwayo, i-AGRA izichaze “njengesiKhungo sase-Afrika esivulekele ukugxeka futhi esijabule ngokwabelana ngolwazi nabaphenyi nabezindaba,” futhi sikhombise ukuthi sekushintshe ukucabanga kwamanye amamethrikhi aso okuqala. “Umsebenzi wokuvuselela uguquko unzima,” kusho izitatimende, “futhi udinga ukuzibophezela okuhlukile, ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo kanye nokutshalwa kwezimali. I-AGRA izoqhubeka nokwenza ngcono indlela yayo ngokuya ngezidingo zabalimi esibambisene nabo, ama-SME [amabhizinisi amancane naphakathi nendawo] kanye nezinto eziseqhulwini zohulumeni. ”

UCox uphinde wachaza nge-imeyili yakhe: "I-AGRA inebhasikidi lezinkomba zokulandelela imiphumela kubo bonke abalimi, izinhlelo, kanye nohulumeni," esho. "I-AGRA ikwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi emndenini ngamunye, imali engenayo inyuka kakhulu lapho abalimi benikezwa ukufinyelela kuzimbewu zanamuhla nezinto abazisebenzisayo, besekelwa ukunwetshwa kwezinga lezindawo." Kodwa-ke, uthe, ezinye izinto eziningi zithinta imali engenayo ithonya le-AGRA kanye nokucabanga kwe-AGRA ngemali engenayo yabalimi "kuthuthele ekuqondeni komongo futhi kuhlobene nalokho esingakuthonya ngqo." 

IGates Foundation iphendule ephepheni iTufts ngesitatimende esivela eqenjini layo labezindaba, “Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi enze izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo. Siphinde futhi sisekele imizamo ye-AGRA yokuqapha inqubekela phambili ngokuqhubekayo nokuqoqa idatha yokwazisa okusebenzayo nokungasebenzi. Sikukhuthaza ukuthi ubheke kumbiko wonyaka omusha we-AGRA ukuze uthole idatha yakamuva ngezinhloso zayo kanye nomthelela wayo. "

Amaqembu ase-Afrika: izixazululo zilele kubantu base-Afrika 

Ukuntuleka kwenqubekela phambili ebheke ezimeni ezithuthukisiwe zobuphofu nendlala akumangalisi emaqenjini okulima nawokuphatha ukudla asekelwe e-Afrika aphikisana “nomqondo we-neocolonial” we-Green Revolution yaseGates Foundation kusukela ekuqaleni. 

“Sekuyiminyaka sibhala phansi imizamo eyenziwe ngabakwa-AGRA yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, kanye nemiphumela ezoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlabathi, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, kanye nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika sibe ohlelweni olungakhelwanga bona lusizakale, kepha enzelwe iningi lezinkampani zamazwe ngamazwe aseNyakatho, ”kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity. Inhlangano yocwaningo nokumela ezinze eNingizimu Afrika ushicilele amaphepha angaphezu kweshumi nambili kusukela ngo-2007 isexwayiso ngobungozi nezinkinga zemodeli ye-AGRA. 

"Abantu base-Afrika abadingi izinkampani zamakhemikhali nezimbewu ezingatholakali ukuthi zitholakala kanjani," kusho uMayet. "Sidinga ubulungiswa bezohwebo, ezezimali kanye nezikweletu ukuze siphinde sisebenzise isikhundla se-Afrika emnothweni womhlaba futhi lokho kusinika ithuba lokwakha ikusasa lethu ngentando yeningi."

Ngokwesimo senkinga ye-COVID ikakhulukazi, uthe, "lo mbiko omusha uqinisa impikiswano yokuthi i-Afrika ingcono ngaphandle kwe-AGRA kanye nomqondo wayo we-neocolonial, nokuthi izixazululo zilele kubantu ezwenikazi nasemhlabeni wonke abakha izinhlelo ezakhiwe ngobulungiswa , nenhlalakahle yabantu neyendalo. ”

UMillion Belay, oxhumanisa i-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika (i-AFSA), okuyinhlangano yamaqembu angama-30 okudla nezokulima ezinze e-Afrika, ulinganise imodeli yentuthuko yezolimo eqhutshwa ezimakethe njengamanje “nedolo entanyeni ye-Afrika.” 

