I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

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Izifundo Eziyinhloko Zesayensi ku-Aspartame
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Imininingwane ebalulekile Ngokwe-Diet Soda Chemical 

Yini i-Aspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yi-sweetener esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iphinde idayiswe njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona kokungaphezulu kwe- 6,000 imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango nezinye iziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela; Imikhiqizo ye-Jell-O engenashukela; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kanye neminye imikhiqizo eminingi yezinsini ezingenashukela; Amaswidi aqinile angenashukela; iziphuzo ezinoshukela ophansi noma ongenashukela njengama-ketchups nokugqoka; imithi yezingane, amavithamini kanye namaconsi okukhwehlela.
  • I-Aspartame yikhemikhali lokwenziwa elenziwe ngama-amino acid phenylalanine ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Lapho idliwe, i-methyl ester yehla ibe yi-methanol, engaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka eyishumi yezifundo iphakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-Aspartame

Njengoba i-aspartame yaqala ukwamukelwa ngo-1974, bobabili ososayensi be-FDA kanye nososayensi abazimele baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona kanye nokushiyeka kusayensi ethunyelwe ku-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (IMonsanto ithenge iSearle ngo-1984).

Ngo-1987, i-UPI yashicilela uchungechunge lwama-athikili okuphenya nguGregory Gordon ebika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo, kufaka phakathi izifundo zakuqala ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nezinkinga zempilo, izinga elibi locwaningo oluxhaswe imboni olwaholela ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kanye nobudlelwano bomnyango obuzungezayo phakathi kwezikhulu ze-FDA kanye nemboni yokudla. Uchungechunge lukaGordon luyisisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuqonda umlando we-aspartame / NutraSweet:

Amaphutha ekuhlolweni kwe-European Food Safety Authority

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha ku-Archives of Health Public, Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseSussex banikeze ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwe-aspartame kwe-EFSA ngonyaka ka-2013 bathola ukuthi iphaneli linciphise njengokungathembeki esifundweni ngasinye kwezingu-73 ezikhombisa ukulimala, futhi lasebenzisa izindlela zokuxegisa kakhulu ukwamukela ukuthembeka okungu-84% wezifundo lokho akubutholanga ubufakazi bokulimala. "Uma kubhekwa ukushiyeka kokuhlolwa kobungozi be-aspartame kwe-EFSA, kanye nokushiyeka kwakho konke ukuhlolwa kwangaphambilini okuyingozi okusemthethweni kwe-aspartame, kungaphambi kwesikhathi ukuphetha ngokuthi kuphephile ngokwamukelekayo," kuphetha ucwaningo.

Bona Impendulo ye-EFSA nokulandelwa ngabaphenyi u-Erik Paul Millstone no-Elizabeth Dawson ku-Archives of Public Health, Kungani i-EFSA yehlise i-ADI yayo ye-aspartame noma yancoma ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kungabe kusavunyelwa? Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

  • Ochwepheshe bathi “isiphuzo sopopayi esithandwa kakhulu emhlabeni kufanele sinqatshelwe. Ochwepheshe ababili bezokuphepha kokudla bacele ukuthi iswidi yokufakelwa esetshenziswa kabanzi, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK futhi babuze ukuthi kungani kubonakale kwamukelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” I-New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufanele kumiswe': I-EFSA esolwa ngokwenzelela ekuhloleni ukuphepha," nguKaty Askew, I-Navigator Yezokudla (7.27.2019)

Imiphumela Yezempilo Nezifundo Eziyinhloko ku-Aspartame 

Ngenkathi izifundo eziningi, ezinye zazo zixhasiwe, azibikanga zinkinga nge-aspartame, inqwaba yezifundo ezizimele ezenziwa amashumi eminyaka zixhumanise i-aspartame nohlu olude lwezinkinga zempilo, kufaka phakathi:

Cancer

Ocwaningweni olunzulu lomdlavuza kuze kube yimanje nge-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zokuphila ezenziwa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center yeRamazzini Institute, zinikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bokuba nomdlavuza kumagundane adalulwe kulokho.

  • I-Aspartame “ingumenzeli we-carcinogenic onamandla amaningi, noma ngabe isilinganiso sansuku zonke se-… singaphansi kakhulu kokudla kwansuku zonke okwamukelekayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwempilo ka-2006 Impilo Yemvelo.1
  • Ucwaningo olulandelwayo ngo-2007 luthole ukwanda okuphathelene nomthamo okuphawulekayo kumaqhubu amabi kwamanye amagundane. "Imiphumela ... iqinisekisa futhi iqinisa ukubonakaliswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe- [aspartame's] okungajwayelekile kwe-carcinogenic ezingeni lomthamo eliseduze kokudla okwamukelekayo kwabantu nsuku zonke ... lapho ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila kuqala ngesikhathi sokuphila kwengane, imiphumela yayo ebanga umdlavuza iyanda," kubhala abacwaningi. phakathi Impilo Yemvelo.2
  • Imiphumela yocwaningo lwempilo yango-2010 "iqinisekisa ukuthi [i-aspartame] iyisakhi se-carcinogenic ezindaweni eziningi kumagundane, nokuthi lo mphumela wenziwa ezinhlotsheni ezimbili, amagundane (abesilisa nabesifazane) kanye namagundane (abesilisa)," kusho abacwaningi ku Ijenali YaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni.3

Abaphenyi baseHarvard ngo-2012 babika ubudlelwano obuhle phakathi kokudla kwe-aspartame kanye nengozi eyengeziwe ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ne-myeloma eminingi emadodeni, kanye ne-leukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Okutholakele "kugcina amathuba okuba nomthelela omubi ... kumdlavuza okhethiwe" kepha "akuvumeli isinqumo esiphume njengenhlanhla," kubhala abacwaningi ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.4

Encazelweni ka-2014 ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni, Abaphenyi be-Maltoni Center babhala ukuthi izifundo ezithunyelwe yi-GD Searle ukuze zivunyelwe emakethe “azihlinzeki ngosizo olwanele lwesayensi kwezokuphepha [kwe-aspartame]. Ngokuphambene nalokho, imiphumela yakamuva ye-life-span carcinogenicity bioassays kumagundane namagundane ashicilelwe kumajenali abuyekezwa ngontanga, kanye nocwaningo olulindelekile lwe-epidemiological, lunikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bamandla we-carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ngokwesisekelo sobufakazi bemiphumela engaba khona ye-carcinogenic… ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwesimo samanje sezinhlangano ezilawula umhlaba wonke kufanele kuthathwe njengendaba ephuthumayo yezempilo yomphakathi. ”5

Brain izimila

Ngo-1996, abacwaningi babika ku- Ijenali yeNeuropathology & Yokuhlola Neurology kubufakazi besifo esixhuma ukwethulwa kwe-aspartame ekwandeni kohlobo olunolaka lwamathumba anobuchopho. "Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izinto ezithinta ezemvelo ezixhunyaniswe nezicubu zobuchopho, i-aspartame yokufakelwa ingumlingisi othembisayo ochaza ukwanda kwamuva kwesimo kanye nezinga lokulimala kwezicubu zobuchopho… Siphetha ngokuthi kunesidingo sokuhlaziya amandla we-aspartame we-carcinogenic."6

  • Isazi sezinzwa uDkt John Olney, ongumlobi oholayo wocwaningo, utshele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kube nokwanda okumangazayo kwezehlakalo zamathumba anobuchopho (eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kulandela ukuvunyelwa kwe-aspartame)… kunesisekelo esanele sokusola i-aspartame ukuthi kumele ihlolwe kabusha. I-FDA idinga ukuyihlola kabusha, kulokhu, i-FDA kufanele ikwenze kahle. ”

Izifundo zakuqala ze-aspartame ngawo-1970 zathola ubufakazi bamathumba obuchopho ezilwaneni zaselebhu, kepha lezo zifundo azilandelwanga.

Izifo Zezinhliziyo 

Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners wokufakelwa, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”7 Bona futhi:

  • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
  • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 ku I-Physiology nokuziphatha kubika, “kukhona ukuhlangana okuvusa amadlingozi phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo lwezilwane kanye nenqwaba yezifundo ezinkulu, zesikhathi eside zokuhlola kubantu, ekutholeni ukukhuphuka kwesisindo, ukuthambekela, ukubhebhetheka kokukhuluphala, ingozi ye-cardiometabolic, kanye nokufa okuphelele phakathi kwabantu abantu abanokuchayeka okungapheli, nsuku zonke kumakhemikhali anekhalori eliphansi - futhi le miphumela iyakhathaza. ”8

Abesifazane abaphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwezimbili zokudla ngosuku “babenobungozi obukhulu bezifo [zenhliziyo nemithambo yegazi]… [isifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi] ukufa… kanye nokufa jikelele,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2014 lweWomen Health Initiative olushicilelwe ku I-Journal of General Medicine Internal.9

Unhlangothi, Dementia kanye Izifo ze-Alzheimer

Abantu abaphuza i-soda yokudla nsuku zonke cishe babenamathuba aphindwe kathathu okuba nesifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo njengalabo abasiphuza masonto onke noma ngaphansi. Lokhu kufaka ingozi enkulu yokushaywa yischemic, lapho kuthinteka khona imithambo yegazi ebuchosheni, kanye nesifo sengqondo i-Alzheimer's dementia, okuyindlela ejwayelekile yokuwohloka komqondo, kubika i Ucwaningo luka-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona futhi: Ividiyo yaseBoston University School of Medicine ocwaningweni olwenziwe yisazi sezinzwa uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetshenziswa Kwansuku Zonke KwamaSodas, Iziphuzo Zezithelo kanye Nama-Sodas Okungelona Owenziwe Kuthinta Ingqondo.”
  • "Ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-diet soda engcupheni ephezulu yokushaywa yisifo sohlangothi, ukuwohloka komqondo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-methyl ester ese-aspartame ihlangana nayo i-methanol bese-ke ingaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, exhunywe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ucwaningo oluyizingxenye ezimbili olushicilelwe ngo-2014 ku I-Journal yezifo ze-Alzheimer kuxhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwe-methanol engapheli ekulahlekelweni kwememori kanye nezimpawu ze-Alzheimer's Disease kumagundane nezinkawu.

  • "Amagundane aphethwe yi-ethanol anikezwe izimpawu ezifana ne-AD… Lokhu okutholakele kunezela ebuningini obukhulayo bobufakazi obuxhumanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Ingxenye 1)11
  • "Ukudla [i-ethanol] kudale ushintsho oluhlala isikhathi eside noluphikelelayo lwezifo olwaluhlobene [nesifo i-Alzheimer's]… lokhu okutholakele kusekela ubufakazi obandayo obuxhumanisa i-methanol ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo [isifo se-Alzheimer's] pathology." (Ingxenye 2)12

ukuquleka

“I-Aspartame ibonakala inyusa inani le-EEG spike wave ezinganeni ezinokuquleka okungekho. Izifundo ezengeziwe ziyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ngabe lo mphumela wenzeka ngamanani aphansi nakwezinye izinhlobo zokuquleka, ”ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1992 ku Neurology.13

I-Aspartame “inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuquleka ezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola izinto ezithinta… izehlakalo zokubanjwa,” ngokocwaningo lwango-1987 ku Impilo Yemvelo.14

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-aspartame “kungaphazamisa namathuba okuhlaselwa ngabantu abangenazimpawu kodwa abangenayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1985 I-Lancet. Ucwaningo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababephilile ngaphambili ababenesifo sokuwa okukhulu ngesikhathi besebenzisa imithamo ephezulu ye-aspartame.15

I-Neurotoxicity, Ukulimala kobuchopho kanye nokuphazamiseka kwemizwelo

I-Aspartame ixhunyaniswe nezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuqonda kubandakanya nezinkinga zokufunda, ikhanda, ukuquleka, i-migraines, imizwa ecasulayo, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, nokuqwasha, kubhale abacwaningi besifundo se-2017 ku I-Neuroscience Yezempilo. "Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Aspartame kudinga ukuthintwa ngokuqapha ngenxa yemiphumela engaba khona empilweni ye-neurobehavioral."16

“I-aspartame yomlomo ishintshe kakhulu ukusebenza, isimo sokulwa ne-oxidant kanye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kumagundane; futhi, kungenzeka ukuthi idale i-hippocampal neurogenesis yabantu abadala, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2016 I-Neurobiology yokufunda neyeMemori.17 

“Phambilini, kuye kwabikwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kungadala ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa nokuziphatha kubantu ababucayi. Ukuphathwa yikhanda, ukuqwasha nokuquleka nakho kungeminye yemithelela yezinzwa eke yabhekana nayo, ”kusho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngo-2008 ku I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "Siphakamisa ukuthi ukungenisa ngokweqile kwe-aspartame kungabandakanyeka ekutholakaleni kwezifo ezithile zengqondo… kanye nasekufundeni okweqile nasekusebenzeni ngokomzwelo."18 

