ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Idatha entsha yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni iphakamisa imibuzo yokuphepha

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba abaseMelika beqoqa imindeni yabo ukuthi babelane ngesidlo se-Thanksgiving kuleli sonto, idatha entsha kahulumeni inikeza ukuhlolwa okungenakuphikisa kokuphakelwa kokudla kwase-US: Izinsalela zezinhlobo eziningi zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ama-fungicides kanye namakhemikhali okubulala ukhula zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-85 ezinkulungwane zokudla ihlolwe.

Imininingwane ekhishwe ngesonto eledlule nguMnyango Wezolimo wase-United States ikhombisa amazinga ahlukahlukene ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kukho konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumazambane kanye namagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Isampula elilodwa lama-strawberry laliqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engama-20, ngokusho kwe- “Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezinambuzane” (PDP) ukhishwe kule nyanga yi-USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service. Lo mbiko ungowama-25 wonyaka wokuhlanganiswa kwemininingwane yezinsalela ze-ejensi, futhi wahlanganisa izibonelo zalokho okwenziwa yi-USDA ngonyaka ka-2015

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi le nhlangano ithe amaphesenti ayi-15 kuphela amasampuli ayi-10,187 ahlolwe ayengenazo izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Lowo umehluko ophawulekayo kusukela kowezi-2014, lapho i-USDA yathola ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-41 amasampula “ayehlanzekile” noma engabonisanga izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Iminyaka engaphambilini ibuye ikhombise cishe amaphesenti ama-40-50 wamasampula njengamahhala ezinsalela ezitholakalayo, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. I-USDA ithe "akuvumelekile ngokwezibalo" ukuqhathanisa unyaka owodwa neminye, kepha, ngoba ukuxubana kwesampuli yokudla kuyashintsha unyaka nonyaka. Noma kunjalo idatha ikhombisa ukuthi u-2015 wayefana neminyaka eyedlule kulezo zithelo nemifino esanda kucutshungulwa neyacutshungulwa yakha inqwaba yokudla okuhloliwe.

Yize kungazwakala kunganambitheki, izinsalela ze-pesticides aziyona into abantu abangakhathazeka ngayo, ngokusho kwe-USDA. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezitholakale emikhiqizweni yezolimo ezisampuliwe zisezingeni elingazibeki engcupheni impilo yabathengi futhi ziphephile…"

Kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Abalawuli abanalo ucwaningo olwanele oluphelele mayelana nokuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo, okuphindaphindwayo kwezinsalela zezinhlobo eziningi zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kuyithinta kanjani impilo yomuntu esikhathini eside, futhi nokuqinisekisa kukahulumeni ukuphepha kumane kungamanga, kusho abanye ososayensi.

“Asazi ukuthi uma udla i-apula elinezinsalela eziningi nsuku zonke uzoba yini umphumela eminyakeni engu-20 usendleleni,” kusho uChensheng Lu, onguprofesa ohlotshaniswa nesayensi yokuchayeka kwemvelo eHarvard School of Public Health. “Bafuna ukuqinisekisa wonke umuntu ukuthi lokhu kuphephile kodwa isayensi ayanele. Udaba olukhulu lolu. ”

I-USDA ibike embikweni wayo wakamuva ukuthi amasampula angama-441 atholakele abhekwe njengabakhathazayo “njengokwephula ukubekezelela okucatshangelwayo,” ngoba izinsalela ezitholakele zingaphezulu kwalokho okulondwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) noma zitholakale ekudleni akulindelekile ukuthi ziqukathe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane nhlobo futhi ezingekho ezingeni lokubekezelelana ngokomthetho. Lawo masampuli aqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlukene engama-496, kusho i-USDA.

Isipinashi, ama-strawberry, amagilebhisi, ubhontshisi obuluhlaza, utamatisi, ukhukhamba kanye nekhabe kwakuphakathi kokudla okutholakala namazinga ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engekho emthethweni. Ngisho nezinsalela zamakhemikhali osekuyisikhathi eside zivinjelwe e-United States zitholakele, kufaka phakathi izinsalela ze-DDT noma ama-metabolites ayo atholakala kusipinashi namazambane. I-DDT yavalwa ngo-1972 ngenxa yezinkinga zezempilo nezemvelo mayelana nesibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukungabikho kwedatha ye-USDA bekukhona noma yiluphi ulwazi ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate, noma ngabe i-glyphosate kade yaba umuthi osetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi uvame ukufuthwa ngqo ezitshalweni eziningi, kufaka phakathi ummbila, isoya, ukolweni, ne-oats. Kuyisithako esiyisihluthulelo somuthi obizwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto Co., futhi kwamenyezelwa i-carcinogen yabantu ngonyaka odlule yiqembu lososayensi bomdlavuza bamazwe omhlaba abasebenza neWorld Health Organisation. Kepha iMonsanto ithe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni ziphephile. Inkampani icele i-EPA ukuthi khuphula amazinga okubekezelelana i-glyphosate ekudleni okuningana ngo-2013 futhi i-EPA yenze njalo.

Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa nakho njalo ngonyaka kusampula ukudla kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. Imibhalo emisha etholwe kwi-FDA ikhombisa amazinga angekho emthethweni ezinhlobo ezimbili zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane - i-propargite, esetshenziselwa ukubulala izibungu, ne-flonicamid, evame ukuhloselwa ukubulala ama-aphid nezimpukane ezimhlophe - zisanda kutholakala kuju. Imibhalo kaHulumeni ikhombisa nokuthi i-DEET, into ejwayelekile yokuxosha izinambuzane, isanda kutholwa ngabalawuli kuju, kwathi i-herbicide acetochlor yatholakala kumakhowe.