Ngamandla I-eseyi ngemuva kokubulawa kukaGeorge Floyd kanye nokuvukela komhlaba wonke kobulungiswa bezinhlanga, uBelay uxoxe ngendaba engamanga mayelana nezinhlelo zokudla zase-Afrika ezihlwanyelwe “yiqembu labalingisi abahlanganisa abasebenza ngokusiza abantu, ama-Aid Agencies, ohulumeni, izikhungo zemfundo kanye namanxusa… (abakhuluma ngokuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika kodwa lokho abakushoyo Lokhu bakwenzela ukuzakhela imakethe ngokukhalipha ngolimi oluhle oluzwelayo. ”   

“Sitshelwa ukuthi imbewu yethu indala futhi inamandla amancane okusinika ukudla futhi kufanele ihlanjululwe futhi iguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo ukuze isetshenziswe; sitshelwa ukuthi esikudingayo ngama-calories amaningi futhi sidinga ukugxila embewini yezitshalo ezimbalwa; sitshelwa ukuthi asiwusebenzisi kahle umhlaba wethu futhi kufanele unikezwe labo abangawenza kangcono umsebenzi wawo; sitshelwa ukuthi ulwazi lwethu ngokulima lubuyela emuva futhi sidinga ukuvuselela ulwazi olusuka eNtshonalanga… sitshelwa ukuthi, sidinga ibhizinisi ukutshala izigidigidi zamaRandi, futhi ngaphandle kwalaba basindisi abavela eNyakatho, asikwazi ukuzondla thina. Umhlaba wethu uchazwa ngokumane ukhiqize okuningi, hhayi ngokuba nokudla okunempilo, okunomsoco nokwesiko, okukhiqizwe ngaphandle kokulimaza imvelo, ”wabhala.

“Yidolo elifanayo elaqinisekisa ubukoloniya e-Afrika. Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuphela kwendlela yokususa leli dolo nokuphefumula wukubona idolo, ukuqonda izindlela zalo zokusebenza nokuhlela ukuzivikela, ”kubhala uBelay. Iqembu lakhe abamele i-agroecology, manje esithuthukiswa kabanzi phakathi kwezinhlangano ezingama-30 ezingamalungu e-AFSA. I-AFSA ibhala ngezifundo eziningi zamacala kukhombisa "ukuthi i-agroecology iyisiza kanjani i-Afrika mayelana nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukudla okunomsoco, ukunciphisa ubuphofu, ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokunciphisa, ukulondolozwa kwemvelo ehlukahlukene, ukuzwela kwamasiko, intando yeningi, kanye nenani lemali."

Izethembiso eziguqukayo ze-AGRA

Ngonyaka owedlule, izethembiso ezinesibindi ze-AGRA - zokuphinda kabili isivuno kanye nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngonyaka we-2020 - yavela ngokugqamile ekhasini lewebhu lesibonelelo senhlangano. Amagoli selokhu anyamalala ekhasini. Ngesikhathi ebuzwa ngalokhu, uCox ucacisile, "Asizinciphisanga izifiso zethu, kodwa sifunde ukuthi ezinye izinkomba eziqonde ngqo zifanele."

Uthe i-AGRA isanda kuvuselela iwebhusayithi yayo futhi “ayinazo izinsizakusebenza zokwenza ngendlela ebesifuna ngayo” kepha izoyibuyekeza futhi kungekudala. Leli qembu liphinde libonakale likhuphula i-PR yalo imizamo. A isicelo sesiphakamiso yokubonisana ngeminyaka emithathu kwezokuxhumana, eyathunyelwa ngoJuni, ichaza izifiso “zokwandisa ukusakazwa kwabezindaba okuhle kwe-AGRA cishe ngama-35-50% ngaphezu kwalokhu okusakazwa ngo-2017” (a Amathrendi abika uphawula ukuthi i-AGRA ithola ukushiwo kwabezindaba okungama-80 ngenyanga ngesiphakamiso ngoSepthemba 2016 kuya kuma-athikili ayi-800).

Ububanzi bomsebenzi obonwe ku-RFP buhlanganisa "okungenani izihleli ezisezingeni eliphakeme eziyi-10" ezibekwe "ezindaweni ezinamandla zendabuko nezikhulayo zomhlaba kanye nezifunda ezifana neNew York Times, Ventures Africa, The Africa Report, CNBC-Africa, Al Jazeera, njll. , ”Nokuthola izingxoxo“ eziyizi-25 kuya kwezingu-30 zesikhathi sokuqala zomuntu ngamunye kubacwaningi be-AGRA emithonjeni yezindaba emikhulu yomhlaba. ”

Ngonyaka owedlule, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika yafaka izinhloso zayo zokuzibophezela ikhasi lezibonelelo (gqamisa okufakiwe). NgoJulayi 2020 lolo limi alusabonakali ekhasini.

