Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: IFleishmanHillard, Ketchum, FTI Consulting

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kuthunyelwe ekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; ibuyekezwe ngoNovemba 2020

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe, i-US Right to Know ilandelela amahlazo okukhohlisa omphakathi ahlanganisa amafemu e-PR ukuthi imidondoshiya yezolimo iBayer AG neMonsanto bathembele kuyo ngemikhankaso yabo yokuvikela umkhiqizo: Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, uKetchum PR noFleishmanHillard. Lawa mafemu banemilando emide yokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza izinhloso zezepolitiki zamakhasimende abo, kubandakanya nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, imikhankaso yezokuvikela imboni kawoyela.

Amahlazo wakamuva

I-NYT idalula amasu e-FTI Consulting firm's shady embonini kawoyela: Phakathi ku Novemba 11, 2020 indatshana yeNew York Times, UHiroko Tabuchi wembula ukuthi i-FTI Consulting “isize kanjani ukuklama, abasebenzi nokuqhuba izinhlangano namawebhusayithi axhaswe yizinkampani zamandla ezingabonakala zimelela ukwesekwa emazingeni aphansi kohlelo lwezinto ezimbiwa phansi.” Ngokususelwa ezingxoxweni zakhe nabayishumi nababili ababengabasebenzi be-FTI namakhulu emibhalo yangaphakathi, uTabuchi ubika ngendlela i-FTI eyayiqapha ngayo izishoshovu zezemvelo, yaqhuba imikhankaso yezepolitiki ye-astroturf, yabamba izingosi ezimbili zezindaba nemininingwane futhi yabhala izindatshana ezisekela umkhakha mayelana nokuthwebula, ukumangalelwa kwesimo sezulu nokunye okushisayo Izinkinga zebutton ngesiqondiso esivela ku-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kanye namafemu ayo e-PR bahlela umzamo we-GOP wokwesabisa abacwaningi bomdlavuza: U-Lee Fang kubikwe iThe Intercept ku-2019 kumadokhumenti aphakamisa ukuthi abalawuli abamelene neMonsanto futhi basebenzise ingcindezi yokwenza ucwaningo lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Indaba ibika ngamasu akhohlisayo e-PR, kufaka phakathi indlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo incwadi emayelana nesayensi ye-glyphosate esayinwe ngusihlalo omkhulu we-GOP.

Imibhalo yeMonsanto yembula amaqhinga okudicilela phansi uphenyo lwentshisekelo yomphakathi: Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhishwe ngamacala enkantolo ngo-Agasti 2019 iveze amasu amaningi inkampani kanye namafemu ayo e-PR asetshenziselwe ukukhomba izintatheli nabanye abathonya abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO, futhi bazama ukuphikisa uphenyo ngemisebenzi yabo yi-US Right to Know.

Bheka futhi ama-fact sheet ama-USRTK, asuselwa kumadokhumenti atholwe kuphenyo lwethu, abika ngabalingani benkampani yangaphandle abasiza ngokuvikela imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane: Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane.

NgoMeyi 2019, sabika ngamahlazo amaningi afaka amafemu eBayer PR:

Isikhalazo se 'Monsanto File'

Izintatheli at ULe Monde wabika ngoMeyi 9 ukuthi bathole "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde ufake isikhalazo nehhovisi lomshushisi waseParis lisola ukuthi lo mbhalo ubandakanya ukuqoqwa nokuqhutshwa kwemininingwane yomuntu ngokungemthetho, okugqugquzela ihhovisi lomshushisi vula uphenyo lobugebengu. “Lokhu kutholakala okubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu anenhloso yokuthulisa amaphimbo aqinile. Ngiyabona ukuthi bebezama ukungihlukanisa, ” Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okusohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 TV.

"Lokhu kutholakale kubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu afanele okuvala umsindo."

UFrancois Veillerette, isazi sezemvelo nasohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 ukuthi iqukethe imininingwane yokuxhumana yomuntu siqu, imibono nezinga lokuzibandakanya maqondana neMonsanto. "Lokhu kushaqisa kakhulu eFrance," esho. "Asicabangi ukuthi lokhu kuvamile." IBayer isivele yavuma ukuthi uFleishmanHillard waqamba “'uhlu lwamawashi 'lwezibalo ze-pro- noma anti-pesticides”Emazweni ayisikhombisa kulo lonke elaseYurophu, kubika i-AFP. Lezi zinhlu zaziqukethe imininingwane ngezintatheli, osopolitiki namanye amaqembu athintekayo. I-AFP ithe yafaka isikhalazo enkampanini yezomthetho yaseFrance ngoba ezinye zezintatheli zayo zazisohlwini olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa futhi wakusho kwamiswa ubudlelwano bayo namafemu athintekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kanye nePublicis Consultants, kusalindwe uphenyo. "Okusemqoka kakhulu kithi ukudala obala," Kusho uBayer. "Asikubekezeleli ukungaziphathi kahle enkampanini yethu." (Amafemu kamuva asulwa ekwenzeni okungalungile yinkampani yabameli eqashwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli ecaleni likaMonsanto 

Ukwengeza ezinkingeni zeBayer PR, i-AFP ibike ngoMeyi 18 ukuthi umsebenzi wenye inkampani "yokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele" PR isebenza neBayer neMonsanto - FTI Consulting - wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ezimele ecaleni likahulumeni waseSan Francisco elaphela ngo Isahlulelo esingu- $ 80 million ngokumelene neBayer ngenxa yokukhathazeka komdlavuza we-glyphosate.

Isisebenzi se-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonakale exoxa nezintatheli ngemibono yezindaba ecaleni. Uthe usebenzela i-BBC futhi akazange adalule ukuthi empeleni usebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UKetchum noFleishmanHillard basebenzisa i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, imboni yezolimo yathinta uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabili ababengabakwa-Omnicom, ukuzokwakha PR kuyacasula ukuvuselela isithombe yemikhiqizo yayo ehlanganisiwe ye-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Kukhethwe iMonsanto UFleishmanHillard ukuze "akhe kabusha" igama lakhe phakathi "kokuphikisana okukhulu" nokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ngokusho kweHolmes Report. Cishe ngaso leso sikhathi, uFleishmanHillard naye waba yi- I-ejensi ye-PR yerekhodi leBayer, kanye noMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo (i-CBI) - iqembu lokuhweba kuxhaswe ngemali IBayer (iMonsanto), iCorteva (iDowDuPont), iSyngenta neBASF - baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yakwaKetchum ukuze yethule umkhankaso wokumaketha obizwa nge-GMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujija aqashwe yila mafemu afaka phakathi “wooing mama Blogger”Nokusebenzisa amazwi ochwepheshe okuthiwa“ abazimele ”ku-“susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Mayelana nama-GMO. Kodwa-ke, kwavela ubufakazi bokuthi amafemu e-PR ahlela futhi abhalele abanye ochwepheshe "abazimele". Isibonelo, imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa lokho Kubhalwe uKetchum okuthunyelwe kwe GMO Izimpendulo ezisayinwe ngu- Uprofesa wase-University of Florida owathi uzimele njengoba wayesebenza ekusithekeni neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. Iphini likamongameli omkhulu eFleishmanHillard kuhlelwe inkulumo a UC Davis uprofesa futhi wamqeqesha kanjani "ukunqoba abantu ekamelweni" at an Impikiswano ye-IQ2 ukukholisa umphakathi ukwamukela ama-GMO. UKetchum naye unikeze uprofesa amaphuzu okukhuluma kwinhlolokhono yomsakazo mayelana nocwaningo lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa beziyizithunywa ezibalulekile zemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni ukuthi ziphikisane nokulebula kwe-GMO, kubika i INew York Times ngo-2015. "Osolwazi / abacwaningi / ososayensi banesigqoko esikhulu esimhlophe kule mpikiswano kanye nokwesekwa ezifundazweni zabo, kusuka kosopolitiki kuya kubakhiqizi," uBill Mashek, iphini likamongameli eKetchum, wabhalela uprofesa wase-University of Florida. "Qhubeka nomsebenzi omuhle!" Iqembu lezentengiselwano le-CBI lisebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-11 zamaRandi kwi-GMO Answers kaKetchum kusukela ngo-2013, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela.

Impumelelo ye-GMO Answers 'management management'

Njengophawu olulodwa lwempumelelo yalo njengethuluzi le-PR spin, Izimpendulo zeGMO zazikhona kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO ngo-2014 esigabeni se- “Crisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uziqhayisa ngokuthi kucishe kwaphindaphindeka kanjani ukunakwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO kanye "nokulinganisa okungu-80% kokusebenzisana" ku-Twitter. Okuningi kwalokhu kuxhumana okuku-inthanethi kuvela kuma-akhawunti abonakala ezimele futhi awadaluli ukuxhumana kwawo nomkhankaso we-PR wemboni.

Yize ividiyo kaKetchum ithi Izimpendulo zeGMO "zizokuchaza kabusha obala" ngolwazi oluvela kochwepheshe "abangenalutho oluhlungiwe noma olucutshunguliwe, futhi kungekho mazwi athulisiwe," uhlelo lweMonsanto PR luphakamisa ukuthi inkampani ibheke izimpendulo zeGMO ukusiza imikhiqizo yayo ngendlela efanele. I- idokhumenti kusuka ku-2015 kubhalwe Izimpendulo ze-GMO phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza; esigabeni "sezinsizakusebenza" esisekhasini 4, lolu hlelo lubhale izixhumanisi eziya kuzimpendulo ze-GMO kanye nemibhalo yeMonsanto engadlulisa umyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyona i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-CLIO futhi yasuswa ngemuva kokuyinaka.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UHillard noKetchum ka-Omnicom: imilando yenkohliso

Kungani noma iyiphi inkampani ingabeka uFleishmanHillard noma uKetchum phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwethembana kunzima ukuyiqonda, uma kubhekwa umlando wabo wenkohliso ebhaliwe. Ngokwesibonelo:

Kuze kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayengu- PR ngokuqinile eRussia kanye noVladimir Putin. Ngokuvumelana ne imibhalo etholwe yiProPublica, UKetchum wabanjwa ebeka ama-pro-Putin op-eds ngaphansi kwamagama "ochwepheshe ababonakala bezimele" ezindaweni ezahlukene zezindaba. Ngo-2015, i- Uhulumeni waseHonduran ohlangene waqasha uKetchum ukuzama ukuvuselela isithunzi sayo ngemuva kwesigameko senkohlakalo esabiza izigidi zamadola.

Imibhalo idalulwe kuMama Jones kukhombisa ukuthi uKetchum usebenze nenkampani yonogada ezimele "ehlola iGreenpeace nezinye izinhlangano zemvelo kusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990s okungenani ngonyaka ka-2000, bephanga imibhalo emigqonyeni kadoti, bezama ukutshala izinkampani ezifihlekile ngaphakathi kwamaqembu, ukufaka amahhovisi amahhovisi, ukuqoqa amarekhodi efoni ezishoshovu, nemihlangano eyimfihlo engena ngaphakathi. ” UFleishmanHillard uphinde wabanjwa esebenzisa amaqhinga angekho emthethweni wokulwa nabameli bezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabameli bokulawulwa kukagwayi egameni lenkampani kagwayi iRJ Reynolds, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe nguRuth Malone ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomphakathi. Inkampani i-PR ize yaqopha ngokufihla umsindo imihlangano nezingqungquthela zokulawulwa kukagwayi.

UFileishman uHillard wayenjalo inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yeThe Tobacco Institute, okuyinhlangano eyinhloko yezimboni zikagwayi, iminyaka eyisikhombisa. Embhalweni ka-1996 Washington Post, uMorton Mintz elandisa le ndaba ngendlela iFleishmanHillard neTobacco Institute abaguqula ngayo iSikhungo Sempilo esincomekayo saba yiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha kagwayi emzamweni wawo wokuqeda ukukhathazeka komphakathi ngobungozi bokubhema intuthu kagwayi. UKethum futhi wasebenzela imboni kagwayi.

