I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva:

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”

Izimpendulo zeGMO ngumkhankaso wokumaketha nowokuxhumana nomphakathi wezinkampani ezibulala izinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izibuyekezo:

kuphendula u-ketchum gmo

Izimpendulo ze-GMO ikhokhiswa njengesithangami lapho abathengi bangathola khona izimpendulo eziqondile kochwepheshe abazimele ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanti ezinye izintatheli zikuthatha ngokungathi sína njengomthombo ongachemile. Kepha iwebhusayithi iyithuluzi lokumaketha lezimboni eliqonde ngqo ukuhambisa ama-GMO ngendlela efanele.

Ubufakazi bokuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lepropaganda elilawula ukubhekana nezinkinga elingenakwethenjelwa.

Izimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa umbono womphakathi ngokuthanda ama-GMO. Ngokushesha ngemuva kokuba iMonsanto kanye nabalingani bayo behlule isinyathelo sokuvota sika-2012 sokuqamba ama-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto umemezele izinhlelo ukwethula umkhankaso omusha wobudlelwano nomphakathi wokwakha kabusha idumela lama-GMO. Baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) ukuthola i umkhankaso wabayisikhombisa.

Njengengxenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR iKetchum (nayo ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) yaqashwa yi-Council for Biotechnology Information - ixhaswe iMonsanto, BASF, Bayer, Dow, Dupont neSyngenta - ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isayithi lithembise uku susa ukudideka futhi ususe ukungathembani mayelana nama-GMO asebenzisa amazwi angahleliwe okuthiwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Kepha bazimele kangakanani labo ngoti?

Iwebhusayithi igawula amaphuzu okuxoxa aqanjwe ngokucophelela axoxa indaba enhle ngama-GMO ngenkathi edlala phansi noma engazinaki izingozi zezempilo nezemvelo. Isibonelo, lapho ubuzwa ukuthi ngabe ama-GMO aqhuba ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, leli sayithi linikeza u-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwemininingwane ebuyekezwe ngontanga ekhombisa ukuthi, yebo, empeleni, kunjalo.

Izitshalo ze- "Roundup Ready" ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a mhlawumbe umdlavuza womuntu, by amakhulu ezigidi zamaphawundi. Uhlelo olusha lwe-GMO / pesticide olubandakanya i-dicamba seluholele ekubhujisweni kwe izitshalo zesoya phesheya kwe-US, kanye ne-FDA ibamba iqhaza kulo nyaka ukusetshenziswa kathathu ka-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enobuthi, ngenxa yezitshalo ezintsha ze-GMO ezenzelwe ukumelana nayo. Konke lokhu akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo, ngokusho kwe-GMO Answers.

Imibuzo ephathelene nokuphepha iphendulwa ngezitatimende ezingamanga ezifana nokuthi "zonke izinhlangano zezempilo ezihola phambili emhlabeni zisekela ukuphepha kwama-GMO." Asitholanga kukhulunywa ngesitatimende esisayinwe ososayensi, odokotela kanye nezifundiswa ezingama-300 abathi kukhona “akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO,”Futhi asizitholanga izimpendulo zemibuzo esiyithumele ngalesi sitatimende.

Izibonelo zivele lokho I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye izimpendulo ze-GMO lawo asayinwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Uhlu olufushane lomklomelo we-PR wokulawulwa kwezinkinga

Njengobunye ubufakazi isiza siyimoto ye-spin: Ngo-2014, Izimpendulo ze-GMO kwaba njalo kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO esigabeni se- "Public Relations: Crisis Management & Issue Management."

Futhi inkampani ye-PR edale izimpendulo ze-GMO yazishaya isifuba ngethonya layo kwizintatheli. Ku-video efakwe kwi-website ye-CLIO, uKetchum uzishaye isifuba ngokuthi i-GMO Answers “icishe yakuphinda kabili ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO.” Le vidiyo isuswe ngemuva kokuthi i-US Right to Know iyinakile, kepha thina uyigcine lapha.

Kungani izintatheli zingayethemba imoto yokumaketha eyakhiwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekile kunzima ukuyiqonda. Ketchum, okwaze kwaba yi-2016 PR ngokuqinile eRussia, kufakiwe ku imizamo yobunhloli ngokumelene nokungenzi inzuzo ukhathazekile ngama-GMO. Awusiwona umlando ozibandakanya ekuqedeni ukungathembani.

Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lokumaketha elenziwe futhi lixhaswe yizinkampani ezidayisa ama-GMO, sicabanga ukuthi kungumdlalo ofanele ukubuza ukuthi: Ngabe “ochwepheshe abazimele” ababoleka ukwethembeka kuwebhusayithi - abaningi babo abasebenzela amanyuvesi kahulumeni futhi abakhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela - ozimele ngokweqiniso futhi osebenzela umphakathi? Noma basebenza ngokubambisana nezinkampani kanye namafemu obudlelwano bomphakathi ukusiza ukuthengisa umphakathi indaba ye-spin?

Ekufuneni lezi zimpendulo, i-US Right to Know ifake izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act Ukufuna ukuxhumana kosolwazi abaxhaswa ngemali ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com noma basebenze kweminye imizamo yokukhuthaza i-GMO. Ama-FOIA yizicelo ezincanyana ezingafaki imininingwane yomuntu siqu noma yezifundo, kepha kunalokho funa ukuqonda ukuxhumana okukhona phakathi kosolwazi, izinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ama-GMO, izinhlangano zazo zezohwebo kanye nama-PR kanye namafemu okusiza aqashelwe ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nokulwa nokufakwa amalebula ngakho-ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngalokho esikudlayo.

Landela imiphumela ye- Uphenyo lwase-US Right to Know lapha.

Bona wethu I-Pesticide Industry Propaganda Tracker ukuthola eminye imininingwane mayelana nabadlali ababalulekile emikhakheni yamakhemikhali emizamweni yokuxhumana nomphakathi.

Ungasiza ukwandisa uphenyo lweLungelo Lokwazi ngo wenza umnikelo ongadonswa ngentela namuhla

INKANTOLO ebuyekeziwe iguqula ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kwe-Bayer dicamba herbicide; uthi umlawuli "wehlise ubungozi"

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinesitatimende esivela ku-BASF)

Ngokukhuza okumangalisayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency, inkantolo yenhlangano ngoLwesithathu kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi yemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe ama-giants amakhemikhali iBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Lesi sinqumo sikwenza kube ngokungemthetho ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa umkhiqizo.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sathola ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleka ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza amaphutha amaningi ekunikezeni ukubhaliswa okunemibandela," kusho isinqumo senkantolo.

IMonsanto ne-EPA bebecele inkantolo, uma ivumelana nabamangali, ukuthi ingakushintshi ngokushesha ukugunyazwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula. Inkantolo imane yathi: “Siyenqaba ukwenza kanjalo.”

Icala lilethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali basola i-EPA ngokwephula umthetho ekuhloleni imithelela yohlelo olwakhiwe yiMonsanto, oluthengwe yiBayer ngo-2018, oludale ukulimala kwezitshalo “okusabalele” kulezi zinsuku ezimbalwa zasehlobo futhi luyaqhubeka nokusongela amapulazi ezweni lonke.

"Isinqumo sanamuhla siphumelele kakhulu kubalimi nakwezemvelo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell weCentre for Food Safety, ongumeluleki waleli cala. “Kuhle ukukhunjuzwa ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neMonsanto neTrump Administration azikwazi ukweqa umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi senhlekelele efana nalena. Usuku lwabo lokwahlulela selufikile. ”

Inkantolo ithole ukuthi phakathi kwezinye zezinkinga, i-EPA “yenqabile ukulinganisela inani lomonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza lowo monakalo njengokuthi 'kungenzeka' nokuthi 'kusolwa,' lapho ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi i-dicamba idale umonakalo omkhulu futhi ongenakuphikiswa.”

Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi i-EPA yehlulekile ukwamukela ukuthi imikhawulo ebekwe ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba ngeke ilandelwe, futhi inqume ukuthi i-EPA “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi obukhulu bokuthi ukubhaliswa kuzoba nemiphumela yokuncintisana kwezomnotho izimboni zesoya nokotini. ”

Ekugcineni, inkantolo ithe, i-EPA yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi bokuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba esungulwe nguMonsanto, BASF kanye noCorteva "kuzodabula imiphakathi yezolimo."

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto isiphakamisile leso sibambiso lapho yethula imbewu yesoya nekotini engabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele-sezulu.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezixwayiso, iMonsanto, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba herbicides yalolu hlobo olusakazwayo lokufafaza. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwethulwe izilimo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi wokulimala kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

Njengoba kubikezelwe, kube nezinkulungwane zezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodiwe ezifundazweni eziningi. Esinqumweni sayo, inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi ngo-2018, kumahektare ayizigidi eziyi-103 kabhontshisi nokotini otshalwe e-United States, cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-56 atshalwe nembewu nge-Micanto's dicamba-tolerance, kusuka ku-27 million acres ngonyaka owandulele 2017.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

IBayer ikhiphe isitatimende kulandela lesi sinqumo ithi iphikisana kakhulu nesinqumo senkantolo futhi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

"Isinqumo se-EPA esinolwazi esisekelwe kwisayensi siyakuqinisekisa ukuthi leli thuluzi libalulekile kubalimi futhi alilethi ubungozi obungenangqondo bokunyakaza okungasetshenziswanga uma kusetshenziswe ngokwemikhombandlela yelebula," kusho inkampani. "Uma isinqumo sizoma, sizosebenza ngokushesha ukunciphisa noma yimuphi umthelela kumakhasimende ethu kule sizini."

UCorteva uphinde wathi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ibidinga amathuluzi abalimi nokuthi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

I-BASF ibize umyalo wenkantolo “ngendlela engakaze ibonwe” futhi yathi “inamandla amakhulu okulimaza amashumi ezinkulungwane zabalimi.”