"(N) izimpawu zezemvelo, kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokufunda nezinkumbulo, kungenzeka zihlobene nokugxila okuphezulu noma okunobuthi kwe-sweetener [aspartame] metabolites," kusho ucwaningo lwango-2006 ku Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha.19

I-Aspartame "ingaphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi ilimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala," ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2000 olushicilelwe ku Izincwadi Zobuthi.20

"(Mina) nabantu abanezinkinga zemizwelo bazwela kakhulu kulesi sithambisi sokuzenzela futhi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kulesi sibalo kufanele kungadikibali," kusho ucwaningo lwango-1993 kwiphephandaba. Ijenali ye-Biological Psychiatry.21

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-aspartame “kungadala ushintsho olukhulu emithanjeni yegazi,” kubika ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1984 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.22

Ukuhlolwa kukhombise ukulimala kobuchopho kumagundane ezingane kulandela ukungeniswa ngomlomo kwe-aspartate, futhi kukhombisa ukuthi "i-aspartate [inobuthi] kubuthi begundane ezinganeni emazingeni aphansi kakhulu okudla ngomlomo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1970 ku Nature.23

Izinsizwa ze-Head and Migraines

“I-Aspartame, isiphuzo esidumile sokudla, ingacasula ikhanda kwabanye abantu abasengozini. Lapha, sichaza izigameko ezintathu zabesifazane abasebasha abane-migraine ababika ukuthi bangaphathwa yikhanda ngokuhlafuna inhlaka engenashukela equkethe i-aspartame, ”kusho iphephandaba lango-1997. Ikhanda Journal.24

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo eshicilelwe ngo-1994 ku Neurology, “Inikeza ubufakazi bokuthi, phakathi kwabantu abanezinhlungu zokuzibika eziphathwa ikhanda ngemuva kokuminza i-aspartame, i-subset yaleli qembu ibika amakhanda amaningi lapho ihlolwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala sengathi abanye abantu bathinteka kakhulu ekhanda elibangelwa i-aspartame futhi bangafuna ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo. ”25

Ucwaningo lweziguli eziyi-171 eMontefiore Medical Center Headache Unit luthole ukuthi iziguli ezine-migraine “zibike i-aspartame njenge-precipitant kaninginingi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunalezo ezinezinye izinhlobo zekhanda… Siphetha ngokuthi i-aspartame ingaba yinto ebalulekile yokudla ikhanda kwabanye abantu, ”1989 isifundo ku Ikhanda Journal.26

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo kumvamisa namandla we-migraines "kukhombise ukuthi ukungena kwe-aspartame ngama-migraineurs kubangele ukwanda okukhulu kokuvama kwekhanda kwezinye izifundo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1988 ku Ikhanda Journal.27

Umsebenzi Wezinso Uyancipha

Ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakalo ezingaphezu kwezimbili ngosuku lwesoda eyenziwe ngoshukela “kuhlotshaniswa nokungezwani okuphindwe kabili kokuncipha kokusebenza kwezinso kwabesifazane,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2 ku I-Clinical Journal ye-American Society of Nephrology.28

Ukuzuza Isisindo, Ukudla okwengeziwe kanye nokukhuluphala Izinkinga Ezihlobene

Izifundo eziningana zixhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala. Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso: Ukudla kweSoda Chemical Okuboshwe Ekuzuzeni Isisindo.

Le sayensi exhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwemikhiqizo equkethe i-aspartame njengokudla "noma izinsiza zokwehlisa isisindo. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission futhi FDA ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo. Bheka izindaba ezihlobene ukumboza, impendulo evela ku-FTC, Futhi impendulo evela ku-FDA.

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame ihlukaniswa ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo) ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism. Kulolu cwaningo, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini abo okuphuza athola isisindo esiningi futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-metabolic syndrome ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kwesisindo esilindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."29

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

Ocwaningweni olwalandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela kanye neziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. “Izindlela eziqinile zokubeka engcupheni i-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuwo wonke ama-quartiles e- ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinhlobo zombili zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku- I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.31

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."33

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku I-PLOS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”34

 Ukukhulelwa Okungajwayelekile: Ukuzalwa Kwangaphambi kwesikhathi 

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2010 lweqembu lama-59,334 labesifazane abakhulelwe baseDenmark elishicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic, "Bekukhona ukuhlangana phakathi kokutholwa kweziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngoshukela nezingezona ezekhaboni kanye nengozi enkulu yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi." Ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuphuza nsuku zonke iziphuzo ezithambile ezinoshukela kungenza ingozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi."35

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Downing Diet Soda Iboshelwe Ekuzalweni Ngaphambi Kokuzalwa," ngu-Anne Harding, I-Reuters (i-7.23.2010)

Izingane Ezikhuluphele

Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobuciko ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kuxhunyaniswe nenkomba yomzimba ephezulu yezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2016 I-JAMA Pediatrics. "Ngokwazi kwethu, sinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bomuntu bokuthi ukusetshenziswa komama okokunandisa okokufakelwa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungathonya i-BMI yezinsana," kubhala abacwaningi.36

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Diet Soda Ekukhulelweni Ixhunyaniswe Nezingane Ezikhuluphele ngokweqile," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini kokuqala

I-National Heart, Lung, ne-Blood Institute Growth and Health Study ilandele amantombazane we-1988 iminyaka eyishumi ukuhlola izinhlangano ezingaba phakathi kokudla ushukela one-caffeine nongeyona i-caffeine- neziphuzo ezithambile ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nokuya esikhathini kokuqala. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela bekuhlanganiswa nobungozi bokushesha ukuya esikhathini eqenjini laseMelika lamantombazane ase-Afrika aseMelika naseCaucasus," kuphetha ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngo-10 ku Ijenali ye-American Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukulimala Kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okuphawulekayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda kwezilwane eziphathwa njenge-aspartame kubonwe uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kanye nokulawulwa kwe-MTX," ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi ama-aspartame metabolites angaba nomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative ku-epididymal sperm."38

Ukulimala Kwesibindi Nokuqedwa KweGlutathione

Ucwaningo lwegundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo I-Redox Biology kubika, "Ukuphathwa okungapheli kwe-aspartame… kubangele ukulimala kwesibindi kanye namazinga anciphisiwe we-glutathione ancishisiwe, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kanye ne-metabolites eminingi yendlela ye-trans-sulphuration…"39

Ucwaningo lwamagundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo Ucwaningo Lokudla kutholakale ukuthi, “Ukudla okuphuzwayo okungatheni noma i-aspartame okubangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kanye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia… Kutholakale izinguquko ezimbalwa zesakhiwo se-cytoarchitecture esibindini, kufaka phakathi ukonakala, ukungena, i-necrosis, ne-fibrosis, ikakhulu i-aspartame. Le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ukuphuza isikhathi eside isiphuzo esiphuzo noma ukulimala kwe-aspartame okubangelwa i-aspartame kungahle kulandelwe ngokufakwa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqongelela i-lipid, kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwama-adipocytokines. ”40

Isexwayiso sabantu abasengozini

Ukubuyekezwa kwemibhalo yango-2016 kuma-sweeteners okufakelwa ku- I-Indian Journal ye-Pharmacology kubika, “kukhona okungahambelani ubufakazi bokusekela iningi lokusetshenziswa kwabo kanye nolunye ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwaveza nokuthi lezi zinzuzo ebezikhona ngaphambili… kungenzeka zingabi yiqiniso. ” Abantu abasolayo njengabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, izingane, abanesifo sikashukela, i-migraine kanye neziguli ezinesifo sokuwa “kufanele basebenzise le mikhiqizo ngokuqapha okukhulu.”41

Imizamo Yezimboni PR namaqembu angaphambili 

Kusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamuva iMonsanto neNutraSweet Company) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR anolaka ukumaketha i-aspartame njengomkhiqizo ophephile. Ngo-Okthoba 1987, uGregory Gordon kubikwe ku-UPI:

"INutraSweet Co. ibuye ikhokhe imali efinyelela ku- $ 3 million ngonyaka ngomzamo wokuxhumana nomphakathi wabantu abayi-100 ngamahhovisi aseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owake wasebenza enkampanini ye-PR eNew York. Isisebenzi sathi uBurson Marsteller uqashe ososayensi nodokotela abaningi, imvamisa eba ngu- $ 1,000 XNUMX ngosuku, ukuvikela isinambitheka ezingxoxweni zabezindaba nakwezinye izinkundla zomphakathi. UBurson Marsteller wenqabile ukuxoxa ngezinto ezinjalo. ”

Ukubika kwakamuva okususelwa emibhalweni yangaphakathi embonini kuveza ukuthi izinkampani zeziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola nazo zikhokhela kanjani izithunywa ezivela eceleni, kufaka phakathi odokotela nososayensi, ukuthi bathuthukise imikhiqizo yabo futhi basuse icala lapho isayensi ibophezela imikhiqizo yabo ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

Bona ukubikwa kuka-Anahad O'Connor kufayela le- New York Times, UCandice Choi kufayela le- Associated Press, nokutholakele kusuka ku- Uphenyo lwe-USRTK mayelana nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha kashukela nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Izindatshana zezindaba mayelana nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini yesoda:

Buka konke izindaba zezindaba mayelana ne-aspartame:

AmaSpredishithi Eqiniso e-USRTK

Imibiko ngamaqembu angaphambili nemikhankaso ye-PR

Izinkomba Zesayensi

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Abanye abamangali base-US Roundup bakwenqaba ukusayina amadili okuhlala eBayer; $ 160,000 ukukhokha okujwayelekile kubhekwe

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abamangali ecaleni laseMelika le-Roundup baqala ukufunda imininingwane yalokho okushiwo yiBayer AG's $ 10 billion ukukhokhelwa kwezimangalo zomdlavuza empeleni kusho kubo ngamunye, futhi abanye abakuthandi abakubonayo.

Bayer kusho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni bekuxoxiswane ngezindawo zokuhlala nezinkampani zabammeli abakhulu abambalwa esivumelwaneni esizovala ngempumelelo iningi lezimangalo ezingaphezulu kuka-100,000 ezisalinde iMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngonyaka ka-2018. Abamangali abasenkantolo bathi bathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ukuvezwa kwe-Roundup kaMonsanto namanye amakhemikhali okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali elibizwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate, nokuthi iMonsanto yahlanganisa ubungozi.

Ngenkathi isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengezindaba ezinhle kubamangali - abanye asebenenkinga yeminyaka yokwelashwa komdlavuza nabanye abamangalela abashade nabo abangasekho - abaningi bathola ukuthi bangagcina bengenamali encane, kuya ngohlobo lwe izici. Amafemu abameli, noma kunjalo, ayengafaka ephaketheni amakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi.

“Kuyimpumelelo ezinkampanini zabameli nokushaywa ngempama ebusweni balabo abalimele” kusho omunye ummangali, ongathandanga negama lakhe.

Abamangali batshelwa ukuthi kumele banqume emasontweni ambalwa ezayo ukuthi bazokwamukela yini ukukhokhelwa, yize bengeke bazi ukuthi bazokhokhwa malini uqobo kuze kube kamuva. Zonke izivumelwano zokukhokhelwa ziyalela abamangali ukuthi bangakhulumi esidlangalaleni ngemininingwane, babasongele ngokujeziswa uma bexoxa ngezindawo zokuhlala nanoma ngubani omunye ngaphandle "kwamalungu omndeni asondele" noma umeluleki wezezimali.

Lokhu kuthukuthelise abanye abathi bacabanga ukwenqaba lezi zindawo ngenhloso yokufuna ezinye izinkampani zabameli ukuze ziphathe izicelo zabo. Le ntatheli ibuyekeze imibhalo ethunyelwe kubamangali abaningi.

Kulabo abavumayo, izinkokhelo zingenziwa ngaphambi kukaFebhuwari, noma inqubo yokukhokha bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuthi yelule unyaka noma ngaphezulu. Ukuxhumana okuthunyelwe kusuka kumafemu abameli kuya kumakhasimende abo e-Roundup kudweba zombili inqubo umuntu ngamunye ohlaselwe ngumdlavuza azodinga ukuyenza ukuze athole ukukhokhelwa kwezezimali nokuthi lokho kukhokhelwa kungabiza ini. Imibandela yamadili iyahluka kusuka enkampanini yabameli kuya enkampanini yabameli, okusho ukuthi abamangali abakhona ngokufanayo bangagcina ngokuhlala ezindaweni ezihluke kakhulu.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala sengathi esinye okuxoxiswene ngaso IMiller Firm, futhi nalokho kuyadumaza kwamanye amaklayenti wefemu. Kwezokuxhumana namakhasimende, inkampani ithi ikwazile ukuxoxisana cishe ngama- $ 849 wezigidi ezivela eBayer ukumboza izimangalo zamakhasimende angaphezu kuka-5,000 160,000 Roundup. Ifemu ilinganisela inani lemali ekhokhwayo ekhokhwayo kummangali ngamunye cishe kuma- $ XNUMX. Leyo mali iyonke izophinde yehliswe ngokudonswa kwemali yabameli nezindleko.