Ukushintsha inkambo 

Umbiko weTufts uphawula ukuthi ucwaningo olukhulayo olukhombisa umkhawulo wemodeli yokufaka amandla kaGreen Revolution yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kanye nokusebenza kwezindlela zezolimo. Inhlangano Yezokudla Nezolimo yeNhlangano Yezizwe ichaza i-agroecology “njengendlela edidiyelwe esebenzisa ngesikhathi esifanayo imiqondo nezimiso zezemvelo nezenhlalo ekwakheni nasekuphathweni kwezinhlelo zokudla nezolimo.” 

Izinsizakusebenza zeminye imininingwane: 

  • The I-UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ngo-2019 kubhalwe izindlela eziningi ezolimo ezisezimbonini ezinikela ngazo ekuguqulweni kwesimo sezulu, zifuna ushintsho olunzulu kuzo zombili izindlela zokunciphisa nokusiza abalimi ukuzivumelanisa nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sezulu.
  • UMay 2020 iphepha, "Ukuxhuma amachashazi ukunika amandla ukuguqulwa kwe-agroecology, ”Kwi-Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ithi:“ I-Agroecology isizilelela yona njengenye indlela ehlukile yezinhlelo zokudla zezimboni eziholwa yizinkampani. Ubufakazi bezinzuzo, izinzuzo, imithelela, nemisebenzi eminingi ye-agroecology iyanda. Kwabaningi ubufakazi busobala. Bheka futhi ne-Agroecology Manje Udaba Olukhethekile Lokuguqulwa Kwe-Agroecology.
  • July Umbiko wongoti wezi-2019 we-agroecology ovela kwi-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation icacile ekubizweni kwayo kwekhefu ngemodeli yeGreen Revolution. “Izinhlelo zokudla zisempambanweni yendlela. Kudingeka uguquko olunzulu, ”kusho yena. Lo mbiko ugcizelela ukubaluleka kwezolimo zemvelo, ezisekela “izindlela zokukhiqiza ezihlukahlukene nezinamandla, kubandakanya imfuyo exubekile, inhlanzi, ukutshalwa kwezolimo kanye nezolimo, ezigcina futhi zithuthukise ukuhlukahluka kwemvelo, kanye nesisekelo semithombo yemvelo.”
  • Umbiko ka-Okthoba 2018 ovela kwiPhaneli Yomhlaba Wonke Yochwepheshe Ngezinhlelo Zokudla Ezisimeme (IPES-Food), "Ukugqashula Ezinhlelweni Zokudla Kwezimboni: Izifundo Eziyisikhombisa Zezinguquko ze-Agroecological Transition ”
  • NgoFebhuwari 2018 iphepha leNqubomgomo Yezokudla, "Ukubuyekezwa: Ukubheka izinhlelo zokuxhaswa kwezolimo zesizukulwane sesibili sase-Afrika, ”Kwahlolwa imiphumela evela emazweni ayisikhombisa anezinhlelo zoxhaso futhi kwatholakala ubufakazi obuncane bokuphumelela okuqhubekayo — noma okuqhubekayo. "Umbhalo wezobuciko ucaca ngokusobala ukuthi imbewu kanye nomanyolo okwenziwe ngcono akwanele ukufeza izinhlelo zokulima ezinenzuzo, ezikhiqizayo nezisimeme ezingxenyeni eziningi ze-Afrika," kuphetha ababhali.
  • Juni 2016 umbiko we Iphaneli Lamazwe Ngamazwe Lochwepheshe Ngezinhlelo Zokudla Ezisimeme (IPES-Food), eyasungulwa yilowo owayenguReporteur we-UN Special on the Right to Food Olivier De Schutter, ifingqa umkhawulo wendlela yokufaka enamandla ye-Green Revolution yentuthuko yezolimo, kanye nokusebenza kwezinye izindlela. “Kudingeka umbandela omusha we-agroecological, ozinze ebudlelwaneni obuhluke ngokuphelele phakathi kwezolimo nemvelo, naphakathi kwezinhlelo zokudla nomphakathi. Izifundo eziyisikhombisa ezikulo mbiko zinikeza izibonelo ezisobala zokuthi, naphezu kwezithiyo eziningi zenguquko, abantu emhlabeni jikelele bakwazile ukucabanga kabusha nokuhlela kabusha izindlela zokudla mayelana nemigomo yezolimo. ”
  • I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika (i-AFSA) ibhale phansi ukusebenza ngempumelelo kwe-agroecology, manje esithuthukiswa kabanzi ezinhlanganweni ezingamalungu ayo. Bheka izifundo ze-AFSA
  • February 2006 Ucwaningo lwe-University of Essex kuhlolwe cishe amaphrojekthi amakhulu ama-300 wezolimo emvelweni emazweni angaphezu kwama-50 ampofu futhi kwabhalwa ukwanda okuphakathi kwama-79% ekukhiqizeni ngezindleko ezinciphile kanye nemali ekhuphukayo. 