Ososayensi be-FDA baphinde babika amazinga aphezulu ngokungemthetho we-neonicotinoid thiamethoxam atholakala elayisi, ngokusho kwemininingwane evela ku-ejensi. Syngenta ubuzile Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ukuvumela izinsalela eziphakeme ze-thiamethoxam ezivunyelwe ezitshalweni eziningi ngoba inkampani ifuna ukuthi isetshenziswe kakhulu njengesifutho seqabunga. Lesi sicelo ne-EPA sisalindile, ngokusho kokhulumela i-ejensi.

The umbiko wakamuva wezinsalela zomphakathi ekhishwe yi-FDA ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga okwephula izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane abelokhu ekhuphuka eminyakeni yamuva. Ukwephulwa kwezinsalela kumasampula okudla kwasekhaya kufinyelele kumaphesenti angama-2.8 ngonyaka wezi-2013; kuphindwe kabili isilinganiso esibonwe ngonyaka ka-2009. Ukwephula umthetho kufinyelele kumaphesenti ayi-12.6 kokudla okuthengwa kwamanye amazwe ngo-2013, kusuka kumaphesenti ama-4 ngo-2009.

Njenge-USDA, i-FDA yeqe i-glyphosate emashumini eminyaka yokuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-pesticide. Kepha le nhlangano yethule uhlelo lwe- “Isabelo esikhethekile” kulo nyaka ukunquma ukuthi yimaphi amazinga we-glyphosate angahle abonakale eqenjini elincane lokudla. Usokhemisi we-FDA ubike ngokuthola izinsalela ze-glyphosate uju futhi imikhiqizo eminingi ye-oatmeal, kufaka phakathi ukudla kwezingane.

Private idatha yokuhlola okukhishwe kule nyanga kubike nokuba khona kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kuma-cheerios cereal, amakhukhi e-Oreo nokunye ukudla okuthandwa kakhulu okuhlanganisiwe.

IMIBUZO NGEMIPHUMELA EQUBUKA

Ukuthi abathengi kufanele bakhathazeke noma cha ngokudla okuqukethe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kuyindaba yengxabano eqhubekayo. Abathathu bezinhlangano zikahulumeni ezibandakanyeka ezindabeni zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zonke zikhomba kulokho ezikubiza ngokuthi "imikhawulo yezinsalela ephezulu" (MRLs), noma "ukubekezelelana," njengezimpawu zokuphepha. I-EPA isebenzisa imininingwane enikelwe imboni yezolimo ukusiza ukuthola ukuthi ama-MRL kufanele asethelwe kuphi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ngamunye nesitshalo ngasinye okulindeleke ukuthi kusetshenziswe kuso izibulala-zinambuzane.

Uma nje ukudla okuningi okusampuli kubonisa izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni okungezansi kwama-MRL, asikho isizathu sokukhathazeka, i-USDA igcina kanjalo. "Ukubikwa kwezinsalela ezikhona emazingeni angaphansi kokubekezelelwa okukhona kusebenza ukuqinisekisa nokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kokutholakala kokudla kwaboHlanga," kusho umbiko wezinsalela zango-2015. Imboni yezolimo inikezela ngeziqinisekiso ezibanzi, ithi akukho lutho olwesabayo ngokusebenzisa izinsalela zamakhemikhali ewathengisela abalimi ukuthi bawasebenzise ekukhiqizweni kokudla, noma ngabe kudlula ukubekezelelana okusemthethweni.

Kepha ososayensi abaningi bathi ukubekezelelana kuklanyelwe ukuvikela abasebenzisi bezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphezu kwabathengi. Ukubekezelelana kuyahlukahluka kakhulu kuye ngokuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kanye nesitshalo. Ukubekezelela isibulala-zinambuzane i-chlorpyrifos e-apula, ngokwesibonelo, kwehluke kakhulu kunenani lama-chlorpyrifos avunyelwe kwizithelo ezisawolintshi, noma kubhanana noma obisini, ngokuya ngemininingwane yokubekezelelana kukahulumeni.

Endabeni yama-chlorpyrifos, i-EPA empeleni ithe ifuna ukuhoxisa konke ukubekezelela ukudla ngoba izifundo zixhumanise ikhemikhali ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Yize i-ejensi isikhathi eside ibheka izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos ziphephile, manje i-ejensi ithi, kungenzeka ukuthi akunjalo.

“I-EPA, ngalesi sikhathi, ayikwazi ukunquma ukuthi ukuvezwa okuhlanganisiwe kwezinsalela zama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi konke ukuvezwa okulindelekile kokudla kanye nakho konke okunye ukuvezwa okungekho emsebenzini okunemininingwane ethembekile, kuphephile,” i-EPA kusho ngonyaka odlule. IDow AgroSciences, eyakha ama-chlorpyrifos ngawo-1960, uyabhikisha imizamo ye-EPA, iphikisana nokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos "iyithuluzi elibucayi" kubalimi. Embikweni wezinsalela zakamuva ze-USDA, i-chlorpyrifos itholakale kumapentshisi, ama-apula, isipinashi, ama-strawberry, ama-nectarine nokunye ukudla, yize kungenjalo emazingeni athathwa njengokwephula ukubekezelelana.

I-EPA ivikela umsebenzi wayo ngokubekezelelana, futhi ithi ibilokhu ihambisana noMthetho Wokuvikelwa Kwekhwalithi Yezokudla odinga ukuthi i-EPA ibheke imiphumela yokuqoqeka kwezinsalela zezinto “ezinendlela efanayo yobuthi.” Isikhungo sithi ukusetha ukubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane, kubheka izifundo ezilethwe izinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane ukuthola imiphumela engaba yingozi ikhemikhali elingaba nayo kubantu, inani lekhemikhali elingahlala ekudleni noma ekudleni nokunye okungavezwa kulo lelo khemikhali.