Abalimi bangalahlekelwa “yimali ebonakalayo” uma bengakwazi ukubulala ukhula ezindaweni zabo zesoya nezikakotini ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho inkampani.

"Sizosebenzisa zonke izindlela zomthetho ezitholakalayo ukuphonsela inselelo le-oda," kusho iBASF.

Okhulumela i-EPA uthe okwamanje le nhlangano ibuyekeza isinqumo senkantolo futhi “izothutha ngokushesha iyokhuluma nomyalelo weNkantolo.”

Inkantolo ivumile ukuthi lesi sinqumo singabiza kakhulu kubalimi asebethengile futhi / noma batshale imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini futhi yahlela ukusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kuyo ngoba isinqumo asikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima laba balimi abangaba nabo ekutholeni imithi yokubulala ukhula esebenzayo neyomthetho ukuvikela izitshalo zabo (ezibekezelela i-dicamba)…" kusho umbuso. “Babekwe kulesi simo ngaphandle kwephutha labo. Kodwa-ke, ukungabi bikho kobufakazi obuningi obusekela isinqumo se-EPA kusiphoqa ukuthi sikushiye ukubhaliswa. ”

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.

I-IFIC: Ukudla Okukhulu Kakhulu Kuphikisa Kanjani Izindaba Ezimbi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know neminye imithombo ikhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke (IFIC), iqembu lezentengiselwano elixhaswe izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nezolimo, kanye "nengalo yalo yezemfundo yomphakathi" engenzi nzuzo Isisekelo se-IFIC. Amaqembu e-IFIC aqhuba izinhlelo zocwaningo nezokuqeqesha, akhiqiza izinto zokumaketha futhi axhumanise amanye amaqembu embonini ukuxhumana nomkhakha wezokuphepha mayelana nokuphepha kokudla nokondleka. Ukulayeza kufaka phakathi ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ushukela, ukudla okusetshenzwe, okokunandisa okokufakelwa, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza wezibulala-zinambuzane weMonsanto 

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sendlela i-IFIC ebambisana ngayo nezinkampani ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezolimo kanye nokuphazamisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza, lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-IFIC njenge- “Umlingani wezimboni” ohlelweni lobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iqembu labacwaningi ngomdlavuza leWorld Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze “kuvikelwe isithunzi” seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IMonsanto ibhale i-IFIC njengoMlingani “wezimboni” weTier 3 kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla.

IFICIC izama kanjani ukudlulisa umyalezo wayo kwabesifazane.

La maqembu akhonjwa njengengxenye “yethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement” elingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugoma” likaMonsanto ngombiko womdlavuza we-glyphosate.

AmaBlogs kamuva athunyelwa ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-IFIC khombisa ukuthunyelwa kweqembu "ungakhathazeki, sethembe" imiyalezo kwabesifazane. Okungenayo kufaka phakathi, “izindlela eziyi-8 zobuhlanya abazama ukukwesabisa ngazo ngezithelo nemifino,” “Ukusika imfuhlumfuhlu ku-glyphosate,” nokuthi “Ngaphambi kokuba sidangele, ake sibuze ochwepheshe… ochwepheshe bangempela.”

Abaxhasi bezinkampani  

I-IFIC isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 22 esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu kusukela 2013-2017, ngenkathi i-IFIC Foundation ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5 kuleyo minyaka emihlanu, ngokusho kwamafomu entela afakwe kwi-IRS. Izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni asekela i-IFIC, ngokusho kwe- ukudalulwa komphakathi, kufaka phakathi i-American Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kanye nePepsiCo.

Amarekhodi wentela esalungiswa e-IFIC Foundation, atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso, uhlu lwezinkampani ezixhase iqembu 2011, 2013 noma zombili: I-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Coca-Cola, i-ConAgra, i-General Mills, i-Kellogg, i-Kraft Foods, i-Hershey, i-Mars, i-Nestle, i-PepsiCo ne-Unilever. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US unikeze i-IFIC Foundation imali engu- $ 177,480 yabakhokhi bentela e 2013 ukukhiqiza "umhlahlandlela wezokuxhumana”Yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-IFIC iphinde icele imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso ethile yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Le imeyili ka-Ephreli 28, 2014 kusuka kumphathi we-IFIC kuya kuhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yezinkampani ucela iminikelo engu- $ 10,000 yokuvuselela i- "Understanding our Food" isinyathelo ukwenza ngcono ukubukwa kwabathengi kokudla okusetshenzisiwe. I-imeyili ibhala abasekeli bezimali bangaphambilini: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo neDuPont.

Iphromotha ama-GMO ezinganeni zesikole  

IFIC iqondisiwe Amaqembu we-130 nge Ukubambisana Ukondla Ikusasa emizamweni yokuthumela imiyalezo "yokuthuthukisa ukuqonda" ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka phakathi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, lo Umkhandlu Wokulawulwa Kwekhalori, the Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla kanye ne-The Nature Conservancy.

I-Alliance to Feed the Future inikeze ngezifundo zamahhala zemfundo ukufundisa abafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kufaka phakathi “Isayensi Yokondla Umhlaba”Kothisha be-K-8 kanye ne-“Ukuletha i-Biotechnology empilweni”Zamabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezinsizakalo ze-IFIC's PR 

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know unikeze umuzwa wokuthi i-IFIC isebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuze ivule izindaba ezimbi futhi ivikele imikhiqizo yabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani.

Ixhuma izintatheli kososayensi abakhokhelwa yimboni  

  • Meyi 5, 2014 imeyili kusuka kuMat Raymond, umqondisi omkhulu wezokuxhumana, uxwayise ubuholi be-IFIC kanye "neqembu lezingxoxo zabezindaba" "ngezindaba ezisezingeni eliphakeme lapho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona manje" ukusiza ukuhambisa izindaba ezingezinhle, kufaka phakathi ukuphendula i-movie ethi Fed Up. Uphawule ukuthi baxhume intatheli yeNew York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, uchwepheshe wethu odumile emkhakheni woshukela. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqembu elincane lososayensi abafundile baseCanada abathole amakhulu ezinkulungwane oxhaso kubenzi beziphuzo ezithambile, izinhlangano zokuhweba ngokudla okuhlanganisiwe kanye nomkhakha kashukela, okwenza izifundo nezihloko zemibono ezivame ukuqondana nezintshisekelo zalawo mabhizinisi, ” ngokusho kweNational Post.
  • Ama-imeyili avela ku- 2010 futhi 2012 ziphakamisa ukuthi i-IFIC incike eqenjini elincane lososayensi abaxhunywe embonini ukubhekana nezifundo eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Kuwo womabili ama-imeyili, uBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngubani uthole izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO, kweluleka i-IFIC ukuthi ingaphendulwa kanjani ezifundweni eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

Isikhulu seDuPont siphakamisa isu lobuchule lokulwa nemibiko yabathengi

  • Phakathi ku Februwari 3, 2013 imeyili, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqembu lobudlelwano nabezindaba" ukuthi Imibiko Yabathengi ibike ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela wezemvelo wama-GMO. UDoyle Karr, Umqondisi wenqubomgomo ye-biotechnology kaDuPont nephini likamongameli webhodi ye Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, wathumela i-imeyili kusosayensi onombuzo ngemibono yokuphendula, futhi waphakamisa ukubhekana Nemibiko Yabathengi ngaleli qhinga lokwenza okuthile: nezitatimende ze- (Consumer Reports ') mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela kwezemvelo. ?? ”

Ezinye izinsizakalo ze-PR IFIC inikeza embonini

  • Kusabalalisa amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini edukisayo: April 25, 2012 thumela kumalungu ayi-130 e-Alliance Ukondla Ikusasa “egameni lelungu le-Alliance Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa ” yathi uhlelo lokuvota lwaseCalifornia lokufaka ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo “lungavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi ezinkulungwane emikhiqizo yokudla eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuthi inamalebula akhethekile.”
  • Ibhekana nezincwadi ezibucayi ngokudla okusetshenzisiwe: February 20, 2013 I-imeyili ichaza isu le-IFIC lokuphotha izincwadi ezimbili ezigxeka imboni yezokudla, “Usawoti, Ushukela, Amafutha” kaMichael Moss, kanye ne “Lunchbox kaPandora” kaMelanie Warner. Izinhlelo zazihlanganisa ukubhala ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ukusabalalisa izindawo zokukhuluma kanye "nokuhlola ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ukuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zedijithali kulinganiswa ubukhulu bokusabalala." Ku-imeyili kaFebhuwari 22, 2013, umphathi we-IFIC welulela izifundiswa ezintathu - URoger Clemens wase-University of Southern California, UMario Ferruzzi wasePurdue University futhi UJoanne Slavin wase-University of Minnesota - ukubacela ukuthi batholakalele izingxoxo nabezindaba mayelana nezincwadi. I-imeyili inikeze izifundiswa izifinyezo zalezi zincwadi ezimbili nezindawo zokukhuluma ze-IFIC ezivikela ukudla okwenziwe. “Sizokuthokozela ukuthi nihlanganyele noma yimaphi amaphuzu athile okuxoxa ngezindaba ezithile zesayensi eziphakanyiswe ezincwadini,” kusho i-imeyili evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, iphini likamongameli omkhulu we-IFIC wezokudla nokuvikeleka kokudla.
  • Ucwaningo nocwaningo ukusekela izikhundla ezimbonini; isibonelo esisodwa ngocwaningo lwango-2012 olathola ukuthi abathengi abangama-76% “abakwazi ukucabanga nganoma yini eyengeziwe abangathanda ukuyibona kulebula” esetshenziswa amaqembu embonini ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.
  • “Ungakhathazeki, sethembe” izincwajana zokumaketha, njenge lena echaza ukuthi izithasiselo zokudla nemibala akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo. Amakhemikhali nodayi “babambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekwehliseni ukusweleka okukhulu kwabathengi,” ngokusho kwencwajana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano sokubambisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

okokuqala kuthunyelwe ngoMeyi 31, 2018 futhi kuvuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Related: Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza, nguStacy Malkan

Leli phepha lichaza okuqukethwe yiMonsanto uhlelo oluyimfihlo lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukudicilela phansi igama lophiko locwaningo lomdlavuza lwe-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ngenhloso yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iqembu lomhlaba wonke lochwepheshe kuphaneli ye-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubiza amagama angaphezu kweshumi nambili amaqembu "abalingani bezimboni" abaphathi benkampani abakuhlele "ukwazisa / ukugoma / ukubandakanya" emizamweni yabo yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono odumile, futhi "zinikeze ikhava yezinhlaka ezilawulayo. ” Ozakwethu bahlanganisa izifundiswa kanye namaqembu aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezokudla, amaqembu ezohwebo kanye namaqembu okubungaza - landela izixhumanisi ezingezansi kumashidi eqiniso anikeza imininingwane eminingi ngamaqembu ophathina.