Olunye ulwazi

Ngemininingwane eminingi ngocwaningo lwakamuva olwenziwe nguTimothy A. Wise

Ukubika okuhlobene kwe-US Right to Know

 

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.

Umbiko Omfishane Wezintatheli Kukhulunywe Ngawo Ezicelweni Zethu ze-FOIA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Futhi ubone: Ukubhabha kwi-Food Beat: Kunini lapho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo?  
Umbhali Wekholomu Wokudla waseWashington Post Uya eBat yeMonsanto 

NgoSepthemba 23, Washington Post umlobeli wezokudla UTamar Haspel wamukelwa ukuthi uthole "inala" yemali evela emithonjeni yezimboni ezixhasa ezolimo.

Ngemuva kokungeniswa kwakhe, ngicabange ukuthi kungaba wusizo ukubika ngezintatheli - kubandakanya uHaspel - okukhulunywe ngazo kumadokhumenti esiwatholile asuka kuzicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi.

I-US Right to Know iqhuba i- uphenyo lwezimboni zokudla nezolimo, amafemu abo e-PR namaqembu angaphambili, kanye nosolwazi ababakhulumelayo.

Kuze kube manje, izintatheli ezintathu ziza ngezindlela ezithokozisayo: U-Amy Harmon, uKeith Kloor noTamar Haspel. Lezi zintatheli zivela kumongo we UJon Entine, ngubani mhlawumbe oholayo Ukusebenza kwe-PR ukusebenzela ukuthuthukisa imibono yemboni yezolimo, nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

U-Entine ungumsunguli futhi umphathi omkhulu we-Genetic Literacy Project, okuyi, kanye ne I-PR iqinile UKetchumka- Izimpendulo ze-GMO, amaqembu emboni yezolimo abonakala kakhulu ngaphambili. U-Entine futhi ungumsunguli nomongameli wenkampani ye-PR i-ESG MediaMetrics, okuyi- amaklayenti afake i-agronhemical giant Monsanto.

U-Amy Harmon

U-Amy Harmon yintatheli ye- New York Times. Wayeyingxenye ye- Times iqembu elanqoba umklomelo wePulitzer ngo-2001, kwathi ngo-2008 lawina Pulitzer ngokubika okuchazayo.

NgoSepthemba 23, 2013 ngo-7: 44 pm, UJon Entine uthumele i-imeyili uRenee Kester: “FYI, ngicabanga ukuthi ngikhulume no-Amy Harmon ukuthi enze indaba yaseHawaii eHawaii. . . futhi ngimnikeze imininingwane yakho ye-imeyili kanye neyakwaKirby, ngakho-ke angashayela ngesikhathi esithile uma ekulandela ngempela lokhu. ” UKirby Kester unjalo umongameli we-Hawaii Crop Improvement Association, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo.

NgoJanuwari 4, 2014, the New York Times ushicilele udaba olusekuqaleni kwekhasi luka-Amy Harmon, olunesihloko esithi “Ukufuna amaLonely Amaqiniso Kuzilimo Eziguqulwe Ngokofuzo. ” Indaba isuselwe eKona, eHawaii.