Kepha abagxeki bathi lokho akwenele ngokwanele - ukuhlolwa kufanele kubhekwe izimo ezingokoqobo ezibhekela imithelela ebanzi yokuqoqwa kwezinhlobo eziningi zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ukuthola ukuthi kuphephe kangakanani ukudla imixube ebonwa ekudleni kwansuku zonke, bathi. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane eziningi ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ekukhiqizweni kokudla zixhunyaniswe nezifo, ukwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka kokukhula, kanye nokushoda kokunaka / ukukhubazeka ezinganeni, kunesidingo esiphuthumayo sokuhlaziywa okujulile kwale mithelela yokuqoqeka, ngokusho kososayensi abaningi. Bakhomba iNational Research Council's isimemezelo Eminyakeni edlule lokho “ukudla okudliwayo kumelela umthombo omkhulu wokuchayeka kwezinsana nezingane ezinganeni, futhi ukutholakala kokudla kungabangela ukwanda kwezingozi zezempilo ezinganeni uma kuqhathaniswa nabantu abadala.”

"Ngokuchayeka kuyo yonke indawo imixube yamakhemikhali, iziqinisekiso zokuphepha ezincike ezinhlwini zemingcele enobuthi zingadukisa impela," kusho uLorrin Pang, isazi sezendalo eMnyangweni Wezempilo waseHawaii futhi owayengumeluleki we-World Health Organization.

UTracey Woodruff, owayengusosayensi ophakeme we-EPA futhi engumeluleki wezinqubomgomo ogxile kakhulu ekungcoliseni imvelo nasempilweni yezingane, uthe kunesidingo esicacile sokuthi kwenziwe olunye ucwaningo. UWoodruff uqondisa uHlelo Lwezempilo Yokuzala kanye Nezemvelo eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia San Francisco School of Medicine.

“Akuyona into encane le,” kusho yena. “Umqondo wonke wokubheka ukutholakala kokuqoqeka uyisihloko esishisayo kososayensi. Ukuhlola ukubekezelelana komuntu ngamunye sengathi kwenzeka ngasodwana akuyona inkomba enembile yalokho esikwaziyo - abantu bavezwa amakhemikhali amaningi ngasikhathi sinye futhi izindlela ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje azikwenzi lokho ngokwesayensi. ”

Abagxeki bathi ukuhlolisiswa kokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane kungenzeka kunciphise isinqumo sikaMongameli-okhethwe uDonald Trump sokuqamba igama UMyron Ebell ukwengamela imizamo yezinguquko e-EPA. U-Ebell, umqondisi we-Centre for Energy and Environment e-Competitive Enterprise Institute, ungummeli oqinile wezibulala-zinambuzane nokuphepha kwazo.

“Amazinga ezibulala-zinambuzane kuyaqabukela, uma kwenzeka, esondela emazingeni angaphephile. Noma izishoshovu zikhala impisi ngoba izinsalela zidlula umkhawulo kahulumeni lokho akusho ukuthi imikhiqizo ayiphephile, ”kusho i SAFEChemicalPolicy.org Iqembu lika-Ebell ligijima. "Empeleni, izinsalela zingaba ngaphezu kwamakhulu emikhawulo yokulawula izikhathi eziphindwe kayikhulu kodwa zihlale ziphephile."

Imiyalezo exubile yenza kube nzima ukuthi abathengi bazi ukuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe ngokuphepha kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, kusho uTherese Bonanni, ingcweti kwezokudla e-Jersey Shore University Medical Center.

"Yize umphumela wokuqoqwa kokudla la ma-toxin isikhathi eside ungaziwa, imininingwane yesikhashana ikhombisa ukuthi kunesizathu sokuqapha," esho. "Umyalezo oya kubathengi udideka kakhulu."

(I-Article ivele okokuqala ku- I-Huffington Post)

Ukugcina Izimfihlo Kubathengi: Umthetho Wokulebula Ukuwina Kokusebenzisana Kwemboni Nezemfundo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uyizwile imantra kaninginingi - azikho izinkinga zokuphepha ezihambisana nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Lowo mkhuba, umculo wezindlebe zezimboni ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotech, uculwe kaningi ngabenzi bomthetho baseMelika abasanda kuphasisa umthetho kazwelonke ovumela izinkampani ukuthi zigweme ukusho emaphaketheni okudla uma leyo mikhiqizo inezithako ezakhiwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo.

USenen Pat Roberts, oweluse umthetho ngeSenethi, ukuchithile ukukhathazeka kwabathengi kanye nocwaningo oludale ukwesaba mayelana nezingozi zezempilo ezingaba khona ezihlobene nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ekunxenxenxeleni lowo mthethosivivinywa.

"Isayensi ikufakazele kaninginingi ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-biotechnology kwezolimo kuphephile ngamaphesenti ayi-100," URoberts umemezele esiteji seSenethi ngoJulayi 7 ngaphambi kokudluliswa komthethosivivinywa. Indlu yabe isivuma lesi silinganiso ngoJulayi 14 evotini elingu-306-117.

Ngaphansi komthetho omusha, manje osubheke etafuleni likaMengameli u-Obama, imithetho yombuso egunyaza ukufakwa kwe-GMO ayisebenzi, futhi izinkampani zokudla akudingeki zitshele abathengi ngokusobala ukuthi ukudla kuqukethe izithako ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo; esikhundleni salokho bangafaka amakhodi noma amakheli ewebhusayithi kumikhiqizo abathengi okufanele bayifinyelele ukuthola ulwazi lwesithako. Umthetho ngenhloso wenza kube nzima kubathengi ukuthi bathole imininingwane. Abenzi bomthetho abanjengoRoberts bathi kulungile ukufiphaza izingqinamba kubathengi ngoba ama-GMO aphephe kakhulu.