Ngokubambisana la maphepha emininingwane ahlinzeka ngesense yokujula nobubanzi be-corporaukuhlaselwa kochwepheshe bomdlavuza we-IARC ngokwehlulwanse kaMi-onsanto edayisa kakhulu i-herbicide.

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto zokubhekana nesilinganiso se-IARC se-carcinogenicity se-glyphosate (ikhasi 5).

Background

Umbhalo osemqoka okhishwe ngo-2017 ngo izinqubo zomthetho ngokumelene neMonsanto kuchaza “uhlelo lokulungela nokuzibandakanya” kwenkampani ekuhlelweni komdlavuza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba isetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo. I- idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto - yangomhla kaFebhuwari 23, 2015 - yabela abasebenzi abangaphezu kwama-20 beMonsanto ezinhlosweni ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela wesinqumo," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kanye "nokuhola izwi 'kubani i-IARC' kanye ne-2B intukuthelo." NgoMashi 20, 2015, i-IARC yamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-Group 2A carcinogen, "mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu. "

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane, bheka: “Ukulungiswa Kanjani KweMonsanto Ekuhlukanisweni Komdlavuza Wamakhemikhali Okulindelekile,”NguCarey Gillam, uHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Isigaba 1-4 seMonsanto “Abalingani Bemboni”

Ikhasi 5 le- umbhalo weMonsanto ikhomba izingxenye ezine “zabalingani bemboni” abaphathi beMonsanto abebehlele ukuzibandakanya nohlelo lwayo lwe-IARC lokuzilungiselela. La maqembu ehlangene anokufinyelela okubanzi nomthelela ekuphusheni ukulandisa ngengozi yomdlavuza evikela inzuzo yezinkampani.

Umlingani womkhakha weTier 1 angama-lobby axhaswa ngezimboni kanye namaqembu e-PR.

Abalingani bezimboni zeTier 2 bangamaqembu angaphambili avame ukukhonjwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha basebenza nemboni yamakhemikhali ekusithekeni kobudlelwano bomphakathi nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Abalingani bemboni engu-Tier 3 bangamaqembu ezingenzi-nzuzo axhaswe izimboni zokudla. Lawa maqembu athakanyiswe kokuthi, “Xwayisa izinkampani zokudla ngethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement (IFIC, GMA, CFI) 'ngecebo lokutholwa' lokuhlinzeka ngemfundo yokuqala ngamazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibono eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Umlingani womkhakha we-Tier 4 "yizinhlangano zabakhiqizi abakhulu." Lawa ngamaqembu ezohwebo ahlukahlukene amele ummbila, isoya nabanye abatshali bezimboni nabakhiqizi bokudla.

Ukuhlela ukukhala ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza ku-glyphosate

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR uchaze izinhlelo zabo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kulungiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC."

Ukuthi lokho kudlalwe kanjani kungabonakala emibhalweni yozakwethu embonini amaqembu abesebenzisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile nemithombo ukusola i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza ngokungalungile nokuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abasebenza embikweni we-glyphosate.

Izibonelo zemiyalezo yokuhlasela zingabonakala kuwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Leli qembu lithi lingumthombo ozimele wesayensi, kepha, imibhalo etholwe ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lokho kusebenzisana. UJon Entine wethule leli qembu e2011 ngenkathi uMonsanto eyiklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. Lena iqhinga lakudala leqembu langaphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani ngeqembu elithi lizimele kepha akunjalo.

Uhlelo lucebisa i-Sense About Science ukuthi "ihole ukuphendula kwemboni"

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR ukhuluma ngezinhlelo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kuqondiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC." Lolu hlelo luphakamisa iqembu i-Sense About Science (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuthi "liholele ekuphenduleni kwemboni futhi linikeze inkundla yezingqapheli ze-IARC nokhulumela imboni."

I-Sense About Science iyisiza somphakathi esizinze eLondon lokho kuthiwa kuthuthukisa ukuqonda komphakathi ngesayensi, kodwa iqembu "laziwa ngokuthatha izikhundla buck ukuvumelana kwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala, ”Kubika uLiza Gross ku-The Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense About Science yethule inguqulo yase-US ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwe-  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onomlando omude wokungavumelani naye isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo ngamakhemikhali anobuthi.

I-Sense About Science ihlobene ne- Isayensi Media Center, isayensi PR agency eLondon ethola uxhaso lwezinkampani futhi yaziwa nge ukugcizelela imibono yenkampani yesayensi. Intatheli ephethe sisondelene neSayensi Media Center, UKate Kelland, ushicilele izindatshana eziningana kwiReuters ezigxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-IARC eyayisekelwe kuyo izindaba ezingamanga futhi ukubika okungaphelele okungaphelele. Izindatshana zeReuters zithuthukiswe kakhulu ngamaqembu kaMonsanto “abalingani bemboni” futhi zasetshenziswa njenge isisekelo se ukuhlaselwa kwezepolitiki ngokumelene ne-IARC.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • "I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters," Isitatimende se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Indaba ka-Reuters ka-Aaron Blair IARC ikhuthaza ukulandisa okungamanga, USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Isimangalo seReuters sokuthi i-IARC "ihlele kahle" okutholakele nakho kungamanga, USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngabe izibopho zezinkampani zinomthelela ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi?" Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Bandakanya uHenry Miller”

Ikhasi 2 lombhalo weMonsanto PR likhomba okwokuqala okulethwa ukuhlelela nokulungiselela: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller" "ukugoma / ukusungula umbono womphakathi nge-IARC nezibuyekezo."

"Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngokusalungiswa okuseqophelweni eliphezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, osebenza naye eHoover Institution kanye nomqondisi osungula iHhovisi Le-Biotechnology le-FDA, une umlando omude oqoshiwe wokusebenzisana nezinkampani ukuvikela imikhiqizo enobungozi. Uhlelo lweMonsanto lukhomba “umnikazi we-MON” womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi, ubuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe beMonsanto.

Imibhalo kamuva kubika iThe New York Times kwembule lokho amaSachs uthumele i-imeyili uMiller kusasele isonto ngaphambi kombiko we-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuthi ngabe uMiller wayenesifiso sokubhala "ngalesi sinqumo esiyimpikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngidalelwe ubuciko obusezingeni eliphezulu." Ngo-Mashi 23, uMiller uthumele isihloko kuForbes "okubonakala kakhulu" okusalungiswa okuhlinzekwe nguMonsanto, ngokusho kwe Times. IForbes inqamule ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngemuva kwesigameko sokubhala ngezipoki futhi ususe izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

Yize umqulu weMonsanto PR ungazange uqambe igama le- umkhandlu waseMelika oxhaswe ngezinkampani weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwabalingani bayo bezimboni," ama-imeyili akhishwe nge-litigation show ukuthi iMonsanto uxhase uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abaphathi beMonsanto bebengakhululekile ngokusebenzisana ne-ACSH kodwa benze njalo noma kunjalo ngoba, "asinabo abalandeli abaningi futhi asikwazi ukulahlekelwa yilabo abambalwa esinabo."

Umholi wesayensi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele ozakwabo ukuthi, “Ngingakuqinisekisa ukuthi anginabo bonke abantu abanenkanyezi nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yezinsumpa- kodwa: NGEKE UTHOLE UKUBALULEKA OKUNGCONO KWEDOLOLA LAKHO kune-ACSH” (kugcizelela yena). UGoldstein uthumele izixhumanisi zezinto eziningi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza futhi zivikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane azichaze ngokuthi “ZISEBENZISA KAKHULU.”

Bona futhi: Ukulandelela i-Agrichemical Industry Propaganda Network 

Landela okutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu embonini yokudla kanye nezifundiswa ku ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo ye-USRTK iyatholakala kufayela le- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.

Izibopho zikaPamela Ronald's to Chemical Industry Front Groups

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kubuyekezwe ngoJuni 2019

UPamela Ronald, PhD, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, uDavis nombhali wencwadi yango-2008 ethi “Tomorrow's Table,” ungummeli owaziwayo wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Okungaziwa kakhulu iqhaza likaDkt. Ronald ezinhlanganweni eziziveza njengabantu abazimele ngaphandle kwezimboni, kodwa empeleni basebenzisana nezinhlangano zamakhemikhali ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ezinhlelweni ezingafihli lutho emphakathini. 