Womabili la mafemu kwesinye isikhathi asebenze ezinhlangothini zombili zodaba. UFleishmanHillard ubelokhu kuqashwe imikhankaso yokulwa nokubhema. Ku-2017, uKetchum wethule i- i-spin-off firm ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Cultivate ukwenza imali emakethe yokudla ephilayo ekhulayo, noma ngabe izimpendulo ze-GMO zikaKetchum zikuhlambalazile ukudla okungokwemvelo, zithi abathengi bakhokha “imali ephezulu” yokudla okungcono kunokudla okulinywa ngokujwayelekile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana kwe-FTI: ukukhohliswa kwesimo sezulu kanye nezibopho eziningi zikagwayi

I-FTI Consulting, "ukuphathwa kwezinhlekelele" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer futhi okwakungumsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ocwaningweni lwakamuva lomdlavuza weRoundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuningana noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kufaka phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwamaqhinga okucasha, ukungabi sobala kanye nomlando wokusebenzisana nomkhakha kagwayi.

Ifemu yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-ExxonMobil yokubalekela ukubhekana nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Njengo-Elana Schor no-Andrew Restuccia kubikwe ePolitico ngo-2016:

“Ngaphandle kuka [Exxon] uqobo, ukuvimba okukhulu kwezwi kulokho okuvelayo kuqhamuke e-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani egcwele abasizi bakudala beRiphabhulikhi esize ukuhlanganisa i-GOP ekuvikeleni izibaseli. Ngaphansi kwesibhengezo se-Energy in Depth, okuwumsebenzi owenzelwe i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI ifake izintatheli ngama-imeyili aphakamisa “ukuhlangana” phakathi kwezishoshovu eziluhlaza kanye nama-AGs ombuso, futhi yaphakamisa imibuzo mayelana noxhaso lwe-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. ”

Abasebenzi bakwa-FTI Consulting bake babanjwa bezenza izintatheli phambilini. UKaren Savage ubike Januwari 2019 kuzindaba Zesimo Sezulu Sezulu, “Osomaqhinga ababili bezobudlelwano nomphakathi abamele i-Exxon muva nje bazenze izintatheli emzamweni wokuxoxisana nommeli omele imiphakathi yaseColorado emangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo ohlobene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Osomaqhinga — uMichael Sandoval noMatt Dempsey — baqashwe yi-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani ende exhumene nemboni kawoyela negesi. ” Ngokusho kwe-Climate Liability News, la madoda amabili abhalwe njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi ephethwe yizintshisekelo zikawoyela futhi enabasebenzi be-FTI Consulting, ebuye inikeze abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ucwaningo olwenziwe ngophethiloli umkhankaso wokufinyelela emphakathini. ”

I-Energy In Depth yaziveza njenge "mama ne-pop shop" emele abahlinzeki bamandla amancane kepha yadalwa yizinkampani ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ukunxenxa ukuqedwa komthetho, I-DeSmog blog ibike ngo-2011. Iqembu le-Greenpeace lathola i Imemo yomkhakha we-2009 ichaza I-Energy In Depth “njengomkhankaso omusha womkhakha obanzi wemboni… wokulwa nemithetho emisha yezemvelo, ikakhulukazi maqondana nokuqhekeka kuka-hydraulic” “obekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokuzibophezela kwezezimali kusenesikhathi” kwezintshisekelo ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ezibandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (manje ephethwe yi-ExxonMobil).

Esinye isici esifana nalawa mafemu yizinhlangano zawo zemboni kagwayi. I-FTI Consulting “inomlando omude wokusebenzisana nemboni kagwayi,” ngokusho kuka AmaTactics Tactics.org. Ukuseshwa kwelabhulali ye-UCSF Tobacco Industry Documents uletha amadokhumende angaphezu kuka-2,400 XNUMX ephathelene ne-FTI Consulting.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubikwa okuningi kumahlazo kaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFulentshi:

Ukufunda ngesiNgisi:

ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

I-IFIC: Ukudla Okukhulu Kakhulu Kuphikisa Kanjani Izindaba Ezimbi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know neminye imithombo ikhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke (IFIC), iqembu lezentengiselwano elixhaswe izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nezolimo, kanye "nengalo yalo yezemfundo yomphakathi" engenzi nzuzo Isisekelo se-IFIC. Amaqembu e-IFIC aqhuba izinhlelo zocwaningo nezokuqeqesha, akhiqiza izinto zokumaketha futhi axhumanise amanye amaqembu embonini ukuxhumana nomkhakha wezokuphepha mayelana nokuphepha kokudla nokondleka. Ukulayeza kufaka phakathi ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ushukela, ukudla okusetshenzwe, okokunandisa okokufakelwa, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza wezibulala-zinambuzane weMonsanto 

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sendlela i-IFIC ebambisana ngayo nezinkampani ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezolimo kanye nokuphazamisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza, lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-IFIC njenge- “Umlingani wezimboni” ohlelweni lobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iqembu labacwaningi ngomdlavuza leWorld Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze “kuvikelwe isithunzi” seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IMonsanto ibhale i-IFIC njengoMlingani “wezimboni” weTier 3 kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla.

IFICIC izama kanjani ukudlulisa umyalezo wayo kwabesifazane.

La maqembu akhonjwa njengengxenye “yethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement” elingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugoma” likaMonsanto ngombiko womdlavuza we-glyphosate.

AmaBlogs kamuva athunyelwa ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-IFIC khombisa ukuthunyelwa kweqembu "ungakhathazeki, sethembe" imiyalezo kwabesifazane. Okungenayo kufaka phakathi, “izindlela eziyi-8 zobuhlanya abazama ukukwesabisa ngazo ngezithelo nemifino,” “Ukusika imfuhlumfuhlu ku-glyphosate,” nokuthi “Ngaphambi kokuba sidangele, ake sibuze ochwepheshe… ochwepheshe bangempela.”

Abaxhasi bezinkampani  

I-IFIC isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 22 esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu kusukela 2013-2017, ngenkathi i-IFIC Foundation ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5 kuleyo minyaka emihlanu, ngokusho kwamafomu entela afakwe kwi-IRS. Izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni asekela i-IFIC, ngokusho kwe- ukudalulwa komphakathi, kufaka phakathi i-American Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kanye nePepsiCo.

Amarekhodi wentela esalungiswa e-IFIC Foundation, atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso, uhlu lwezinkampani ezixhase iqembu 2011, 2013 noma zombili: I-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Coca-Cola, i-ConAgra, i-General Mills, i-Kellogg, i-Kraft Foods, i-Hershey, i-Mars, i-Nestle, i-PepsiCo ne-Unilever. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US unikeze i-IFIC Foundation imali engu- $ 177,480 yabakhokhi bentela e 2013 ukukhiqiza "umhlahlandlela wezokuxhumana”Yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-IFIC iphinde icele imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso ethile yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Le imeyili ka-Ephreli 28, 2014 kusuka kumphathi we-IFIC kuya kuhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yezinkampani ucela iminikelo engu- $ 10,000 yokuvuselela i- "Understanding our Food" isinyathelo ukwenza ngcono ukubukwa kwabathengi kokudla okusetshenzisiwe. I-imeyili ibhala abasekeli bezimali bangaphambilini: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo neDuPont.

Iphromotha ama-GMO ezinganeni zesikole  

IFIC iqondisiwe Amaqembu we-130 nge Ukubambisana Ukondla Ikusasa emizamweni yokuthumela imiyalezo "yokuthuthukisa ukuqonda" ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka phakathi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, lo Umkhandlu Wokulawulwa Kwekhalori, the Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla kanye ne-The Nature Conservancy.

I-Alliance to Feed the Future inikeze ngezifundo zamahhala zemfundo ukufundisa abafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kufaka phakathi “Isayensi Yokondla Umhlaba”Kothisha be-K-8 kanye ne-“Ukuletha i-Biotechnology empilweni”Zamabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezinsizakalo ze-IFIC's PR 

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know unikeze umuzwa wokuthi i-IFIC isebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuze ivule izindaba ezimbi futhi ivikele imikhiqizo yabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani.

Ixhuma izintatheli kososayensi abakhokhelwa yimboni  

  • Meyi 5, 2014 imeyili kusuka kuMat Raymond, umqondisi omkhulu wezokuxhumana, uxwayise ubuholi be-IFIC kanye "neqembu lezingxoxo zabezindaba" "ngezindaba ezisezingeni eliphakeme lapho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona manje" ukusiza ukuhambisa izindaba ezingezinhle, kufaka phakathi ukuphendula i-movie ethi Fed Up. Uphawule ukuthi baxhume intatheli yeNew York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, uchwepheshe wethu odumile emkhakheni woshukela. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqembu elincane lososayensi abafundile baseCanada abathole amakhulu ezinkulungwane oxhaso kubenzi beziphuzo ezithambile, izinhlangano zokuhweba ngokudla okuhlanganisiwe kanye nomkhakha kashukela, okwenza izifundo nezihloko zemibono ezivame ukuqondana nezintshisekelo zalawo mabhizinisi, ” ngokusho kweNational Post.
  • Ama-imeyili avela ku- 2010 futhi 2012 ziphakamisa ukuthi i-IFIC incike eqenjini elincane lososayensi abaxhunywe embonini ukubhekana nezifundo eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Kuwo womabili ama-imeyili, uBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngubani uthole izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO, kweluleka i-IFIC ukuthi ingaphendulwa kanjani ezifundweni eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

Isikhulu seDuPont siphakamisa isu lobuchule lokulwa nemibiko yabathengi

  • Phakathi ku Februwari 3, 2013 imeyili, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqembu lobudlelwano nabezindaba" ukuthi Imibiko Yabathengi ibike ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela wezemvelo wama-GMO. UDoyle Karr, Umqondisi wenqubomgomo ye-biotechnology kaDuPont nephini likamongameli webhodi ye Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, wathumela i-imeyili kusosayensi onombuzo ngemibono yokuphendula, futhi waphakamisa ukubhekana Nemibiko Yabathengi ngaleli qhinga lokwenza okuthile: nezitatimende ze- (Consumer Reports ') mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela kwezemvelo. ?? ”

Ezinye izinsizakalo ze-PR IFIC inikeza embonini

  • Kusabalalisa amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini edukisayo: April 25, 2012 thumela kumalungu ayi-130 e-Alliance Ukondla Ikusasa “egameni lelungu le-Alliance Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa ” yathi uhlelo lokuvota lwaseCalifornia lokufaka ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo “lungavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi ezinkulungwane emikhiqizo yokudla eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuthi inamalebula akhethekile.”
  • Ibhekana nezincwadi ezibucayi ngokudla okusetshenzisiwe: February 20, 2013 I-imeyili ichaza isu le-IFIC lokuphotha izincwadi ezimbili ezigxeka imboni yezokudla, “Usawoti, Ushukela, Amafutha” kaMichael Moss, kanye ne “Lunchbox kaPandora” kaMelanie Warner. Izinhlelo zazihlanganisa ukubhala ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ukusabalalisa izindawo zokukhuluma kanye "nokuhlola ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ukuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zedijithali kulinganiswa ubukhulu bokusabalala." Ku-imeyili kaFebhuwari 22, 2013, umphathi we-IFIC welulela izifundiswa ezintathu - URoger Clemens wase-University of Southern California, UMario Ferruzzi wasePurdue University futhi UJoanne Slavin wase-University of Minnesota - ukubacela ukuthi batholakalele izingxoxo nabezindaba mayelana nezincwadi. I-imeyili inikeze izifundiswa izifinyezo zalezi zincwadi ezimbili nezindawo zokukhuluma ze-IFIC ezivikela ukudla okwenziwe. “Sizokuthokozela ukuthi nihlanganyele noma yimaphi amaphuzu athile okuxoxa ngezindaba ezithile zesayensi eziphakanyiswe ezincwadini,” kusho i-imeyili evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, iphini likamongameli omkhulu we-IFIC wezokudla nokuvikeleka kokudla.
  • Ucwaningo nocwaningo ukusekela izikhundla ezimbonini; isibonelo esisodwa ngocwaningo lwango-2012 olathola ukuthi abathengi abangama-76% “abakwazi ukucabanga nganoma yini eyengeziwe abangathanda ukuyibona kulebula” esetshenziswa amaqembu embonini ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.
  • “Ungakhathazeki, sethembe” izincwajana zokumaketha, njenge lena echaza ukuthi izithasiselo zokudla nemibala akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo. Amakhemikhali nodayi “babambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekwehliseni ukusweleka okukhulu kwabathengi,” ngokusho kwencwajana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano sokubambisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

okokuqala kuthunyelwe ngoMeyi 31, 2018 futhi kuvuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto.