Kepha abathengi abaningi balwele iminyaka ukuthi ukudla kubhalwe ngokuqukethwe kwe-GMO ngokunembile ngoba abazemukeli izimangalo zokuphepha. Ubufakazi bethonya lobumbano kwabaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi ukuphepha kwe-GMO sekwenze kwaba nzima kubathengi ukuthi bazi ukuthi ngubani okumele bathembe nokuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe ngama-GMO.

“'Isayensi' seyiphenduke ipolitiki futhi yagxila ekuthengiseni izimakethe,” kusho uPamm Larry, umqondisi weqembu labathengi leLabelGMOs. "Umkhakha ulawula ukulandisa, okungenani ezingeni lezepolitiki." U-Larry namanye amaqembu asekela ukufaka amalebuli athi kunezifundo eziningi ezibonisa ukuthi ama-GMO angaba nemithelela emibi.

Kuleli sonto, tiphephandaba laseFrance i-Le Monde ungeze isizathu esisha sokungabaza ngezimangalo zokuphepha ze-GMO lapho iveza imininingwane ye-University of Uprofesa waseNebraska uRichard Goodman's sebenzela ukuvikela nokukhuthaza izitshalo ze-GMO ngenkathi uGoodman ethola uxhaso kumqambi wezitshalo weGMO uMonsanto Co kanye nezinye izinkampani zezitshalo nezamakhemikhali. Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili okutholwe ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information kukhombisa ukuthi uGoodman ubonisana noMonsanto njalo ngemizamo yokubuyisa imizamo yokuphoqeleka yokuphawula nge-GMO nokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kokuphepha kwe-GMO njengoba uGoodman enza "ukufinyelela kwezesayensi nokubonisana ngokuphepha kwe-GM" e-United States, e-Asia nase-European Union .

UGoodman ungomunye wososayensi abaningi baseyunivesithi yomphakathi abenza lo msebenzi. Ukusebenzisana okufanayo kudalulwe muva nje okubandakanya ososayensi bomphakathi emanyuvesi amaningana, kufaka phakathi iYunivesithi yaseFlorida neYunivesithi yase-Illinois. Ngokuqoqayo, ubudlelwano bugcizelela ukuthi iMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni balisebenzisa kanjani ithonya enkundleni yesayensi yama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ukusunduza amaphuzu avikela inzuzo yabo.

Ekuhlolweni kwayo kwalezo zinto ezikhathazayo, i-athikili yeLe Monde kukhanya kanjani ukuthi uGoodman, obesebenza eMonsanto iminyaka eyisikhombisa ngaphambi kokuthuthela eyunivesithi yomphakathi e2004, waqokwa njengomhleli ohambisanayo wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukudla neKhemikhali Toxicology (FCT) ukwengamela imibiko yocwaningo ehlobene ne-GMO. Ukuqamba kukaGoodman ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT kwenzeka ngemuva nje kokuba iphephabhuku lithukuthelise uMonsanto ngokushicilelwa kowezi-2012 kocwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini othole ukuthi ama-GMO kanye ne-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicide angadala izicubu eziyingozi kumagundane. Ngemuva kokuthi uGoodman ejoyine ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT lo magazini wahoxisa isifundo ngo-2013. (Kwakungu waphinde washicilelwa kumagazini ohlukile.) Abagxeki ngaleso sikhathi kusolwa ukuhoxiswa uboshwe ekuqokweni kukaGoodman ebhodini lokuhlela iphephabhuku. UGoodman ukuphikile noma yikuphi ukubandakanyeka ekuhoxisweni, futhi wesula kwi-FCT ngoJanuwari 2015.

Umbiko weLe Monde kubalulwe ukuxhumana kwe-imeyili okutholwe yiqembu lase-US lokukhuthaza abathengi i-US Right to Know (engikusebenzela). Ama-imeyili atholwe yile nhlangano akhombisa uGoodman exhumana noMonsanto ngokuthi angalugxeka kanjani lolu cwaningo lwaseSéralini ngemuva nje kokuthi lukhishwe "ngaphambi kokuphrinta" ngoSepthemba 2012. Ku-imeyili kaSepthemba 19, 2012, UGoodman wabhalela isazi sezobuthi saseMonsanto uBruce Hammond: “Uma nina bafana ninamaphuzu okukhuluma, noma ukuhlaziywa kwenhlamvu, ngingajabula.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokuthi umhleli we-FCT kuChief Wallace Hayes uthe uGoodman uqale ukusebenza njengomhleli ohambisanayo we-FCT ngoNovemba 2, 2012, kuyo leyo nyanga isifundo seSéralini sanyatheliswa, yize uGoodman wacashunwa kamuva ethi akazange abuzwe ukuthi angajoyina i-FCT kuze kube nguJanuwari 2013. Kuleyo imeyili, UHayes ucele iHammond kaMonsanto ukuba isebenze njengombuyekezi wemibhalo ethile yesandla ethunyelwe kulo magazini. UHayes uthe isicelo sosizo lukaHammond "senziwe nangoSolwazi uGoodman."

Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili kukhombisa ukuxhumana okuningi phakathi kwezikhulu zeMonsanto noGoodman njengoba uGoodman esebenzela ukuphikisa ukugxeka okuhlukahlukene kwamaGMO. Ama-imeyili ahlanganisa izihloko ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi isicelo sikaGoodman sokufaka kukaMonsanto esifundweni saseSri Lankan esithunyelwe ku-FCT; ukuphikisana kwakhe nolunye ucwaningo olwathola imithelela eyingozi emmbileni weMonsanto GMO; nokuxhaswa kwephrojekthi kusuka eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani zezitshalo ze-biotech ezakha cishe uhhafu womholo kaGoodman.

Ngempela, ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili ngo-Okthoba 2012 kukhombisa ukuthi ngesikhathi uGoodman esayinela iphephabhuku le-FCT futhi egxeka ucwaningo lwaseSeralini, uGoodman wayebuye azwakalise ukukhathazeka kubaxhasi bezimboni zakhe ngokuvikela imali ayitholayo njengo “profesa onemali.”