Ixhumana neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo

UPamela Ronald unobudlelwano obuningi neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo, i IGenetic Literacy Project, kanye nomqondisi wayo omkhulu, uJon Entine. Ubasize ngezindlela eziningi. Ngokwesibonelo, imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2015, UDkt. Ronald uqoke u-Entine njengomuntu ophakeme futhi ofundisa ezokuxhumana kwezesayensi e-UC Davis, futhi wabambisana ne-Genetic Literacy Project ukusingatha imboni yezolimo exhaswe ngemali umcimbi womlayezo abaqeqeshe abahlanganyeli ukuthi bangayikhangisa kanjani imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ichazwe ku umklomelo Okwezwe uphenyo njenge “website eyaziwayo yenkulumo-ze” eyadlala indima enkulu emkhankasweni weMonsanto wokuhlambalaza umbiko wenhlangano yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ngeglyphosate. Kwi Idokhumenti ka-2015 PR, IMonsanto ikhombe i-Genetic Literacy Project phakathiabalingani bemboni ” inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya "nokuhlela ukukhala" ngombiko womdlavuza. I-GLP kusukela lapho isishicilele izindatshana eziningi ezihlasela ososayensi bomdlavuza njenge- "anti-chemical enviros" eyaqamba amanga futhi yazibandakanya nayo inkohlakalo, ukuhlanekezela, ukufihla nokukhwabanisa.

I-Entine inezibopho zesikhathi eside embonini yamakhemikhali; umsebenzi wakhe uhlanganisa ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, industrial Amakhemikhali, amapulasitiki, ukukhwabanisa, Kanye imboni kawoyela, imvamisa nge ukuhlaselwa kososayensi, izintatheli futhi izifundiswa.  Faka umkhankaso i-Genetic Literacy Project ngo-2011 lapho UMonsanto wayeyikhasimende yenkampani yakhe yezobudlelwano nomphakathi. I-GLP ekuqaleni ehlotshaniswa ne-STATS, izintatheli zeqembu elingenzi nzuzo zichaze njenge- “umkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho imbewu ingabaza isayensi futhi “eyaziwa ngokuvikela kwayo imboni yamakhemikhali. " 

Ngo-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project yathuthela enhlanganweni entsha yabazali, i-Science Literacy Project. Ukufakwa kwentela kwe-IRS ngalowo nyaka kubonisiwe ukuthi uDkt. Ronald wayeyilungu lebhodi eyasungula i-Science Literacy Project, kodwa ama-imeyili kusuka ngo-Agasti 2018 khombisa ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uqinisekise u-Entine ukuthi asuse igama lakhe kwifomu lentela ngemuva kokuthi kwaziwe ukuthi ubhalwe lapho (ifomu elichitshiyelwe lentela selikhona manje kuyatholakala lapha). UDkt. Ronald ubhalele u-Entine, “Angizange ngisebenze kuleli bhodi futhi angizange nginike mvume yokuthi igama lami libhalwe. Ngicela uthathe izinyathelo ngokushesha ukwazisa i-IRS ukuthi igama lami lifakwe ohlwini ngaphandle kwemvume. ” U-Entine ubhale ukuthi unezinkumbulo ezihlukile. “Ngikhumbula kahle ukuthi wavuma ukuba yingxenye yebhodi futhi wahola ibhodi lokuqala… Wawunomdlandla futhi ungisekela empeleni. Akukho kungabaza engqondweni yami ukuthi uvumelane nalokhu. ” Yize kunjalo wavuma ukuzama ukususa igama lakhe embhalweni wentela.

Laba bobabili baphinde baxoxa ngefomu lentela ngoDisemba 2018 ngemuva kokuthi kuthunyelwe leli phepha. Kubhale u-Entine, “Ngikubhalile ku-original 990 ngokususelwa engxoxweni yocingo lapho uvumile ukuba khona ebhodini. Ngesikhathi ungimelela ukuthi awuvumelani nalokhu, ngicishe irekhodi njengoba ubucelile. ” Ku- enye i-imeyili ngalolo suku, ukhumbuze uDkt. Ronald ukuthi “empeleni ubuhlangene nale 'nhlangano: njengoba besisebenza ndawonye, ​​ngaphandle komzamo nangokwakhayo, ekwenzeni ikamu lamabhuzu enyuvesi yakho libe yimpumelelo enkulu.”  

Amafomu entela eSayensi Literacy Project manje abala amalungu amathathu ebhodi: Entine; UDrew Kershen, owayenguprofesa wezomthetho futhi owayesebhodini le- “Academics Review,” iqembu elalithi lizimele ngenkathi ithola izimali zayo ezinkampanini zezolimo; futhi UGeoffrey Kabat, ingcweti yezifo ezisebenza ku ibhodi labeluleki besayensi Okwe Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu lelo uthole imali evela kuMonsanto ngomsebenzi wayo wokuvikela ama-pesticides kanye nama-GMO.

Isungulwe, yahola iqembu le-UC Davis eliphakamisa imizamo ye-PR yomkhakha

UDkt Ronald wayengumqondisi osungula iWorld Food Center's Isikhungo Sokufunda Nokufunda Kwezolimo (IFAL), iqembu elasungulwa e-2014 e-UC Davis lokuqeqesha ubuhlakani kanye nabafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Leli qembu alizivezi ngokugcwele izimali zalo.

Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald unikele UJon Entine neqembu lakhe eliphambili embonini I-Genetic Literacy Project yesikhulumi e-UC Davis, ukuqoka i-Entine njengomuntu omkhulu ongakhokhiwe we-IFAL kanye nomfundisi nomeluleki ohlelweni lokuthweswa iziqu kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi. U-Entine akaseyena umngani e-UC Davis. Bona incwadi yethu yango-2016 eya kwiWorld Food Center ebuza ngezimali ze-Entine ne-IFAL kanye nabo incazelo engacacile mayelana nokuthi uxhaso lwabo luvelaphi.

NgoJulayi 2014, uDkt. Ronald waveza ku-imeyili asebenza naye ukuthi u-Entine wayeyi- umhlanganyeli obalulekile ongabanika iziphakamiso ezinhle zokuthi bangaxhumana nobani ukuze bathole imali eyengeziwe ngomcimbi wokuqala we-IFAL. NgoJuni 2015, i-IFAL yabamba iqhaza "Ikamu lokuqala le-Biotech Literacy Project”Nge-Genetic Literacy Project kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu leMonsanto. Abahleli bathi lo mcimbi uxhaswe yimithombo yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kepha imithombo engeyona eyezimboni iyenqabile ukuxhasa le micimbi kanye ne kuphela umthombo wokuthola imali ongalandeleka uvela embonini, ngokusho kokubikwa kukaPaul Thacker ku-The Progressive.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa lokho kubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okwakuthola okwayo imali evela embonini yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba, lisebenzise u- $ 162,000 engqungqutheleni yezinsuku ezintathu e-UC Davis. Inhloso yekamu ebhuthini, ngokwe-ajenda, bekuzoqeqesha nokuxhasa ososayensi, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezemfundo ukuze banxenxe umphakathi kanye nabenzi benqubomgomo ngezinzuzo zama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izikhulumi enkanjini yebhuthi i-UC Davis zifakiwe UJay Byrne, Owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampanini kaMonsanto; Hank campbell yezimali ezixhaswa yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo; osolwazi abanezibopho zomkhakha ezingadalulwanga ezifana USolwazi Emeritus Bruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois futhi USolwazi Kevin Folta waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UCami Ryan, manje osebenzela iMonsanto; UDavid Ropeik, umxhumanisi wokuqonda ngobungozi onenkampani ye-PR amaklayenti afaka iDow neBayer; kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo.

Izikhulumi eziyinhloko kwakunguDkt. Ronald, UYvette d'Entremont uSci Babe, "umxhumanisi wezesayensi" ovikela izibulala-zinambuzane neziswidi zokufakelwa ngenkathi ethatha imali ezinkampanini ezidayisa leyo mikhiqizo, noTed Nordhaus we-Breakthrough Institute. (UNordhaus naye wabalwa njengelungu lebhodi leSayensi Literacy Project kwifomu lokuqala lentela lika-2015/2016, kodwa igama lakhe lasuswa kanye noDkt. Ronald's kwifomu echitshiyelwe i-Entine efakwe ngo-2018; uNordhaus uthe akakaze asebenze ebhodini.)

Ukupheka ukuduba kukaChipotle

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald noJon Entine babambisene ekuthumeleni imiyalezo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kwesinye isikhathi, uDkt. Ronald uphakamise ukuthi ahlele ukuduba ngokumelene nechungechunge lokudlela laseChipotle ngenxa yesinqumo salo sokunikela nokuphromotha ukudla okungewona okwe-GMO.

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uDkt Ronald wathumela i-imeyili i-Entine futhi U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, owayeyisisebenzi sangaphambilini seMonsanto nochwepheshe wezokweluleka ngokubambisana e-UC Davis, ukusikisela ukuthi bathole umfundi ozobhala ngabalimi abasebenzisa izibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi kakhulu ukutshala ummbila ongewona owe-GMO. "Ngiphakamisa ukuthi silazise leli qiniso (uma nje sesithole imininingwane) bese sihlela ukuduba kwe-chipotle, ”Kubhala uDkt Ronald. U-Entine wayalela umlingani wakhe ukuthi abhale i-athikili ye-Genetic Literacy Project ngesihloko esithi "ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kuvame ukukhuphuka" lapho abalimi beshintshela kwimodeli engeyona eye-GMO ukuhlinzeka izindawo zokudlela ezinjengeChipotle. I- esihlokweni, obhaliswe ngokuhlanganyela ngu-Entine futhi etusa ubulungu bakhe be-UC Davis, wehluleka ukufakazela leso simangalo ngedatha.