Yize izimali zabameli zingahluka ngokuqina nangommangali, abaningi ecaleni leRoundup bakhokhisa amaphesenti angama-30-40 ngemali ekhokhwayo.

Ukuze bakufanele ukukhokhelwa, abamangali kumele babe namarekhodi ezokwelapha asekela ukuxilongwa kwezinhlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma futhi bakwazi ukukhombisa ukuthi badalulwa okungenani unyaka ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo.

IMiller Firm ibilokhu ihamba phambili ecaleni leRoundup kusukela ekuqaleni, ithola imibhalo eminingi yangaphakathi yeMonsanto esize ukunqoba zonke izilingo ezintathu zeRoundup ezigcinwe kuze kube manje. IMiller Firm isingathe ezimbili zalezo ziqulwa, yaletha abameli abasuka enkampanini yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman abazosiza ecaleni lika  UDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngemuva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller elimale kanzima engozini ngaphambi nje kokuthethwa kwecala. Amafemu womabili futhi asebenze ndawonye ekunqobeni icala labamangali bendoda nenkosikazi, U-Alva no-Alberta Pilliod. UJohnson uklonyeliswe ngama- $ 289 million kwathi amaPilliod aklonyeliswa ngaphezulu kwama- $ 2 billion yize abahluleli becala ecaleni ngalinye behlisa le miklomelo.

Ngasekuqaleni kwale nyanga, inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isinqumo sikaJohnson, wakhipha isinqumo sokuthi kunobufakazi “obuningi” bokuthi imikhiqizo yakwaRoundup idale umdlavuza kaJohnson kodwa yehlisa umklomelo kaJohnson waba ngu- $ 20.5 million. Ukudluliswa kwamacala kusalindwe kwezinye izinqumo ezimbili ezibhekene neMonsanto.

Amagoli Abamangali

Ukunquma ukuthi ummangali ngamunye uthola malini ekuxazululeni iBayer, umphathi wesithathu uzokora umuntu ngamunye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ummangali ngamunye athuthukile; ubudala bommangali lapho exilongwa; ubunzima besifo somdlavuza womuntu kanye nokwelashwa abakukhuthazelele; ezinye izinto eziyingozi; kanye nenani lokuchayeka ababenalo emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

Isici esisodwa sokuxazululwa okwabamba abamangali abaningi benganakile bekufunda ukuthi labo ekugcineni abathola imali kuBayer kuzofanele basebenzise izimali zabo ukubuyisa ingxenye yezindleko zemithi yabo yokwelapha umdlavuza ebikhokhelwa yiMedicare noma umshuwalense wangasese. Ngokunye ukwelashwa komdlavuza kufinyelela emakhulwini ezinkulungwane ngisho nasezigidini zamaRandi, lokho kungasula masinyane inkokhelo yommangali. Amafemu abameli aqoqa osonkontileka abavela eceleni abazoxoxisana nabanikezeli bemishwalense ukuthi bafune ukubuyiselwa imali enesaphulelo, abamangali batshelwe. Ngokuvamile kulolu hlobo lwamacala okuhlukumeza abantu abaningi, lezo zibopho zezokwelapha zingancishiswa kakhulu, kusho amafemu ezomthetho.

Kwesinye isici sesivumelwano esamukelwa ngabamangali, izindawo zokuhlala zizokwakhiwa ukugwema isikweletu sentela, ngokusho kwemininingwane enikezwe abamangali.

Izingozi Zokungahlali  

Amafemu abameli kumele athole iningi labamangali babo ukuthi bavumelane nemibandela yezindawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwolwazi olunikezwe abamangali, izindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa manje ngenxa yobungozi obuningi obuhambisana nokuqhubeka nokwenza ezinye izilingo. Phakathi kwezingozi ezikhonjiwe:

  • IBayer isabise ngokufaka isicelo sokuqothuka, futhi uma inkampani ithathe leyo ndlela, ukulungisa izimangalo zeRoundup kungathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu futhi ekugcineni kungaholela emalini encane kakhulu yabamangali.
  • Inhlangano Yokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo (EPA) wakhipha incwadi ngo-Agasti odlule etshela uMonsanto ukuthi i-ejensi ngeke ivumele isexwayiso somdlavuza ku-Roundup. Lokho kusiza amathuba esikhathi esizayo kaMonsanto okunqoba enkantolo.
  • Ukubambezeleka kwenkantolo okuhlobene ne-Covid kusho ukuthi izivivinyo ezengeziwe ze-Roundup akunakwenzeka unyaka noma ngaphezulu.

Akuyona into engavamile ngabamangali abasenkantolo enkulu yokuhamba ngamacala amakhulu ukuba bahambe bedumele ngisho nezindawo ezibonakala zinkulu okuxoxiswene ngazo ngamacala abo. Incwadi ka-2019 “Iziphesheli zeMass Tort: Ukuxoxisana ngegumbi langemuva kumacala amaningi eMultidistrict”Ngu-Elizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo Wezomthetho we-Fuller E. Callaway e-University of Georgia, ubeka icala lokuthi ukuntuleka kwamasheke namabhalansi ezinkantolo zamacala amakhulu kuhlomulisa cishe wonke umuntu othintekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ubeka njengesibonelo icala mayelana nomuthi we-acid-reflux Propulsid, futhi wathi uthole ukuthi kwabamangali abangu-6,012 abangena ohlelweni lokukhokha, bangu-37 kuphela abagcina bathole imali. Bonke abanye abakatholi zinkokhelo kodwa bese bevele bevumile ukuchitha amacala abo njengesimo sokungena ohlelweni lokukhokha. Labo bamangali abangama-37 bebonke bathola okungaphansi kancane kuka- $ 6.5 million (cishe ama- $ 175,000 umuntu ngamunye ngokwesilinganiso), ngenkathi amafemu abameli abahola phambili athola ama- $ 27 million, ngokusho kukaBurch,

Ukubeka eceleni lokho abamangali abangakwenza noma abangakwazi ukuhamba nabo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho abasondele ecaleni le-Roundup litigation bathi kube nokuhle okukhulu okutholakele ngokudalulwa kokwenza okubi kwenkampani nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobufakazi obuye bavela ngaleli cala kukhona nemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhombisa ukuthi le nkampani yakhelwe ukushicilelwa kwamaphepha esayensi abonakala ngamanga ukuthi enziwa ososayensi abazimele kuphela; ukuxhaswa, nokusebenzisana, namaqembu angaphambili asetshenziselwe ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi ababika ingozi ngemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; nokusebenzisana nezikhulu ezithile ngaphakathi kwe-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuvikela nokuphakamisa isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuthi imikhiqizo yayo ayibanga umdlavuza.

Amazwe amaningana emhlabeni jikelele, kanye nohulumeni basekhaya kanye nezifunda zesikole, bathuthele ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kanye / noma eminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane ngenxa yezambulo zecala leRoundup.

(Indaba iqale yavela ku- Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.)

I-Aspartame iboshelwe ekuzuzeni isisindo, ukuthanda ukudla okwandisiwe nokukhuluphala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isayensi Ekuzuzeni Isisindo + Izinkinga Ezihlobene Nokukhuluphala
Isayensi Yezimboni
Ingabe “Ukudla” Kukhangisa Okukhohlisayo?
Izinkomba Zesayensi

I-Aspartame, indawo yamashukela edume kakhulu emhlabeni, itholakala ezinkulungwaneni zeziphuzo kanye nokudla okungenakubizwa ngoshukela, ushukela ophansi nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi “ukudla”. Kodwa-ke ubufakazi besayensi obuchazwe kuleli phepha lamaqiniso buxhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala.

Sicela wabelane ngale nsiza. Bheka nephepha lethu elingumngane, I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo, ngolwazi olumayelana nezifundo ezibuyekezwa ngontanga ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nomdlavuza, isifo senhliziyo, isifo se-Alzheimer, imivimbo, ukuquleka, ukunciphisa ukukhulelwa nokuphathwa yikhanda.

Amaqiniso Asheshayo

  • I-Aspartame - nayo edayiswa njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet - iyisiphuzi sokufakelwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ikhemikhali litholakala ku- izinkulungwane zokudla neziphuzo imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, ushingamu ongenashukela, uswidi, ama-condiments namavithamini.
  • I-FDA inayo Kusho i-aspartame “iphephile kubantu abaningi ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile.” Ososayensi abaningi baye basho Ukuvunyelwa kwe-FDA kwakususelwa kudatha yomsolwa futhi kufanele kubhekwe kabusha.
  • Kunenqwaba yezifundo ezenziwa ukuxhumanisa kwamashumi eminyaka aspartame ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

I-Aspartame, i-Weight Gain + Izinkinga Ezihlobene Nokukhuluphala 

Ukubuyekezwa okuhlanu kwemibhalo yesayensi kuma-sweeteners okufakelwayo kusikisela ukuthi akufaki isandla ekunciphiseni isisindo, futhi esikhundleni salokho kungadala ukuzuza kwesisindo.

  • Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners okufakelwayo, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”Bhekafuthi
    • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
    • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)
  • A 2013 Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology neMetabolism i-athikili yokubukeza ithola ukuthi "ubufakazi obuqongelelayo buthakamisa ukuthi abathengi abavamile balezi zinto ezingasetshenziswa esikhundleni sikashukela bangaba sengozini yokwanda kwesisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi," nokuthi "ukusetshenziswa kaningi kwesiphuzo esinamandla kakhulu umphumela wokuphambanisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba. ”2
  • A 2009 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic i-athikili yokubukeza ithola ukuthi “ukwengezwa kwama-NNS [amaswidi angenamsoco] ekudleni akulethi nzuzo yokwehlisa isisindo noma ukunciphisa isisindo somzimba ngaphandle kokuvinjelwa kwamandla. Kunokukhathazeka osekunesikhathi eside futhi kwakamuva ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-NNS ekudleni kuthuthukisa ukudla amandla futhi kunomthelela ekukhuluphaleni. ”3
  • A 2010 Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi eziphathelene nobumnandi bokuzenzela kuphetha ngokuthi, “izifundo zocwaningo ziphakamisa ukuthi okokunandisa okufakelwayo kungafaka isandla ekuzuzeni isisindo.”4
  • A 2010 Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yokukhuluphala Kwabantwana i-athikili yokubukeza ithi, "Idatha evela ezifundweni ezinkulu, ze-epidemiologic isekela ukuba khona kwenhlangano phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobumnandi nokuzuza kwesisindo ezinganeni."5

Ubufakazi be-Epidemiological busikisela ukuthi ubumnandi bokufakelwa buyathinteka ekuzuzeni isisindo. Ngokwesibonelo:

  • The Isifundo Senhliziyo SaseSan Antonio “Kuqaphele ubudlelwane obudala, obuhle bokusabela kumthamo phakathi kwe-AS [ukusetshenziswa okunoshukela okwenziwe ngendlela] kanye nokuzuza kwesisindo isikhathi eside.” Ngaphezu kwalokho, ithole ukuthi ukuphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwamashumi amabili nambili ezenziwe ngoshukela ngesonto - uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abangaziphuzi, “kuhambisana nengozi ephindwe kabili” yokukhuluphala ngokweqile noma ukukhuluphala ngokweqile. ”6
  • Ucwaningo lokusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo phakathi kwezingane nentsha eneminyaka eyi-6-19 lushicilelwe ku I-International Journal of Sciences Food and Nutrition ithole ukuthi "i-BMI ihlotshaniswa nokudla iziphuzo ezine-carbonated."7
  • Ucwaningo lweminyaka emibili ezinganeni eziyi-164 olushicilelwe ku- I-Journal ye-American College of Nutrition kutholakale ukuthi “Ukwanda kokudla i-soda okusetshenzisiwe bekukukhulu kakhulu kubantu abakhuluphele ngokweqile nezifundo ezithola isisindo uma kuqhathaniswa nezifundo ezijwayelekile zesisindo. Isisekelo se-BMI Z-score kanye nonyaka 2 wesoda ukusetshenziswa kwesoda kubikezele u-83.1% womehluko onyakeni we-2 BMI Z-score. ” Iphinde yathola ukuthi "Ukudla i-soda ukusetshenziswa yilona kuphela uhlobo lwesiphuzo oluhambisana nonyaka we-2 BMI Z-score, futhi ukusetshenziswa bekukukhulu kakhulu ezifundweni ezikhuluphele ngokweqile nezifundo ezithola isisindo uma kuqhathaniswa nezifundo ezijwayelekile zesisindo eminyakeni emibili."8
  • The I-US Ikhula Namuhla Ucwaningo lwezingane ezingaphezu kuka-10,000 9 ezineminyaka engu-14 kuya kwengu-XNUMX ubudala luthole ukuthi, kubafana, ukuphuza iziphuzo ezidaywayo “kuhlobene kakhulu nokuzuza kwesisindo.”9
  • Ucwaningo lwe-2016 ku- I-International Journal of Obesity ibike ukuthi ithole izinto eziyisikhombisa eziphindaphindwayo ezibonisa ukuhlangana okukhulu nokukhuluphala kwesisu kwabesifazane, kufaka phakathi ukudla kwe-aspartame.10
  • Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola "isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesibili sikashukela, nesifo senhliziyo,"11 ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2013 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-40 eshicilelwe ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism

Ezinye izinhlobo zezifundo ngokufanayo ziphakamisa ukuthi ubumnandi bokufakelwa abufaki isandla ekwehliseni isisindo. Isibonelo, izifundo zokungenelela aziwusekeli umbono wokuthi okokunandisa okufakelwayo kukhiqiza ukwehla kwesisindo. Ngokusho kwe- Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine kubukezwa kwezincwadi zesayensi, “ukuvumelana okuvela ocwaningweni lokungenelela kusikisela ukuthi izinto ezinoshukela zokwenziwa azisizi ukwehlisa isisindo lapho zisetshenziswa zodwa.”12

Olunye ucwaningo luphakamisa nokuthi okokunandisa okwenziwayo kukhulisa isifiso sokudla, okungakhuthaza ukuzuza kwesisindo. Isibonelo, i- Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Ukubuyekezwa kutholakale ukuthi "ukulayishwa kokulayisha kuqala kutholile ukuthi ukunambitheka okumnandi, noma ngabe kulethwa ngoshukela noma okokunandisa okwenziwayo, kuthuthukise isifiso somuntu."13

Izifundo ezisuselwa kumagundane ziphakamisa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamaswidi okufakelwa kungaholela ekudleni ukudla okwengeziwe. Ngokusho kwe- Ukubuyekezwa kweYale Journal of Biology and Medicine, "Ukuhlangana okungahambisani phakathi kokunambitheka okumnandi nokuqukethwe kwe-caloric kungaholela ekudleni ngokweqile nokulinganisela kwamandla." Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokwesihloko esifanayo, “iziswidi zokufakelwa, ngenxa yokuthi zimnandi, zikhuthaza ukulangazelela ushukela nokuncika kushukela.”14

Ucwaningo lwe-2014 ku- I-American Journal of Health Public ithole ukuthi “abantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele e-United States baphuza iziphuzo eziningi zokudla kunabantu abadala abanesisindo esinempilo, badla amakhalori amaningi kakhulu ekudleni okuqinile — kokubili ekudleni nakukudla okulula - kunabantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele ngokweqile abaphuza ama-SSB [iziphuzo ezinoshukela], futhi kudle inani elilinganisiwe lama-calories njengabantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele ngokweqile abaphuza ama-SSB. ”15

Ucwaningo lwango-2015 lwabantu abadala asebekhulile ku- Ijenali ye-American Geriatrics Society ithole "Kubudlelwano bokuphendula ngomthamo obumangazayo," lokho "okwandisa i-DSI [i-diet soda intake] kwakuhlotshaniswa nokukhuphuka kwesisu esiswini…"16

Ucwaningo olubalulekile lwango-2014 olushicilelwe ku- Nature ithole ukuthi “ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS okusetshenzisiwe [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe nge-sweetener yokufakelwa] kubangela ukuthuthukiswa kokungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokufakwa kokushintshana kokuqambekayo nokusebenzayo kwi-microbiota yamathumbu… imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS, i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba ... Imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka banikele ngokuqondile ekuqhakambiseni ubhadane oluqondile bona ngokwabo ababehloselwe ukulwisana nalo. ”17

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame yehlukana ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic, okuyiqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo. Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini awo okuphuza athola isisindo esikhulu futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-syndrome ye-metabolic ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kokwehla kwesisindo okulindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."18

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.19

Ocwaningweni olwalulandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela neziphuzo ezingelona iqiniso zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. "Izimo eziqinile zobungozi be-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuzo zonke izinhlobo zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo," kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.20

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”21

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."22

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku PLoS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”23

Isayensi Yezimboni

Akuzona zonke izifundo zakamuva ezithola ukuxhumana phakathi kweswidi lokufakelwa nokuzuza kwesisindo. Izifundo ezimbili ezixhaswe imboni azizange.

  • A 2014 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta kuphethe ngokuthi “Ukutholwa kwezifundo zokubhekisisa akubonisanga ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-LCS [i-low-calorie sweetener] yokudla kanye nesisindo somzimba noma isisindo samafutha kanye nokuhlangana okuncane okuhle ne-BMI [body mass index]; kodwa-ke, imininingwane evela kuma-RCTs [izilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe], enikeza ubufakazi obuphakeme kakhulu bokuhlola imiphumela engaba khona yokudla kwe-LCS, ikhombisa ukuthi ukufaka izinketho ze-LCS ezinhlotsheni zazo zekhalori ezijwayelekile kuphumela ekunciphiseni kwesisindo okuncane futhi kungaba wusizo ithuluzi lokudla ukuze uthuthukise ukuhambisana nokuncipha noma izinhlelo zokunakekelwa kwesisindo. ” Ababhali “bathole imali yokwenza lolu cwaningo egatsheni laseNyakatho Melika le-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).”24

I-International Life Sciences Institute, engenzi nzuzo ekhiqiza isayensi embonini yezokudla, inempikiswano phakathi kochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi ngenxa yokuxhaswa kwayo okuvela ezinkampanini zamakhemikhali, zokudla nezemithi kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okungaba khona, ngokusho kwe Indatshana ka-2010 ku-Nature.25 Bheka futhi: ILungelo Lase-US Lokwazi ishidi lamaqiniso mayelana ne-International Life Sciences Institute.

A uchungechunge lwezindaba olushicilelwe ku-UPI ngo-1987 ngentatheli ephenyayo uGreg Gordon uchaza ukubandakanyeka kwe-ILSI ekuqondiseni ucwaningo ku-aspartame ezifundweni ezingase zisekele ukuphepha kweswidi.

  • Ucwaningo lwe-2014 ku- iphephabhuku Ukukhuluphala amanzi ahlolwe eziphuzweni ezinoshukela zokuzenzela zohlelo lokulahlekelwa isisindo lwamasonto ayi-12, ethola ukuthi “amanzi awekho ngaphezu kweziphuzo ze-NNS [ezingenamsoco] zokwehlisa isisindo ngesikhathi sohlelo lokuziphatha lokunciphisa umzimba.” Ucwaningo “luxhaswe ngokuphelele yi-American Beverage Association,”26 okuyiqembu eliphambili lokunxenxa imboni yesoda.

Kunobufakazi obuqinile bokuthi izifundo ezixhaswa ngezimboni ocwaningweni lwezinto eziphilayo azithembeki kangako kunalezo ezixhaswa ngokuzimela. A Ucwaningo luka-2016 ku-PLOS One nguDaniele Mandrioli, uCristin Kearns noLisa Bero bahlole ubudlelwano phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo nobungozi bokuchema, uxhaso lokufunda nokubhala ukungqubuzana kwezezimali kwezintshisekelo ekubukezweni kwemiphumela yeziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi emiphumeleni yesisindo.27 Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi, "Ukubuyekezwa okuxhasiwe komkhakha wokufakelwa kwamakhemikhali kungenzeka ukuthi kube nemiphumela emihle kunezibuyekezo ezingekho embonini ezixhaswe… kanye neziphetho ezivumayo." Ukungqubuzana kwenzalo kwezezimali akuzange kuvezwe ku-42% wokubuyekezwa, nokubuyekezwa okwenziwe ngababhali abanezingxabano zezimali zentshisekelo nomkhakha wezokudla (noma ngabe kudaluliwe noma cha) bebengaba neziphetho ezihle ngalo mkhakha kunezibuyekezo ezenziwa ababhali ngaphandle ukungqubuzana kwezimali kwezintshisekelo. 

A Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha lwe-PLOS luka-2007 ekusekelweni kwemboni ocwaningweni lwezemvelo kutholakale ukuthi “Ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kwezindatshana zesayensi ezihlobene nokudla kungaphatha iziphetho ezivuna imikhiqizo yabaxhasi, okungaba nomthelela omkhulu empilweni yomphakathi… izindatshana zesayensi ezimayelana neziphuzo ezidliwayo ezixhaswe ngokuphelele yimboni bezicishe zibe yisine kuya kweziyisishiyagalombili amathuba okuba avikele izintshisekelo zezezimali zabaxhasi kunezindatshana ezingenazo izimali ezihlobene nomkhakha. Okuthakazelisa kakhulu, azikho kulezi zifundo zokungenelela nakho konke ukwesekwa kwemboni okwaba nesiphetho esingesihle… ”28

Ingabe “Ukudla” Kukhangisa Okukhohlisayo?

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, i-US Right to Know ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission (FTC) kanye ne Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa (FDA) ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo.

Siphikise ngokuthi igama elithi "ukudla" libukeka likhohlisa, linamanga futhi lidukisa ngokwephula isigaba 5 seFederal Trade Commission Act kanye nesigaba 403 seFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Ama-ejensi kuze kube manje anqabile ukwenza okuthile ecaphuna ukungabi bikho kwezinsizakusebenza nezinye izinto eziseqhulwini (bheka FDA futhi FTC izimpendulo).

“Kuyadabukisa ukuthi i-FTC ngeke ithathe isinyathelo sokumisa ukukhohlisa kwemboni yesoda 'yokudla'. Ubufakazi obuningi besayensi buxhumanisa izithombothi zokwenziwa nokuzuza kwesisindo, hhayi ukuncipha, ”kusho uGary Ruskin, ongumqondisi obambisene ne-US Right to Know. "Ngiyakholelwa ukuthi isoda 'yokudla' izongena emlandweni wase-US njengenye yezinkohliso ezinkulu zabathengi ezake zenzeka."

Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-USRTK nokuthunyelwe:

Izinkomba Zesayensi 

[1] U-Azad, Meghan B., et al. Ama-sweeteners angenamsoco kanye nempilo ye-cardiometabolic: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile nokuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe kanye nezifundo ezizayo zeqembu. I-CMAJ July 17, 2017 vol. 189 cha. I-28 doi: I-10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[2] I-Swithers SE, "Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Aveza Umphumela Ophikisayo Wokuheha I-Metangement Metangement." Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology and Metabolism, Julayi 10, 2013. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431-41. I-PMID: 23850261. (Imininingwaneabstract / esihlokweni)

[3] UMatt RD, uPopkin BM, "Ukusetshenziswa Okungadleki Kokudla Okumnandi Kubantu: Imiphumela Yokudla Okudliwayo Nokudla Okudla kanye Nezindlela Zabo Zokubeka." Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomtholampilo, uDisemba 3, 2008. 2009 Jan; 89 (1): 1-14. I-PMID: 19056571.esihlokweni)

[4] Yang Q, "Zuza isisindo ngokuthi 'Ukudla?' Ama-Artificial Sweeteners neNeurobiology of Sugar Cravings. ” Ijenali yeYale yeBiology and Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. I-PMID: 20589192.esihlokweni)

[5] Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI, "Artificial Sweeteners: Ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile kwemiphumela ye-Metabolic Ebusheni." Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yokukhuluphala Kwabantwana, 2010 Aug; 5 (4): 305-12. I-PMID: 20078374. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[6] UFowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. “Kubhebhethekisa Ubhadane Lokukhuluphala? Ukusetshenziswa Kwesiphuzo Esenziwe Ngokwenziwe Nokuzuza Isisindo Eside. ” Ukukhuluphala, 2008 Aug; 16 (8): 1894-900. I-PMID: 18535548.abstract / esihlokweni)

[7] I-Forshee RA, i-Storey ML, "Izinketho Zokusebenzisa Isiphuzo Nesiphuzo Phakathi Kwezingane Nentsha." Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yezesayensi Yezokudla kanye Nokudla Okunomsoco. 2003 Julayi; 54 (4): 297-307. PMID: 12850891. (I-PMID)abstract)

[8] UBlum JW, uJacobsen DJ, uDonnelly JE, "Amaphethini Wokusetshenziswa Kwesiphuzo Esikoleni Sezingane Ezigugile Esikhathini Esiminyaka Esimbili." Ijenali ye-American College of Nutrition, 2005 Ephreli; 24 (2): 93- 8. PMID: 15798075. (abstract)

[9] I-Berkey CS, i-Rockett HR, i-Field AE, i-Gillman MW, i-Colditz GA. "Iziphuzo Ezenezelwe Ushukela Nokushintsha Kwesisindo Sentsha." U-Obes Res. 2004 Meyi; 12 (5): 778-88. I-PMID: 15166298. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[10] W Wulaningsih, M Van Hemelrijck, KK Tsilidis, I Tzoulaki, C Patel noS S Rohrmann. "Ukuphenya okunomsoco nezindlela zokuphila njengezichaza ukukhuluphala esiswini: isifundo semvelo yonke." Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yokukhuluphala (2017) 41, 340-347; i-doi: 10.1038 / ijo.2016.203; ishicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngomhlaka 6 Disemba 2016 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[11] USusan E. Swithers, "Amaswidi okufakelwa akhiqiza umphumela wokuphikisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba." Amathrendi we-Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Septhemba; 24 (9): 431–441.

[12] Yang Q, "Zuza isisindo ngokuthi 'Ukudla?' Ama-Artificial Sweeteners neNeurobiology of Sugar Cravings. ” Ijenali yeYale yeBiology and Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. I-PMID: 20589192.esihlokweni)

[13] Yang Q, "Zuza isisindo ngokuthi 'Ukudla?' Ama-Artificial Sweeteners neNeurobiology of Sugar Cravings. ” Ijenali yeYale yeBiology and Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. I-PMID: 20589192.esihlokweni)

[14] Yang Q, "Zuza isisindo ngokuthi 'Ukudla?' Ama-Artificial Sweeteners neNeurobiology of Sugar Cravings. ” Ijenali yeYale yeBiology and Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. I-PMID: 20589192.esihlokweni)

[15] Bleich SN, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC, “Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight.” Ijenali YaseMelika Yezempilo Yomphakathi, Januwari 16, 2014. 2014 Mar; 104 (3): e72-8. I-PMID: 24432876.abstract / esihlokweni)

[16] UFowler S, Williams K, Hazuda H, "Ukudla Okudliwayo Kwe-Soda Kuhlanganiswa Nokunyuka Kwesikhathi Eside Ekujikelezeni Kwesinqe Eqoqweni Labantu Abadala Abadala: ISan Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging." Ijenali yeAmerican Geriatrics Society, Mashi 17, 2015. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[17] USuez J. et al., "Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Afaka Ukungabekezelelani Kweglucose ngokuguqula iGut Microbiota." Imvelo, Septhemba 17, 2014. 2014 Oct 9; 514 (7521): 181-6. I-PMID: 25231862 (abstract)

[18] UGul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Ukuvinjelwa kwe-enzyme yamathumbu i-alkaline phosphatase yamathumbu kungachaza ukuthi i-aspartame ikukhuthaza kanjani ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose nokukhuluphala kwamagundane." I-Appl Physiol Nutrap Metab. 2017 uJan; 42 (1): 77-83. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. I-Epub 2016 Nov 18. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[19] USusan E. Swithers, "Amaswidi okufakelwa akhiqiza umphumela wokuphikisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba." Amathrendi we-Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Septhemba; 24 (9): 431–441. (esihlokweni)

[20] UGuy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezinoshukela ezenziwe ngoshukela noshukela nohlobo lwesigameko sesifo sikashukela e-Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale – European Prospective Investigation ku-Cancer and Nutrition cohort." Ngingu-J Clin Nutriti. 2, uJan 2013; i-doi: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (abstract/esihlokweni)

[21] USuez J et al. "Amaswidi okwenziwa enza ukungabekezelelani koshukela ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota." Imvelo. 2014 Okthoba 9; 514 (7521). I-PMID: 25231862.abstract / esihlokweni)

[22] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokungabekezelelani okukhulu kweglucose kubantu abakhuluphele ngokweqile." I-Appl Physiol Nutrab Metab. 2016 Julayi; 41 (7): 795-8. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. I-Epub 2016 Meyi 24. (abstract)

[23] Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. (2014) Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Low-Dose Aspartame Ukusetshenziswa ngokuhlukile kuthinta ukusebenzisana kwe-Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic kuRat-Induced Obese Rat. I-PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109841. (esihlokweni)

[24] UMiller PE, uPerez V, "Ama-sweeteners aphansi-wekhalori nesisindo somzimba nokwakheka: i-Meta-Analysis ye-Randomized Controlled Trials kanye ne-Prospential Cohort Study." Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Emitholampilo, ngoJuni 18, 2014. 2014 Sep; 100 (3): 765-77. I-PMID: 24944060. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[25] UDeclan Butler, "I-Ejensi Yezokudla Iyenqaba Isimangalo Sokungqubuzana Kwenzalo." Imvelo, Okthoba 5, 2010. (esihlokweni)

[26] UPeter JC et al., "Imiphumela Yamanzi Neziphuzo Ezingadli Umsoco Ekunciphiseni Isisindo Ngesikhathi sohlelo Lokwelashwa Kokulahlekelwa Isisindo Lamaviki ayi-12." Ukukhuluphala, 2014 Jun; 22 (6): 1415-21. I-PMID: 24862170. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[27] UMandrioli D, uKearns C, uBero L. “Ubudlelwano phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo nobungozi bezinhlangothi, ukuxhaswa kocwaningo, kanye nombhali ukungqubuzana kwezezimali kokuthakaselwa kokubuyekezwa kwemiphumela yeziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela emiphumeleni yesisindo: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile kokubuyekezwa. ” I-PLOS One, Septhemba 8, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162198

[28] LI Encane, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, Ludwig DS. "Ubudlelwano Phakathi Komthombo Wezimali Nesiphetho Phakathi Kwezindatshana Ezihlobene Nesayensi." Imithi ye-PLOS, 2007 Jan; 4 (1): e5. I-PMID: 17214504. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

Inkulumo entsha ngokuxazululwa phakathi kweziguli zomdlavuza waseBayer neRoundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kube nenkulumo evuselelwe mayelana nokuxazululwa okungaba khona kuleli sonto phakathi kweBayer AG kanye neziguli ezingamashumi ezinkulungwane zeziguli ezinomdlavuza njengenkantolo ebalulekile yokulalelwa kwenkantolo ngesonto elizayo.

Ngokombiko othile umbiko eBloomberg, abameli beBayer bafinyelele esivumelwaneni ngomlomo nabameli base-US abamele okungenani abamangali abangama-50,000 XNUMX abamangalela uMonsanto ngenxa yezimangalo zokuthi iRoundup namanye ama-herbicides aseMonsanto adale ukuthi abamangali bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Imininingwane njengoba ibikwe yiBloomberg ibonakala ingashintshiwe kuzivumelwano zomlomo zangaphambilini phakathi kweBayer kanye nabameli babamangali abawa ngesikhathi kuvalwa inkantolo ehlobene neCoronavirus. Njengoba izinkantolo zisavaliwe, izinsuku zokuqulwa kwecala zihlehlisiwe, kwasusa ingcindezi eBayer.

Kepha iphuzu elisha lengcindezi lisondela ekulalelweni kwesonto elizayo ekukhalazweni kwesilingo sokuqala somdlavuza weRoundup. Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseCalifornia Isifunda Sokuqala Sokudlulisa Amacala kulindeleke ukuba ilalele izimpikiswano ngomlomo lapho kudluliswa amacala ecaleni likaJohnson v Monsanto ngoJuni 2.

Leli cala, elalixabanisa onogada baseCalifornia uDewayne “Lee” Johnson neMonsanto, kuholele kumklomelo wokulimala ongu- $ 289 million likaJohnson ngo-Agasti 2018. Ijaji alitholanga nje kuphela ukuthi i-Roundup kaMonsanto kanye nemikhiqizo ehlobene ne-glyphosate yethule ingozi enkulu kubantu abayisebenzisayo, kodwa nokuthi kukhona "ubufakazi obucacile nobukholisayo" bokuthi izikhulu zikaMonsanto zenze "ngobubi noma ingcindezelo" ukwehluleka ukuxwayisa ngokwanele ngobungozi.

Ijaji lecala ecaleni likaJohnson ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wehlisa umonakalo kuya ku- $ 78.5 million. IMonsanto idlulise ngisho umklomelo owehlisiwe, kanti uJohnson wadlulisa icala efuna ukubuyiselwa umklomelo ophelele wejaji.

In edlulisa isinqumo, UMonsanto ucele inkantolo ukuthi iguqule isinqumo secala bese ifaka isinqumo seMonsanto noma ihlehlise futhi ibuyisele icala ecaleni elisha. Okungenani, uMonsanto ucele inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukuthi yehlise ingxenye yomklomelo wamajaji "ngomonakalo ongekho kwezomnotho wesikhathi esizayo" kusuka ku- $ 33 million kuya ku- $ 1.5 million nokusula umonakalo wokujeziswa ngokuphelele.

Abahluleli benkantolo yokudlulisa amacala unikeze umbono omncane mayelana nokuthi bancike kanjani kuleli cala, bazisa abameli bezinhlangothi zombili ukuthi kufanele bakulungele ukuxoxa ngodaba lokukhokhwa kwemali enkantolo eyalalelwa ngoJuni 2. Abameli bakammangali bakuthathe lokho njengophawu olukhuthazayo lokuthi kungenzeka amajaji angahleleli ukuhlelelwa kwecala elisha.

Ngaphansi kwemibandela yokukhokhelwa okuxoxwe ngakho ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, iBayer izokhokha isamba esingu- $ 10 billion ukuletha ukuvalwa kwamacala aphethwe amafemu amakhulu amakhulu, kepha angavumi ukufaka amalebula okuxwayisa kukhula lwayo olususelwa e-glyphosate ababulali, njengoba bekufunwe abanye babameli babamangali.

Isivumelwano ngeke sihlanganise bonke abamangali ngezimangalo ezisalindile. Futhi bekungeke kumboze uJohnson noma abanye abamangali abathathu asebevele bawine izimangalo zabo ecaleni. IMonsanto neBayer badlulisele phambili konke ukulahleka kwecala.

Abameli ezinkampanini ezinkulu ezithinteka enkantolo banqabile ukuxoxa ngesimo esikhona manje.

Izikhulu zeBayer ziphikile ukuthi abukho ubufakazi besayensi obuxhumanisa umuthi wokubulala ukhula we-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kodwa abatshalizimali bebelokhu befuna ukuthola isivumelwano sokuxazulula leli cala. Kungaba wusizo kuBayer ukuxazulula amacala ngaphambi kwanoma yisiphi isinqumo esibi senkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala, esingahle siphazamise abaninimasheya benkampani. IBayer ithenge iMonsanto ngoJuni ka-2018. Ngemuva kokulahleka kwecala likaJohnson ngo-Agasti 2018, intengo yamasheya enkampani yehle kakhulu futhi isalokhu inengcindezi.

Abamangali Abakhungathekile

Amacala okuqala enkantolo yamacala omdlavuza weRoundup afakwa ngasekupheleni kuka-2015, okusho ukuthi abamangali abaningi bebelinde iminyaka ukuthola isinqumo. Abanye babamangali bafe besalindile, kanti amacala abo manje aqhutshelwa phambili ngamalungu omndeni ekhungathekile ngokungabi nenqubekela phambili ekuqedeni amacala.

Abanye abamangali bebelokhu benza imiyalezo yevidiyo ebhekiswe kubaphathi beBayer, befuna ukuthi bavumelane nezindawo zokuhlala futhi benze izinguquko zokuxwayisa abathengi ngezingozi zomdlavuza ezingaba khona zemithi yokubulala ukhula eseglyphosate efana neRoundup.

UVincent Tricomi, 68, ungomunye wommangali onjalo. Kwi-video ayenzile, ayihlanganyele ne-US Right to Know, uthe usehlinzwe ngemizuzu engu-12 yokwelashwa ngamakhemikhali kanti uhlala ezinhlanu esibhedlela elwa nomdlavuza wakhe. Ngemuva kokuthola ukuthethelelwa kwesikhashana, umdlavuza uphinde wabuya ekuqaleni konyaka, esho.

“Baningi kakhulu njengami abahluphekayo futhi abadinga ukukhululeka,” kusho uTricomi. Buka umyalezo wakhe wevidiyo ngezansi:

Isithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane: Iqembu Elikhokhelwa yi-Koch Livikela I-Pesticide, Amafutha, Izimboni Zogwayi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

The Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo leyo abalingani neMonsanto, ivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni nasemikhiqizweni yabathengi, futhi iphikisana nemithetho enganciphisa amandla ezinkampani. Ixhaswe kakhulu yizisekelo ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla eziphoqa ukuphika kwesayensi yezulu, IMF kwaqala ngo-1991 njengomzamo wokuvikela manje iNkantolo Ephakeme Yobulungiswa (nowayengummeli waseMonsanto) UClarence Thomas njengoba ayebhekene namacala okuhlukumeza ngokocansi. Ku-2018, iqembu futhi ivikelekile INkantolo Ephakeme iJustice Brett Kavanaugh ngesikhathi ebhekene nezinsolo zokuhlukumeza ngokocansi, futhi uchaze uKavanaugh njengo “Umpetha wabesifazane."

Bona: “Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane baseKoch, ” nguJoan Walsh, The Nation 

With isabelomali cishe ama- $ 2 million ngonyaka, i-Independent Women 's Forum manje ithi isebenzela izinqubomgomo “ezithuthukisa inkululeko.” Izinhlelo zayo zifaka phakathi ukunxenxa nokukhuthaza ukwesulwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi, nokususa icala ekulimaleni kwezempilo nezemvelo kude nezinhlangano ezingcolisayo kanye nasezibophezelweni zomuntu siqu. Ngo-2017, iqembu i-gala yaminyaka yonke eWashington DC, ebigubha ilungu lebhodi le-IWF uKellyanne Conway njengompetha wabesifazane, ibixhaswe yizinkampani zamakhemikhali nezogwayi.

Funda kabanzi ngaleli gala nabaxhasi balo kuHuffPost, “Ipolitiki Yokungazali Nomdlavuza, ”NguStacy Malkan. 

Ukuxhaswa ngezimali ngamabhiliyoni ezinhlangano nezinkampani

Iningi labanikeli abaziwayo be-Independent Women Forum ngabesilisa, njengoLisa Graves kubikwe iCentre for Media and Democracy. I-IWF ithole ngaphezulu kwe- $ 15 million kusuka ezisekelweni ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho kanye nokuzimela kwenkampani, ngokusho kuka idatha eqoqwe yiGreenpeace USA. Abanikeli abahamba phambili be-IWF, neminikelo engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5, yiDonors Trust kanye neDonors Capital Funds, izimali eziyimfihlo "zemali emnyama" ixhunywe namafutha kawoyela UCharles noDavid Koch. Lezi zimali zixhuma imali evela kubaxhasi abangaziwa, kufaka phakathi izinkampani, ukuze amaqembu avela eceleni alwela intshisekelo yebhizinisi.

Umxhasi ophezulu we-IWF: imali emnyama evela kubaxhasi abangadalulwanga

Izisekelo zomndeni wakwaKoch zinikele ngqo ngaphezu kwe- $ 844,115 kanti abanye abaxhasi abaphezulu bafaka iSarah ISchaife Foundation, lo Isisekelo seBradley, iRandolph Foundation (ihlumela le- Isisekelo seRichardson), Futhi ISearle Freedom Trust - bonke abaxhasi abahola phambili be- ukuphika kwesimo sezulu-nesayensi imizamo nemikhankaso yoku vikela izibulala-zinambuzane futhi uzigcine zingalawulwa. 

I-ExxonMobil futhi UFiliphu Morris futhi baxhase i-IWF, kanye nefemu kagwayi ebizwa nge-IWF ohlwini lwamagama “izinkomba ezivela eceleni"Futhi"labo abahlonipha imibono yethu. ” URush Limbaugh unikele okungenani ngekota yesigidi ku-IWF, okuyi "uyamvikela noma nini lapho engena ocansini lobulili, ”Ngokusho kwendatshana ka-Eli Clifton kuThe Nation.

Abaholi be-IWF

UHeather Richardson Higgins, Sihlalo weBhodi ye-IWF kanye ne-CEO yeZwi Elizimele Labesifazane, ingalo yokubungaza ye-IWF, ubambe izikhundla eziphezulu ezisekelweni eziningi ezinamaphiko okudla, kufaka phakathi IRandolph Foundation, lo USmith Richardson Foundation futhi Ubuhle obuyindilinga.

UKellyanne Conway, Umeluleki weWhite House nowayengumphathi womkhankaso kaTrump, uyi Ilungu lebhodi le-IWF. Abaqondisi I-Emeritae Faka ULynne V. Cheney, unkosikazi kaDick Cheney futhi UKimberly O. Dennis, umongameli webhodi labaqondisi be Abaxhasi Trust nomongameli kanye ne-CEO ye ISearle Freedom Trust.

UNancy M. Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries, washiya amaKoch Industries ukuba abe umongameli we-IWF ngo-2001 futhi kamuva wasebenza njengeSekela likaSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi be-IWF. Unomlando omude we ukugqugquzela amandla angcolile nokuphokophela ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisayo.

I-ajenda ye-IWF ilandela eduze uhlelo lokunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo ngezintshisekelo zemboni kagwayi, uwoyela kanye namakhemikhali. Okulandelayo ezinye zezibonelo:

Iphika isayensi yezulu

A 2019 i-tweet ne-athikili ovela kwi-Independent Women Forum uncoma uMengameli uTrump “ngobuhlakani” ngokungathathi izinyathelo ukunqanda ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Greenpeace ichaza i-IWF njenge- "Koch Industries Climate Denial Group" lokho “okusakaze ukwaziswa okungelona iqiniso ngesayensi yesimo sezulu futhi kuthinta nomsebenzi wabaphikisi besimo sezulu.” 

UJane Mayer ubike The New Yorker ngo-2010: “Abazalwane (bakaKoch) banikele ngemali emaqenjini angacacile, futhi, njenge-Independent Women Forum, ephikisana nokwethulwa kwesivuvujikelele njengeqiniso lesayensi ezikoleni zomphakathi zaseMelika. Kuze kube ngo-2008, leli qembu laliqhutshwa nguNancy Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries. UMary Beth Jarvis, iphini likamongameli wenkampani ephethwe yiKoch, usebhodini laleli qembu. ”

Uphikisana nokufundiswa kwesayensi yezulu ezikoleni

The Denver Post yabika ngo-2010 ukuthi i-IWF “icabanga ukuthi ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke '' kuyisayensi engenamsebenzi 'nokuthi ukuyifundisa kusabisa izingane zesikole ngokungadingekile.” Ngomkhankaso obizwa nge- "Balanced Education for Everyone," i-IWF iphikisana nemfundo yesayensi yezulu ezikoleni, lelo qembu kuchazwe njengo "Ukwazisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke okwethusayo."

UMongameli we-IWF uCarrie Lucas ubhala ngakho “ukungabaza okwandayo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu” futhi uthi “umphakathi ungakhokha kakhulu ngalokhu kuphazamiseka.”

Ozakwethu neMonsanto

Esiphakamisweni sika-Ephreli 21, 2016 esiya kuMonsanto, IWF icele iMonsanto ukuthi inikele ngama- $ 43,300 emicimbini ye- “Super Women of Science” eyenzelwe ukwehlisa ukwesekwa kwezepolitiki kweProposition 65, umthetho waseCalifornia ovimbela izinkampani ukuthi zikhiphe amakhemikhali ayingozi ezindleleni zamanzi futhi zidinga ukuthi zazise abathengi ngokutholakala kwamakhemikhali anobuthi. Imicimbi ehlongozwayo ibiyingxenye yephrojekthi ye-IWF ye- “Culture of Alarmism” eyasungulwa “ukuqeda ukuzwelana nabezindaba ngobungozi abaseMelika ababhekene nabo ngemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisayo, ukudla esikudlayo nemvelo ezungeze imindeni yethu.” 

NgoFebhuwari 2017, uMonsanto wabambisana ne-IWF emcimbini owawunesihloko esithi "Ukudla Nokwesaba: Ungawathola Kanjani Amaqiniso Ngempucuko Yanamuhla Ye-Alarmism," kanye ne I-podcast ye-IWF ngaleyo nyanga kwaxoxwa ngokuthi "I-Monsanto ivuselelwa kanjani yizishoshovu."

I-IWF iphusha amaphuzu okukhuluma eMonsanto kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali: ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuhlasela imboni engokwemvelo nomama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo, nokuphikisana nokusobala kumalebula okudla. Izibonelo zifaka:

  • Umthetho wokulebula weVermont's GMO awubuwula. (Umbheki)
  • Ukufakwa ilebula kwe-Sinister GMO kuzodala ukuthi izindleko zokudla zikhuphuke kakhulu. (IMF)
  • Ukuxokozela kwe-anti-GMO kuyisongo sangempela enhlalakahleni yemindeni. (Buyekeza National)
  • Omama abanengqondo badinga ukubuyisela emuva kumama onamahloni nokuzizwa benecala ngokulandisa kokudla okuphilayo. (I-podcast ye-IWF)
  • Abagxeki be-GMO banonya, bayize, banesikhundla futhi bafuna ukuphika labo abaswele. (New York Post)

Iphrojekthi ye- "Culture of Alarmism", esethiwe kabusha i- "Project for Progress and Innovation," iphethwe nguJulie Gunlock, obhala amabhulogi amaningi aphikisana nokuvikelwa kwezempilo yomphakathi kanye ukuvikela izinkampani. Uchaze “ukwenqaba kwe-FDA ukukhuthaza ama-e-cigarettes” njengo “inkinga yezempilo yomphakathi.

Izimpikiswano 'zikaPhilips Morris PR'

Ngo-Agasti 2017, IWF kubanjwe i-FDA ukwamukela uPhilip Morris ' Ugwayi we-IQOS, bethi abesifazane badinga le mikhiqizo ngezizathu ezahlukahlukene zebhayoloji ukubasiza bayeke ukubhema ugwayi ojwayelekile.

“Kusobala ukuthi i-FDA ayihlosile ukujezisa abantu besifazane, ngenxa yobulili babo. Kodwa-ke, yilokho kanye okuzokwenzeka uma abesifazane bekhawulelwa ekubhemeni imikhiqizo yokuyeka leyo ngokwemvelo engakwazi ukubanikeza usizo abaludingayo lokuyeka ugwayi wendabuko, ”kubhala i-IWF.

Ephendula incwadi ye-IWF, uStanton Glantz, PhD, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-UCSF Centre for Tobacco Control Research and Education, uthe: “Leli yi-standard Philip Morris PR. Asikho isiqinisekiso esizimele sokuthi i-IQOS iphephe njengogwayi noma ukuthi isiza abantu bayeke ukubhema. ”

Ompetha “inkululeko yokudla” esebenzisana nezinhlangano

I-IWF ihlasela i-US Food and Drug Administration “njengonondindwa bakahulumeni,” ngokwesibonelo ichaza i-ejensi njenge “ukudla amaMarx"Futhi"kungalawuleki ngokuphelele”Yokukhipha ukuholwa ngokuzithandela kubakhiqizi bokudla ukusika amazinga e-sodium.

Umcimbi wangoJuni 2017 we-IWF uzame ukudambisa ukwesaba ngokuqondiswa kwezempilo yomphakathi

Ngo-2012, i-IWF yethule “Abesifazane Ngenkululeko YokudlaIphrojekthi "yokubuyisela emuva esimweni somzanyana futhi ikhuthaze ukuzibophezela komuntu siqu" kokukhetha ukudla. I-ajenda ibibandakanya "nemithetho yokudla, isoda kanye nentela yokudla okulula, isayensi engenamsoco nokudla kanye nokwethuka kwemikhiqizo yasekhaya, imininingwane engeyona mayelana nokukhuluphala nendlala, nezinye izinhlelo zokudla zikahulumeni, kubandakanya nezidlo zasemini zesikole."

Ngokukhuluphala ngokweqile, i-IWF izama ukususa ukunakwa ekuziphenduleni kwezinkampani nasezinkingeni zomuntu siqu. Kulokhu ingxoxo noT Thom Hartmann, UJulie Gunlock we-IWF uthi izinkampani akumele zisolwe ngenkinga yokukhuluphala yaseMelika kepha kunalokho “abantu benza izinqumo ezimbi futhi ngicabanga ukuthi abazali bayazihlola ngokuphelele.” Isixazululo, uthe, ukuthi abazali bapheke kakhulu, ikakhulukazi abazali abahlwempu kwazise banenkinga enkulu yokukhuluphala.

Ihlasela omama ngokuzama ukunciphisa ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane

I-IWF iphusha imiyalezo ngemboni, isebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha, ukuzama ukukhipha omama abakhathazekile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane; isibonelo esivelele yile New York Post ka-2014 esihlokweni, "Ubushiqela be-Organic Mommy Mafia" kaNaomi Schafer Riley. Ngaphansi kwengubo yokukhononda mayelana "nokuhlazeka komama," uRiley - ngubani Umuntu we-IWF kepha akazange akudalule lokho kubafundi - imizamo yokuhlazeka nokusola omama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo. I-athikili kaRiley itholwe ngokuphelele ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini kanye nemithombo ayethule ngamanga njengezimele, kubandakanya Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto; the I-Alliance for Food and Farming kanye noJulie Gunlock we “I-Culture of Alarmism Project” ye-IWF, naye ongazange akhonjwe kule ndatshana njengomsebenzi we-IWF. Ukuthola okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona i- "Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Organic: Ukuziba isayensi ukwenza icala lokulima ngamakhemikhali”(I-FAIR, 2014).

Ozakwethu abanamaqembu angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali

IWF ibambisana namanye amaqembu angaphambili ezinkampani njenge Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, umvikeli oholayo wamakhemikhali anobuthi obelokhu ekhona ixhaswe nguMonsanto futhi Syngenta, kanye nezinye amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni.

Ukuqhubeka nokufunda:

I-Intercept, ”AbakwaKoch Brothers Operatives Fill Top White House Positions,” nguLee Fang (4/4/2017)

The Nation, "Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane bakaKoch,” kaJoan Walsh (8/18/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Abanikeli Abaziwa Kakhulu Benhlangano Ezimele Yabesifazane ngabesilisa," nguLisa Graves (8/24/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Isiqinisekiso: Isithangami Sabesifazane Abangazimele Sazalelwa Ekuvikeleni uClarence Thomas kanye neFight Right," nguLisa Graves noCalvin Sloan (4/21/2016)

Slate, “Isiqiniseko Sokukhetha: Kwenzeka kanjani ukuthi 'Abesifazane beJaji uThomas' baphenduke amandla amakhulu,” nguBarbara Spindel (4/7/2016)

Iqiniso, "Iforamu Yabesifazane Ezimele Isebenzisa Uphawu Lokudukisa Ukududula I-Ajenda Yephiko Lakwesokudla," kaLisa Graves, uCalvin Sloan noKim Haddow (8/19/2016)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle,"Imali Eseqenjini Lamaqembu Abesifazane Abalondolozayo Isalwela Impi Yamasiko," nguPhilip Rojc (9/13/2016)

The Nation, ”Qagela ukuthi Yiliphi Iqembu Labesifazane Rush Limbaugh elinikele ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaDola ku? Ukusikisela: iyona evikela yena noma nini lapho engena emsakazweni wobulili, ”ngu-Eli Clifton (6/12/2014)

The New Yorker, ”The Koch Brothers Covert Operations,” kaJane Mayer (8/30/2010)

I-Oxford University Press, "Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics," nguRonnee Schreiber (2008)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle, ”Bheka Ubani Oxhasa Leli qembu Eliphezulu Labafazi Abalondolozayo,” nguJoan Shipps (11/26/2014)

Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni, “Abesifazane Abasadla ngoludala ba-Right for Media Mainstream; Abezindaba Ekugcineni Sebethole Abanye Besifazane Ukuba Babathande, ”nguLaura Flanders (3/1/1996)

ithunyelwe ekuqaleni ngo-Okthoba 6, 2018 futhi yavuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

Njengoba kukhula amacala omdlavuza weRoundup, uMonsanto ulwela ukugcina umsebenzi we-PR uyimfihlo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba iMonsanto iqhubeka nokulwa nezimangalo zomthetho ngenxa yezingozi ezisolwa ngobuthi bayo obusetshenziswa kakhulu be-Roundup, inkampani izama ukuvimba ama-oda wokuguqula amarekhodi angaphakathi ngomsebenzi wayo nobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nosonkontileka bokubonisana ngamasu.

Phakathi ku uchungechunge lokufakwa eNkantolo Yesifunda yaseSt. Louis, uMonsanto uthi akufanele ihambisane nezicelo zokutholwa ezibandakanya ukusebenzisana okuthile phakathi kwayo nenkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi emhlabeni UmnumzanaHillard, yize i-master ekhethekile ithole ukuthi iMonsanto kufanele ihambise leyo mibhalo. IMonsanto iyaqinisa ukuthi ukuxhumana kwayo neFleishmanHillard kufanele kubhekwe “njengelungelo,” okufana nokuxhumana kommeli namakhasimende, nokuthi iMonsanto akufanele ikhiqize njengengxenye yokutholwa kwabameli abamele iziguli ezinomdlavuza ezimangalela iMonsanto.

UFleishmanHillard waba yi-ejensi yokuqopha umlando kaMonsanto “ngomsebenzi wenkampani owaziwayo” ngo-2013, futhi abasebenzi bayo bazibandakanya kakhulu nale nkampani, basebenza “emahhovisi kaMonsanto cishe nsuku zonke” futhi bathola “ukufinyelela ezinqolobaneni ze-inthanethi zolwazi oluyimfihlo olungeyona lomphakathi,” kusho inkampani. "Ukuthi okunye kwalokhu kuxhumana kubandakanya ukwenziwa kwemiyalezo yomphakathi akubaphuci ilungelo," kusho uMonsanto enkantolo.

UFleishmanHillard usebenze kumaphrojekthi amabili eMonsanto eYurophu maqondana nokubhaliswa kabusha kwe
glyphosate futhi wasebenza nabameli bakwaMonsanto “kwiprojekthi ethile yocwaningo lwamajaji.” Uhlobo lomsebenzi owenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi "ludinga ukuxhumana okulungile" nommeli kaMonsanto wezomthetho, kusho inkampani.

Ngasekuqaleni konyaka umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wathi buqeda ubudlelwane bukaMonsanto noFleishmanHillard ngemuva kwalokho kwaqubuka izindaba ukuthi inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi ibandakanyeke ohlelweni lokuqoqwa kwemininingwane eMonsanto eYurophu, ebhekise ezintatheli, osopolitiki kanye nabanye ababambiqhaza ukuzama ukuthonya inqubomgomo yokubulala izinambuzane.

IMonsanto ithathe isikhundla esifanayo maqondana nezokuxhumana ezibandakanya umsebenzi wayo nenkampani yokuphatha izithombe Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, iMonsanto eyayiqashe ngoJuni 2016. "Ukungabi khona kommeli kumadokhumende anelungelo nakho akwenzi ukuthi lowo mqulu ube sengozini yokuthola inselelo yelungelo," kusho uMonsanto ekufayeleni kwakhe.

Ngasekuqaleni konyaka, isisebenzi se-FTI sasikhona wabanjwa elingisa intatheli kwesinye sezivivinyo zomdlavuza weRoundup, ezama ukusikisela imigqa yezindaba yezinye izintatheli ukuba ziphishekele leyo Monsanto ethandekayo.

Le nkampani ifuna nokugwema ukunikezela ngemibhalo ethinta ubudlelwane bayo neNkampani yeScotts Miracle-Gro, ebilokhu ikhangisa futhi ithengisa iMonsanto's Roundup utshani nemikhiqizo yensimu kusukela ngo-1998.

Izisulu ezingaphezu kuka-40,000 zomdlavuza noma amalungu emindeni yazo manje sezimangalela uMonsanto esola ukutholakala kolayini wenkampani iRoundup herbicides ngezifo zabo, ngokusho kukaBayer. Amacala asolwa ngokuthi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kudale ukuthi abamangali bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi yize iMonsanto ibazi izingozi zomdlavuza, ngenhloso ayizange ixwayise abathengi.

Bayer ubambe ucingo lwengqungquthela nabatshalizimali ngoLwesithathu ukuxoxa ngemiphumela yekota yesithathu nokuvuselela abaninimasheya ecaleni leRoundup. Isimise umsindo oqinisekisayo, isikhulu esiphezulu seBayer uWerner Baumann uthe yize abatshalizimali bengamangala ngenani eliphezulu lamacala, "akumangazi kangako." Uthe abameli babamangali e-United States basebenzise amashumi ezigidi zamadola ukukhangisa ngamakhasimende.

"Lokhu kwanda kwenani lamacala akumele kushintshe ukuqiniseka kwethu ngephrofayili yezokuphepha ye-glyphosate futhi akuyona neze into ekhombisa ukufaneleka kwaleli cala," kusho uBaumann. Ukudluliswa kwamacala kuyaqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi inkampani ilahlekelwe ngamacala amathathu okuqala, futhi inkampani "iyakha" ngokulamula, ngokusho kukaBaumann. IBayer izovuma kuphela ngesivumelwano "esikahle ngokwezezimali" futhi esizoletha "ukuvalwa okufanelekile enkantolo isiyonke," esho.

Yize inkampani ibhekisela kuyo njengezikhalazo ze- "glyphosate", abamangali basola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo awubangekanga ngenxa yokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kuphela, kepha ukuvezwa yimikhiqizo eyenziwe nge-glyphosate eyenziwe yiMonsanto.

Izifundo eziningi zesayensi zikhombisile ukuthi ukwakheka kunoshevu kakhulu kune-glyphosate kukodwa. I-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ayizange ifune izifundo zesikhathi eside zokuphepha ekwakhiweni kwe-Roundup kuyo yonke iminyaka engama-40 kanye nemikhiqizo ebisemakethe, futhi ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi kwenkampani phakathi kososayensi baseMonsanto kutholwe ngabameli babamangali lapho ososayensi baxoxa ngokushoda kokuhlolwa kwe-carcinogenicity kwemikhiqizo ye-Roundup.

Izilingo eziningi ebezihlelelwe lokhu kuwa endaweni yaseSt. Louis, eMissouri ziye zabambezeleka kuze kube unyaka ozayo.

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

I-Gene Editing Mishaps Gqamisa Isidingo Sokwengamela i-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imizamo yenkampani yaseMidwestern yokwakha izakhi zofuzo izinkomo zokuqala zobisi ezingenazimpondo emhlabeni ifike kwangqingetshe kuleli hlobo lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration ithola izakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni obekungafanele zibekhona. Amaphutha abanjwe yi-FDA - kepha inkampani ilahlekile - igqamisa ukubaluleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni kokudla okuhleliwe kofuzo ngesikhathi lapho amaqembu embonini efuna ukupheliswa komthetho.

Izinkomo ezingenazimpondo: umsebenzi wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo?

Abakhiqizi bengulube, isibonelo, "bathi uhulumeni wesifundazwe kufanele anciphise imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa kokuhlelwa kofuzo emfuyweni," abathi kunciphisa ucwaningo nentuthuko, i-Wall Street Journal kubika isonto eledlule. Abakhiqizi bafuna ukwenganyelwa kususwe kwi-FDA kuye eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US, okuyi isivele ivumela izitshalo ezihlelwe zofuzo kufanele itshalwe futhi ithengiswe ngaphandle kokubheka okulawulayo.

Kepha i-FDA ihlela ukudinga ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo, njengoba benza ngemithi emisha yezilwane. Imithethonqubo izoqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zofuzo ziphephile ezilwaneni nakubathengi, futhi zisiza abathengi ukuthi bakhululeke ngobuchwepheshe, okhulumela i-FDA utshele iJournal.

Ukutholakala kwe-FDA yezakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni ezingenazimpondo, nokunye okusanda kubikwa okubi okubandakanya ulibofuzo olusha amasu wobunjiniyela, aqinise icala lokuthi uhulumeni ahlolisise, futhi abe namaqembu ezimboni alwela ukulawula i-fiasco yobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Izakhi zofuzo ezingeziwe i-Recombinetics zilahlekile

Abaphenyi benkampani ezinze eMinnesota iRecombinetics, Inc., babike ephepheni le-2016 ukuthi badale izinkomo zokuqala ezifakiwe (ezingenazimpondo) besebenzisa inqubo yokuhlela izakhi zofuzo ebizwa ngeTALENS ukushintsha ukulandelana kofuzo ezinkomeni. Abaphenyi babike ukuthi abatholanga imithelela engahlosiwe. Babhala ukuthi, "izilwane zethu azinayo imiphumela ebhekiswe ngaphandle."

Kepha lapho abacwaningi be-FDA behlola kabusha i-DNA kuleli hlobo, besebenzisa ukulandelana kofuzo okwakuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi yiRecombinetics, bathole imiphumela engeyona eyokuqondisa. Izinkomo ezimbili ezihleliwe zaziphatha amakhophi e-plasmid yebhaktheriya asetshenziswe enqubeni yokuhlela, kufaka phakathi izakhi zofuzo zokumelana nama-antibiotic cishe kuwo wonke amaseli emizimba yazo. Izakhi zofuzo azivamile ukuvela ezinkomeni.

Lokhu "kuphakamisa izingqinamba zokuphepha kokuvikela ngoba kunesidingo esiqinile somhlaba wonke sokunciphisa ukusabalala kwezakhi zofuzo ezinikeza ukumelana nemithi elwa namagciwane," kubhala uJonathan Latham, PhD, ku Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Iphinde iphakamise imibuzo ngokungabi bikho kobuciko bezindlela zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo futhi inikeze isisindo sezimpikiswano zokubhekwa kukahulumeni. Izinhlelo zokufuya izinkomo ezingenazimpondo eBrazil zachithwa ngemuva kokuvela kwemiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe, kubika i-Wired, ngoba abalawuli lapho babekwazi ayisabheki izinkomo njenge-GMO.

Abaphenyi be-FDA bathi ukutholakala kwabo “kugqamisa indawo engaba khona yezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuhlola ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo,” futhi bathi basola ukuthi amaphutha okuhlanganisa “abikiwe noma awanakwa” ekuhlolweni kokuhlela izakhi zofuzo. Baphawula ezinye izibonelo zezinguquko ezingalindelekile - a Ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-2017 othole ukususwa okuyinkimbinkimbi nokufakwa ku-genome yegundane ehleliwe, futhi ucwaningo lwe-2018 lokho kwabika ukulimala kwe-DNA emigqeni yamangqamuzana omuntu.

Ngakho-ke abacwaningi beRecombinetics bakuphuthelwa kanjani ukuhlanganiswa okungahlosiwe kwe-DNA?

“Asibukanga”

"Bekungeyona into ebilindelekile, futhi besingayifunanga," kusho uTad Sonstegard, isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani yezolimo iRecombinetics 'Acceligen, ngokusho kwe Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT Technology. Isheke eliphelele “bekufanele ngabe lenziwe,” kusho yena. Umagazini ophefumulelwe kucashunwe uSonstegard echaza, “Besingafuni ukuhlanganiswa kweplasmid. Bekufanele sibe nayo. ”

Lokho bekufanele kube yindawo esobala yokubheka, kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advocacy, weMibiko yabathengi. "Ukuthi noma iyiphi i-DNA evela ku-bacterial plasmid esetshenzisiwe ohlelweni lokuhlela izakhi zofuzo yathathwa yadluliselwa kuzoba ngenye yezinto zokuqala obuzozibheka uma unentshisekelo yokuthola imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe," kusho uHansen.

Ngokubona kwakhe, iqiniso lokuthi iRecombinetics ilahlekelwe yinkinga kusikisela ukuthi, “abenzanga ukwengamela okudingekayo. Yingakho sidinga ukwenganyelwa nguhulumeni, ”kubandakanya izidingo zokuhlolwa kwezokuphepha ngaphambi kwezimakethe, esho.

U-Latham, ongusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo nowayengunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo, naye ukhomba kokutholakele kwakamuva okuvela eJapane akholelwa ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omkhulu kunalokho okutholwe yi-FDA, futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekulawulweni komhlaba. Esifundweni se2019, Abaphenyi baseJapan babika ukuthi ama-genome wegundane ahleliwe athole i-DNA ku-E.coli genome, kanye ne-DNA yezimbuzi nezinkomo. Le DNA elahlekile yavela kuma-reagents wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo, indlela yokulethwa esetshenziselwa ukwenza ukuhlela.

Lokhu okutholakele "kulula kakhulu: ukusika i-DNA ngaphakathi kwamaseli, kungakhathalekile ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo oluhlelekile lokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo, kubeka ama-genome ukuthola i-DNA engafuneki,", kubhala uLatham kuzindaba ze-Independent Science. Uthe lokhu okutholakele “kusho ukuthi, okungenani, isidingo sezinyathelo eziqinile zokuvimbela ukungcoliswa yi-DNA elahlekile, kanye nokuhlolisiswa ngokuphelele kwamangqamuzana ahlelwe izakhi zofuzo kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Futhi, njengoba icala leRecombinetics liphakamisa, lezi yizidingo abathuthukisi uqobo abangase bangahlangabezani nazo.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo

I-Recombinetics inayo “Uphikise ngomsindo” ukwengamela kwe-FDA sonke isikhathi futhi wacela ukuphathwa kukaTrump ukulwa namandla okwengamela kude ne-ejensi yokuphepha kokudla, ngokusho kweMIT Technology Review. Futhi ngenkathi iRecombinetics isho ngo-2016 ukuthi izinkomo zayo ezingenazimpondo ezihlelwe ngofuzo "bezingenayo imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlasela," lokho kutholwa kwasetshenziswa njengethuluzi lokwamukela izivakashi emkhankasweni wokulwa nokuhlolwa kwe-FDA.

Phakathi ku ukuhlaziya ebisebenza eceleni kocwaningo lwale nkampani, abacwaningi abahlanu baseyunivesithi baphikise ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo kuyasinda futhi akudingeki. Omunye wabalobi, U-Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelulwa kwezilwane e-UC Davis kanye nommeli ohola phambili wokuqedwa komthetho, uchaze uhlelo lwe-FDA lokufuna ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe “njengohlanya.”

"Imiphumela yokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo ifana kakhulu nezinqubo zemvelo," kubhala abacwaningi ekuphawuleni kwabo. Noma imiphi "imiphumela engemihle engancishiswa ingancishiswa ngokwakhiwa ngokucophelela nangokuhlolwa okuningiliziwe," besho, bephawula ukuthi abacwaningi abavela eRecombinetics "abatholanga" ezinkomeni zabo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Baphinde bathi, ngokungahambisani nalokhu, ukuthi izinkomo ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziphethe i-DNA efanayo "esetshenziswe abantu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-1,000." "Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo," babhala, kungaba ukusabalalisa ukulandelana okuhleliwe kwe-genome "kubantu bezimbuzi zomhlaba wonke."

Ukunqanyulwa phakathi kokujaha ukuthengisa ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nesidingo sokuzikhandla okufanelekile ukuqonda imiphumela engeyona eqondiwe yokusetshenziswa kofuzo kanye nemithelela engaba nayo empilweni nasemvelweni, sekuyisikhathi eside kuyiphuzu elinamathelayo empikiswaneni ye-GMO. Ngokudla okuningi kwe-GMO, izinkampani beziphethe ukuhlolwa kokuphepha sonke isikhathi, ngaphandle kokubheka okuncane kukahulumeni. Kepha yiziphi izikhuthazo izinkampani okufanele zibheke kuzo izinkinga?

Emuva ngo-1998, ku ingxoxo noMichael Pollan yeNew York Times, UMonsanto owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ngaleso sikhathi wayengaqondile ekuhloleni kwakhe ukuthi izimfuno zemboni zikhona kuphi: ”IMonsanto akufanele ukuthi ivikele ukuphepha kokudla kwe-biotech. Intshisekelo yethu ukuthengisa okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo kungumsebenzi we-FDA. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo kudinga ukucaciswa kakhudlwana ukuze kufezekiswe isithembiso sayo - nguDavid Edgell, Ingxoxo (10.7.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwe-Gene ngokungenhloso kungeza i-DNA yezinkomo, i-DNA yezimbuzi, ne-DNA yebhaktheriya, abacwaningi begundane bathola - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent ScienceNews (9.23.19)

Izinkomo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo zine-screwup enkulu kwi-DNA yazo - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (8.28.19)

I-FDA ithola izakhi zofuzo zokumelana namagciwane ezingalindelekile ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo 'ezihleliwe' - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, no-Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

Izinguquko ezenziwa ngaphandle kokuqondisa akukhona ukuphela kokukhathazeka ezitshalweni ezihlelwe ngofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (7.10.19)

Kungani isifaniso esithi “isikelo samangqamuzana” seCRISPR sidukisa - ngu-Elinor Hortle, Ingxoxo (7.4.19)

I-CRISPR ibangela imiphumela engalindelekile ngisho nasendaweni ehlosiwe yokuguqulwa kofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (4.16.19)

Ukukhishwa kwe-CRISPR kubangela ukuguqulwa okungahlosiwe ku-DNA - Ukubuka kwe-GM (3.13.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwesisekelo se-CRISPR, okwaziwa ngokunemba, kushaya i-snag ngokuguqula okungu-off-target - nguSharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Izilimi ezinkulu nama-vertebrae angeziwe: Imiphumela engahlosiwe yokuhlelwa kofuzo lwesilwane - NguPreetika Rana noLucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

Ukulimala okungenzeka kwe-DNA okuvela ku-CRISPR 'kubhekelwe phansi kakhulu,' ucwaningo luthola - nguSharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Kuvela ukuthi ukuhlela kwe-CRISPR kungalimaza nama-genomes - Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (7.16.2018)

Isithiyo esisha esibucayi se-CRISPR: Amaseli ahleliwe angadala umdlavuza, kutholakala izifundo ezimbili - nguSharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Abahleli bezakhi zofuzo basePulazini bafuna izinkomo ezingenazimpondo, izingulube ezingenamsila, nebhizinisi ngaphandle kwemithetho - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (3.12.18)

Umbiko: Izilwane ezihlelwa yizakhi zofuzo zizoqinisa ukulima kwasezimboni kanye nenkinga yesimo sezulu, kungalimaza impilo yabantu - Abangane Bomhlaba (9.17.19)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? - nguStacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

IMonsanto Yenza Ibhidi Entsha Yokuvimba Isivivinyo SaseSt

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Esikhathini esingaphansi kwenyanga kude nokuthi kuzoba yini icala lesine lomdlavuza weRoundup lokufaka izisulu zomdlavuza kumuntu owayekade eyi-agrochemical giant Monsanto Co, abameli bezinhlangothi eziphikisanayo bayaqhubeka nokulwa ukuthi icala kufanele - noma nini - noma kungafanele yezwa.

Abameli beMonsanto kanye nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG, uthumele incwadi lisonto eliya ejajini eliphethe eNkantolo yesiFunda yaseSt. UWinston V. Monsanto.

Ummangali oholayo uWalter Winston nabanye abali-13 abavela ezweni lonke babebhekene necala eNkantolo yaseSt. UMichael Mullen udlulise bonke abamangali ngaphandle kukaWinston baya eSt. Louis County e Umyalelo kaSepthemba 13.  Isinqumo seNkantolo eNkulu yaseMissouri ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka sathola ukuthi kwakungafanele abameli babamangali ukuthi bamise abamangali abavela ngaphandle kwendawo baye kothile owayenendawo efanele yokuletha icala eSt.

Abameli babamangali bebelokhu besebenzela ukugcina bonke abamangali abayi-14 behlangene futhi besendleleni yokuqulwa kwecala lika-Okthoba 15, befuna imvume yokuthi iJaji uMullen athathe isabelo sesikhashana esifundeni ngenhloso yokuzama icala leRoundup. Kodwa uMonsanto wawuphikisa lowo mzamo, wawubiza ngokuthi "yisiphakamiso esingajwayelekile" encwadini yenkampani eyabhalwa ngo-Septhemba 19 yencwadi eya kwiJaji laseSt. Louis County uGloria Clark Reno.

Le nkampani ithe abameli babamangali "yibona kuphela okufanele basolwe ngesikhundla abakuso manje. Ngesikhathi befaka izicelo zabo, indawo eDolobheni laseSt. Louis ibingafanele ... Isinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme YaseMissouri… sikuqinisekisile ukuthi isiphetho. ”

Ukwengeza, abameli bakaMonsanto baphikisa encwadini yabo ukuthi noma yiliphi icala akufanele libe nabamangali abangaphezu kwababili: “Isivivinyo sokuhlanganyela sezimangalo ezingafani zabamangali abayishumi nantathu - izimangalo ezivela ngaphansi komthetho wamazwe amathathu ahlukene - zazizophazamisa ngokungafanele futhi ngokungafanele IMonsanto yecala elifanele. ”

Icala likaWinston, elifakwe ngoMashi ka-2018, lizoba ngecala lokuqala ukwenzeka endaweni yaseSt. Izilingo ezimbili obekumele ziqale eSt.Louis ngo-Agasti noSepthemba zibambezelekile.

Ngaphambi kokuthengisa eBayer ngonyaka odlule, iMonsanto yayizinze edolobhaneni laseCreve Coeur futhi yayingomunye wabaqashi abakhulu baseSt. Izilingo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezazibekiwe endaweni yaseSt. I- emuva naphambili belwa ukuthi icala likaWinston lingenzeka noma lingaqhutshwa kuphi futhi liqhubeke isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka.

Abamangali ecaleni likaWinston baphakathi kwabantu abangaphezu kwe-18,000 e-United States abamangalela uMonsanto bethi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esekwe enkampanini i-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi iMonsanto ifihle izingozi ezihambisana nababulali bayo bokhula. Amajaji amathathu ezilingweni ezintathu ngaphezu kwezimangalo ezifanayo bathole abamangali futhi bayalela umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweMonsanto.

UBayer nabameli babamangali bahlanganyela ezingxoxweni mayelana ne- a ukukhokhelwa komhlaba wonke okungahle kwenzeke  wecala. UBayer ubelokhu ebhekene nentengo yamasheya ecindezelekile kanye nabatshalizimali abanganelisekanga selokhu kwathathwa isinqumo se-Aug. 10, 2018 ecaleni lokuqala lomdlavuza weRoundup. Ijaji linikeze umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia UDewayne “Lee” Johnson $ 289 million futhi bathola ukuthi iMonsanto yenze ngobubi ekucindezeleni ulwazi mayelana nezingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.