Ngo-2014, uHarmon wawina indawo yesibili yeNhlangano Yezintatheli Zezemvelo “Umklomelo kaKevin Carmody Wokubika Okujulile Ovelele, Imakethe Enkulu”Kokuthi“Amaqiniso Ngama-GMO, ”Uchungechunge olwalunendatshana ethi“Ukufuna amaLonely Amaqiniso Kuzilimo Eziguqulwe Ngokofuzo. "

On September 30th, UHarmon uhlelelwe ukukhuluma kuya ICornell Alliance yeSayensi, a iqembu elixhaswe yiBill and Melinda Gates Foundation ukukhuthaza ama-GMO. Iqembu kufaka isikhalazo ngokumelene ne-US Right to Know's Umthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi (FOIA) izicelo.

UKeith Kloor

UKeith Kloor yintatheli ezimele ebhalele yena Nature, Isayensi Insider, Discover, Slate nezinye izitolo. UKloor ubhale ama-athikili amaningi we-pro-GMO abelokhu ekhona evezwe yiJon Entine's Genetic Literacy Project.

UKloor kukhulunywa ngaye ezindaweni ezimbili emibhalweni ye-FOIA.

Ku-imeyili eyodwa, uJon Entine ubhekisa kuKeith Kloor njengo “umngani wami omuhle kakhulu".

Kwenye i-imeyili, ngo-Okthoba 18, 2014, uDkt. Channapatna Prakash, ummeli nomphathi weGMO eTuskegee University, Ama-imeyili U-Adrianne Massey we-Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), kanye nabanye abaningana, ukudlulisa isexwayiso esivela ku- ULorraine Thelian, iphini likasihlalo wenkampani ye-PR iKetchum ukuthi "umphakathi we-hacker Anonymous uhlela uchungechunge lokuhlaselwa kuma-biotechnology kanye namawebhusayithi wemboni yokudla… Inhlangano yabasebenzi kanye namawebhusayithi ezinkampani e-CBI [Council for Biotechnology Information] amalungu abhekiswe kulokhu kuhlasela okuhleliwe." UDkt. Prakash uyabhala, "U-Adrianne ngikopishe uKevin Folta, uKarl von Mogel, uDavid Tribe noKeith Kloor nalapha. "

UDkt Prakash uthumele i-imeyili kuJay Byrne (owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto), UJon Entine, uBruce Chassy (imboni yezolimo khuthazaI-Val Giddings (i-VP yangaphambili ye-BIO), UHenry Miller (ummeli wemboni yezolimo), UDrew Kershen (ummeli wemboni yezolimo, UKlaus Ammann, UPiet van der Meer, UMartina Newell-McGloughlin (ummeli wemboni yezolimo), UKarl Haro von Mogel (ilungu lebhodi labaqondisi le- IBiology Iqinisiwe, iwebhusayithi ye-pro-GMO), uKevin Folta (kwezolimo ummeli wemboni), UKeith Kloor noDavid Tribe (ummeli wemboni yezolimo).

UKeith Kloor uyena kuphela intatheli owathola le imeyili.

I-imeyili isho ukuthi iKloor isebenza ngokubambisana nabameli abaziwayo bemboni yezolimo.

UKloor ubhale izindatshana ezintathu ebezigxeka izicelo zeFOIA zase-US Right to Know Isayensi Insider, Discover futhi Nature.

NgoMashi 23, 2015, UKloor wethule inkulumo yeCornell Alliance for Science, ephethe i- Isikhalazo ngokumelene ne-US Right to Know's FOIA.

UTamar Haspel

UTamar Haspel uyi umlobi wekholamu ku- Washington Post. Ubhale amakholomu amaningi we Thumela ukuvikela noma ukuncoma ama-GMO akade aba khona evezwe yiJon Entine's Genetic Literacy Project.

Ngo-2015, iHaspel uzuze umklomelo weJames Beard Foundation okwakhe Thumela amakholomu.

NgoJuni 2014, iHaspel Wakhuluma engqungqutheleni esekela umkhakha mayelana "Ososayensi bangayingenela kanjani kangcono impikiswano ye-GMO nomphakathi ongabazayo? ” Ingqungquthela ibihlelwe nguJon Entine noCami Ryan, okumanje usekhona isayensi yezenhlalo iholela iMonsanto. Ingqungquthela yayiholwa amaqembu amabili aphambili embonini yezolimo, i Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, kanye neYunivesithi yaseFlorida, ethola uxhaso olukhulu ezinkampanini zezolimo, njengoba kuphawulwe ngoSepthemba 6 esihlokweni ku New York Times.