Iqembu le-biotech spin elenziwe ngokubambisana iBioFortified

UDkt. Ronald wasungula futhi wakhonza njengelungu lebhodi (2012-2015) le I-Biology Fortified, Inc. (i-Biofortified), iqembu elithuthukisa ama-GMO kanye ineqembu lesishoshovu sozakwethu lokho kuyahlela imibhikisho yokubhekana nabagxeki baseMonsanto. Abanye babaholi beBiofortified kufaka phakathi ilungu lebhodi lokusungula uDavid Tribe, isazi sezofuzo e-University of Melbourne owasungula Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo, iqembu elalizimele ngenkathi ethola izimali zezimboni, futhi esebenzisana ne-IFAL ukusingatha iBiotech Literacy Project “camp boot” e-UC Davis.

Owayelilungu lebhodi uKevin Folta (2015-2018), usosayensi wezitshalo eNyuvesi yaseFlorida isihloko sendaba yeNew York Times ebika ukuthi udukise umphakathi ngokusebenzisana kwemboni okungadalulwanga. Ama-blogger ase-Biofortified afaka uSteve Savage, owake waba khona Isisebenzi saseDuPont saphenduka umxhumanisi wemboni; UJoe Ballanger, a umxhumanisi weMonsanto; no-Andrew Kniss, one uthole imali evela kuMonsanto. Imibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi amalungu eBiofortified axhumene nge imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane emkhankasweni wokunxenxa ukuphikisa imikhawulo yezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii.

Udlale indima ehamba phambili kumabhayisikobho e-propaganda axhaswa ngezimboni

UDkt. Ronald uveze ngokugqamile kwiFood Evolution, ifilimu eliwumbhalo mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuxhaswa yiqembu lezokuhweba i-Institute for Food Technologists. Inqwaba yezifundiswa zinayo wabiza inkulumo-ze yefilimu, nabantu abambalwa okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu ichaze inqubo ekhohlisayo yokuqopha ifilimu futhi wathi imibono yabo ikhishwe kumongo.

https://www.foodpolitics.com/2017/06/gmo-industry-propaganda-film-food-evolution/

Umeluleki womkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi obususelwa eCornell

UDkt Ronald usebhodini lokweluleka leCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ozinze eCornell University okhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane usebenzisa imiyalezo yezimboni zezolimo. Ixhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell Alliance for Science inayo waphikisana nokusetshenziswa koMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi ukuphenya izikhungo zikahulumeni, udukise umphakathi ngolwazi olungaqondile nezithunywa eziphakeme ezingathembekile; bheka imibhalo ekhasini lethu lamaqiniso.

Uthola imali evela embonini yezolimo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald uthola isinxephezelo ezinkampanini zezolimo ukuze akhulume emicimbini lapho ekhuthaza khona ama-GMO kubabukeli abakhulu izinkampani ezifuna ukubathonya, njengodokotela bezokudla. Ama-imeyili asuka kuNovemba 2012 ahlinzeka ngesibonelo sendlela uDkt Ronald asebenza ngayo nezinkampani.

Umsebenzi waseMonsanto uWendy Reinhardt Kapsak, udokotela wezokudla owake wasebenzela imboni yokudla spin iqembu IFIC, wamema uRonald ukuba azokhuluma ezingqungqutheleni ezimbili ngo-2013, iFood 3000 kanye ne-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference ne-Expo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi laba ababili kuxoxiswane ngezimali nokuthengwa kwezincwadi futhi wavuma ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uzokhuluma eFood 3000, ingqungquthela eyayihlelwe yinkampani ye-PR uPorter Novelli uKapsak athi izofinyelela "kwabezindaba abaphezulu abangama-90 ababa nomthelela wokudla kanye nabadlondlobele." (UDkt. Ronald ukhokhe u- $ 3,000 kulo mcimbi). UKapsak ucele buyekeza amaslayidi kaDkt. Ronald bese usetha ucingo lokuxoxa ngemiyalezo. Futhi kuphaneli bekukhona umongameli uMary Chin (udokotela wezokudla okwathi ubonisana neMonsanto), kanye nabamele iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation neMonsanto, noKapsak enikeza izinkulumo zokuvula. UKapsak ubike kamuva ukuthi iphaneli lithole ukubuyekezwa okukhulu ngabahlanganyeli bethi bazokwabelana ngombono wokuthi, "Kufanele sibe ne-biotech yokusiza ukondla umhlaba. "

Ezinye izingxoxo zokuxhaswa kwezimboni zikaDkt Ronald zifake owe-2014 inkulumo eMonsanto ngoba $ 3,500 kanye namakhophi wencwadi yakhe ayi-100 yena unqabile ukuthumela ku-tweet mayelana; nokubandakanyeka kokukhuluma ngo-2013 akubhalisele IBayer AG nge $ 10,000.

Amaphepha ahoxisiwe

I-Watch Retraction ibike ukuthi, “u-2013 ubungunyaka onzima kusazi sezinto eziphilayo uPamela Ronald. Ngemuva kokuthola iprotheni ebonakala ivusa amasosha omzimba elayisi ukuvikela isifo esivamile sebhaktheriya - esikisela indlela entsha yokwakha izitshalo ezingamelana nezifo - yena nethimba lakhe kwadingeka bahoxise amaphepha amabili ngo-2013 ngemuva kokuthi bengakwazanga ukuphindaphinda abakutholile. Amacala: uhlobo lwebhaktheriya olubhalwe kabi kanye ne-assay eguquguqukayo kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, ukunakekela nokusebenza obala akubonisile kwamzuzela 'ukwenza okulungile'wavuma kithi ngaleso sikhathi. "

Bona ukumbozwa:

"Wenzani ngokuhlehlisa okubuhlungu? I-Q & A enoPamela Ronald noBenjamin Swessinger, " I-Watch Retraction (7.24.2015)

"Ngabe isithunzi sesayensi sikaPamela Ronald, ubuso bomphakathi bamaGMOs, singasindiswa?”NguJonathan Latham, Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi (11.12.2013)

"UPamela Ronald wenza okulungile futhi, ehoxisa iphepha leSayensi, " I-Watch Retraction (10.10.2013)

"Ukwenza okulungile: Abaphenyi bahoxisa iphepha lokuzwa ikhoramu ngemuva kwenqubo yomphakathi, " I-Watch Retraction (9.11.2013)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uhlobo lwalesi sihloko lushicilelwe okokuqala ngo I-Common Ground Magazine Mashi 2018 (Uhlobo lwe-PDF).

NguStacy Malkan

Wonke umuntu uyayithanda indaba emnandi ngekusasa. Mhlawumbe uzwile lokhu: ukudla kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme okwenziwe isayensi kuzokondla abantu abayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-9 abalindelwe emhlabeni ngo-2050. Ukudla okwenziwe emalabuni nasezitshalweni nasezilwaneni ezenziwe ngofuzo ukuze zikhule ngokushesha nangcono kuzokwenza ukuthi kudle umhlaba ominyene, ngokusho kwezindaba ezijikeleza ngezikhungo zethu zemidiya nezemfundo.

"6th abafundi bebanga bacabanga ngemibono emikhulu ye-biotech ukuze # Feedthe9 ″ ukhiphe i-tweet yakamuva emakwe embonini yamakhemikhali iwebhusayithi yokukhangisa Izimpendulo ze-GMOA. Imibono yabafundi ifaka phakathi "ukuzalela izaqathe ukuze zibe namavithamini amaningi" kanye "nommbila ozokhula ezimweni ezinzima zasebusika."

Konke kuzwakala kuthembisa kakhulu uze ubheke amaqiniso angemuva kwenkulumo.

Okokuqala, ezweni elihola umhlaba ekukhuleni kwezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs), izigidi zilambile. Ukunciphisa imfucuza yokudla, ukubhekana nokungalingani nokushintshela ku ezolimo Izindlela zokulima, hhayi ama-GMO, ziyizikhiye ekuvikelekeni kokudla emhlabeni, ngokusho kochwepheshe beNhlangano Yezizwe. Ukudla okuningi okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo emakethe namuhla akunazinzuzo nakancane kubathengi; enzelwe ukusinda izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi asheshise kakhulu ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifana glyphosate, dicamba futhi ngokushesha i-2,4D, ukudala lokho amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngokuthi kuyingozi umshini wokubulala izinambuzane.

Yize kunamashumi eminyaka yokuxokozela mayelana nezakhamzimba eziphakeme noma izitshalo ze-GMO ze-heartier, lezo zinzuzo zehlulekile ukwenzeka. I-Vitamin-A ithuthukisiwe Ilayisi Eligolide, isibonelo - “irayisi ebingasindisa izingane eziyisigidi ngonyaka,” kubika Isikhathi umagazini iminyaka 17 edlule - ayikho emakethe yize kunezigidi ezichithwe ekuthuthukisweni. "Uma ilayisi legolide liyindlela yokwelapha enjalo, kungani lichuma kuphela ezihlokweni ezinkulu, kude nezinsimu zepulazi lapho kuhloswe ukuba likhule khona?" kubuza uTom Philpott umama Jones isihloko esithi, I-WTF Yenzekeni Elayisi Legolide?

“Impendulo emfushane ukuthi abatshali bezitshalo abasazakhi izinhlobonhlobo zaso ezisebenza ensimini njengezihlobo zelayisi ezikhona… Uma uhlanganisa into eyodwa ku-genome, njengokunika ilayisi amandla okwenza i-beta-carotene, engozini yokushintsha ezinye izinto, njengejubane lokukhula kwayo. ”

Imvelo iyinkimbinkimbi, ngamanye amazwi, futhi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo kungaveza imiphumela engalindelekile.

Cabanga ngendaba ye-Impossible Burger.