Umcimbi wango-2017 wokukhangisa uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” kufakwe uDkt Fedoroff futhi ososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: isibonelo, i-AAAS Board of Directors ngaphansi kukasihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esasibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokufakwa kophawu lweGMO ngonyaka ka-2012. Ngenkathi engumongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011. , UDkt Fedoroff usize ukwehlula isiphakamiso se-EPA sase-US ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ”

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi;
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo.

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. I-EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ”

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.”

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF:

Ukubika okuhlobene 

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012)

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

Ngubani Okhokhela Amacala kaMonsanto? Singa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku The Guardian.

NguCarey Gillam

Izinkukhu sezifika ekhaya zizolala, njengoba zisho njalo epulazini.

Okwesibili ezinyangeni ezingaphansi kweziyisishiyagalombili a Ijaji laseMelika litholile ukuthi amashumi eminyaka obufakazi besayensi akhombisa ukuxhumana okucacile komdlavuza kulayini kaMonsanto wokuthengisa kakhulu ukubulala ukhula kweRoundup, okusetshenziswa kakhulu ngabathengi nabalimi. Kabili manje ama-jurors anqume ngokwengeziwe ukuthi amarekhodi angaphakathi enkampani akhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto usebenzise ngamabomu irekhodi lomphakathi ukufihla izingozi zomdlavuza. Womabili la majaji athola ukuthi isijeziso sesigwebo besifanele ngoba ukufihlwa kwenkampani ngezingozi zomdlavuza bekukubi kakhulu.

Amajaji abona ubufakazi bokuthi Monsanto inamaphepha ezesayensi abhalwe njengesipoki, azama ukuthulisa ososayensi, akhungathekisa ukuhlolwa kukahulumeni ozimele futhi ahlangana nezilawuli ukuthola ukubuyekezwa okuhle kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate, isithako esisebenzayo eRoundup.

Ngisho nejaji lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria, owayengamele ukuqulwa kwecala laseSan Francisco elaphetha ngoLwesithathu nge $ 80.2m ukulimala umklomelo, had amazwi ahlabayo okweMonsanto. UChhabria uthe kukhona “ubufakazi obuningi” obukhombisa ukuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ingadala umdlavuza. Uthe futhi “kunobufakazi obuningi bokuthi iMonsanto ayikathathi indlela efanelekile yokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo… futhi ayinandaba ukuthi umkhiqizo wayo unikeza abantu umdlavuza yini, kunalokho igxile ekusebenziseni imibono yomphakathi futhi ukubukela phansi noma ngubani ophakamisa ukukhathazeka kwangempela futhi okusemthethweni ngale ndaba. ”

Umnikazi omusha kaMonsanto, inkampani yezokwelapha yaseJalimane Bayer, kugomela ukuthi amajaji namajaji alahlekile; ubufakazi bokuba nomdlavuza abuvumelekile; ubufakazi bokuziphatha okubi kwezinkampani abuqondwa kahle futhi abukho emongo; nokuthi inkampani ekugcineni izophumelela.

Okwamanje, abagxeki beMonsanto bagubha ukunqoba futhi bathembela kokunye njengoba icala lesithathu liqhubeka kuleli sonto kanti abamangali abengeziwe be-11,000 balinde ithuba labo. Futhi, inani elikhulayo lemiphakathi namabhizinisi selihlehla ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. Futhi abatshalizimali bajezisa iBayer, badudula amanani entengo abe ngaphansi kweminyaka eyisikhombisa ngoLwesine.

Umhlaziyi weSusquehanna Financial Group, uTom Claps uxwayise abaninimasheya ukuthi balwele ukuthola imali yomhlaba wonke ephakathi kuka- $ 2.5bn no- $ 4.5bn.

"Asikholwa ukuthi iMonsanto] izolahlekelwa yiwo wonke amacala, kepha sikholwa ukuthi bangalahlekelwa yiningi," etshela i-Guardian.

Ukulandela ukunqoba kwasenkantolo kwakamuva, abanye bajabule umbono wokuthi iMonsanto ekugcineni yenziwa ukukhokhela izinsolo zokona. Kepha ngokuthengisela iBayer ehlobo eledlule ngama- $ 63bn ngaphambi nje kokuthi amacala omdlavuza weRoundup aqale ukuyoquliswa icala, abaphathi beMonsanto bakwazi ukuphuma enkingeni yomthetho ngengcebo. Iphakethe likaSihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant limvumele ukuthi afake ephaketheni u- $ 32m, ngokwesibonelo.

Phakathi kwesiyaluyalu sokuxakanana kwasenkantolo, kuvela inkinga enkulu: Ukufuna kukaMonsanto ukusebenzisa umuthi wokubulala ukhula we-glyphosate kusabalele kangangokuthi imvamisa itholakala ekudleni kwethu naseziketsheni zethu zomzimba, kuyisibonelo esisodwa nje sokuthi imidondoshiya emikhulu yamabhizinisi idala abantu omaye bezempilo nabezemvelo emhlabeni jikelele. IMonsanto nabafowabo babhekise kubalimi ikakhulukazi njengemakethe ebucayi yemithi yabo yokubulala ukhula, isikhunta kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, futhi manje abalimi abaningi emhlabeni wonke bakholelwa ukuthi abakwazi ukulima ngaphandle kwabo.

Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi kanye nokukhuthaza ukugula nezifo kubantu, lezi zinambuzane eziqhutshwa yiBayer neMonsanto, iDowDuPont nabanye abadlali bezinkampani, engcupheni izilwane zasendle, impilo yomhlaba, ikhwalithi yamanzi nokusimama kwesikhathi eside kokukhiqizwa kokudla. Kodwa-ke abalawuli bavumele lezi zinkampani ukuthi zihlanganise amabutho, zibenze babe namandla ngokwengeziwe futhi bakwazi ukuqondisa izinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezithanda izintshisekelo zabo.

USenator waseMassachusetts u-Elizabeth Warren kuleli sonto kubizwe ebuyisa amanye alawo mandla. Umemezele ngoLwesithathu uhlelo lokuqeda amabhizinisi amakhulu ezolimo futhi alwe nohlobo lokuthathwa kweWashington esikubonile eminyakeni edlule.

Kuyisinyathelo esiqinile esiqondisweni esifanele. Kepha ayinakukuqeda ukuhlupheka kwezisulu zomdlavuza, futhi ingaguquli kalula indawo engcoliswe kakhulu ukudala ikusasa elinempilo nokusikhulula emaketangeni ohlelo lwezolimo oluthembele kuzibulala-zinambuzane.

Futhi ngenkathi iBayer ingakhipha amadola ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbalwa kumonakalo, ngubani ngempela okhokhelwa?

Sonke sinjalo.

Amakhemikhali Ekudleni Kwethu: Lapho “Kuphephe” Kungase Kungabi Kuphephe Ngempela

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuhlolisiswa kwesayensi kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam

Ababulali bokhula kuma-cracker kakolweni nasenhlamvini, izibulala-zinambuzane kujusi we-apula kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eminingi esipinashi, ubhontshisi wezintambo neminye imifino - konke kuyingxenye yokudla kwansuku zonke kwabantu abaningi baseMelika. Sekungamashumi eminyaka, izikhulu zikahulumeni zimemezele ukuthi imikhondo emincane yalezi zingcolisi iphephile. Kepha igagasi elisha lokuhlolisisa okungokwesayensi liyinselele kulokho kugomela.

Yize abathengi abaningi bengazi ngakho, unyaka nonyaka, ososayensi bakahulumeni babhala ukuthi amakhulukhulu amakhemikhali asetshenziswa abalimi emasimini abo nasezitshalweni ashiya kanjani izinsalela ekudleni okusetshenziswa kakhulu. Izithelo ezingaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-75 namaphesenti angaphezu kwama-50 emifino esampuli athwale izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e izibonelo zamuva zakamuva ezibikiwe yi-Food and Drug Administration. Ngisho nezinsalela zamakhemikhali abulala ngokuqinile izimbungulu i-DDT zitholakala ekudleni, kanye nohla lweminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. I-pesticide endosulfan, kuvinjelwe umhlaba wonke ngenxa yobufakazi bokuthi ingadala izinkinga zemizwa nezokuzala, nayo itholakale kumasampula okudla, kusho umbiko we-FDA.

Abalawuli baseMelika nezinkampani ezidayisela abalimi amakhemikhali baphikelela ekutheni izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane aziyona ingozi empilweni yabantu. Iningi lamazinga ezinsalela atholakala ekudleni angaphansi kwamazinga asemthethweni "okubekezelelana" asethwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), abalawuli bathi.

"AbaseMelika bathembele ku-FDA ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwemindeni yabo kanye nokudla abakudlayo," UKhomishani we-FDA uScott Gottlieb usho kanjena esitatimendeni ephelezelwa yi-ejensi ukukhishwa kombiko wayo wezinsalela ngomhlaka-1 Okthoba. "Njengeminye imibiko yakamuva, imiphumela ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga asele ensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane angaphansi kokubekezelelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency, ngakho-ke akubeki engozini kubathengi."

I-EPA inesiqiniseko sokuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni iphephile kangangoba i-ejensi inikeze izinkampani zamakhemikhali izicelo eziningi zokwenyusa ukubekezelelana okuvumelekile, inikeze isisekelo esisemthethweni samazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ukuze avunyelwe ekudleni kwaseMelika.

Kepha izifundo ezisanda kwenziwa zesayensi zenze ososayensi abaningi baxwayisa ukuthi iminyaka yezethembiso zokuphepha ingahle ingalungi. Ngenkathi kungekho muntu okulindeleke ukuthi afe efile ngokudla isitsha sokusanhlamvu okuqukethe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuvezwa okuphindaphindwayo kwezinga eliphansi ukulandelela inani lezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kungaba nomthelela ezinkingeni ezahlukahlukene zezempilo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ososayensi bathi.

“Cishe miningi eminye imiphumela yezempilo; asikazifundi nje ”

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard lishicilele umhlaziyi ngo-Okthoba esho ukuthi ucwaningo oluthe xaxa ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane "ludingeka ngokushesha" njengoba abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 abantu baseMelika benensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo. Umzila oyinhloko wokuchayeka kulezi zinambuzane ngukudla kwabantu abakudlayo, kusho iqembu labacwaningi baseHarvard.

Ososayensi abaningana abasebenzisana neHarvard bashicilele i- cwaningo ngasekuqaleni kwalo nyaka wabesifazane ababezama ukukhulelwa. Okutholakele kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo, kusho ososayensi.

“Ngokusobala amazinga okubekezelelana akhona manje asivikela kubuthivu obukhulu. Inkinga ukuthi akucaci ukuthi ukutholakalela ezingeni eliphansi izinsalela zezibulali zinambuzane ngokudla kungaba yingozi empilweni noma kungabi yingozi kangakanani, ”kusho uDkt Jorge Chavarro, ongusolwazi ohlangene noMnyango Wezokudla Neziphephelo eHarvard I-TH Chan School of Health Public, nomunye wababhali bokufunda.

“Ukuvezwa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudla kuhlotshaniswa [neminye] imiphumela yokuzala kubandakanya ikhwalithi yesidoda kanye nengozi enkulu yokulahleka kokukhulelwa kwabesifazane abelashwa ngemithi yokungazali. Kukhona eminye imiphumela eminingi yezempilo; asikazifundisisi ngokwanele ukwenza ukuhlola okwanele kobungozi, ”kusho uChavarro.

Isazi sezinto ezinobuthi uLinda Birnbaum, oqondisa i-US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), naye uzwakalise ukukhathazeka ngezingozi zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudalula obekucatshangwa ukuthi kuphephile. Ngonyaka odlule wabiza "Ukwehliswa jikelele ekusetshenzisweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo" ngenxa yezinkinga eziningi ngempilo yabantu, esho ukuthi "imithetho ekhona yase-US ayihambisani nentuthuko yesayensi ekhombisa ukuthi amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu abangela izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo emazingeni obekucatshangwa ukuthi aphephile."

Engxoxweni uBirnbaum uthe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini ziphakathi kwezinhlobo zokuchayeka ezidinga ukubhekelwa ngokomthetho okukhulu.

“Ngabe ngicabanga ukuthi amazinga asethwe njengamanje aphephile? Mhlawumbe akunjalo, ”kusho uBirnbaum. "Sinabantu abanobungozi obuhlukile, kungaba ngenxa yofuzo lwabo, noma ubudala babo, noma yini engabenza bathambekele kakhulu kulezi zinto," esho.

“Yize sibheka amakhemikhali eyodwa ngesikhathi, kunobufakazi obuningi bezinto ezisebenza ngendlela ehambisanayo. Izinqubomgomo zethu eziningi zokuhlola ezijwayelekile, eziningi ezakhiwa eminyakeni engama-40 kuya kwengama-50 edlule, azibuzi imibuzo obekufanele siyibuze, ”wengeza.

Umthetho awusho ukuthi uphephile

Amanye amaphepha esayensi akamuva akhomba kokutholakele okukhathazayo. Eyodwa ngeqembu lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba elishicilelwe ngoMeyi kutholakale i-glyphosate herbicide ngemithamo njengamanje ebhekwa “njengephephile” iyakwazi ukudala izinkinga zezempilo ngaphambi kokuqala kokuthomba. Ucwaningo oluningi luyadingeka ukuqonda izingcuphe ezingaba khona ezinganeni, abalobi bezocwaningo bathi.

Futhi ephepheni ishicilelwe ngo-Okthoba 22 ku-JAMA Internal Medicine, abacwaningi baseFrance bathi lapho bebheka izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezixhumanisa nomdlavuza ocwaningweni lokudla kwabantu abangaphezu kwama-68,000, bathole izinkomba zokuthi ukudla kokudla okwenziwe ngamakhemikhali, okungenzeki kakhulu ukuthi kuthwale izinsalela zokwenziwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kunokudla okwenziwe ngezitshalo ezikhule ngokujwayelekile, kwakuhlotshaniswa nengozi encishisiwe yomdlavuza.

Iphepha le-2009 eshicilelwe ngumcwaningi waseHarvard nososayensi ababili be-FDA bathole amasampula okudla ayi-19 kwayi-100 izingane ezivame ukuwadla aqukethe okungenani isibulala-zinambuzane esisodwa esaziwa njenge-neurotoxin. Ukudla okwabhekwa ngabaphenyi kwakuyimifino emisha, izithelo namajusi. Kusukela lapho, ubufakazi sebukhulile ngemithelela yempilo yomuntu eyingozi yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ikakhulukazi.

Amazinga angamukeleki

"Izindinganiso zomthetho eziningi zamanje zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini aziyivikeli ngokuphelele impilo yomphakathi, futhi azikhombisi isayensi yakamuva," kusho u-Olga Naidenko, umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi wenhlangano engenzi nzuzo ye-Environmental Working Group, ekhiphe imibiko eminingana ukubheka izingozi ezingaba khona zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini. “Ezomthetho azikhombisi ukuthi 'uphephile,'” kusho yena.

Isibonelo esisodwa sokuthi iziqinisekiso zokuphepha zitholakale zintuleka kanjani uma kukhulunywa ngezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kuyisibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos. Imakethwa yiDow Chemical, eyaba yinkampani yeDowDuPont ngonyaka we-2017, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-30 ama-apula, isilimo esinengono emnandi edliwayo, amantongomane, u-anyanisi, amagilebhisi, i-broccoli, ama-cherries nekholifulawa otshalwe e-US futhi kuvame ukutholakala ekudleni okudliwe yizingane . I-EPA isishilo iminyaka ukuthi ukudalulwa okungaphansi kokubekezelelwa kwezomthetho okubekiwe bekungeyona into okufanele ikhathazeke ngayo.

Noma kunjalo ucwaningo lwesayensi eminyakeni yamuva nje kukhombise ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos kanye nokushoda kwengqondo ezinganeni. Ubufakazi bokulimaza ubuchopho obusakhula bunamandla kangangokuba i-EPA ngo-2015 kusho ukuthi "ayikwazi ukuthola ukuthi noma yikuphi ukubekezelelana njengamanje kuphephile."

I-EPA ithe ngenxa yamazinga angavumelekile okubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini okuphuza ihlela ukuvimbela lesi sibulala-zinambuzane ekusebenziseni ezolimo. Kepha ingcindezi evela kuDow futhi ama-lobbyists embonini yamakhemikhali agcine amakhemikhali esetshenziswa kabanzi emapulazini aseMelika. Umbiko wakamuva we-FDA uthole ukuthi bangu-11th izibulala-zinambuzane ezivame kakhulu ekudleni kwase-US okuvela emakhulwini afakiwe ekuhlolweni.

A inkantolo yenhlangano ngo-Agasti ithe ukuthi iTrump Administration yayifaka engcupheni impilo yomphakathi ngokugcina ama-chlorpyrifos esetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kokudla kwezolimo. I- inkantolo ibaluliwe "Ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi insalela yakho ekudleni ibanga ukulimala kwe-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni" futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi isuse konke ukubekezelela futhi ivimbele ikhemikhali emakethe. I-EPA isazothatha isinyathelo kulowo myalo, futhi kunjalo ukufuna ukulalelwa kabusha ngaphambi kwe-9 epheleleth Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi angakuchaza kanjani ukuma kwakhe okuguqukayo kuma-chlorpyrifos, okhulumela i-ejensi wathi i-EPA "ihlela ukuqhubeka nokubuyekeza isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela ye-neurodevelopmental" yamakhemikhali.

Iqiniso lokuthi lisasetshenziswa kakhulu liyakhathaza futhi lithukuthelise odokotela abagxile kwezempilo yezingane futhi libashiye bezibuza ukuthi yikuphi okunye ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni okungenzeka ukuthi kuyabenzela abantu.

"Okusemqoka ukuthi ukukhathazeka okukhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi kwama-chlorpyrifos kusuka ekutholakaleni kwayo ekudleni," kusho uDkt. Bradley Peterson umqondisi we-Institute for the Developing Mind esibhedlela sezingane eLos Angeles. Ngisho nokuchayeka okuncane kungaba nemiphumela emibi. ”

Isinqumo se-EPA sokuqhubeka nokuvumela ama-chlorpyrifos ekudleni kwaseMelika "siyisibonakaliso sokuchithwa okubanzi kobufakazi besayensi" obubekela inselelo impilo yabantu kanye nobuqotho besayensi, ngokuvumelana ne UDkt ULeonardo Trasande, oqondisa iDivision of Environmental Pediatrics ngaphakathi koMnyango Wezingane e-Langone Health yaseNew York University.

Isazi se-Epidemiologist uPhilip Landrigan, umqondisi wohlelo lweBoston College lweGlobal Public Health, kanye nowayengusosayensi we-US Centers for Disease Control, unxusa ukuthi kuvinjelwe zonke izidalwa eziphilayo, isigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlanganisa ama-chlorpyrifos, ngenxa yengozi eziyibangela izingane .

"Izingane zisengozini enkulu kula makhemikhali," kusho uLandrigan. "Lokhu kumayelana nokuvikela izingane."

Ukwanda kokubekezelelana uma kucelwa imboni

Umthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ugunyaza i-EPA ukuthi ilawule ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni ngokuya ngamazinga athile asemthethweni futhi inikeze i-EPA igunya elilinganiselwe lokusungula ukubekezelela iziqu zomthetho ezihlangabezana nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane.

Ukungabekezelelani kuyehluka ekudleni nasekudleni nasekubulaweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngakho-ke i-apula lingaphatha ngokusemthethweni uhlobo oluthile lwensalela yokubulala izinambuzane kune-plamu, ngokwesibonelo. Ukubekezelelana nakho kuyahlukahluka kuye ngamazwe, ngakho-ke lokho i-US ekubeka njengokubekezelelana okusemthethweni kwezinsalela ze-pesticide ekudleni okuthile - futhi kuvame ukwehluka kakhulu kunemikhawulo ebekwe kwamanye amazwe. Njengengxenye yokuhlelwa kwalokhu kubekezelelana, abalawuli bahlola idatha ekhombisa ukuthi kungakanani okusalayo okuqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi isibulali zinambuzane sisetshenziswe njengoba kuhloswe esitshalweni, futhi benza ukuhlolwa kokudla okuyingozi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amazinga ezinsalela ze-pesticides awabeki ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu .

Le nhlangano ithi ibangela ukuthi izidlo zezinsana nezingane zingahluka kakhulu kwezabantu abadala nokuthi badla ukudla okuningi ngosayizi wabo kunabantu abadala. I-EPA futhi ithi ihlanganisa imininingwane ngemizila yokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane - ukudla, ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi okuphuza lapho kuhlala khona - ngolwazi olumayelana nobuthi besibulala-zinambuzane ngasinye ukucacisa izingozi ezingaba khona ezidalwa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. Le nhlangano ithi uma izingozi "zingamukeleki," ngeke ikwamukele ukubekezelelana.

I-EPA iphinde ithi uma yenza izinqumo zokubekezelelana, “ifuna ukuvumelanisa ukubekezelelana kweMelika nezindinganiso zamazwe omhlaba lapho kungenzeka khona, ngokuhambisana nezindinganiso zokuphepha kokudla zase-US kanye nemikhuba yezolimo.”

IMonsanto, eyaba yiyunithi yeBayer AG ekuqaleni konyaka, icele ngempumelelo i-EPA ukuthi yandise amazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ekudleni okuningana, kufaka phakathi ukolweni ne-oats.

Ngo-1993, isibonelo, i-EPA ibinokubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats ezingxenyeni eziyi-0.1 ngesigidi ngasinye (ppm) kepha ngo-1996 UMonsanto ubuze i-EPA ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kube ngu-20 ppm kanye ne- I-EPA yenza njengoba ibuziwe. Ku-2008, kusiphakamiso sikaMonsanto, i- I-EPA iphinde yabheka ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats, kulokhu iye ku-30 ​​ppm.

Ngaleso sikhathi, liphinde lathi lizokhuphula ukubekezelelana kwe-glyphosate ebhali kusuka ku-20 ppm kuye ku-30 ​​ppm, kuphakamise ukubekezelelana emasimini ommbila kusuka ku-1 kuye ku-5 ppm futhi kuphakamise ukubekezelelana kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kukolweni kusuka ku-5 ppm kuya ku-30 ​​ppm, ukwanda ngamaphesenti angama-500. I-30 ppm kakolweni ifaniswa namanye amazwe angaphezu kwama-60, kepha ingaphezulu kakhulu kokubekezelelwa okuvunyelwe emazweni angaphezu kwama-50, ngokusho kwe i-database yokubekezelelana kwamazwe omhlaba isungulwe ngemali ye-EPA futhi igcinwe manje yiqembu elizimele lezindaba zikahulumeni.

"I-Ejensi inqume ukuthi ukubekezelelana okwandisiwe kuphephile, okusho ukuthi, kunesiqiniseko esizwakalayo sokuthi akukho monakalo ozovela ekutholakaleni okuhlangene kwensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane," kusho i-EPA kwi-Federal Register yangoMeyi 21, 2008.

“Zonke lezi zitatimende ze-EPA - sithembe ukuthi kuphephile. Kodwa iqiniso asazi ukuthi liphephile ngempela yini, ”kusho uDkt. Bruce Lanphear, ongusosayensi wezokwelapha eChild & Family Research Institute, BC Children's Hospital, noprofesa emkhakheni wesayensi yezempilo eSimon Fraser University e IVancouver, eBritish Columbia. U-Lanphear uthe ngenkathi abalawuli becabanga ukuthi imiphumela enobuthi iyakhuphuka ngomthamo, ubufakazi besayensi bubonisa ukuthi amanye amakhemikhali anobuthi kakhulu emazingeni aphansi okuvezwa. Ukuvikela impilo yomphakathi kuzodinga ukucabanga kabusha ukucabanga okuyisisekelo mayelana nokuthi ama-ejensi alawula kanjani amakhemikhali, waphikisa ephepheni eshicilelwe ngonyaka odlule.

Eminyakeni yamuva bobabili iMonsanto neDow bathole amazinga amasha okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane i-dicamba kanye ne-2,4-D ekudleni futhi.

Ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kuvumela abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ezingashiya izinsalela eziningi, kepha lokho akusongeli impilo yabantu, ngokusho kweMonsanto. Kubhulogi ethunyelwe nyakenye, Usosayensi weMonsanto uDan Goldstein uqinisekise ukuphepha kwezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni ngokuvamile kanye ne-glyphosate ikakhulukazi. Ngisho noma beqa umkhawulo wezomthetho, izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zincane kakhulu futhi azinabungozi, ngokusho kukaGoldstein, othumele ibhulogi ngaphambi kokuthatha umhlalaphansi eMonsanto kulo nyaka.

Cishe uhhafu wokudla okwenziwe isampula uqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane

Phakathi kokukhathazeka kwesayensi, i- idatha yakamuva kakhulu ye-FDA kuzinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kutholakale ukuthi cishe ingxenye yokudla i-ejensi eyayisampulile iqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane, ama-herbicides, ama-fungicides namanye amakhemikhali anobuthi asetshenziswa abalimi ekukhuliseni ukudla okungamakhulu amaningi.

Amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-90 ama-apula ama-apple asampuliwe atholakale aqukethe izibulala-zinambuzane. I-FDA iphinde yabika ukuthi amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-60 e-cantaloupe aphethe izinsalela. Kukonke, amaphesenti angama-79 ezithelo zaseMelika namaphesenti angama-52 emifino aqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezahlukahlukene - eziningi ezaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. Ama-pesticides atholakele kumikhiqizo yesoya, ummbila, i-oat nemikhiqizo kakolweni, nokudla okuphelile njengamabele, ama-crackers nama-macaroni.

Ukuhlaziywa kwe-FDA "cishe kuphela" kugxile kwimikhiqizo engabhalwanga njengeyinto ephilayo, ngokusho kokhulumela i-FDA uPeter Cassell.

I-FDA yehlisa iphesenti lokudla okuqukethe izinsalela ze-pesticides futhi igxile kumaphesenti amasampula okungekho ukwephula amazinga okubekezelelana. Embikweni wayo wakamuva kakhulu, kusho i-FDA ukuthi ngaphezu "kwama-99% wokudla kwasekhaya kanye no-90% kokudla kwabantu okuhambisanayo bekuhambisana nemithetho yenhlangano."

Umbiko ukhombise ukwethulwa kwale nkampani kokuhlolela i-glycosate killer killer ekudleni. IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni lathi ngonyaka we-2014 ukuthi bobabili i-FDA kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US kufanele baqale ukuhlola njalo ukudla kwe-glyphosate. I-FDA yenze izivivinyo ezinqunyelwe kuphela ifuna izinsalela ze-glyphosate, kodwa-ke, isampula ummbila kanye nesoya nobisi namaqanda kumbulali wokhula, kusho le nhlangano. Azikho izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholwe obisini noma amaqanda, kepha izinsalela zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-63.1 amasampula ommbila namaphesenti angama-67 amasampula wesoya, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Le nhlangano ayizange iveze okutholakele ngomunye wemithi yayo ye-glyphosate ku-oatmeal futhi imikhiqizo yezinyosi, noma ngabe usokhemisi we-FDA enza lokho akutholayo kwaziwa abaphathi nabanye ososayensi abangaphandle kwe-ejensi.

UCassell uthe okutholwe uju ne-oatmeal bekungeyona ingxenye yesabelo se-ejensi.

Sekukonke, umbiko omusha we-FDA wahlanganisa izampuli ezenziwe kusukela ngo-Okthoba 1, 2015, kuze kube nguSepthemba 30, 2016, futhi wafaka ukuhlaziywa kwamasampula angu-7,413 467 okudla okuhloliwe njengengxenye yohlelo “lokuqapha izibulala-zinambuzane” lwe-FDA. Iningi lamasampula kwakungukudla okwakudliwa ngabantu, kepha amasampula angama-47.1 kwakungukudla kwezilwane. Le nhlangano ithe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale emaphesentini angama-49.3 amasampula wokudla kwabantu akhiqizwa ekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-57 wokudla okungeniswe kwamanye amazwe enzelwe ukudla kwabathengi. Imikhiqizo yokudla yezilwane yayifana, nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-45.3 amasampula asekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-XNUMX wokudla okungenisiwe kwezilwane.

Amasampula amaningi okudla angenisiwe akhombisa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane eziphakeme ngokwanele ukwephula imingcele yezomthetho, kusho i-FDA. Cishe amaphesenti angama-20 amasampula womkhiqizo wokusanhlamvu nokusanhlamvu okhonjisiwe abonise amazinga aphezulu kakhulu wezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokwesibonelo.

I-Val Giddings: Ukusebenza Okuphezulu Kwemboni Yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, ingumdlali ophambili emizamweni yezimboni yezolimo yokuphikisana nemithetho ebonakalayo kanye nezokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi athunyelwa ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings usize ukusungula iqembu eliphambili lezinkampani futhi wadlala indima ebalulekile ekusithekeni kweminye imisebenzi ukuphoqa uhlelo lokususa izinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo emhlabeni.

UDkt Giddings wayeyiphini likamongameli we-Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), okuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotechnology. Manje uphethe inkampani yabeluleki i-PrometheusAB, futhi ungumuntu ophakeme ku-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF).

I-ITIF iyithangi lokucabanga ixhaswe izimboni zemithi, ezingenantambo, ezokuxhumana ngocingo, ezamafilimu nezama-biotech, aziwa kakhulu nge ukuphikisana “nokungathathi hlangothi ngokuphelele"Futhi ukugqugquzela i-ajenda yomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe. Iqembu yathuthela ku-biotechnology ngo-2011 noDkt. Giddings. Amalungu eCongress asebenza "njengosihlalo abahloniphekile" be-ITIF, kufaka phakathi nabameli baseMelika U-Anna Eshoo (D-CA), UDarrell Issa (R-CA) kanye namaSenat I-Orrin Hatch (R-UT) futhi UChris Coons (D-DE), kubonakala sengathi bayasekela futhi basiza amasu kagwayi uDkt Giddings awasebenzisile ukuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekumiseni Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa njengeqembu eliphambili owathi ngamanga wazimela ngenkathi ethatha imali yezimboni zezolimo futhi ezama ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

Abanye abahleli abakhulu babekhona UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampani eMonsanto; UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, uprofesa osafufusa eNyuvesi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign; futhi U-Eric Sachs, PhD, umqondisi wenqubomgomo yokulawula nezindaba zesayensi eMonsanto.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kungamanga izimangalo kuwebhusayithi yayo ukuthi ayemukeli imali yenkampani noma icela iminikelo yemisebenzi ethile; kepha ngokusho kwamafomu entela, iningi lemali yokuxhaswa kwe-Academics Review ivela kuMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo, iqembu lokuhweba elixhaswe futhi liphethwe izinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali emhlabeni: I-BASF, iBayer / iMonsanto, iDowDuPont neSyngenta / ChemChina.

Umugqa wesikhathi wemicimbi ebalulekile yokubuyekezwa kwezifundo:

NgoMashi 11, 2010: Byrne noDkt Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu langaphambili ukukhomba abagxeki bama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane ngosizo oluvela kuDkt Giddings. U-Byrne uthe yena noDkt. Giddings bangasebenza "njengezimoto ezithengiswayo" ukuxhuma amabhizinisi ezinkampani kuphrojekthi "ngendlela esiza ukuqinisekisa ukuthembeka nokuzimela (futhi ngaleyo ndlela kube nenani) labanikeli / abanikazi bokuqala ..." UByrne uqaphele ukuthi uyathuthuka yeMonsanto uhlu lwabagxeki bezimboni zezolimo abazolubhekisa:

NgoMashi 24, 2010:  UDkt Chassy umkhankaso iwebsite ye-Academics Review kanye noDavid Tribe, PhD, umfundisi omkhulu eNyuvesi yaseMelbourne, e-Australia, bobabili abesilisa ababalwe njengabaqambi bezifundo.

Ngo-Novemba 23, 2010: UDkt Giddings noDkt Chassy baxoxe ngokuthi yiziphi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni kungenzeka "iponele" Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa ukuphikisa iphepha lokho kwagxeka u-soy owenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

  • "Ngibheja ukuthi singaletha ukusekelwa okuhloniphekile ngakho," kusho uDkt. Giddings ebhalela uDkt. Chassy.
  • UChassy uphendule ngokwengxenye, "Ngibheja abangani bethu eMonsanto bazovuma ukubhala lesi sinqumo bese besikhokhela ukuthi sikuthumele."
  • UGiddings ubhale wathi, "Ngicabanga ukuthi abafana bakasoya bangase bazimisele ukwenza iphoyinti elithile ukuze babhale ukuphikiswa… Uma senza lokhu kahle singasebenzisa i-AcaRev Brand lapha kancane."

Ngemuva kwesonto, UDkt Chassy ubuze u-Eric Sachs uma uMonsanto ehlela ukuphikisa iphepha le-soy, futhi watshela iSachs: "IBhodi lase-US Soybean lizojabulisa isiphakamiso esivela kimi noGraham Brookes sokuphendula kuleso siqephu." (Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo kuthumele i- impendulo kusuka kwaCassy naseBrookes ngonyaka wezi-2012 kungadalulwa lutho ngabaxhasi.)

Ngo-Novemba 30, 2010: Ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili noDkt. Chassy, ​​u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto uthe angasiza ekugqugquzeleni umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kanye ne-GMO amaqembu okuhweba embonini ukuxhasa ukubukezwa kwezifundo. "Ukhiye kuzoba ukugcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhala uSachs.

Agasti 2011: UDkt Giddings ufake isiphakamiso ku iqembu lezokuhweba elixhaswe ngezimboni yi-CBI kwephrojekthi: "esikwenzayo ngonyaka ozayo ngqo kungumsebenzi wokuxhaswa esingakuthola," ubhalele uMqondisi Ophethe we-CBI u-Ariel Gruswich, nge-imeyili ekopishelwe uDkt. I-Chassy ne-Tribe. UGruswich unxuse la madoda ukuba ahlanganyele ucingo neqembu lakhe: "Ngikholwa ngempela ukuthi ukuzwa ngqo kini nonke kuzokhulisa amathuba okuxhaswa ezinkampanini," ubhale kanje. Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi i-CBI exhaswe yinkampani inikeze i-Academics Review $ 650,000 kusuka 2014 kuya 2016 "ukufinyelela kwesayensi."

April 2014: I-Academics Review ishicilele umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha, futhi abathi bayiqembu elizimele elingenakho ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo. Bona: "Izigxivizo zeminwe zeMonsanto zitholakale yonke indawo ihlaselwa ngokudla okunemvelo, ” nguStacy Malkan, Huffington Post

Ososayensi abaqeqeshwe ngezimboni abaqeqeshwe yizintatheli, izintatheli ukuthi zingawajikisa kanjani ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides  

Imali engaphezulu kwama- $ 300,000 embonini yamakhemikhali uDkt Giddings isize ukukhulisa i-Academics Review yaya ukukhokhela izingqungquthela ezimbili ezibizwa nge- Izinkambu zebhuthi ze- “Biotech Literacy Project”, ebanjelwe University of Florida e 2014 futhi UC Davis ngo-2015, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela. Amakamu ama-boot - ahlelwe yi-Academics Review nelinye iqembu eliphambili embonini,  Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - izintatheli eziqeqeshiwe nososayensi ukuthi bangayiqamba kanjani kabusha impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Bona: “Ukuhlwanyela ama-GMO: Imboni ye-Biotech iyikhulisa kanjani imithombo yezindaba efanelekile - futhi ayikukhuthazi ukugxekwa, ”NguPaul Thacker, I-Progressive

Ukususa ama-GMO kokulawula: "shaya yonke into embi"

Kuma-imeyili angoFebhuwari 2015, uDkt. Giddings uxoxe ngezifundiswa eziningana ngohlelo lokubhala amaphepha amahlanu ephephabhuku aphikisana nesidingo sokususwa komthetho embonini ye-biotech. UDkt. Giddings ubhale ukuthi la maphepha kufanele abambe, “lokhu engikubiza ngokuthi ingxabano kaHenry ethi 'Blow the whole damn thing up', okuyicala engicabanga ukuthi kufanele lenziwe.” Uprofesa wezomthetho wase-University of Arizona uGary Marchant, owaqala ukushintshana ngama-imeyili, wachaza, "iphepha 1 kuhloswe ngalo ukuthi kube yilo elihlasela isihloko sonke."

Alan McHughen, uthisha womkhakha womphakathi e-UC Riverside futhi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali umkhankaso wokumaketha Izimpendulo ze-GMO, unikele ukubhala iphepha 1. UHenry Miller, MD, uthe angasiza kepha kuningi abengakusebenzisa ukuze abe ngumbhali oyinhloko. (Ngemuva kwenyanga, uMiller wathumela isihloko ku Forbes ukuthi the New York Times kamuva wembula kwakubhalwe ghost nguMonsanto.)

Abanye abakopishe nge-imeyili mayelana namaphepha wephephabhuku babe UDrew Kershen weYunivesithi yase-Oklahoma College of Law; UGuy Cardineau, UYvonne Stevens futhi ULauren Burkhart wase-Arizona State University; USteven Strauss Oregon State University; UKevin Folta weYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UShane Morris we Ezemvelo Canada; U-Alison Van Eenennaam ka-UC Davis; UJoanna Sax weCalifornia Western School of Law; futhi UThomas Reddick we-Global Environmental Ethics Council.

Incwadi esayinwe ngusosayensi edidiyelwe ephikisana nocwaningo lweSeralini

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt Giddings uxhumanise incwadi yokungena ngemvume yososayensi kunxusa uWallace Hayes, umhleli oyinhloko we Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, ukucabanga kabusha ngephepha likaSepthemba 2012 ngumcwaningi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini owabika izicubu kumagundane ezondla ukudla kommbila we-Roundup-tolerant GM. Leli phepha lahlehliswa ngemuva konyaka futhi laphinde lashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Ukusiza ukuxhumanisa isibonakaliso encwadini, uDkt. esetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Omunye uprofesa osayine le ncwadi, uChris Leaver, uqaphele ukuthi "ubekade enza ngemuva kwezigcawu echaza ngeSense About Science" mayelana nocwaningo lwaseSéralini. I-Sense About Science inomlando omude of ukuphotha isayensi ukuze kuzuze izintshisekelo zebhizinisi.

Ababhalisi be- Incwadi kuya Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo ngamashumi URobert Wager, U-Alda Lerayer, UNina Fedoroff, Giddings, USteve Strauss, UChris Leaver, Shanthu Shantharam, Ingo Potrykus, UMarc Fellous, Moises Burachik, UKlaus-Dieter Jany, U-Anthony Trewavas, C Kameswara Rao, CS Prakash, Henry Miller, UKent Bradford, ISelim Cetiner, U-Alan McHughen, ULuis De Stefano-Beltrán, UBruce Chassy, ISalbah Al-Momin, UMartina Newell-McGloughlin, UKlaus Ammann, URonald Herring, ULucia de Souza.

Okuhlobene:Ama-imeyili atholakele: IMonsanto ixhunywe emkhankasweni wokuhoxisa iphepha le-GMO, " I-Watch Retraction

Abalimi abangomama abaphakanyisiwe kufanele bafake ama-GMO

Ezingxoxweni ne-lobbyist yeMonsanto mayelana nokuthi ingahlulwa kanjani imikhankaso yokufaka ilebula ye-GMO eColorado nase-Oregon ngo-2014, uDkt. Giddings uphakamise ukuthi “abalimi abangomama” ababukeka kahle bazoba yizithunywa ezinhle kakhulu zokudambisa ukukhathazeka ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. “Okudingwa yisimo ukuthi indawo yezindawo ze-TV ezinabesifazane abasha abakhangayo, okungcono abalimi bomama, echaza ukuthi kungani ukudla okutholwe nge-biotech kuphephe kakhulu futhi kuluhlaza kunazo zonke emlandweni we-ag futhi okufanele ukwesekwa, ”uDkt. Giddings ubhalele uLisa Drake, umkhokheli kaMonsanto wezindaba zikahulumeni.

NgoSepthemba 2015 ikhasi lokuqala New York Times story, ophumelele amahlandla amathathu iPulitzer Prize Eric Lipton uchaze ama-imeyili:

"Ku lokhu kunwetshwa kwe-imeyili okunwetshiwe, abanye bososayensi nezifundiswaabaye baqashwa ukusiza iMonsanto ukuthi iphushe umbuzo wayo wokuthi ngabe bayizithunywa ezihamba phambili yini. Ababili basikisela ukuthi iMonsanto isebenzise izikhangiso eziningi zethelevishini ezinabalimi esikhundleni salokho. I-Monsanto lobbyist iphendula ukuthi ukuvota kukhombisa ukuthi umphakathi uyakholelwa ososayensi. Empeleni le nkampani isivele inezikhangiso ze-TV ezinabalimi besifazane. ”

Bona: “Imboni yezokudla ibhalise izifundiswa kwi-GMO ebeka impi, ama-imeyili akhombisa, ”Ngu-Eric Lipton, New York Times.

UKeith Kloor: Indlela intatheli yesayensi esebenza ngayo ekusithekeni nabalingani bemboni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UKeith Kloor uyintatheli ezisebenza ngokuzimela futhi uyilungu le-adjunct journalism faculty e University of New York obhalele i- Imvelo, Isayensi Ngaphakathi, Isilayidi kanye nezindatshana eziningi ze- Thola Umagazini ukugqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo, kuyilapho kusizwa nabalingani bemboni ekusithekeni.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, athunyelwe ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF, iveze izimo lapho uKloor aqeqesha futhi ahlela khona imithombo yakhe, afihla izimboni zomthombo womthombo, futhi abike ngokukhethekile ngolwazi ngezindlela eziqinisa ukulandisa kwemboni. UKloor unqabile ukuphendula imibuzo yalesi sihloko.

Ukukhululwa kokukhetha, okukhethiwe kwama-imeyili we-FOIA

Kusukela ngo-2015 kuya ku-2017, iKloor ibike ukuthi Nature, Isayensi Insider, Discover, Izinkinga Kwezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe, Futhi Slate on a uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi yi-US Right to Know eveze ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwemboni yezolimo kanye nezifundiswa ezixhaswe esidlangalaleni ezithuthukisa imikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi USolwazi Kevin Folta wase-University of Florida. Kuzozonke izingcezu ezishicilelwe, uKloor wafaka izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi njengomthwalo ongadingekile kwizifundiswa.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso aveza ukuthi uKloor uqobo wayeyingxenye yendaba ayebika ngayo; ubekade ehambele izingqungquthela zokuqeqesha imiyalezo ezixhaswe umkhakha wezolimo noDkt. Folta futhi wasiza uDkt Folta ngokuthumela imiyalezo. Ukuxhumana kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt Folta welule isandla kuKloor ukuze asikisele ukuthi akhululwe ama-imeyili akhe “ngaphambi kokulungiselela” ukusiza ukunciphisa umonakalo wamadokhumende - uKloor akwenzayo, kumagazini Nature. Ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho uKloor ebekhuluma ngendaba yezincwadi eziphambili zesayensi, amadokhumende akhombisa ukuthi wabamba iqhaza ezingxoxweni nabangaphakathi embonini mayelana nezinselelo ezibangelwa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi.

Umugqa wesikhathi wokubika nokusebenzisana:

Ukuqeqesha, ukuhlela imithombo; kufihla ubuhlobo bemboni

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor usebenze nemithombo yakhe ekusithekeni ukucija imiyalezo yabo ukusekela imbangela yezimboni yezolimo: ukukholisa abathengi abaqaphile ukwamukela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Enye yale mithombo kwakungu UDkt Kevin Folta, iNyuvesi yaseFlorida uprofesa owayengumuntu osemqoka uKloor evezwe ezindabeni azibhalela ezincwadini zesayensi ngokusebenza obala kwezemfundo.

Umkhankaso wokuguqula uBill Nye

NgoNovemba 2014, uKloor wasebenzisa eyakhe Discover blog ukufaka inselelo Ukugxeka kukaBill Nye mayelana nama-GMO nge "Incwadi evulekile eya kuBill Nye evela kuSosayensi Wezitshalo" esayinwe nguDkt. Folta. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor ubuzile UDkt Folta ukuphonsela inselelo uNye, weza nomqondo wencwadi evulekile futhi uqeqeshe uDkt Folta ukuthi abhalwa kanjani. Wabe-ke kuhlelwe i-biography kaDkt Folta ukugwema ukubalula imali yezimboni, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor wabhalela uDkt. Folta uhlu lwezinto eziphilayo olufaka phakathi umugqa othi, “Alukho ucwaningo oluxhaswe yiMonsanto.” UDkt. Folta umcele ukuthi alungise leso sigwebo, ebona ukuthi iMonsanto ngokungaqondile ixhase eminye yemizamo yakhe yokufinyelela kubantu nge-biotech nokuthi uthole imali yocwaningo enkampanini encane ye-biotech. UKloor uthathe isinqumo ngomlando ongagwegwesi ukubalula ngezimali zemboni kaDkt Folta ngokuphelele: “Ucwaningo lwakhe luxhaswe yizinhlangano zombuso nezikahulumeni.”

Ku-imeyili engezansi, uKloor unikeze uDkt Folta umhlahlandlela wokuthi uyibhalela kanjani uNye incwadi:

Cishe ngaleso sikhathi, iMonsanto nayo yayinxenxa uNye ukuthi ashintshe isikhundla sakhe kuma-GMO, ekugcineni waphumelela ukwenza. Mashi 2015 Washington Post indaba mayelana nokuguquka kukaNye kwasho ukuthi ukugxeka kukaNye amaGMO “kwacasula ososayensi abaningi,” kodwa kwaxhunyaniswa kuphela nencwadi kaDkt Folta kubhulogi likaKloor.

Thola: "Akuyona inqubomgomo yethu yokwazisa imithombo"

Ama-imeyili avela ngo-Agasti 2014 akhombisa uKloor enikeza iseluleko semiyalezo kuDkt Folta kanye nomunye umthombo, uDkt Karl Haro von Mogel, umqondisi wezindaba Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO iBiofortified. UKloor ubacele ukuba bahlaziye udaba lukaCarole Bartolotto, udokotela wezokudla obebhale ngokugxeka ngama-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa lokho UKloor ukuhlelile ukuphawula nezindlela eziphakanyisiwe zokuqinisa imiyalezo: “Iseluleko sami: gcina ulimi lungathathi hlangothi futhi lungahluleli ngangokunokwenzeka. Ubheke abantu abahlala kocingo, abangahle bavinjwe ulimi olukhulunywa kabi. ”

UKloor uthumele ukugxekwa kweBartolotto kweyakhe Discover blog futhi wachaza uDkt. Folta no-von Mogel "njengososayensi ababili abangalutholi uxhaso embonini ye-biotech." Ama-imeyili kamuva aveze ukuthi, emasontweni ambalwa ngaphambili, iMonsanto yayinayo uvumile ukuxhasa ezikaDkt. Folta imizamo yokukhangisa yama-GMO; futhi, ehlobo eledlule, uDkt Folta wahlela ukuvakashela eHawaii eyonxenxa imingcele yokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane ohambweni ihlelwe futhi ikhokhelwa yiqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane (UDkt von Mogel naye wayefakiwe kulawo ma-imeyili). I-athikili kaKloor isavela ku- Discover iwebhusayithi ngaphandle kokuvuselelwa noma ukulungiswa.

Okwe-2017 Isihloko sokubhalwa kukaHuffington, kubuza intatheli uPaul Thacker Discover umhleli wephephabhuku u-Becky Lang ukuze aphawule ngama-imeyili eBartolotto. ULang unqabile ukuphawula ngokuningiliziwe, kodwa wathi: “Impela, akusiyo inqubomgomo yethu manje, futhi akukaze kube njalo, ukugqugquzela imithombo ukuthi ibhale ukugxeka, ukuhlela ukugxeka, bese ikwenza njengokuzimela. Futhi akuyona inqubomgomo yethu ukuthi imithombo yosizo izame ukufihla ubudlelwane bayo bemboni. ” (EzikaKloor Discover I-blog yaphela ngo- yaphela ngo-Ephreli 2015.)

UJon Entine, uxhumano lweProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project  

Imibhalo emikhulu kaKloor evikela imboni yezolimo ingabukwa kuwebhusayithi ye I-Genetic Literacy Project, iwebhusayithi yokwazisa yomkhakha wezolimo lokho izindatshana eziningi ebhalwe nguKloor noma ecaphuna umsebenzi wakhe. IGenetic Literacy Project ilawulwa nguJon Entine, osebenza isikhathi eside PR okhuthaza futhi avikele izintshisekelo zemboni yamakhemikhali. U-Entine unguthishanhloko we-PR firm ESG MediaMetrics, amaklayenti akhe afaka iMonsanto. AbakwaKloor no-Entine basebenzisa imiyalezo efanayo futhi babeke izingqinamba ngezindlela ezifanayo, futhi babonakala benobudlelwano obusondelene, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Nge-imeyili kaJulayi 2013 eya eqenjini lokwamukela izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane, u-Entine uchaze uKloor njenge “umngani wami omuhle kakhulu”Ngubani ongasiza ekuthengiseni umhlangano nomunye Discover blogger ukubhala ngemisebenzi yezimboni yezolimo eHawaii. Enye i-imeyili ikhombisa i-Entine exhuma iKloor noRebecca Goldin eGeorge Mason University ukuxoxa "ngokuhlukunyezwa kwe-FOIA." UGoldin usebenza nowayengumqashi we-Entine i-STATS, iqembu lezintatheli elizichaze njengeumkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho isebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi kuya kwakha ukungabaza ngengozi yamakhemikhali.

Kwenye i-imeyili evela ngo-Okthoba 2014, uKloor wayeyintatheli kuphela owayefakwe kwi-imeyili exwayisa inkampani yakwaKetchum yezobudlelwano bomphakathi mayelana ukusebenza okungenzeka kube nokugenca kumawebhusayithi ezinkampani yiqembu elingaziwa. I-imeyili ithunyelwe ngu- U-Adrianne Massey, umphathi omkhulu weBiotechnology Industry Association (BIO), eqenjini lababambisene nabo embonini, kufaka phakathi i-Entine.

“Angazi nakancane ukuthi hlobo luni lokuhlaselwa. Izinhlangano ezizimele kungenzeka kube yizo kuphela ezihlose ukuzenza, kepha angifuni ukuthi kulimale noma ngubani kini onibona njengabalingani bezimboni, ”kubhala uMassey.

U-Kloor ungenile ku-imeyili ngu UDkt. Channapatna Prakash, ummeli nomphathi weGMO eTuskegee University. Okunye okufakwe ku-imeyili kwakunguJay Byrne (owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto), I-Val Giddings (owayeyisekela likamongameli wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-biotech), UKarl Haro von Mogel (umqondisi wezindaba we Kwenziwe kabusha), UBruce Chassy noDavid Tribe (ababambisene nabo Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto), kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha abalulekile abakhuthaza ama-GMO baphinde bagqugquzele ukwehliswa kwemithetho UKevin Folta, Henry Miller, UDrew Kershen, UKlaus AmmannUPiet van der Meer futhi UMartina Newell-McGloughlin.

Abasizi bemboni bavame ukuthuthukisa umsebenzi kaKloor; bona ama-tweets ngo URobb Fraley waseMonsantoUJon Entine, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project kanye nemboni yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba i-CBI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan (kubuyekezwe ngoMeyi 17, 2019)

UDeWayne Johnson, ubaba oneminyaka engama-46 obulawa yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukubhekana IMonsanto ecaleni ngoJuni odlule ngenxa yezinsolo inkampani yafihla ubufakazi ngezingozi ezibangelwa umdlavuza ze-Roundup weedkiller yayo. Amajaji aselokhu abuya nawo ezintathu ngazwi linye izinqumo ukuthola ukuthi i-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides iyimbangela enkulu yomdlavuza, futhi yalinganisa umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweBayer (manje esingeyaseMonsanto). Izinkulungwane eziningi zabantu zimangalele izinkantolo zombuso nezikahulumeni, kanye nemibhalo yezinkampani ephuma ezivivinyweni ikhanya kakhulu kumaqhinga anzima iMonsanto esetshenziselwa ukuphika ingozi yomdlavuza nokuvikela ikhemikhali elaliyi lynchpin yenzuzo yayo.

“IMonsanto kwakungumbhali waso wesipoki ngokubuyekezwa kokuphepha, ”kubika iBloomberg, kanye nesikhulu se-EPA kubikwa ukuthi wasiza uMonsanto “Bulala” ucwaningo lomdlavuza lwenye i-ejensi (lokho kuphuma, manje kuphelile qinisekisa isixhumanisi somdlavuza ku-glyphosate). An uphenyo olwawina imiklomelo eLe Monde Imininingwane yokuthi uMonsanto uzame kanjani “ukubhubhisa i-ejensi yomdlavuza yeZizwe Ezihlangene nganoma iyiphi indlela” ukusindisa i-glyphosate. Izindatshana zeJenali ezisuselwa ekubukezweni kombiko wemibhalo yokutholwa kwesilingo seRoundup ukuphazamiseka kwebhizinisi encwadini yesayensi kanye nenhlangano elawula umthetho, nezinye iziboneloukufaka ubuthi emthonjeni wesayensi. "

“Ukubhalwa kwesipoki kukaMonsanto nokuqinisa izikhali kusongela isayensi yomsindo nomphakathi, "Kubhala uSolwazi waseTufts University uSheldon Krimsky ngoJuni 2018. Uthe imibhalo etholakele," yembula ukuthunjwa kwesayensi okuyinkampani, okubeka impilo yomphakathi kanye nesisekelo sentando yeningi engcupheni. "

Kusukela lapho, njengoba sekuqhubeka izivivinyo, sekuvele eminye imibhalo mayelana ne ubukhulu bokukhohlisa kukaMonsanto kwenqubo yesayensi, izinhlaka zokulawula, nezimpikiswano zomphakathi. NgoMeyi 2019, izintatheli eFrance uthole imfihlo "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Abashushisi eFrance bavule uphenyo lobugebengu futhi IBayer ithe iphenya inkampani yayo i-PR.

Le mpi yenkampani yesayensi inomthelela omkhulu kithi sonke, uma kubhekwa ukuthi uhhafu wabo bonke abesilisa e-US kanye nowesithathu kwabesifazane bazotholakala benomdlavuza esikhathini esithile sokuphila kwethu, ngokusho kwe I-National Cancer Institute.

Imibhalo imboni yokudla ayifuni ukuthi uyibone

Sekuyiminyaka, izimboni zokudla nezamakhemikhali zibheke ngqo kokuhlosiwe okukodwa emhlabeni wesayensi: i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), iqembu elizimele locwaningo elisebenze iminyaka engama-50 khomba izingozi zomdlavuza ukwazisa izinqubomgomo ezingavimbela umdlavuza.

“Kade ngilwa i-IARC unomphela !!! :) ”omunye usosayensi owayenguKraft Foods wabhalela owayengusosayensi waseSyngenta ku-imeyili itholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi esivulekile sombuso. “Ukudla ne-ag sekuvinjezelwe kusukela eGlyphosate ngoMashi 2015. Sonke kudingeka sihlangane ngandlela-thile siveze i-IARC, njengoba nina nenze ephepheni. Izinto eziza kuqala kakhulu yizo zonke izithako zokudla: i-aspartame, i-sucralose, i-iron yokudla, i-B-carotene, i-BPA, njll. I-IARC iyasibulala! ”

Isazi se-IARC isinqumo sephaneli ukuhlukanisa i-glyphosate ngokuthi “mhlawumbe ibanga umdlavuza kubantu” kudale indawo yokuhlangana yezitha zephaneli ukuqoqa amabutho. Umbhalo osemqoka weMonsanto okhishwe ngamacala wecala wembula uhlelo lokuhlaselwa: ihlazisa ososayensi abanomdlavuza ngosizo lwabalingani embonini yezokudla.

Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi unikeze abasebenzi abangu-20 bezinkampani ukulungiselela umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity on glyphosate, ngezinhloso ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela," "ukubeka umbono womphakathi nge-IARC," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa i-MON POV" kanye "nokubandakanya izinhlangano zezimboni" "ekuthukutheleni. ”

Lo mbhalo ukhombe izigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" ukusiza ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso ezintathu ezishiwo ohlelweni lwe-PR: ukuvikela isithunzi se-Roundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono ovamile, kanye "nokuhlinzeka ngezembozo ezinhlanganweni ezilawulayo" ukuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate.

Ukuthola inethiwekhi kaMonsanto "yabalingani bemboni"

The amaqembu abalingani bemboni uMonsanto uthephiwe ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi be-IARC babandakanya izinhlangano ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane kanye nezimboni zokudla; amaqembu e-spin axhaswa ngezimboni aziveza njengemithombo ezimele efana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Umkhandlu Wemininingwane Yomhlaba Wokudla; futhi "isayensi-y" kuzwakala amaqembu angaphambili afana Umuzwa weSayensi, lo Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa - konke kusetshenziswa imilayezo efanayo futhi kuvame ukubhekiswa komunye nomunye njengemithombo.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe yi-US Right kuya Yazi uphenyo khanyisa ukuthi la maqembu abalingani asebenzisana kanjani ukukhuthaza i- "MON POV" mayelana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo semithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Iqoqo elilodwa lemibhalo lembula ukuthi izinkampani zikaMonsanto ze-PR zahlela kanjani “Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo” njengenkundla ezwakala ingathathi hlangothi lapho ingaqala khona ukuhlaselwa uhlu lwezitha, kufaka phakathi iSierra Club, umbhali uMichael Pollan, i-movie ethi Food, Inc. kanye ne- imboni yemvelo.

Abakhi bokubukeza kwezifundo - ababambisene nabo UBruce Chassy futhi UDavid Tribe, Isikhulu seMonsanto u-Eric Sachs, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne, Futhi owayeyi-VP weqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha we-biotech iVal Giddings - wakhuluma obala in ama-imeyili maqondana nokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu eliphambili lokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zemboni nokuheha imali yemboni, ngenkathi kugcinwa izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

I-imeyili evela ku-Eric Sachs, iMonsanto'sScience, Technology & Outreach Lead, iya kuBruce Chassy

Ngisho namanje ngebhuku labo lokudlala lidaluliwe - kanye nelabo imali eyisisekelo ikhonjisiwe njengoba ivela eqenjini lezentengiselwano elixhaswe ngabakwaMonsanto, iBayer, iBASF, iSyngenta neDowDuPont - i-Academics Review isafuna lokho iwebhusayithi ukwamukela iminikelo evela “emithonjeni okungeyona eyezinkampani” Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kubuye kuthiwe "Ukubuyekezwa komdlavuza we-IARC glyphosate kwehluleka ezingxenyeni eziningi," ku okuthunyelwe itholwe yiwebhusayithi ye-PR exhaswa yimboni Izimpendulo ze-GMO, iqembu eliphambili elixhaswe yimboni Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, kanye nendatshana yeForbes ngu Henry Miller lokho kwabhalwa isipoki nguMonsanto.

UMiller nabahleli be-Academics Review Chassy, ​​Tribe, Byrne, Sachs and Giddings are amalungu e-AgBioChatter, isithangami se-imeyili sangasese esivele ohlelweni lweMonsanto lwe-PR njengomlingani womkhakha wesi-2. Ama-imeyili avela kuhlu lwe-AgBioChatter ziphakamisa ukuthi yayisetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa ababambisene nabo embonini emisebenzini yokunxenxa neyokuphromotha ukuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane. Amalungu afaka abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki be-PR kanye nezifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, iningi labo elibhalela izinkundla zezindaba zomkhakha ezifana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, noma badlale izindima zobuholi kwamanye amaqembu abalingani beMonsanto.

I-Genetic Literacy Project, eholwa ngumkhakha osebenza isikhathi eside wamakhemikhali i-PR UJon Entine, futhi ibambisene ne-Academics Review ukwenza uchungechunge lwezingqungquthela ezixhaswe imboni yezolimo ukuqeqesha izintatheli nososayensi ukuthi ukukhuthaza kangcono ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides baphikisane nokwehliswa kwabo emthethweni. Abahleli bebekhona abangathembeki ngemithombo yezimali zabo.

Lawa maqembu aziphonsa njengabaxazululi abathembekile besayensi njengoba besabalalisa imininingwane engamanga nezinga eliseduze nokuhlaselwa okushubile kwabososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate.

Isibonelo esisemqoka singatholakala kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, ebibhalwe ukuthi “yi-tier 2 industry partner” ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuvikela i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza okuvezwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer. Ukuseshwa kwe- "IARC" kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project kuveza izindatshana ezingaphezu kwama-200, eziningi zazo ezihlasela ososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza ngokuthi "ama-anti-chemical enviros" "aqamba amanga" futhi "enza uzungu lokumelela kabi" izingozi zempilo glyphosate, futhi bephikisana nokuthi i-ejensi yomdlavuza yomhlaba wonke kufanele ibuyiselwe imali futhi iqedwe.

Izindatshana eziningi ezilwa ne-IARC ezifakwe ku-Genetic Literacy Project, noma eziqhutshwa abanye abasebenza embonini, ziyishaya indiva imibiko eminingi yezindaba ngokususelwa Amaphepha eMonsanto ukubhala ukungenelela kwezinkampani ocwaningweni lwesayensi, futhi esikhundleni salokho kuthuthukiswe izimangalo zezimboni zamakhemikhali ze-PR noma ze- izindaba ezingamanga a intatheli enobudlelwano obuhle noMonsanto. Impi yezepolitiki yokulwa ifinyelele yonke indlela eya eCapitol Hill, namaRiphabhulikhi e-DRM aholwa ngu Ummeli uLamar Smith efuna kuphenywe nokuzama uku ukugodla imali yase-US kusuka kunhlangano ehamba phambili yocwaningo lomdlavuza.

Ngubani ohlangothini lwesayensi?

Ukunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo kukaMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iphaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC kusekelwe empikiswaneni yokuthi ezinye izinhlaka ezisebenzisa ukuhlolwa okususelwa engcupheni zikhiphe i-glyphosate engcupheni yomdlavuza. Kepha njengoba imibiko yophenyo futhi iphephandaba izihloko ngokusekelwe ku Amaphepha eMonsanto bunemininingwane eminingi, ubufakazi bufaka ukuthi ukuhlolwa kokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele ku-glyphosate, okuthembele kakhulu ocwaningweni olunikezwa yimboni, kuyekethiswa ngokungadalulwanga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, ukuthembela kusayensi engabazisayo, izinto ezibhalwe ghost nezinye izindlela zokuqinisa izikhali ezinkampanini ezibeka impilo yomphakathi engcupheni, njengoProfesa waseTufts USheldon Krimsky wabhala.

“Ukuvikela ibhizinisi lesayensi, enye yezinsika zomphakathi wentando yeningi wanamuhla, ekulweni namandla angalenza isisebenzi sezimboni noma ezepolitiki, umphakathi wethu kumele usekele izikhubekiso phakathi kwesayensi yezemfundo kanye nemikhakha yezinkampani futhi ufundise ososayensi abasha futhi abahleli bephephabhuku ngemigomo yokuziphatha esezingeni lomsebenzi wabo, ”kubhala uKrimsky.

Abenzi benqubomgomo akumele bavumele isayensi ebumbene nenkampani ukuqondisa izinqumo mayelana nokuvinjelwa umdlavuza. Abezindaba kumele benze umbiko ongcono womsebenzi futhi babheke izingxabano zentshisekelo ngemuva kwesayensi yenkampani. Isikhathi sokuqeda impi yenkampani yesayensi yomdlavuza.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi nombhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”

I-Biofortified Aids Chemical Industry PR & Imizamo Yokuzama

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IBiology Fortified Inc., eyaziwa njenge “Kwenziwe kabusha, ”Inhlangano engenzi nzuzo esebenza ngokubambisana nomkhakha wezolimo kanye nabahlanganyeli bawo kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nemikhankaso yokunxenxa ukuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi ihlasela abagxeki bemboni.

Amalungu ebhodi nama-blogger bangabalingani abakhulu bezimboni zezolimo

Amalungu ebhodi wamanje nabangaphambili nababhali be-blog abhalwe ku-Biofortified's “hlangana nochwepheshe bethu”Leli khasi linobudlelwano obuseduze nomkhakha wezezolimo kanye nemikhankaso yamaqembu aphambili embonini.

Okulandelayo yizibonelo zokunxenxa okuhambisana nomkhakha kanye nemizamo yokuxhumana nomphakathi ebandakanya iBiofortified nabaholi bayo.

"Abafana abasebenza ngokulingana" kuvikela ama-pesticides

Ngo-2013, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association (HCIA) - iqembu lokuhweba emele IDowDuPont, iMonsanto kanye neHartung Brothers - bahlele uhambo lokunxenxa ukuya eKauai ngenhloso yokuphikisana nabasebenzi bezimboni ukuze baphikisane nomthetho womphakathi owawuzothuthuka ukudalulwa emphakathini yokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nendawo edingekayo yokubulala izinambuzane ezungeze izikole, izibhedlela nezinye izindawo zomphakathi. Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA ubhekise kubasekeli abane ababemenywe ohambweni lokungenisa izivakashi njengabafana be- “Biofortified”. Kade:

  • UKarl Haro von Mogel, Umqondisi wesayensi ye-Biofortified
  • USteve Savage, Umbhali webhulogi we-Biofortified kanye nomxhumanisi wemboni yezolimo
  • UKevin Folta, Ilungu lebhodi le-Biofortified kanye noprofesa e-University of Florida
  • UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu labalingani beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uRenee Kester, ongumgqugquzeli ohola wephrojekthi yokwamukela izivakashi i-HCIA, wathumela nge-imeyili la madoda amane Julayi 11, 2013 (ikhasi 10) ukubabonga “ngakho konke ukwesekwa osinikeze khona lapha eHawaii maqondana nezimpi zethu zomthetho zakamuva” nokubeka ucingo lokuxoxa ngokutholakala kwabo ukuze bathamele ukulalelwa komthetho okuzayo. U-Alicia Mulu Research, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA, wabe esethumela iqembu nge-imeyili (ikhasi 9) mayelana nesidingo sokuqamba amasu esikhathi esifushane nawesikhathi eside “usebenzisa abafana be-Biofortified”

Ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • New York Times, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni yeBiotech: Uhambo oluya eHawaii ukuyofakaza, lukhokhelwa ngabezimboni" (ikhasi 23) (9/5/2015)
  • Ukubuka kwe-GM, “Indlela 'iBiofortified Boys' evikela ngayo izimfihlo zomkhakha wokubulala izinambuzane eHawaii” (9/27/2015)

I-Biofortified efakwe ohlwini njengo "umlingani wemboni" ku-Monsanto PR doc  

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba uBiofortified “njengozakwethu wezimboni” ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi zikaMonsanto zokudicilela phansi igama lengalo yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuvikela isithunzi sikaRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iphaneli lochwepheshe le-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Idokhumenti yeMonsanto PR ikhonjisiwe izingxenye ezine zabalingani bemboni inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya “nohlelo lwayo lokulungela” ukuthola umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC. IBiofortified ibhalwe ku- “Tier 2,” kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, Izifundiswa ze-AgBioChatter, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi. Lawa maqembu avame ukucashunwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha njengoba uhlelo lweMonsanto nezinye izibonelo ziphakamisa, basebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi. (Ukuvuselelwa: Ngo-Okthoba 2018, iBiofortified yathumela i- isitatimende kusuka eMonsanto bethi inkampani ayikhokhi noma ayihlangani nabo.)

Ukungavumelani nokuphikisana nezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA

I-Biofortified ixhaswe ngokubambisana, kanye ne iCornell Alliance for Science, a Mashi 2015 sicelo ephikisana nokusetshenziswa kwezicelo zombuso ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuphenya ukuxhumana phakathi kwezifundiswa ezixhaswe nguhulumeni kanye nemboni yezolimo.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA selivezile izibonelo eziningi yezifundiswa ezisebenza ngezindlela ezicashile nezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye namafemu abo e-PR ukusiza i-ajenda yezimboni nokuthumela imiyalezo - ngokwesibonelo, amadokhumenti ichaza umsuka weqembu langaphambili le-Academics Review, kanye nalezo ezixoxa “ngabafana abathandekayo” uhambo lokungenisa izivakashi eHawaii. Ama-imeyili amaningi atholwe yi-US Right to Know manje asethunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Library, Iqoqo lezolimo le-USRTK. Imibhalo ikhiqize umhlaba wonke Ukusabalala kwezindaba mayelana nokusobala embonini yokudla kanye nezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Ukuhlaselwa okuhambisana nomkhakha kweBiofortified kubagxeki

Unodoli ojiyile omele ummbila we-GMO ogama lakhe linguFrank N. Foode yi-mascot yeBiofortified.

Ilungu lebhodi elasungula iBiofortified uDavid Tribe wasungulwa ngokuhlanganyela Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu elingaphambili elisungulwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, ngokusho kwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto, uxoxe ngohlu oluhlosiwe lwabagxeki bezimboni abebelwenzela iMonsanto.

Mashi Ngokumelene Nezinkoleloze mayelana nokuguqulwa (MAMyths), iphrojekthi ye-Biofortified, iphinde yaqondisa amanye amaqembu nabantu ababizwe ohlwini luka-Byrne - ngokwesibonelo, iqembu labamba iqhaza ukuphikisana noVandana Shiva futhi kubikwa ukuthi uhole a umzamo ohlulekile wokweqa umzila umcimbi obandakanya uVani Hari, i- “Food Babe,” oxhaswe yiCentre for Food Safety.

Umsunguli we-MAMyths uKavin Senapathy wayenama-athikili ambalwa isuswe yiForbes emva kwe I-New York Times yembula ukuthi umbhali wakhe, u-Henry Miller, ushicilele ikholomu e Forbes eyayibhalwe isipoki nguMonsanto. UMiller uphinde wakhonjwa njengomlingani ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukuhlasela iphaneli yomdlavuza ye-IARC.

USenapathy ungumbhali-mbhali we-2015 ibhuku mayelana neHari, "The Fear Babe," efaka phambili ebhalwe yilungu lebhodi leBiofortified uKevin Folta, lapho echaza khona inhlangano yokudla "njengeqembu lamaphekula elixhaswe kahle."

USenapathy noHaro von Mogel nabo bavela ku- Ifilimu le-propaganda ye-GMO Ukuvela Kokudla.

Amaphrojekthi ahlobene

Isizinda sedatha seGENERA luhlu lwezifundo “ukukhombisa abantu ukuthi kungakanani ucwaningo olwenziwe ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo,” ngokusho kwe- Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa kuwebhusayithi yeBiofortified. Uhlu luqale ukuqalwa nguDavid Tribe, ophinde wasungula i- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto. Iphromoshini yokuqala yeGENERA amangalelwe ngokukhohlisa ukukhombisa "imibiko ebukeziwe kontanga engaphezu kuka-600 emibhalweni yesayensi ebhala ukuphepha nokudla okunomsoco kokudla nokudla okuphakelayo." Eziningi zalezo zifundo azizange zibhekane nezinkinga zokuphepha. Ulimi lokukhangisa olungalungile luye lwasuswa kamuva, kanye nengxenye yesithathu yezifundo.