Ku-imeyili ka-Okthoba 6, 2014, UGoodman ubhalele uMholi Wezindaba Zesayensi Yezokuphepha Kokudla eMonsanto uJohn Vicini ukusho ukuthi ubebuyekeza “iphepha elimelene nephepha” futhi unethemba lokuthola ukuholwa okuthile. Iphepha okukhulunywa ngalo licaphune umbiko wango-2014 ovela eSri Lanka mayelana "nokuchayeka / ukuhlangana okungenzeka kanye nendlela ehlongozwayo yobuthi be-glyphosate ehlobene nesifo sezinso." IGlyphosate iyisithako esiyisihluthulelo semithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto's Roundup futhi isetshenziswa kuzilimo ezakhiwe ngofuzo zeRoundup Ready. I-World Health Organisation ngo-2015 yathi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu ngemuva kocwaningo oluningi lwesayensi oluxhume nomdlavuza. Kepha iMonsanto igcina i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ku-imeyili eya kuVicini, uGoodman uthe wayengenabo ubuchwepheshe obudingekayo futhi wacela iMonsanto ukuthi inikeze "izimpikiswano ezizwakalayo zesayensi zokuthi kungani lokhu kungenangqondo noma kungenangqondo."

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ezinye izibonelo zokuhlonipha kukaGoodman kuMonsanto. Njengoba i-Le Monde iveza, NgoMeyi 2012, ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwamazwana athile nguGoodman kudaba olukuwebhusayithi esebenzisana nosaziwayo u-Oprah Winfrey, uGoodman ibhekene nesikhulu seMonsanto "ngokushiya umfundi ecabanga ukuthi empeleni asazi ngokwanele ngale mikhiqizo ukusho uma 'ephephile.'” UGoodman wabe esebhalela abantu eMonsanto, eDuPont, eSyngenta, eBASF naseDow naseBayer futhi uxolise "kuwe nakuzo zonke izinkampani zakho," sayingukuthi wayecashunwe kabi futhi engaqondakali.

Kamuva nge-imeyili eyodwa kaJulayi 30, 2012, UGoodman wazise izikhulu zaseMonsanto, eBayer, eDuPont, eSyngenta naseBASF ukuthi uceliwe ukuthi enze inhlolokhono neNational Public Radio mayelana nokuthi bukhona yini ubudlelwano phakathi kwezitshalo zeGMO nokwanda kokungezwani komzimba nokudla. Ekuphenduleni ngo-Aug 1, 2012, isikhulu eBayer samnikeza “ukuqeqeshwa kwabezindaba” mahhala ngaphambi kwengxoxo yakhe.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokusebenza ngokubambisana kukaGoodman neMonsanto ukuzama ukunqoba imizamo yokulebula ye-GMO. Nge-imeyili eyodwa ka-Okthoba 25, 2014 kumphathi wezindaba zesayensi yomhlaba wonke waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs noVicini, uGoodman usikisela “imiqondo nemibono” ethile yezikhangiso ezingafundisa “abathengi / abavoti.” Ubhale ukuthi kubalulekile ukudlulisa "ubunzima bokunikezela kwethu kokudla" nokuthi ukuphoqelelwa okuphoqelekile kungangeza kanjani ezindlekweni uma izinkampani ziphendula ngokuthola izinto ezingezona eze-GMO. Wabhala ngokubaluleka kokudlulisa leyo mibono kwiSenate naseNdlu, kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi "imikhankaso yokufaka amalebuli iyehluleka."

Ama-imeyili futhi enza kucace ukuthi uGoodman uncike kakhulu ekusekelweni kwezezimali okuvela eMonsanto ezinze eSt. Louis nakwezinye izinkampani zezolimo ze-biotech ezihlinzeka ngemali "I-Allergen Database" yenganyelwe nguGoodman bese idabula uHlelo Lokudla Kokungezwani Nomzimba kanye Nezinsiza eNyuvesi yaseNebraska. Ukubheka isivumelwano soxhaso i-database ye-allergen yango-2013 ikhombise ukuthi ngayinye yezinkampani eziyisithupha ezixhasayo bekufanele zikhokhe cishe ama- $ 51,000 ngesabelomali esiphelele sama- $ 308,154 alowo nyaka. Umxhasi ngamunye lapho-ke “anganikela ngolwazi lwabo kule nqubo ebalulekile,” kusho isivumelwano. Kusuka ngo-2004-2015, kanye neMonsanto, izinkampani ezixhasayo zazihlanganisa iDow AgroSciences, iSyngenta, iDuPont's Pioneer Hi-Bred International, iBayer CropScience neBASF. Invoyisi eyodwa ka-2012 eya eMonsanto kwiDatabase Allergen Database icele ukukhokhelwa kwe- $ 38,666.50.

Inhloso yalolu lwazi kuhloswe ngayo "ukuhlola ukuphepha kwamaprotheni angafakwa ekudleni ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma ngezindlela zokucubungula ukudla." Amandla okungezwani okungahlosiwe kokunye ukudla okunezakhi zofuzo kungenye yokwesaba okuvamile okuvezwa ngamaqembu abathengi kanye nabanye ochwepheshe bezempilo nabezokwelapha.

Kumazwana esitezi seNdlu, UJim McGovern (D-Mass.) Uthe amakhodi e-QR ayeyisipho embonini yokudla efuna ukufihla imininingwane kubathengi. Umthetho "akuyona into enentshisekelo kumthengi waseMelika, kodwa ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezimbalwa ezikhethekile ezifunwayo," esho. "Wonke umuntu waseMelika unelungelo eliyisisekelo lokwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni abakudlayo."

UGoodman, uMonsanto nabanye abasemkhakheni we-biotech ag bangabungaza ukunqoba kwabo kwiCongress kodwa umthetho omusha wokulebula kungenzeka ukhiqize kuphela ukungabaza kwabathengi ngama-GMO uma kunikezwa iqiniso lokuthi kuphikisana nohlobo lokuveza obala abathengi abafuna - amagama ambalwa alula uma umkhiqizo “wenziwa ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo.”

Ukufihla ngemuva kwekhodi ye-QR akunikezi ukuzethemba.

Iviki Elikhulu labadlali beBig Ag Monsanto neDow

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umhlangano Wabaninimasheya weMonsanto Udonsa Umlilo 

Abagxeki abaningi be-GMO kanye nabagxeki bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane bakhulume emhlanganweni waminyaka yonke wabaninimasheya weMonsanto Co. ngoLwesihlanu, Jan. 29 edolobheni lenkampani iCreve Coeur, eMissouri, becela inkampani ukuba ilungise ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo yezitshalo eyenziwe ngobunjiniyela kanye i-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide esetshenziswe kulezo zitshalo.

Abamele amasheya, kanye nabanye abavela ezinhlanganweni ezingaphandle, batshele uSihlalo kanye noMphathi Omkhulu weMonsanto uHugh Grant ukuthi inkampani kufanele ithathe izinyathelo eziningana, kufaka phakathi ukubika nganoma yiziphi izinhlelo zokunciphisa ubungozi empilweni yabantu kanye nemvelo eboshwe kuRoundup kanye nesithako sayo esiyinhloko, i-glyphosate. NgoMashi 2015, ochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation bahlukanisa i-glyphosate ngokuthi “mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.”Futhi IMonsanto ibhekene nezinsolo eziningi efakwe ngabasebenza emapulazini nabanye abathi iRoundup ibangele umdlavuza wabo.

"Njengoba kucatshangwa ukuthi cishe ingxenye yemali engenayo yeMonsanto ivela ku-Roundup nakwamanye ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate, ukufakwa kophawu lomkhiqizo oyinhloko wenkampani ngokuthi 'mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic' akuyona inqubekela phambili ethembeni lenkampani," kusho uJohn Harrington, oyi-CEO yeHarrington Investments. esitatimendeni.  Ukutshalwa kwezimali eHarrington ukuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zokweluleka ngokugxila kuzinhloso zezemvelo nezenhlalo, futhi kunohlelo olusebenzayo lokukhuthaza abaninimasheya.

Kanye neHarrington Investments, abamele i-Organic Consumers Association, omama abaseMelika yonkana, amaSumofU, iWomen International League for Peace and Freedom, kanye neGMO Free Midwest waya emhlanganweni ukubhikisha ukukhushulwa kwenkampani iRoundup, abathi ababhikishi kuhlobene nezifo ezahlukahlukene.

Leli qembu litshele uMonsanto's Grant ukuthi kunezibalo ezandayo zezifundo ezizimele ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, isifo sezinso nokuphazamiseka kwamahomoni.

UGrant ukuphambukile ukugxeka wathi kokubili i-glyphosate ne-GMOs kukhonjiswe ukuthi ziphephile: “Lona yi-20th unyaka wokutshala ama-GMO, ”kusho uGrant. "Kutshalwe amahektare ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezine emhlabeni ... ngaphandle kwenkinga eyodwa yezempilo. Le yimikhiqizo evivinywa kunazo zonke imboni yezokudla eyake yabona. ”

IMonsanto iletha cishe ama- $ 5 billion ngonyaka emholweni ovela ekuthengisweni kwe-Roundup nemikhiqizo ehlobene nayo.

Odokotela nososayensi baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngokuthambekela kwezempilo ezindaweni lapho abasebenzi basemapulazini nemiphakathi, njenge Hawaii futhi Argentina, Ukuvezwa okuphezulu kumakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuzilimo zeRoundup Ready, ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ukufafazwa nge-glyphosate.

Ukuphindwa komsindo okulalelwayo komhlangano kuyatholakala kuwebhusayithi kaMonsanto ku- www.monsanto.com/investors.

UDow Uthola Inkantolo Iya Phambili Nge-Herbicide Entsha Engqubuzanayo

Inkantolo yenhlangano yokudlulisa amacala inikeze iDow AgroSciences ukunqoba emzameni wokuphikisana wale nkampani wokuletha umuthi omusha wokhula ezindaweni zamapulazi zase-US. I-herbicide entsha, ebizwa nge-Enlist Duo, ihlanganisa i-glyphosate ne-2,4-D, zombili ezixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo.

The IChicago Tribune ibike kanjalo ukuthi iNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yesi-9 yase-US isichithile isicelo se-US Environmental Protection Agency sokushiya ososayensi bayo abavuma u-Dow weedkiller ngo-2014 ngaphandle kokuchaza isizathu salo myalelo.

I-herbicide entsha kaDow yenzelwe ukubhekana nokumelana nokubulala ukhula okusabalele okubambe cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-60 epulazini lase-US ngemuva kokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-glyphosate. IGlyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko seMonsanto Co's Roundup, yanda kakhulu ekukhiqizeni ummbila, ubhontshisi, ukotini nezinye izitshalo ngemuva kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo zeMonsanto ukumelana nokukhishwa kwamakhemikhali ngqo.

Faka i-Duo yakhelwe ukusetshenziswa ku- ummbila owenziwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo, ukotini kanye nobhontshisi ithuthukiswe yi-Dow ukuze ingavikeleki kumxube we-glyphosate-2,4D. NgoDisemba, i- IChicago Tribune yembule ukuthi i-EPA ivume u-Enlist Duo ngemuva kokuthi i-ejensi yehlise ubufakazi bezinkinga zezinso abacwaningi bakaDow uqobo abathi zibangelwe yi-2,4-D.

UDow uthe ubona umugqa we-Enlist wezitshalo namakhemikhali njengethuba lemakethe elingu- $ 1 billion.

Funda kabanzi lapha http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/watchdog/ct-dow-enlist-duo-court-ruling-20160127-story.html

Ubani Odala Ukuhlaselwa Kwase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kube nokuhlaselwa okumbalwa muva nje kwe-US Right to Know, ngakho-ke ngicabange ukuthi kungaba wusizo ukudweba ukuthi ngubani osemuva kwabo.

A Mashi 9 esihlokweni ku-Guardian wasigxeka ngokuthumela Izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act ukuthola ukuxhumana phakathi kosolwazi abakhokhela intela kanye nomshini wePR womkhakha wezokudla. Bobathathu ababhali be-athikili bangabongameli bangaphambilini be-American Association for the Advancement of Science. Kepha lo mbhalo wehlulekile ukudalula izibopho zabo zezezimali.

Umbhali wokuqala, uNina Federoff ubizwa ngokuthi "ngu-Evan Pugh Professor ePenn State University" kodwa uyakushiya lokho isebenza e-OFW Law, okuyi-firmhouse yokudla kanye ne-agribusiness lobbying firm. Umthetho we-OFW ubhaliswe njengokunxenxa i- Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology futhi Syngenta.

Sacela izincwadi ezivela kubo bobabili iSyngenta ne-CBI - amalungu abo afaka phakathi “I-BASF, iBayer CropScience, iDow AgroSciences, iDuPont, Inkampani yeMonsanto neSyngenta”- ukuze siqonde ukuthi kungani uNks.

Umbhali wesibili, uPeter Raven, ukhonjwa njengoMqondisi Emeritus weMissouri Botanical Garden, ehlanganiswe kakhulu neMonsanto kangangokuthi ine Isikhungo saseMonsanto futhi IMonsanto Hall. Umtapo Wezincwadi kaPeter H. Raven esitezi sesine seMonsanto Center. A Ukukhishwa kwezindaba zika-2012 uthi, "Inkampani yeMonsanto neMonsanto Fund bebe phakathi kwabanikele kakhulu eMissouri Botanical Garden kule minyaka engama-40 edlule, banikela cishe ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyishumi kumaphrojekthi amakhulu, isayensi nemfundo ngaleyo nkathi."

Umbhali wesithathu, uPhillip Sharp, usebenza eDavid H. Koch Institute eMIT - yebo, uDavid Koch ofanayo weKoch Brothers. Esihlokweni sabo, ababhali basifanisa nalabo abenqaba ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu. Okokuthi othile oxhunywe kwiKoch Institute ukuthi asixhumanise nabenqabayo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu akunakwenzeka. UDkt Sharp ubuye abe nobudlelwano obuseduze nemboni ye-biotech, njengomsunguli wenkampani iBiogen.

I-American Association for the Development of Science is esebenza njenge the Inhlangano yaseMelika Ekuthuthukisweni kweMonsanto. Lokho, ngokweqiniso, kuyilahleko yesayensi, nakithi sonke.

Futhi, iCornell Alliance for Science nayo besilokhu sihlasela i-US Right to Know futhi ukuhlela isikhalazo ngokumelene nezicelo zethu ze-FOIA mayelana nemboni yezolimo i-PR nemikhankaso yezepolitiki yokuvikela ama-GMO.

ICornell Alliance for Science yaqala ngonyaka owedlule nge “Isibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela kuBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, ”Isisekelo esikhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, okuyi- umgqugquzeli we futhi umtshali wezimali imboni yezolimo. Isikhulu esiphezulu seGates Foundation, uSue Desmond-Hellman, wasebenzela iminyaka eyishumi nane enkampanini ye-biotech iGenentech.

ICornell Alliance for Science ithi eyabo “Inhloso” ngukubukela phansi impikiswano ye-GMO, ”Kepha ukuhlasela iqembu lethu labathengi kuyindlela eyinqaba“ yokwehlisa isithunzi ”impikiswano ngemiphumela yezempilo nezemvelo yokudla nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-US Farmers and Ranchers Alliance - amaqiniso asemqoka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifinyezo

* Abaxhasi bafaka iMonsanto neDuPont

* Abalimi abancane bakugxekile ukusetshenziswa kwemali edingekayo yokumaketha ukukhuthaza i- “Big Ag”

* Abanye ozakwethu bahlanganisa iBASF, iDow

I-USFRA imelwe yi-PR giant uKetchum

Amaklayenti kaKetchum afaka phakathi iRussia Federation

Umsebenzi kaKetchum weRussian Federation uhlanganisa ukusunduza inkulumo-ze kaPutin, esiza emkhankasweni wokuba uPutin aqanjwe nge-Time Magazine ka-2007 “Umuntu Wonyaka”

* I-LA Times: "Inkulumo-ze yabalweli" exhaswa yi-USFRA

Abaxhasi Bafaka iMonsanto, iDuPont

Kusukela ngo-2011, i-USFRA bekufanele ibe nesabelomali seminyaka yonke esingu- $ 11 million.

Uxhaso lwaluzoqhamuka emalini ekhokhwayo yokumaketha uMnyango wezoLimo usiza ekuqoqeni kubalimi, nasezinkampanini ezinjengeMonsanto neDuPont, ngasinye sazo esazibophezela kumnikelo waminyaka yonke wama- $ 500,000. [New York Times, 9 / 27 / 11] 

Isabelomali se-Organisation Now Claims "singaphansi kwe- $ 12 Million," Kepha Izinhlelo Zokukhulisa

I-USFRA ithi isabelomali sayo njengamanje "singaphansi kwezigidi eziyi- $ 12," kodwa "Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, silindele ukuthi isabelomali sohlelo lwethu sikhule njengoba abahlanganyeli nabalingani bezimboni bejoyina inhlangano yethu." [http://www.fooddialogues.com/content/faqs]

Inhlangano Ibanga Okwesithathu Kwezimali Kuvela Kubalingani Bemboni

Ngokusho kwe-USFRA, amaphesenti angama-32 oxhaso lwayo luvela kozakwethu bezimboni.

"Amaphesenti angama-68 oxhaso lwethu luqhamuka kwabasebenzisana nabaholi abaholwa ngabalimi," kusho leli qembu. [http://www.fooddialogues.com/content/faqs]

Ozakwethu Bafaka i-BASF, iDow, Merck nabanye

“Iqembu likaPremier Partner Advisory Group” le-USFRA lifaka phakathi iDuPont neMonsanto, kanti i- “Industry Partner Council” yayo ifaka iBASF, Cargill, Dow AgroSciences, i-Elanco Animal Health, iMerck Animal Health, iSyngenta neZoetis. [http://www.fooddialogues.com/content/affiliates-board-participants-and-industry-partners]

Imali yabalimi abancane ecasulwa yimali ekhangiswayo yokumaketha esetshenziselwa ukukhuthaza i- “Big Ag”

 Embhalweni kaJanuwari 2014, Bloomberg Businessweek ubike ukuthi abalimi abancane bebekhala ngokusetshenziswa kwemali yokuphoqelela eyimpoqo, noma ama-checkoffs, ukuxhasa i-USFRA, bethi kufanele "baphambukele imali ukuxhasa imisebenzi nokukhangisa okuzuzisa ibhizinisi lezolimo, kepha hhayi labo abanemisebenzi emincane naphakathi nendawo . ”

Lo mbhalo waphawula ukuthi abalingani kanye nabalingani be-USFRA “kumane kuyizinhlobo zamaqembu ajwayele ukuhlotshaniswa ne-Big Ag,” nokuthi izindatshana ezikwi-USFRA zivame ukuxhasa ezolimo zezimboni, kufaka phakathi ukuxhasa izinzuzo zezitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo.

Kodwa lokhu kubangele intukuthelo evela kubalimi abancane, kubandakanya noMike Callicrate, umfuyi waseColorado owathi wakuthola “kucasula kakhulu” ukuthi i-USFRA ithola imali ekhokhiswayo yokuthengisa.

"Inhloso yalokhu kuhlolisiswa okwenziwe [USFRA] ukukhuthaza ezolimo zezimboni ezixosha ipulazi lomndeni ngaphandle kwebhizinisi," kusho uCallicrate. [Bloomberg Businessweek, 1 / 29 / 14]

I-PR Giant Ketchum imele i-USFRA

Ngo-2011, i-USFRA yamemezela ukuthi i-PR giant uKetchum uzosebenza njengenhlangano eyinhloko yezokuxhumana. [I-Agri-Pulse, 3/24/11]

Uhulumeni waseRussia Phakathi Kwamaklayenti KaKetchum, Usiza u-Putin Akhiqize Inkulumo-ze

Kusukela ngo-2006, uKetchum usebenze njengefemu ye-PR yeRussian Federation, esiza uhulumeni waseRussia ukubeka izingcezu zemibono emithonjeni yezindaba zaseMelika, kufaka phakathi New York Times, iHuffington Post neMSNBC.

Elinye lamakholomu avuliwe, avele kufayela le- New York Times, yanyatheliswa ngaphansi komugqa womugqa kaVladimir Putin. [I-ProPublica, 9/12/13; New York Times, 8 / 31 / 14]

The New York Times yabika ngo-2014 ukuthi “Inkampani isasebenza nabeluleki abaseduze bakaMnu. Putin, ngokusho kwabasebenzi baseKetchum bamanje nabakade besebenza.

The Times ibike ukuthi uKetchum “uthe kusebenzisana nephephabhuku i-Time ukuthi uMnu. Putin aqambe igama lalo magazini ngokuthi Umuntu Wonyaka.” [New York Times, 8 / 31 / 14]

U-Ketchum Umele Inkampani Yezamandla Elawulwa Nguhulumeni waseRussia iGazprom

Kuze kube muva nje, uKetchum ubesebenza njengefemu ye-PR yenkampani yezamandla elawulwa nguhulumeni waseRussia, iGazprom. [New York Times, 8 / 31 / 14]

UKetchum usebenzele iDow Chemical

UKetchum usebenzele (futhi angaqhubeka nokusebenzela) iDow Chemical. [Amarekhodi enkantolo eDC]

Amanye amaklayenti e-Ketchum afaka phakathi izinkampani ezidayisa izidakamizwa, izinkampani zamakhemikhali, abakhiqizi bokudla

    • Inkampani yeClorox
    • UFritito-Lay
    • Hershey sika
    • Pfizer
    • I-Procter & Gamble
    • I-Wendy's International

[Idatha Eqinile Yobudlelwano Bomphakathi ne-O'Dwyer]

I-LA Times"Idokhumentari Yesimo Sokuxhaswa Kwabantu Nge-USFRA"

NgoMeyi 2014, i Los Angeles Times ushicilele ukubuyekezwa kwedokhumentari Ipulazi, lokho kwenziwa "ngokuxhaswa ngokukhululekile" kwe-USFRA.

The Times Ukubuyekeza kuthi le filimu "ivame ukuphuma njengenkulumo-ze yokucela usizo," kanye "nocezu lokukhukhumeza." Ngenkathi idokhumentari iqukethe abalimi abasekela baphikise inqubo yokulima engokwemvelo, ifilimu “ayinikezi izibalo noma ochwepheshe abangahlangene ukuxhasa noma ukuphikisa noma yiziphi izimangalo zabalimi futhi inikeze umbono obanzi.” [Los Angeles Times, 5 / 1 / 14]