I-burger esekwe ezitshalweni ethi "yopha" yenziwa ukuthi yenzeke ngemvubelo yobunjiniyela ukuze ifane neleghemoglobin, into etholakala ezimpandeni zezitshalo zesoya. I-GMO soy leghemoglobin (SLH) yehla ibe yiprotheyini ebizwa nge- “heme,” enikeza iburger izimfanelo ezifana nenyama - umbala wayo obomvu obomvu wegazi kanye ne-sizzle ku-grill - ngaphandle kwemithelela yezemvelo neyokuziphatha ekukhiqizeni inyama. Kepha i-GMO SLH ibuye yehle iye kwamanye amaprotheni angama-46 angakaze abe ekudleni kwabantu futhi angabeka izingozi zokuphepha.

Njengoba i New York Times kubika, isosi eliyimfihlo le-burger “liqokomisa izinselele zobuchwepheshe bokudla.” Indaba yayisekelwe imibhalo etholwe yi-ETC Group nabangane bomhlaba ngaphansi kwesicelo soMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi - imibhalo inkampani okungenzeka yayinethemba lokuthi ayisoze yakubona ukukhanya kosuku. Ngenkathi i-Impossible Foods icela i-Food and Drug Administration ukuthi iqinisekise ukuthi isithako sayo se-GMO "ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile" (GRAS) Times kubika, i-ejensi esikhundleni salokho "iveze ukukhathazeka ngokuthi ayikaze idliwe ngabantu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi iyi-allergen."

Izikhulu ze-FDA wabhala kumanothi echaza ucingo lwango-2015 nenkampani, "i-FDA yathi izimpikiswano ezikhona manje, ngazodwana futhi ngokuhlanganyela, bezinganele ukwenza ukuphepha kwe-SLH ukusetshenziswa." Kepha, njengoba Times Indaba ichaziwe, i-FDA ayishongo ukuthi i-GMO leghemoglobin ayiphephile, futhi inkampani ayidingi ukuvunyelwa yi-FDA ukuthi ithengise i-burger yayo noma kunjalo.

Izimpikiswano ezethulwe azizange zisungule ukuphepha - i-FDA

Ngakho-ke i-Impossible Burger isemakethe ngeziqinisekiso zenkampani zokuphepha futhi abathengi abaningi basebumnyameni ngalokho okukuyo. Ngenkathi inqubo ye-GMO ichazwa kuwebhusayithi ayithengiswa ngaleyo ndlela lapho kuthengiswa khona. Ekuvakasheni kwakamuva endaweni yokudlela yaseBay Area edayisa i-Impossible Burger, ikhasimende libuze ukuthi ngabe i-burger ishintshiwe yini. Utshelwe ngokunganembile, "cha."

Ukuntuleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni, izingozi zezempilo ezingaziwa kanye nabathengi abashiye ebumnyameni - lezi yizindikimba eziphindaphindwayo ekulandiseni okuqhubekayo mayelana neWild West yokuhlolwa kobunjiniyela kwezakhi zofuzo egxambukela esitolo esiseduze nawe.

I-GMO nganoma yiliphi elinye igama…

I-biology yokwenziwa, i-CRISPR, ukuhlelwa kofuzo, ukuthuliswa kofuzo: la magama achaza izinhlobo ezintsha zezitshalo, izilwane kanye nezithako ezakhiwe ngezofuzo izinkampani eziphuthuma ukungena emakethe.

Indlela yakudala yobunjiniyela, ebizwa ngokuthi ama-transgenics, ifaka ukudlulisa izakhi zofuzo zisuka kolunye uhlobo ziye kolunye. Ngezindlela ezintsha zobunjiniyela - lokho amanye amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngamaGMOs 2.0 - izinkampani ziphazamisa imvelo ngezindlela ezintsha futhi ezingaba yingozi. Bangasusa izakhi zofuzo, bavule noma bavale izakhi zofuzo, noma bakhe ukulandelana okusha kwe-DNA kukhompyutha. Zonke lezi zinqubo ezintsha zingama-GMO ngendlela abathengi kanye ne-US Patent Office ababheka ngayo - i-DNA ishintshwa kumalebhu ngezindlela ezingeke zenzeke emvelweni, futhi isetshenziselwe ukwenza imikhiqizo enelungelo lobunikazi. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo zama-GMOs 2.0.

Ama-GMO we-biology yokwenziwa kufaka phakathi ukuguqula noma ukudala i-DNA ukuze kuhlanganiswe izinto ezihlanganisiwe kunokuzikhipha emithonjeni yemvelo. Izibonelo zifaka imvubelo yobunjiniyela noma ulwelwe ukudala ukunambitheka okufana ne-vanillin, i-stevia ne-citrus; noma amakha afana ne-patchouli, i-rose oil ne-clearwood - konke okungenzeka ukuthi sekuvele kumikhiqizo.

Ezinye izinkampani zithi izithako ezikhuliswa elebhu njengesixazululo sokusimama. Kepha udeveli usemininingwane izinkampani ezizimisele ukudalula. Yini ama-feedstocks? Eminye imikhiqizo yokwenziwa kwebhayoloji incike kushukela ovela kumakhemikhali amaningi asebenzisa amakhemikhali noma ezinye izidlo ezingcolisayo ezifana negesi ethosiwe. Kukhona nokukhathazeka ukuthi ulwelwe olunjiniwe lungabalekela emvelweni lube ngukungcola kokuphila.

Futhi yimuphi umthelela kubalimi abathembele ezitshalweni ezikhuliswe kahle? Abalimi emhlabeni wonke bakhathazekile ngokuthi abantu abangena esikhundleni esikhuliswa ngamalebhu, abathengiswa ngamanga “njengemvelo,” bangabakhipha ebhizinisini. Izizukulwane ngezizukulwane, abalimi baseMexico, eMadagascar, e-Afrika naseParaguay balime i-vanilla yemvelo ne-organic, ibhotela le-shea noma i-stevia. EHaiti, ukulima i-vetiver grass yokusetshenziswa kumakha aphezulu kakhulu kusekela abalimi abancane abangafika ku-60,000, okusiza ekuqiniseni umnotho owonakaliswe ukuzamazama komhlaba neziphepho.

Ngabe kunengqondo ukuhambisa lezi zinjini zezomnotho ziye eSouth San Francisco bese sondla ushukela olinywe efektri ngemvubelo ukuze senze amakha nesinongo eshibhile? Ngubani ozosizakala, futhi ngubani ozolahlekelwa, ekuguqulweni kwezitshalo kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme?

Izinhlanzi nezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo: izinkomo ezinezimpondo, izingulube ezithenwe ngokwemvelo, kanye namaqanda enkukhu aklanyelwe ukuba abe nomenzeli wemithi konke kusembhidlangweni wokuhlolwa kofuzo. Iphrojekthi yabesilisa bonke "terminator izinkomo" - enegama lekhodi "Abafana Kuphela" - ihlose ukudala inkunzi ezozala kuphela abantwana besilisa, ngaleyo ndlela "ibambe amathuba obudoda nokwenza imboni (yenyama) isebenze kangcono," kubika Ukubuyekezwa Kwezobuchwepheshe be-MIT.

Yini engase ihambe kabi?

Isazi sezakhi zofuzo esisebenza ezinkomeni ze-terminator, u-Alison Van Eenennaam wase-University of California, eDavis, ucela ukuthi abakwa-FDA bacubungule kabusha isinqumo sayo sango-2017 sokuphatha izilwane ezihlelwe yi-CRISPR sengathi ziyizidakamizwa ezintsha, ngaleyo ndlela zidinga izifundo zokuphepha; utshele i- Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT lokho “kungabeka umgomo omkhulu wokulawula ekusebenziseni le ndlela yokuhlela izakhi ezilwaneni.” Kepha akumele yini kube khona izidingo zokutadisha impilo, ukuphepha kanye nemithelela yemvelo yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nohlaka lokucabanga ngemithelela yokuziphatha, yokuziphatha neyenhlalo? Izinkampani zilwela kanzima ngaphandle kwezidingo; ngoJanuwari, uMongameli Trump wakhuluma nge-biotechnology okokuqala ngesikhathi esengumongameli futhi wenze isimemezelo esingacacile mayelana "nemithethonqubo yokwenza ngcono izinto."

Isilwane kuphela se-GMO emakethe kuze kube manje yi-AquaAdvantage salmon eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ze-eel ukuze ikhule ngokushesha. Izinhlanzi seziyathengiswa eCanada, kepha inkampani ngeke isho ukuthi ikuphi, futhi ukuthengiswa kwaseMelika kubanjiwe ngenxaizinkinga zokulebula.”Isifiso sokugcina imfihlo sinengqondo ngokubuka kokuthengisa: ama-75% wabaphenduli ku-a 2013 New York Times i-poll bathi ngeke badle izinhlanzi ze-GMO, futhi cishe okubili kokuthathu bathi ngeke bayidle inyama eshintshwe izakhi zofuzo.

Izindlela zokuthulisa i-Gene njengokuphazanyiswa kwe-RNA (RNAi) kungavala izakhi zofuzo ukudala izici ezithile. I-Arctic Apple engeyona nsundu yenziwa nge-RNAi ukwenqaba ukubonakaliswa kofuzo okwenza ama-apula abe nsundu futhi abe mushy. Njengoba inkampani ichaza kwiwebhusayithi yayo, "lapho i-apula lilunywa, lisikiwe, noma lilinyazwe ngenye indlela… alikho i-apula elinsundu elinsundu elisele ngemuva."

Ngabe abathengi empeleni bayasifuna lesi sici? Ukulungele noma cha lapha kuza. I-GMO Arctic Apple yokuqala, iGolden Delicious, yaqala ukubhekela izimakethe zokuhlola eMidwest ngenyanga edlule. Akekho osho ngqo ukuthi ama-apula afika kuphi, kepha ngeke abhalwe ukuthi i-GMO. Bheka uhlobo lwe- “Arctic Apples” uma ufuna ukwazi ukuthi ngabe udla i-apula elenziwe ngofuzo.

"Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi sizobona izitshalo eziningi ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziwela ngaphandle kwegunya lomthetho." 

Amasu wokuhlela we-Gene njenge-CRISPR, TALEN noma i-zinc finger nucleases isetshenziselwa ukusika i-DNA ukuze kwenziwe izinguquko zofuzo noma ukufaka izinto zofuzo. Lezi zindlela ziyashesha futhi zenziwe zinembe kakhulu kunezindlela zakudala ze-transgenic. Kodwa ukungabi bikho kokuqapha kukahulumeni kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka. "Kusengaba nemiphumela engahlosiwe kanye nemiphumela engahlosiwe," kuchaza uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union. “Uma ushintsha ufuzo lwezinto eziphilayo azihlali ziziphatha ngendlela olindele ngayo. Yingakho kubalulekile ukutadisha kahle imithelela yezempilo nezemvelo, kepha lezi zifundo azidingeki. ”

Ikhowe le-CRISPR elingenayo browning yeqe umthetho wase-US, njengoba Nature kubika ngo-2016. Uwoyela omusha we-CRISPR we-canola, owenzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, usezitolo manje futhi ungabizwa ngokuthi “okungeyona eye-GMO,” ngokuvumelana ne Bloomberg, njengoba uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US “usudlulile” ekulawuleni izitshalo ze-CRISPR. Le ndaba yaphawula ukuthi iMonsanto, iDuPont neDow Chemical "badlule esikhaleni sokulawula" futhi bashaya amadili okuthola ilayisense yokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokuhlela izakhi zofuzo.

Futhi lokho kuphakamisa elinye ifulegi elibomvu ngokulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO amasha azonikeza izinzuzo zabathengi izindlela zakudala ze-transgenic ezingazange zikwenze. "Ukuthi amasu ahlukile akusho ukuthi izici zizoba," kusho uDkt. Hansen. “Indlela yakudala yokwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo yayisetshenziswa kakhulu ukwenza izitshalo zimelane nokubulala ukhula nokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula. Izindlela ezintsha zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo cishe zizosetshenziswa ngendlela efanayo, kodwa kukhona ukusonteka okusha. ”

Ukuhaha Kwebhizinisi Kuqhathaniswa Nezidingo Zabathengi

Ingqungquthela "yokuguqula ukudla" yase-Atlantic ixhaswe yiDowDuPont. Bona okwethu ukubika ngaleyo ndaba.

Izinkampani ezinkulu kunazo zonke zezolimo emhlabeni ziphethe iningi lembewu kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi zihlanganisa amandla ezandleni zezinhlangano ezintathu kuphela zamazwe ngamazwe. IBayer neMonsanto basondela ekuhlanganeni, futhi ukuhlanganiswa kweChemChina / Syngenta neDowDuPont kuqediwe. IDowDuPont isanda kumemezela ukuthi uphiko lwayo lwebhizinisi lezolimo luzosebenza ngaphansi kwe- igama elisha uCorteva Agriscience, inhlanganisela yamagama asho “inhliziyo” “nendalo.”

Kungakhathaleki ukuthi yimaphi amaqhinga wokuphinda abeke uphawu lokuzama ukufaka uphawu, lezi zinhlangano zinemvelo esivele siyazi: zonke babe nemilando emide lokungazinaki izexwayiso zesayensi, ukumboza izingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo eyingozi nokushiya ngemuva ubucayi obunobuthi - Bhopal, dioxin, PCBs, napalm, Agent Orange, teflon, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, dicamba, ukubala nje amahlazo ambalwa.

Ukulandisa okugxila esikhathini esizayo kufihle lokho okwadlula kudala kanye neqiniso lamanje lokuthi lezi zinkampani zisebenzisa kanjani ubuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela namuhla, ikakhulu njenge ithuluzi lezitshalo ukusinda izifutho zamakhemikhali. Ukuze uqonde ukuthi lolu hlelo ludlala kanjani emhlabathini ekuholeni izindawo ezisebenzisa imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ze-GMO, funda imibiko mayelana nayo ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa eHawaii, amaqoqo omdlavuza e-Argentina, izindlela zamanzi ezingcolile e-Iowa futhi indawo yokulima eyonakele ngaphesheya kweMidwest.

Ikusasa lokudla ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwebhizinisi elikhulu lezolimo kanye nezinkampani zamakhemikhali akunzima ukuqagela - okuningi kwalokho asebevele bezama ukusithengisa: Izitshalo ze-GMO ezandisa ukuthengiswa kwamakhemikhali nezilwane zokudla ezenzelwe ukukhula ngokushesha futhi zilingane kangcono epulazini lefektri izimo, nemithi yokusiza. Umbono omuhle ngekusasa lenzuzo yezinkampani nokugxila kwengcebo namandla, kepha akukuhle kangako kubalimi, ezempilo yomphakathi, imvelo noma abathengi abafuna ikusasa elihlukile lokudla.

Izinombolo ezikhulayo zabathengi ziyafuna okwangempela, ukudla kwemvelo nemikhiqizo. Bafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwabo, ukuthi yakhiqizwa kanjani nokuthi yavelaphi. Kulabo abafuna ukwazi ngalokho abakudlayo, kusenendlela eqinisekile yomlilo yokugwema ama-GMO amadala namasha: thenga okuphilayo. Ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisiwe kwephrojekthi ye-Non-GMO kuphinda kuqinisekise ukuthi imikhiqizo ayenziwa ngobunjiniyela noma yenziwe nge-biology yokwenziwa.

Kuzobaluleka ukuthi imboni yokudla yemvelo ibambe umugqa ekuthembekeni kwalezi zitifiketi uma kuqhathaniswa nokuxokozela kwasendle kwama-GMO amasha.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi be-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”

Ukugcina Izimfihlo Kubathengi: Umthetho Wokulebula Ukuwina Kokusebenzisana Kwemboni Nezemfundo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uyizwile imantra kaninginingi - azikho izinkinga zokuphepha ezihambisana nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Lowo mkhuba, umculo wezindlebe zezimboni ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotech, uculwe kaningi ngabenzi bomthetho baseMelika abasanda kuphasisa umthetho kazwelonke ovumela izinkampani ukuthi zigweme ukusho emaphaketheni okudla uma leyo mikhiqizo inezithako ezakhiwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo.

USenen Pat Roberts, oweluse umthetho ngeSenethi, ukuchithile ukukhathazeka kwabathengi kanye nocwaningo oludale ukwesaba mayelana nezingozi zezempilo ezingaba khona ezihlobene nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ekunxenxenxeleni lowo mthethosivivinywa.

"Isayensi ikufakazele kaninginingi ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-biotechnology kwezolimo kuphephile ngamaphesenti ayi-100," URoberts umemezele esiteji seSenethi ngoJulayi 7 ngaphambi kokudluliswa komthethosivivinywa. Indlu yabe isivuma lesi silinganiso ngoJulayi 14 evotini elingu-306-117.

Ngaphansi komthetho omusha, manje osubheke etafuleni likaMengameli u-Obama, imithetho yombuso egunyaza ukufakwa kwe-GMO ayisebenzi, futhi izinkampani zokudla akudingeki zitshele abathengi ngokusobala ukuthi ukudla kuqukethe izithako ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo; esikhundleni salokho bangafaka amakhodi noma amakheli ewebhusayithi kumikhiqizo abathengi okufanele bayifinyelele ukuthola ulwazi lwesithako. Umthetho ngenhloso wenza kube nzima kubathengi ukuthi bathole imininingwane. Abenzi bomthetho abanjengoRoberts bathi kulungile ukufiphaza izingqinamba kubathengi ngoba ama-GMO aphephe kakhulu.

Kepha abathengi abaningi balwele iminyaka ukuthi ukudla kubhalwe ngokuqukethwe kwe-GMO ngokunembile ngoba abazemukeli izimangalo zokuphepha. Ubufakazi bethonya lobumbano kwabaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi ukuphepha kwe-GMO sekwenze kwaba nzima kubathengi ukuthi bazi ukuthi ngubani okumele bathembe nokuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe ngama-GMO.

“'Isayensi' seyiphenduke ipolitiki futhi yagxila ekuthengiseni izimakethe,” kusho uPamm Larry, umqondisi weqembu labathengi leLabelGMOs. "Umkhakha ulawula ukulandisa, okungenani ezingeni lezepolitiki." U-Larry namanye amaqembu asekela ukufaka amalebuli athi kunezifundo eziningi ezibonisa ukuthi ama-GMO angaba nemithelela emibi.

Kuleli sonto, tiphephandaba laseFrance i-Le Monde ungeze isizathu esisha sokungabaza ngezimangalo zokuphepha ze-GMO lapho iveza imininingwane ye-University of Uprofesa waseNebraska uRichard Goodman's sebenzela ukuvikela nokukhuthaza izitshalo ze-GMO ngenkathi uGoodman ethola uxhaso kumqambi wezitshalo weGMO uMonsanto Co kanye nezinye izinkampani zezitshalo nezamakhemikhali. Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili okutholwe ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information kukhombisa ukuthi uGoodman ubonisana noMonsanto njalo ngemizamo yokubuyisa imizamo yokuphoqeleka yokuphawula nge-GMO nokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kokuphepha kwe-GMO njengoba uGoodman enza "ukufinyelela kwezesayensi nokubonisana ngokuphepha kwe-GM" e-United States, e-Asia nase-European Union .

UGoodman ungomunye wososayensi abaningi baseyunivesithi yomphakathi abenza lo msebenzi. Ukusebenzisana okufanayo kudalulwe muva nje okubandakanya ososayensi bomphakathi emanyuvesi amaningana, kufaka phakathi iYunivesithi yaseFlorida neYunivesithi yase-Illinois. Ngokuqoqayo, ubudlelwano bugcizelela ukuthi iMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni balisebenzisa kanjani ithonya enkundleni yesayensi yama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ukusunduza amaphuzu avikela inzuzo yabo.

Ekuhlolweni kwayo kwalezo zinto ezikhathazayo, i-athikili yeLe Monde kukhanya kanjani ukuthi uGoodman, obesebenza eMonsanto iminyaka eyisikhombisa ngaphambi kokuthuthela eyunivesithi yomphakathi e2004, waqokwa njengomhleli ohambisanayo wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukudla neKhemikhali Toxicology (FCT) ukwengamela imibiko yocwaningo ehlobene ne-GMO. Ukuqamba kukaGoodman ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT kwenzeka ngemuva nje kokuba iphephabhuku lithukuthelise uMonsanto ngokushicilelwa kowezi-2012 kocwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini othole ukuthi ama-GMO kanye ne-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicide angadala izicubu eziyingozi kumagundane. Ngemuva kokuthi uGoodman ejoyine ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT lo magazini wahoxisa isifundo ngo-2013. (Kwakungu waphinde washicilelwa kumagazini ohlukile.) Abagxeki ngaleso sikhathi kusolwa ukuhoxiswa uboshwe ekuqokweni kukaGoodman ebhodini lokuhlela iphephabhuku. UGoodman ukuphikile noma yikuphi ukubandakanyeka ekuhoxisweni, futhi wesula kwi-FCT ngoJanuwari 2015.

Umbiko weLe Monde kubalulwe ukuxhumana kwe-imeyili okutholwe yiqembu lase-US lokukhuthaza abathengi i-US Right to Know (engikusebenzela). Ama-imeyili atholwe yile nhlangano akhombisa uGoodman exhumana noMonsanto ngokuthi angalugxeka kanjani lolu cwaningo lwaseSéralini ngemuva nje kokuthi lukhishwe "ngaphambi kokuphrinta" ngoSepthemba 2012. Ku-imeyili kaSepthemba 19, 2012, UGoodman wabhalela isazi sezobuthi saseMonsanto uBruce Hammond: “Uma nina bafana ninamaphuzu okukhuluma, noma ukuhlaziywa kwenhlamvu, ngingajabula.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokuthi umhleli we-FCT kuChief Wallace Hayes uthe uGoodman uqale ukusebenza njengomhleli ohambisanayo we-FCT ngoNovemba 2, 2012, kuyo leyo nyanga isifundo seSéralini sanyatheliswa, yize uGoodman wacashunwa kamuva ethi akazange abuzwe ukuthi angajoyina i-FCT kuze kube nguJanuwari 2013. Kuleyo imeyili, UHayes ucele iHammond kaMonsanto ukuba isebenze njengombuyekezi wemibhalo ethile yesandla ethunyelwe kulo magazini. UHayes uthe isicelo sosizo lukaHammond "senziwe nangoSolwazi uGoodman."

Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili kukhombisa ukuxhumana okuningi phakathi kwezikhulu zeMonsanto noGoodman njengoba uGoodman esebenzela ukuphikisa ukugxeka okuhlukahlukene kwamaGMO. Ama-imeyili ahlanganisa izihloko ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi isicelo sikaGoodman sokufaka kukaMonsanto esifundweni saseSri Lankan esithunyelwe ku-FCT; ukuphikisana kwakhe nolunye ucwaningo olwathola imithelela eyingozi emmbileni weMonsanto GMO; nokuxhaswa kwephrojekthi kusuka eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani zezitshalo ze-biotech ezakha cishe uhhafu womholo kaGoodman.

Ngempela, ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili ngo-Okthoba 2012 kukhombisa ukuthi ngesikhathi uGoodman esayinela iphephabhuku le-FCT futhi egxeka ucwaningo lwaseSeralini, uGoodman wayebuye azwakalise ukukhathazeka kubaxhasi bezimboni zakhe ngokuvikela imali ayitholayo njengo “profesa onemali.”

Ku-imeyili ka-Okthoba 6, 2014, UGoodman ubhalele uMholi Wezindaba Zesayensi Yezokuphepha Kokudla eMonsanto uJohn Vicini ukusho ukuthi ubebuyekeza “iphepha elimelene nephepha” futhi unethemba lokuthola ukuholwa okuthile. Iphepha okukhulunywa ngalo licaphune umbiko wango-2014 ovela eSri Lanka mayelana "nokuchayeka / ukuhlangana okungenzeka kanye nendlela ehlongozwayo yobuthi be-glyphosate ehlobene nesifo sezinso." IGlyphosate iyisithako esiyisihluthulelo semithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto's Roundup futhi isetshenziswa kuzilimo ezakhiwe ngofuzo zeRoundup Ready. I-World Health Organisation ngo-2015 yathi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu ngemuva kocwaningo oluningi lwesayensi oluxhume nomdlavuza. Kepha iMonsanto igcina i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ku-imeyili eya kuVicini, uGoodman uthe wayengenabo ubuchwepheshe obudingekayo futhi wacela iMonsanto ukuthi inikeze "izimpikiswano ezizwakalayo zesayensi zokuthi kungani lokhu kungenangqondo noma kungenangqondo."

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ezinye izibonelo zokuhlonipha kukaGoodman kuMonsanto. Njengoba i-Le Monde iveza, NgoMeyi 2012, ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwamazwana athile nguGoodman kudaba olukuwebhusayithi esebenzisana nosaziwayo u-Oprah Winfrey, uGoodman ibhekene nesikhulu seMonsanto "ngokushiya umfundi ecabanga ukuthi empeleni asazi ngokwanele ngale mikhiqizo ukusho uma 'ephephile.'” UGoodman wabe esebhalela abantu eMonsanto, eDuPont, eSyngenta, eBASF naseDow naseBayer futhi uxolise "kuwe nakuzo zonke izinkampani zakho," sayingukuthi wayecashunwe kabi futhi engaqondakali.

Kamuva nge-imeyili eyodwa kaJulayi 30, 2012, UGoodman wazise izikhulu zaseMonsanto, eBayer, eDuPont, eSyngenta naseBASF ukuthi uceliwe ukuthi enze inhlolokhono neNational Public Radio mayelana nokuthi bukhona yini ubudlelwano phakathi kwezitshalo zeGMO nokwanda kokungezwani komzimba nokudla. Ekuphenduleni ngo-Aug 1, 2012, isikhulu eBayer samnikeza “ukuqeqeshwa kwabezindaba” mahhala ngaphambi kwengxoxo yakhe.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokusebenza ngokubambisana kukaGoodman neMonsanto ukuzama ukunqoba imizamo yokulebula ye-GMO. Nge-imeyili eyodwa ka-Okthoba 25, 2014 kumphathi wezindaba zesayensi yomhlaba wonke waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs noVicini, uGoodman usikisela “imiqondo nemibono” ethile yezikhangiso ezingafundisa “abathengi / abavoti.” Ubhale ukuthi kubalulekile ukudlulisa "ubunzima bokunikezela kwethu kokudla" nokuthi ukuphoqelelwa okuphoqelekile kungangeza kanjani ezindlekweni uma izinkampani ziphendula ngokuthola izinto ezingezona eze-GMO. Wabhala ngokubaluleka kokudlulisa leyo mibono kwiSenate naseNdlu, kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi "imikhankaso yokufaka amalebuli iyehluleka."

Ama-imeyili futhi enza kucace ukuthi uGoodman uncike kakhulu ekusekelweni kwezezimali okuvela eMonsanto ezinze eSt. Louis nakwezinye izinkampani zezolimo ze-biotech ezihlinzeka ngemali "I-Allergen Database" yenganyelwe nguGoodman bese idabula uHlelo Lokudla Kokungezwani Nomzimba kanye Nezinsiza eNyuvesi yaseNebraska. Ukubheka isivumelwano soxhaso i-database ye-allergen yango-2013 ikhombise ukuthi ngayinye yezinkampani eziyisithupha ezixhasayo bekufanele zikhokhe cishe ama- $ 51,000 ngesabelomali esiphelele sama- $ 308,154 alowo nyaka. Umxhasi ngamunye lapho-ke “anganikela ngolwazi lwabo kule nqubo ebalulekile,” kusho isivumelwano. Kusuka ngo-2004-2015, kanye neMonsanto, izinkampani ezixhasayo zazihlanganisa iDow AgroSciences, iSyngenta, iDuPont's Pioneer Hi-Bred International, iBayer CropScience neBASF. Invoyisi eyodwa ka-2012 eya eMonsanto kwiDatabase Allergen Database icele ukukhokhelwa kwe- $ 38,666.50.

Inhloso yalolu lwazi kuhloswe ngayo "ukuhlola ukuphepha kwamaprotheni angafakwa ekudleni ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma ngezindlela zokucubungula ukudla." Amandla okungezwani okungahlosiwe kokunye ukudla okunezakhi zofuzo kungenye yokwesaba okuvamile okuvezwa ngamaqembu abathengi kanye nabanye ochwepheshe bezempilo nabezokwelapha.

Kumazwana esitezi seNdlu, UJim McGovern (D-Mass.) Uthe amakhodi e-QR ayeyisipho embonini yokudla efuna ukufihla imininingwane kubathengi. Umthetho "akuyona into enentshisekelo kumthengi waseMelika, kodwa ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezimbalwa ezikhethekile ezifunwayo," esho. "Wonke umuntu waseMelika unelungelo eliyisisekelo lokwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni abakudlayo."

UGoodman, uMonsanto nabanye abasemkhakheni we-biotech ag bangabungaza ukunqoba kwabo kwiCongress kodwa umthetho omusha wokulebula kungenzeka ukhiqize kuphela ukungabaza kwabathengi ngama-GMO uma kunikezwa iqiniso lokuthi kuphikisana nohlobo lokuveza obala abathengi abafuna - amagama ambalwa alula uma umkhiqizo “wenziwa ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo.”

Ukufihla ngemuva kwekhodi ye-QR akunikezi ukuzethemba.