IHaspel iphinde yamodela a iphaneli ihlelwe by Isikhungo saseNorth Carolina Biotechnology, "enikeza izinzuzo zesikhathi eside kwezomnotho nakwezenhlalo eNyakatho Carolina ngokusekela ucwaningo lwe-biotechnology, ibhizinisi, ezemfundo kanye nenqubomgomo yamasu ezweni lonke."

Engxoxweni kaSepthemba 23 ebanjwe yi- Washington Post, ephendula umbuzo wokuthi uyayithola yini imali emithonjeni yezimboni, uNkk Haspel ubhale ukuthi, “Ngikhuluma futhi ngilinganisa amaphaneli nezimpikiswano kaningi, futhi kungumsebenzi engikhokhelwa wona. ” Kamuva ngalolo suku, ngabuza uNkk. Haspel ku-Twitter ukuthi uthole malini embonini yezolimo nakumaqembu ayo angaphambili. Uphendule wathi, “Njengoba noma yiliphi iqembu elikholelwa ukuthi i-biotech linokuthile elikunikezayo 'yiqembu langaphambili,' inala!"

Ingabe kufanelekile kufayela le- Washington Post Umlobi wekholamu ukubhala amakholomu akhanyayo ngama-GMO ngenkathi evela ezingqungqutheleni ezifana nalezi zomkhakha? Ngabe kungukushayisana kwezintshisakalo kuHaspel ukwamukela imali ezithakazelweni zenkampani yezolimo ayihlanganisa njengengxenye yesigqi sakhe njenge Thumela umlobeli wezokudla? Uthole malini uHaspel kusuka kuzintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo?

Ezinye izintatheli zigxeke izintatheli “ngokwenza ibhakede” kumasekhethi ezikhulumi. Isibonelo, yangaphambili Washington Post Umhleli Ophethe Kusho uBen Bradlee, “Ngifisa sengathi kungaphela. Angiyithandi. Ngicabanga ukuthi kuyonakalisa. Uma i-Insurance Institute of America, uma kukhona into enjalo, ikukhokhela u- $ 10,000 ukwenza inkulumo, ungangitsheli ukuthi awonakaliswanga. Ungasho ukuthi awunayo futhi ungasho ukuthi uzohlasela nezinkinga zomshuwalense ngendlela efanayo, kodwa ngeke. Awukwazi. ”

UHaspel wabhala ku Washington Post ukuthi uzokhuluma kuphela emicimbini lapho “uma izinkampani ezenza inzuzo zibandakanyeka kulo mcimbi (okuyiyona ejwayelekile), azikwazi ukuba yizwi kuphela. Ngakho-ke, ngizokhuluma engqungqutheleni ebixhaswe yiMonsanto kanye ne-USDA ne-NC State University, kodwa hhayi umcimbi oxhaswe yiMonsanto kuphela. ” Kodwa-ke, engqungqutheleni kaJuni 2014, lapho uHaspel akhuluma khona, abekho abameli babathengi ababehlelelwe ukuthi bakhulume, kuphela abameli bezimboni.

On Ngo-Okthoba 16, uHaspel uhlelelwe ukukhuluma kuya ICornell Alliance yeSayensi, iqembu le-pro-GMO lelo ukusingatha isikhalazo ngokumelene ne-US Right to Know's FOIA.

UHaspel ubelokhu egxeka izicelo ze-US Right to Know FOIA. Ngo-Agasti 17, kuTwitter, wabhala: “Imali / isikhathi / amandla okuchithwa kumoshelwe ku-garyruskin's attack-spirited, and self-interested attack on @kevinfolta! Ngabe singadlulela kokunye okuwusizo?”Abanye abavumelananga nesinqumo sakhe sezindaba. NgoSepthemba 6th, u-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer ubhale i-athikili ikakhulu esekwe kwizicelo zethu ze-FOIA - ikakhulukazi uProfesa Kevin Folta wase-University of Florida - obesekhasini lokuqala leSonto New York Times. Lo mbhalo uveze ukuthi uFolta, owenqabe kaningi ubudlelwane noMonsanto, empeleni wayethole isibonelelo esingadalulwanga esingu- $ 25,000, kanye nezabelo zokubhala ezivela enkampanini, futhi wasebenza eduze nayo kanye nenkampani yayo ye-PR uKetchum, eyayibhalela yena imibhalo futhi yahlela nabezindaba nokumnxenxela ukuba abe nemihlangano.

I-US Right to Know iyiqembu elimele abathengi. Sizama ukuveza lokho imboni yokudla engafuni sazi. Sikholelwa ukuthi kuwusizo emphakathini ukubona ukuthi izinkampani zokudla nezolimo zenza kanjani ubudlelwano bazo nomphakathi busebenza. Leyo ngenye indlela esingasiza ngayo abathengi ukuthi bahlole izimangalo nolwazi abalutholayo ezinkampanini ezibandakanyeka ekukhiqizweni kwethu kokudla, amafemu abo e-PR kanye nabasebenza nabo, kanye nezintatheli ezisebenza nabo.

Ubani Odala Ukuhlaselwa Kwase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kube nokuhlaselwa okumbalwa muva nje kwe-US Right to Know, ngakho-ke ngicabange ukuthi kungaba wusizo ukudweba ukuthi ngubani osemuva kwabo.

A Mashi 9 esihlokweni ku-Guardian wasigxeka ngokuthumela Izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act ukuthola ukuxhumana phakathi kosolwazi abakhokhela intela kanye nomshini wePR womkhakha wezokudla. Bobathathu ababhali be-athikili bangabongameli bangaphambilini be-American Association for the Advancement of Science. Kepha lo mbhalo wehlulekile ukudalula izibopho zabo zezezimali.

Umbhali wokuqala, uNina Federoff ubizwa ngokuthi "ngu-Evan Pugh Professor ePenn State University" kodwa uyakushiya lokho isebenza e-OFW Law, okuyi-firmhouse yokudla kanye ne-agribusiness lobbying firm. Umthetho we-OFW ubhaliswe njengokunxenxa i- Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology futhi Syngenta.

Sacela izincwadi ezivela kubo bobabili iSyngenta ne-CBI - amalungu abo afaka phakathi “I-BASF, iBayer CropScience, iDow AgroSciences, iDuPont, Inkampani yeMonsanto neSyngenta”- ukuze siqonde ukuthi kungani uNks.

Umbhali wesibili, uPeter Raven, ukhonjwa njengoMqondisi Emeritus weMissouri Botanical Garden, ehlanganiswe kakhulu neMonsanto kangangokuthi ine Isikhungo saseMonsanto futhi IMonsanto Hall. Umtapo Wezincwadi kaPeter H. Raven esitezi sesine seMonsanto Center. A Ukukhishwa kwezindaba zika-2012 uthi, "Inkampani yeMonsanto neMonsanto Fund bebe phakathi kwabanikele kakhulu eMissouri Botanical Garden kule minyaka engama-40 edlule, banikela cishe ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyishumi kumaphrojekthi amakhulu, isayensi nemfundo ngaleyo nkathi."

Umbhali wesithathu, uPhillip Sharp, usebenza eDavid H. Koch Institute eMIT - yebo, uDavid Koch ofanayo weKoch Brothers. Esihlokweni sabo, ababhali basifanisa nalabo abenqaba ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu. Okokuthi othile oxhunywe kwiKoch Institute ukuthi asixhumanise nabenqabayo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu akunakwenzeka. UDkt Sharp ubuye abe nobudlelwano obuseduze nemboni ye-biotech, njengomsunguli wenkampani iBiogen.

I-American Association for the Development of Science is esebenza njenge the Inhlangano yaseMelika Ekuthuthukisweni kweMonsanto. Lokho, ngokweqiniso, kuyilahleko yesayensi, nakithi sonke.

Futhi, iCornell Alliance for Science nayo besilokhu sihlasela i-US Right to Know futhi ukuhlela isikhalazo ngokumelene nezicelo zethu ze-FOIA mayelana nemboni yezolimo i-PR nemikhankaso yezepolitiki yokuvikela ama-GMO.

ICornell Alliance for Science yaqala ngonyaka owedlule nge “Isibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela kuBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, ”Isisekelo esikhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, okuyi- umgqugquzeli we futhi umtshali wezimali imboni yezolimo. Isikhulu esiphezulu seGates Foundation, uSue Desmond-Hellman, wasebenzela iminyaka eyishumi nane enkampanini ye-biotech iGenentech.

ICornell Alliance for Science ithi eyabo “Inhloso” ngukubukela phansi impikiswano ye-GMO, ”Kepha ukuhlasela iqembu lethu labathengi kuyindlela eyinqaba“ yokwehlisa isithunzi ”impikiswano ngemiphumela yezempilo nezemvelo yokudla nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo.