IBayer ixazulula icala le-US Roundup, dicamba kanye ne-PCB ngemali engaphezu kwama- $ 10 billion

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ekuhlanzweni okubizayo kwezinkinga zamacala eMonsanto, iBayer AG ithe ngoLwesithathu izokhokha imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo zaseMelika ezilethwe iMonsanto nge-Roundup herbicide, kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-10 ukuxazulula amacala ngaphezu kweMonsanto i-dicamba herbicide kanye ne- $ 400 million yezimangalo zokungcola kwe-PCB.

Izinqumo kuza eminyakeni emibili ngemuva kokuthi iBayer ithenge iMonsanto ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 futhi cishe ngokushesha yabona ukwehla kwamanani ezabelo ngenxa yesikweletu seRoundup.

IBayer imemezele ukuthi izokhokha imali eyizigidigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyisi-RNUMX ukuxazulula cishe amaphesenti angama-10.1 wezimangalo zabantu abalinganiselwa kwabangu-10.9 abasola ukutholakala kwababulali bokhula baseMonsanto bakaRoundup ababangele ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lesi sivumelwano sibandakanya abamangali abagcine abameli ngenhloso yokufaka amacala kodwa amacala abo engakafakwa, kusho uBayer. Ngaphakathi kwenani eliphelele, ukukhokhwa kwe- $ 75 billion kuya ku- $ 125,000 billion kuzoxazulula amacala akhona manje kanti u- $ 8.8 billion ubekelwa eceleni ukuxhasa amacala angaba khona esikhathini esizayo, kusho inkampani.

Abamangali abafakiwe kulesi sivumelwano yilabo abasayinwe namafemu abelokhu behola i-Roundup federal multi-district litigation (MDL) kanti bahlanganisa iMiller Firm yaseVirginia, inkampani yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman yaseLos Angeles kanye ne-Andrus Wagstaff firm waseDenver, eColorado.

"Ngemuva kweminyaka yamacala abalwa kanzima kanye nonyaka wokulamula okukhulu ngiyajabula ukubona amakhasimende ethu esezonxeshezelwa," kusho uMike Miller, wenkampani yabameli bakwaMiller.

Inkampani yakwaMiller kanye neBaum Hedlund basebenze ngokubambisana ukunqoba icala lokuqala lokuqulwa kwecala, lelo lika-Dewayne “Lee” Johnson wase-California. U-Andrus Wagstaff unqobe ukuqulwa kwecala lesibili kwathi iMiller Firm yalinqoba icala lesithathu lokuthi liqulwe. Sekukonke, lezi zilingo ezintathu zaholela ekutheni izinqumo zabasizi zifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2.3, yize abahluleli ecaleni ngalinye behlisa izinqumo.

Amajaji kuzo zonke lezi zivivinyo ezintathu athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto, njenge-Roundup, abangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi iMonsanto yahlanganisa izingozi futhi yehluleka ukuxwayisa abasebenzisi.

Isigwebo ngasinye kulawa mathathu sesidlula kwinqubo yokudluliswa kwamacala manje kanti uBayer uthe abamangali kulawo macala abafakiwe esivumelwaneni.

UBayer uthe izimangalo zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo zizoba yingxenye yesivumelwano sekilasi esivunyelwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia, owayalela inqubo yokulamula yonyaka wonke eyaholela ekuxazululeni.

Isivumelwano sizothatha noma yikuphi okutholakele esikhathini esizayo mayelana nezicelo zomdlavuza ezandleni zamajaji, kusho uBayer. Esikhundleni salokho, kuzoba nokwakhiwa kwe "Class Science Panel" ezimele. IClass Science Panel izonquma ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup ingadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi uma kunjalo, ngamazinga aphansi okuvezwa. Bobabili abamangali besenzo sekilasi neBayer bazoboshwa ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel. Uma iClass Science Panel inquma ukuthi alukho uxhumano oluyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma lapho-ke amalungu ekilasi azovinjelwa ukuthi afune ngenye indlela kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo elibhekene neBayer.

UBayer uthe ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel kulindeleke ukuthi kuthathe iminyaka eminingana futhi amalungu ekilasi ngeke avunyelwe ukuqhubeka nezimangalo zeRoundup ngaphambi kwalesi sinqumo. Futhi abakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa, kusho uBayer.

"Izivumelwano zeRoundup ™ zakhiwe njengesinqumo esakhayo nesifanelekile enkantolo eyingqayizivele," kusho uKenneth R. Feinberg, umlamuli oqokwe yinkantolo wezingxoxo zokuhlala.

Ngisho nalapho bememezela ukukhokhiswa, izikhulu zeBayer zaqhubeka nokuphika ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides kaMonsanto ibangela umdlavuza.

"Iningi lesayensi likhomba ukuthi iRoundup ayiwudali umdlavuza, ngakho-ke, akuyena obhekene nezifo okusolakala ukuthi zibhekene naleli cala," kusho isikhulu seBayer uWerner Baumann esitatimendeni.

Ukusebenzisana kukaDicamba

I-Bayer iphinde yamemezela isivumelwano se-mass tort sokuxazulula amacala e-US dicamba drift, okubandakanya izimangalo ezivela kubalimi ezisebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides akhiqizwe yi-Monsanto ne-BASF ukuthi afuthwe ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezakhiwe yi-Monsanto zidale ukulahleka nokulimala kwezitshalo okwandile.

Ekulingweni ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka, iMonsanto kwathiwa akhokhe $ 265 million kumlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift engadini yakhe yezithelo.

Bangaphezu kwekhulu abanye abalimi abafake izicelo ezifanayo zomthetho. IBayer ithe izokhokha imali efinyelela ezigidini ezingama- $ 100 ukuxazulula udaba lwamacala ezifundazwe ezehlukene ezisalindwe eNkantolo yesiFunda saseMelika esifundeni saseMpumalanga yeMissouri, nezicelo zeminyaka yokulima ka-400-2015. Abamangali kuzodingeka ukuthi banikeze ubufakazi bokulimala komkhiqizo wezitshalo nobufakazi bokuthi bekufanele kungenxa yedicamba ukuze iqoqwe. Le nkampani ilindele umnikelo ovela kummangalelwa kanye nayo, i-BASF, kule ndawo yokuhlala.

Lesi sivumelwano sizohlinzeka "ngezinsizakusebenza ezidingeka kakhulu kubalimi" abake balahlekelwa isivuno ngenxa yokukhukhula kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho ummeli uJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yabameli bePeiffer Wolf, emele abalimi abanezimangalo ze-dicamba.

"Isivumelwano esimenyezelwe namuhla yisinyathelo esibalulekile sokwenza izinto zilunge kubalimi abafuna nje ukuthi bakwazi ukubeka ukudla etafuleni laseMelika nasemhlabeni," kusho uPeiffer.

Ekuqaleni kwalenyanga a inkantolo yenhlangano yanquma ukuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma ama-dicamba herbicides enziwe yiMonsanto, BASF kanye neCorteva Agriscience. Inkantolo ithole i-EPA ingazinaki izingozi zomonakalo we-dicamba.

Indawo Yokungcola Kwe-PCB

IBayer iphinde yamemezela uchungechunge lwezivumelwano ezixazulula amacala inkampani ethe zimelela kakhulu ukutholakala kwayo ezinkantolo ezibandakanya ukungcoliswa kwamanzi yi-PCB, okwenziwa yiMonsanto kwaze kwaba ngu-1977. Isivumelwano esisodwa sisungula isigaba esifaka bonke ohulumeni basekhaya abanezimvume ze-EPA ezibandakanya ukukhishwa kwamanzi okungakhubazekile Ama-PCB. IBayer ithe izokhokha isamba semali elinganiselwa ku- $ 650 million ekilasini, okuzodingeka ukuthi inkantolo ivume.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iBayer ithe ingene ezivumelwaneni ezihlukene noMmeli-Jikelele waseNew Mexico, Washington, kanye ne-District of Columbia ukuxazulula izimangalo ze-PCB. Kulezi zivumelwano, ezihlukile ekilasini, iBayer izokhokha ngokuphelele cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyi-170.

UBayer uthe ukuphuma kwemali okungahle kube khona ngeke kweqe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5 ngonyaka wezi-2020 kanye namaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5 ngonyaka wezi-2021 ngemali esele esele izokhokhwa ngo-2022 noma kamuva.

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

Isenzo Sombuso

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

Background

I-Dicamba ibisetshenziswa ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960 kodwa ngemikhawulo ebicubungule ukuthambekela kwamakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuthambeka- kusuka kude lapho kufuthwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula yaseMonsanto ethandwayo, efana neRoundup, iqala ukuphelelwa ngamandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo i-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo

Izidlakela zamakhemikhali ezethukile zifuna indlela enkantolo lapho kuvinjelwa ababulali babo bokhula

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bephawula “isimo esiphuthumayo,” imidondoshiya yamakhemikhali i-BASF ne-DuPont bacele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi ibavumele bangenelele ecaleni lapho inkantolo ekuqaleni kwenyanga yayalela ukuthi imithi yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ivinjelwe ngokushesha kanye nomkhiqizo we-dicamba owenziwe ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG .

Isenzo sezinkampani zamakhemikhali silandela a Isinqumo sangoJuni 3 yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye eyathi i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

I-EPA weqe lowo myalo, kodwa-ke, ukutshela abalimi ukuthi bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu amapulazi nabathengi abafake icala okokuqala bephikisana ne-EPA babuyela enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, ukucela umyalelo ophuthumayo ephethe i-EPA ngokudelela. Inkantolo yanikeza i-EPA kuze kuphele usuku ngoLwesibili, ngoJuni 16, ukuba iphendule.

Isiphithiphithi Ezweni Lepulazi

Umyalelo ovimbela imikhiqizo yezinkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lepulazi ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya nabakotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe yilaba abathathu izinkampani.

“Uhlelo lwezitshalo lwe-dicamba” luhlinzekela abalimi ukuthi batshale amasimu abo ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba, abangazifafaza “ngaphezulu-phezulu” ngombulali wokhula we-dicamba. Uhlelo luye lwacebisa izinkampani ezidayisa imbewu namakhemikhali futhi lusize abalimi abatshala ukotini okhethekile obekezelela i-dicamba noshuya ukubhekana nokhula olunenkani olumelana nemikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate-based Roundup.

Kepha kwinani elikhulu labalimi abangazitshali izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-dicamba herbicides kusho ukulimala nokulahleka kwezitshalo ngoba i-dicamba ithambekele ekukhuphukeni nasekukhukhulekeni amabanga amade lapho ingabulala khona izitshalo, izihlahla nezihlahlana hhayi ukuguqulwa kofuzo ukumelana nekhemikhali.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba drift. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi okonakele kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yaphawula kulesi sinqumo sayo.

Abalimi abaningi baqale bagubha isinqumo senkantolo futhi bakhululeka ukuthi amapulazi abo kanye nezithelo zabo zezithelo zizosinda kuleli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba ababhekane nawo ehlobo langaphambilini. Kepha ukukhululeka kube okwesikhashana lapho i-EPA ithi ngeke iphoqe ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa okunqunywe yinkantolo.

Ekugcwaliseni okwenziwe ngoLwesihlanu, IBASF incenge inkantolo hhayi ukuphoqelela ukuvinjelwa ngokushesha futhi watshela inkantolo ukuthi kuzodingeka ivalwe indawo yokukhiqiza eBeaumont, eTexas, okwamanje "esebenza amahora angama-24 ngosuku cishe ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" uma ingakwazi ukukhiqiza uhlobo lwayo lwe-dicamba herbicide olubiziwe Engenia. I-BASF isebenzise u- $ 370 million eminyakeni eyedlule ithuthukisa lesi sitshalo futhi iqashe abantu abayi-170 lapho, kusho inkampani.

Iqaphela "ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu" kumkhiqizo wayo, i-BASF iphinde yatshela inkantolo ukuthi kunokwanele komkhiqizo wayo njengamanje kuso sonke "isiteshi samakhasimende" sayo ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-26.7 kasoya nobotini. I-BASF inomkhiqizo owengeziwe obiza u- $ 44 million we-Engenia dicamba onawo, owanele ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-6.6 kabhontshisi nokotini, kusho inkampani.

UDuPont / Corteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, etshela inkantolo ekufayilini kwayo ukuthi ukuvinjelwa "kulimaza ngqo" inkampani "kanye nabalimi abaningi ezweni lonke abaphakathi nenkathi yokukhula." Kuzolimaza “isithunzi” senkampani uma kuvalwa umuthi wayo wokubulala ukhula, inkampani itshele inkantolo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukudala "imali engenayo" ngokuthengisa umuthi wayo we-dicamba, obizwa ngeFeXapan futhi uzolahlekelwa yileyo mali uma ukuvinjelwa kuphoqelelwa, kusho inkampani.

IMonsanto ibisebenza kuleli cala elisekela ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesinqumo, kepha bobabili i-BASF neDuPont bagomela ngokungeyikho ukuthi icala lasenkantolo lisebenza kuphela emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto hhayi kweyabo. Inkantolo ikubeke kwacaca nokho ukuthi i-EPA yamukele ngokungemthetho imikhiqizo eyenziwe yizo zontathu lezi zinkampani.

Iholwa yiCentre for Food Safety, isicelo esimelene ne-EPA silethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iCentre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Ngokucela inkantolo ukuthi ithole i-EPA ngokwedelela, i-consortium ixwayise ngomonakalo wezitshalo ozofika uma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ingavinjelwe ngokushesha.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukufafazwa kwamakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyi-16 ngaphezulu kwe-dicamba kanye nomonakalo odaleke ezigidini zamahektare, kanye nezingozi ezinkulu ezinhlotsheni zezilwane ezisengozini enkulu," kusho le nhlangano. “Kukhona okunye futhi okusengcupheni: umthetho. INkantolo kumele isebenze ukuvimbela ukungabi nabulungisa futhi ixhase ubuqotho benqubo yokwahlulela. Futhi ngenxa yokushaywa indiva kwe-EPA ngokusobala ngesinqumo seNkantolo, abafaki bezikhalazo banxusa iNkantolo ukuthi ibukele phansi i-EPA. ”

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izindaba zakamuva: Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US umemezele ngo-Okthoba 27 kuzovumela abalimi base-US ukuthi baqhubeke nokufafaza izitshalo ngomuthi we-weerkiller we-Bayer AG osetshenziswe kuma-soya kabhontshisi we-GMO kanye ne-cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkantolo ovimba ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yanquma ukuthi I-EPA “ibubeke eceleni kakhulu ubungozi” bababulali bokhula be-dicamba. Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-US imangalela iBayer (phambilini eyayiyiMonsanto) kanye ne-BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa kakhulu kwe-dicamba. Sithumela imibhalo yokuthola nokuhlaziywa kwezilingo ku- Ikhasi le-Dicamba Papers.

Uhlolojikelele

I-Dicamba (I-3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) iyinhlangano ebanzi i-herbicide yaqala ukubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-herbicide isetshenziselwa izitshalo zezolimo, umhlaba olinywayo, amadlelo, i-turfgrass kanye ne-rangeland. IDicamba ibhaliswe futhi ekusetshenzisweni okungezona kwezolimo ezindaweni zokuhlala nakwezinye izindawo, ezinjengezinkundla zegalofu lapho isetshenziswa kakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamaqabunga abanzi njengama-dandelions, i-chickweed, i-clover kanye ne-ivy yomhlabathi.

Imikhiqizo engaphezu kwe-1,000 XNUMX edayiswa e-United States efaka phakathi i-dicamba, ngokusho kweNational Pesticide Information Center. Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-auxin agonist: ikhiqiza ukukhula okungalawuleki okuholela ekufeni kwezitshalo.

Ukukhathazeka Ngezemvelo 

Izinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ngokushushumbisa kude nalapho zisetshenziswe khona, futhi ngokuvamile zazingasetshenziswa kabanzi phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele lapho zazingabulala khona izitshalo noma izihlahla ezazingahlosiwe.

I-Ejensi Yezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ivume ukubhaliswa kwamafomu amasha e-dicamba ngo-2016, kodwa-ke, ivumela ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ezitshalweni ezikhulayo ze-dicamba ezibekezelela ukotini nezimbotyi zesoya. Ososayensi baxwayise ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kuzoholela ekulimaleni kwe-dicamba drift.

Ukusetshenziswa okusha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kokumelana nokhula kabanzi emithini yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate, kubandakanya nomkhiqizo odumile weRoundup, owethulwe nguMonsanto ngawo-1970. Ngama-1990s, iMonsanto yethula izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate, yaphinde yakhuthaza abakwa-famers ukuthi basebenzise izinhlelo zabo zokutshala "Roundup Ready". Abalimi bangatshala isoya sikabhontshisi we-glyphosate obekezelela izakhi zofuzo zikaMonsanto, ummbila, ukotini nezinye izitshalo, bese befutha imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula efana ne-Roundup ngqo ngaphezulu kwezitshalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Uhlelo lwenza ukuphathwa kokhula kube lula kubalimi ngoba babekwazi ukufafaza amakhemikhali ngqo kuwo wonke amasimu abo ngenkathi yokukhula, kuqeda ukhula olwaluncintisana nezitshalo ukuthola umswakama nomsoco womhlabathi.

Ukuthandwa kohlelo lweRoundup Ready kwaholela ekwandeni kokumelana nokhula, kepha, kushiya abalimi ngezinsimu zokhula oluqinile ezazingasafi lapho zifuthwa nge-glyphosate.

Ku-2011 iMonsanto imemezele ukuthi i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Uthembele ebangeni elide ngokwako” futhi ithe ihlela ukusebenzisana neBASF nokwenza uhlelo lokutshala izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezizobekezelela ukufuthwa nge-dicamba. Ithi izokwethula uhlobo olusha lwe-dicamba herbicide olungeke lukhukhuleke luqhelelene namasimu lapho lufuthwe khona.

Kusukela kwethulwa uhlelo olusha, izikhalazo ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift sezikhuphukile ezifundeni eziningana zepulazi, kufaka phakathi izikhalazo eziningi ezivela e-Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri nase-Arkansas.

Embikweni wangomhla ziyi-1 ku-Novemba 2017, i-EPA ithe ithole uphenyo olusemthethweni lokulimala kwezitshalo ezingama-2,708 (njengokusho kweminyango yezolimo). Le nhlangano ithe bekungaphezu kwamahektare ayizigidi ezingama-3.6 kabhontshisi owathinteka ngaleso sikhathi. Ezinye izitshalo ezithintekile bekungotamatisi, ikhabe, ikantaloupe, izivini, amathanga, imifino, ugwayi, izingadi zokuhlala, izihlahla nezihlahlana

NgoJulayi 2017, uMnyango Wezolimo waseMissouri wakhipha okwesikhashana i- "Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order," kuyo yonke imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eMissouri. Umbuso wasusa lesi sinqumo ngoSepthemba 2017.

Le yimikhiqizo ethile ye-dicamba:

Ngo-Okthoba 31, 2018, i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yamemezela ukwelulwa kokubhaliswa kwe-Engenia, XtendiMax neFeXapan ngonyaka ka-2020 ukuze kusetshenziswe “ngaphezulu” ezindaweni ezingabekezeleleki zikakotini nezimboni zesoya. I-EPA ithe ithuthukise amalebuli wangaphambilini futhi yafaka ezinye izindlela zokuvikela ngomzamo wokukhulisa impumelelo nokusetshenziswa okuphephile komkhiqizo emkhakheni.

Ukubhaliswa kweminyaka emibili kusebenza ngokusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA isho lezi zinhlinzeko ezilandelayo:

  • Abafakizicelo abaqinisekisiwe kuphela abangafaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (labo abasebenza ngaphansi kweso lomfakisicelo oqinisekisiwe bangabe besakwazi ukwenza izicelo)
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi ezinsukwini ezingama-45 ngemuva kokutshala noma kuze kufike esigabeni sokukhula sika-R1 (ukuqhuma kokuqala), noma yikuphi okuza kuqala
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kukotini ezinsukwini ezingama-60 ngemuva kokutshala
  • Okotini, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kwezingu-XNUMX kuya kwezimbili
  • Kosabhontshisi, inani lezicelo ezisezingeni eliphezulu lihlala kwababili
  • Izicelo zizovunyelwa kusuka ehoreni elilodwa ngemuva kokuphuma kwelanga kuya emahoreni amabili ngaphambi kokushona kwelanga
  • Ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo zezilwane ezisengcupheni zingaba khona, isiphepho saphansi sizohlala ezinyaweni eziyi-110 futhi kuzoba ne-buffer entsha engamamitha angama-57 ezungeze ezinye izinhlangothi zensimu (i-110-foot downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza, hhayi kuphela ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo ezisengozini yokuphela zingaba khona)
  • Imiyalo yokuhlanza ithangi ethuthukisiwe yohlelo lonke
  • Amalebula athuthukisiwe okuthuthukisa ukuqwashisa kwabafakizicelo kumthelela we-pH ephansi ekushiseni okungenzeka kwe-dicamba
  • Ilebuli ihlanza kanye nokuvumelana ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuhambisana nokusebenza

Inkantolo Yesicelo Sokudlulisa Amacala yase-9 

NgoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokugunyaza ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe yi-Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Inkantolo kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo.

Imininingwane engaphezulu ingaba utholwe lapha.

Izinsalela Zokudla 

Njengoba nje ukutholakala kwe-glyphosate emasimini asepulazini kutholakale kushiya izinsalela ze-glyphosate kokudla okuphelile, okufana ne-oatmeal, izinkwa, okusanhlamvu, njll, izinsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuthi zishiye izinsalela ekudleni. Abalimi abakhiqiziwe kwabo kungcoliswe yizinsalela ze-dicamba nge-drift bazwakalise ukukhathazeka kwabo ngokuthi imikhiqizo yabo ingahle yenqatshwe noma ilimale ngenye indlela kwezentengiso ngenxa yenkinga yezinsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amazinga okubekezelela i-dicamba okusanhlamvu okuningana nenyama yemfuyo edla okusanhlamvu, kepha hhayi ngezithelo nemifino enhlobonhlobo. Ukubekezelelana kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi kusethwe ezingxenyeni eziyi-10 ngesigidi, ngokwesibonelo, e-United States, kanye nezingxenye ezi-2 ngesigidi sikakolweni wokusanhlamvu. Ukubekezelelana kungakwazi ubonwe lapha. 

I-EPA isikhiphile lesi sitatimende maqondana nezinsalela ze-dicamba ekudleni: "I-EPA yenze ukuhlaziywa okudingwa yi-Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) futhi yanquma ukuthi izinsalela zokudla" ziphephile "- okusho ukuthi kunesiqiniseko sokuthi akukho ukulimala kubantu, kufaka phakathi konke ukubonwa okungakhonjwa ngendlela efanelekile, kufaka phakathi izinsana nezingane, kusuka ekudleni nakwezinye izinto ezingekho emsebenzini ku-dicamba. ”

I-Cancer ne-Hypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic, kepha ezinye izifundo zithole ingozi eyengeziwe yomdlavuza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Bona lezi zifundo maqondana nemiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ye-dicamba:

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Dicamba kanye nesifo somdlavuza esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo: ukuhlaziywa okubuyekeziwe I-International Journal of Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Uma kuqhathaniswa nabafakizicelo ababika ukuthi abayisebenzisi i-dicamba, labo abasengozini ephakeme kakhulu yokuchayeka babe sengozini enkulu yomdlavuza wesibindi nowangaphakathi we-intrahepatic kanye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheli kanye nokwehla kwengozi ye-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye ne-Incident Hypothyroidism kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane eSifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (9.26.18)
"Kuleli qoqo elikhulu labalimi abebesengozini yokutholakala nezibulala-zinambuzane, sithole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezinambuzane ezine ze-organochlorine (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ama-insecticide amane e-organophosphate (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, ne-malathion), kanti imithi emithathu yokubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, ne-2,4-D) yayihlotshaniswa nengozi eyengeziwe ye-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane phakathi kwabasebenzisi bezinambuzane abazimele besilisa esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo. Ijenali Yemithi Yezemvelo Emsebenzini (10.1.14)
"Imithi yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, ne-oyela kaphethiloli konke kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwengozi ye-hypothyroidism"

Ukubuyekezwa kokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kuqoqo lezempilo leZolimo. Izindlela Zokuphila Zezemvelo (8.1.10)
“Sibuyekeze izifundo ezingama-28; iningi lezibulala-zinambuzane ezingama-32 ezihloliwe bezingahlangene kakhulu nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane. Izilinganiso zokukhuphuka kwamazinga (noma izingqinamba ezingavumelani) namaphethini okuphendula okuchayeka okuhle abikwe ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyi-12 okwamanje ebhaliswe eCanada kanye / noma e-United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- i-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafaka Izicelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KuDicamba Kwezempilo Yezolimo Isifundo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (7.13.06)
“Ukuvezwa kwezinto bekungahlobene nezehlakalo zomdlavuza jikelele futhi bezingekho izinhlangano eziqinile ezinoma yiluphi uhlobo lomdlavuza. Lapho iqembu lesethenjwa lalinabafakizicelo abadalulwe kancane, sabona ukuthambekela okuhle engcupheni phakathi kwezinsuku zokuvezwa kwempilo yonke kanye nomdlavuza wamaphaphu (p = 0.02), kepha azikho izilinganiso zamaphoyinti ngamunye ezaziphakanyiswe kakhulu. Siphinde sabona ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwengozi ekhulayo yomdlavuza wekoloni ezinsukwini zombili zokuvezwa kwempilo kanye nezinsuku zokuphila ezinesisindo, yize le miphumela ibangelwe kakhulu yingozi ephezulu ezingeni eliphakeme lokuchayeka.

I-non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma kanye nokuvezwa okuthe ngqo kwezibulala-zinambuzane emadodeni: IsiCross-Canada Study of Pesticides and Health. I-Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers kanye nokuvimbela (11.01)
“Phakathi kokuhlanganiswa ngakunye, ekuhlaziyweni kwe-multivariate, ubungozi be-NHL bunyuswe ngokweqile ngokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye izinhlobo zama-multivariate, ezibandakanya ukuvezwa kwamanye amakilasi amakhulu amakhemikhali noma izibulala-zinambuzane ngazinye, umdlavuza womuntu siqu owedlule, umlando womdlavuza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, nokuvezwa kwezingxube eziqukethe i-dicamba (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40– 2.75)… babeyizibikezelo ezibalulekile ezizimele zengozi eyengeziwe yeNHL ”

icala 

Ukukhathazeka ngomonakalo we-dicamba kudale amacala avela kubalimi ezifundazweni eziningi zase-US. Imininingwane ngecala ingatholakala lapha.

Izithupha ze-EPA enkantolo, zithi abalimi basengasebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula engekho emthethweni i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinamazwana avela ku-BASF)

Abe-Environmental Protection Agency ngoMsombuluko limenyezelwe bekungeke kusihloniphe ngokushesha isinqumo senkantolo esikhishwe ngesonto eledlule esivimbela ukubulala ukhula okuthile okwenziwe izinkampani ezintathu ezinkulu zamakhemikhali emhlabeni.

Isinyathelo se-EPA sifana nesipho esivulekile se-BASF, iBayer kanye neCorteva Agrisciences ogama lawo le-dicamba elibhekwa yinkantolo ukuthi livunyelwe yi-EPA ngokungemthetho. Inkantolo isho ngqo ngokulandelana kwayo ikhishwe ngesonto eledlule ukuthi ayifuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Kodwa i-EPA imemezele ngoMsombuluko ukuthi ikhipha “incwadi yokukhansela” ezonika abalimi kuze kube nguJulayi 31 ukuthi basebenzise amasheya akhona eBayer Xtendimax, Engenia yeBASF, naseFexXapan kaCorteva.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sithole ukuthi i-EPA yenze amaphutha amaningi ekuvumeleni imikhiqizo ye-dicamba futhi yaphendula isicelo esifakwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, kanye I-Pesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS), abameli bayo abaphikise leli cala labafaka izicelo, esitatimendeni bathi isenzo se-EPA "asinanhlonipho" futhi "sibushaya indiva ubufakazi obubhalwe phansi futhi obuqand 'ikhanda bokulimala okukhulu kubalimi abavela kwenye inkathi yokufafaza eyingozi. . ” Isenzo se-EPA sibuye sizishaye indiva izingozi ezidalwa yicicamba ezinkulungwaneni zezilwane ezisengozini, kusho iCFS.

“Abaphathi bakaTrump baphinde bakhombisa ukuthi kabanaki umthetho. Bonke abasebenzisi abaqhubeka bengafuni ezinye izindlela kufanele bazi ukuthi basebenzisa umkhiqizo olimazayo, onesici, futhi ongekho emthethweni. Sizokuletha ukwehluleka kwe-EPA ukugcina umyalo weNkantolo eNkantolo ngokushesha okukhulu, ”kusho uCFS.

UNobhala wezoLimo eMelika uSonny Perdue ngesonto eledlule unxuse i-EPA ukuthi ibheke indlela ezothatha lesi sinqumo senkantolo, yaphinda amazwi eBayer, BASF kanye noCorteva abiza i-dicamba herbicides ngokuthi “amathuluzi” abalulekile kubalimi abatshala ubhontshisi wobhontshisi kanye nokotini.

I-EPA ithe ekuthatheni isinqumo sokuvumela abalimi ukuthi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-dicamba ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi ibiphendula "izingcingo eziningi ezingacelwanga nama-imeyili" etshela i-ejensi "kukhona ukukhathazeka kwangempela kanye nokubhujiswa kwezitshalo zikakotini nezobhontshisi kuholele enhlekeleleni embonini. ”

I-EPA ayizange ivume inqwaba yabalimi abatshala izitshalo ngaphandle kosoya obekezelela i-dicamba kanye nokotini abaye bathola ukulahleka kwezitshalo ngenxa ye-dicamba drift futhi besaba elinye ihlobo lokulimala kwezitshalo.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngonyaka ka-2018, yaphakamisa leso sibambiso lapho iqalisa izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa edlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngesikhathi sezulu esifudumele izinyanga ezikhulayo.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okugcwele kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba eminyakeni yamuva. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi omonakalo wezitshalo ze-dicamba kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

Esitatimendeni esikhishwe ngemuva kwesimemezelo se-EPA, i-BASF ithe iyasisekela isinqumo se-EPA sokuvumela ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwamasheya akhona we-BASF's Engenia herbicide ngoJulayi 31, kodwa yathi "kudingeka ukucaciseleka nokuguquguquka okwengeziwe". Le nkampani ithe isimise ngokushesha ukuthengisa nokuthumela i-Engenia herbicide ngemuva kwesinqumo sangesonto eledlule. 

Le nkampani ithe izoqhubeka nokuphinda ibhalise i-Engenia ne-EPA futhi ibheka izindlela zayo zokulandela amakhambi asemthethweni okuphikisana nomyalelo wenkantolo.

Kubuyekeziwe uthi umlawuli "wehlise ubungozi"

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinesitatimende esivela ku-BASF)

Ngokukhuza okumangalisayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency, inkantolo yenhlangano ngoLwesithathu kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi yemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe ama-giants amakhemikhali iBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Lesi sinqumo sikwenza kube ngokungemthetho ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa umkhiqizo.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sathola ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleka ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza amaphutha amaningi ekunikezeni ukubhaliswa okunemibandela," kusho isinqumo senkantolo.

IMonsanto ne-EPA bebecele inkantolo, uma ivumelana nabamangali, ukuthi ingakushintshi ngokushesha ukugunyazwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula. Inkantolo imane yathi: “Siyenqaba ukwenza kanjalo.”

Icala lilethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali basola i-EPA ngokwephula umthetho ekuhloleni imithelela yohlelo olwakhiwe yiMonsanto, oluthengwe yiBayer ngo-2018, oludale ukulimala kwezitshalo “okusabalele” kulezi zinsuku ezimbalwa zasehlobo futhi luyaqhubeka nokusongela amapulazi ezweni lonke.

"Isinqumo sanamuhla siphumelele kakhulu kubalimi nakwezemvelo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell weCentre for Food Safety, ongumeluleki waleli cala. “Kuhle ukukhunjuzwa ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neMonsanto neTrump Administration azikwazi ukweqa umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi senhlekelele efana nalena. Usuku lwabo lokwahlulela selufikile. ”

Inkantolo ithole ukuthi phakathi kwezinye zezinkinga, i-EPA “yenqabile ukulinganisela inani lomonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza lowo monakalo njengokuthi 'kungenzeka' nokuthi 'kusolwa,' lapho ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi i-dicamba idale umonakalo omkhulu futhi ongenakuphikiswa.”

Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi i-EPA yehlulekile ukwamukela ukuthi imikhawulo ebekwe ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba ngeke ilandelwe, futhi inqume ukuthi i-EPA “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi obukhulu bokuthi ukubhaliswa kuzoba nemiphumela yokuncintisana kwezomnotho izimboni zesoya nokotini. ”

Ekugcineni, inkantolo ithe, i-EPA yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi bokuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba esungulwe nguMonsanto, BASF kanye noCorteva "kuzodabula imiphakathi yezolimo."

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto isiphakamisile leso sibambiso lapho yethula imbewu yesoya nekotini engabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele-sezulu.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezixwayiso, iMonsanto, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba herbicides yalolu hlobo olusakazwayo lokufafaza. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwethulwe izilimo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi wokulimala kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

Njengoba kubikezelwe, kube nezinkulungwane zezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodiwe ezifundazweni eziningi. Esinqumweni sayo, inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi ngo-2018, kumahektare ayizigidi eziyi-103 kabhontshisi nokotini otshalwe e-United States, cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-56 atshalwe nembewu nge-Micanto's dicamba-tolerance, kusuka ku-27 million acres ngonyaka owandulele 2017.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

IBayer ikhiphe isitatimende kulandela lesi sinqumo ithi iphikisana kakhulu nesinqumo senkantolo futhi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

"Isinqumo se-EPA esinolwazi esisekelwe kwisayensi siyakuqinisekisa ukuthi leli thuluzi libalulekile kubalimi futhi alilethi ubungozi obungenangqondo bokunyakaza okungasetshenziswanga uma kusetshenziswe ngokwemikhombandlela yelebula," kusho inkampani. "Uma isinqumo sizoma, sizosebenza ngokushesha ukunciphisa noma yimuphi umthelela kumakhasimende ethu kule sizini."

UCorteva uphinde wathi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ibidinga amathuluzi abalimi nokuthi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

I-BASF ibize umyalo wenkantolo “ngendlela engakaze ibonwe” futhi yathi “inamandla amakhulu okulimaza amashumi ezinkulungwane zabalimi.”

Abalimi bangalahlekelwa “yimali ebonakalayo” uma bengakwazi ukubulala ukhula ezindaweni zabo zesoya nezikakotini ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho inkampani.

"Sizosebenzisa zonke izindlela zomthetho ezitholakalayo ukuphonsela inselelo le-oda," kusho iBASF.

Okhulumela i-EPA uthe okwamanje le nhlangano ibuyekeza isinqumo senkantolo futhi “izothutha ngokushesha iyokhuluma nomyalelo weNkantolo.”

Inkantolo ivumile ukuthi lesi sinqumo singabiza kakhulu kubalimi asebethengile futhi / noma batshale imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini futhi yahlela ukusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kuyo ngoba isinqumo asikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima laba balimi abangaba nabo ekutholeni imithi yokubulala ukhula esebenzayo neyomthetho ukuvikela izitshalo zabo (ezibekezelela i-dicamba)…" kusho umbuso. “Babekwe kulesi simo ngaphandle kwephutha labo. Kodwa-ke, ukungabi bikho kobufakazi obuningi obusekela isinqumo se-EPA kusiphoqa ukuthi sikushiye ukubhaliswa. ”

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.

Icala likaDicamba elibhekene neBayer, iBASF lilungele ukuqhuma, kusho abameli

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkulungwane zabalimi abavela ezifundazweni eziningi kulindeleke ukuthi zijoyine amacala amaningi okulindelwa enkantolo yenhlangano ngenxa yezimangalo zokuthi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe nguMonsanto Co. nezinye izinkampani zamakhemikhali zibhubhisa futhi zingcolisa izitshalo, kufaka phakathi ukukhiqizwa kwezinto eziphilayo, iqembu labameli kanye kusho abalimi ngoLwesithathu.

Inani labalimi abafuna ukumelwa ngokomthetho ukuze bavule icala leMonsanto neBASF selikhuphukile esontweni eledlule nohhafu ngemuva komklomelo omkhulu wamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama- $ 265 Umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri osola ukuthi lezi zinkampani ezimbili yizo ezisola ngokulahleka kwempilo yakhe, ngokusho kukaJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yabameli iPeiffer Wolf Carr & Kane. UPeiffer uthe bangaphezu kuka-2,000 XNUMX abalimi okungenzeka babe ngabamangali.

Sekuvele kunabalimi abangaphezu kwekhulu abenza izimangalo ezinkampanini ezihlanganisiwe amacala amaningi eNkantolo Yesifunda sase-US eKapa Girardeau, eMissouri.

Ngasekuqaleni kwenyanga le bellwether trial ngoba lelo cala liphele ngejaji elilodwa ngazwilinye elinikeza iBader Farms ephethwe ngumndeni amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokukhokha kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa, ozokhokhwa yiBayer AG, inkampani yaseJalimane eyathenga iMonsanto e2018, kanye neBASF. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo.

"Manje sesinemephu yomgwaqo yokuthola ubulungiswa bezisulu ze-dicamba. Isinqumo seBader eMissouri sithumele isiboniso esicacile sokuthi ngeke uzuze ngokulimaza abalimi abangenacala bese ubajezisa, ”kusho uPeiffer. "Ucwaningo lokulimala kwezitshalo nokwanda kwezikhalazo zabalimi lubikezela inkinga enkulu kakhulu kunalokho iMonsanto / Bayer neBASF abafuna ukukuvuma."

I-US Right to Know icele i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA), evume ukuthi ama-dicamba herbicides naphezu kobufakazi besayensi bezingcuphe, ukuhlinzeka inani likazwelonke lenani eliphelele lezikhalazo ze-dicamba drift. Kepha ngenkathi i-EPA ithi iyithatha ngokungathi sína le mibiko, yenqabile ukunikeza isibalo futhi yathi kusezinhlakeni zombuso ukusingatha izikhalazo ezinjalo.

I-EPA iphinde ikhombise ukuthi ayiqinisekile ukuthi umonakalo obikwe ngabalimi, empeleni, kungenxa yedicamba.

"Izimbangela zezigameko ezehlukene zomonakalo azikacaci, ngoba kusamele kuphothulwe uphenyo oluqhubekayo," kusho okhulumela i-EPA. “Kodwa i-EPA ibuyekeza yonke imininingwane etholakalayo ngokucophelela.

"Ukushaya Isikhathi Ibhomu"

Njengoba nje uMonsanto noBayer bebhekane nokulahlwa kwemibhalo yangaphakathi ekulahlekelweni kwezilingo ezintathu ngenxa yezimangalo zokubulala ukhula ezenziwa yi-glyphosate ezenzelwe umdlavuza, kunemibhalo eminingi yezinkampani yangaphakathi etholakale enkantolo yamacala e-dicamba esize ukukholisa ijaji lecala lenkampani, ngokusho kukaBader Ummeli wamapulazi uBill Randles.

AbakwaRandles bathole amakhulu amarekhodi ezinkampani zangaphakathi zeMonsanto neBASF akhombisa ukuthi izinkampani bezazi ngobungozi bomkhiqizo wazo njengoba bezisho obala ukuthi ziphambene. Uthe omunye umqulu we-BASF ubhekise kwizikhalazo zokulimala kwe-dicamba "njengebhomu lesikhathi esibi" "ekugcineni eliqhume."

U-Bader nabanye abalimi basola ukuthi iMonsanto ibinobudedengu ekukhipheni ukotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okungasinda ekufuthweni ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ngoba bekwaziwa ukuthi ukusebenzisa izitshalo namakhemikhali njengoba kwaklanyelwe kungaholela ekulimaleni.

IDicamba isetshenziswe ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960s kodwa ngemikhawulo eyayibhekelela ubukhulu bamakhemikhali bokukhukhuleka buqhelele lapho wafafazwa khona. Lapho imikhiqizo ebulala ukhula yaseMonsanto efana ne-Roundup iqala ukuphelelwa amandla ngenxa yokumelana nokhula kabanzi, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides.

Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo, ngokusho kweMonsanto, umemezele ukusebenzisana kwe-dicamba ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe inciphe kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba. Kodwa benqaba ukuvumela ukuhlolwa okuzimele kwesayensi.

I-EPA yakwamukela ukusetshenziswa kwe-Micanto dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

UDuPont naye wethule i-dicamba herbicide futhi angahle abhekane nezinsolo zabalimi eziningi, ngokusho kwabameli babamangali.

Ezimangalo zabo zomthetho, abalimi basola ukuthi bake babhekana nomonakalo kusukela ekukhukhulekeni kwezinguqulo ezindala ze-dicamba kanye nokukhuphula izinhlobo ezintsha futhi. Abalimi bathi izinkampani zinethemba lokuthi ukwesaba kokulimala komkhumbi kuzophoqa abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ekhethekile ebekezelela i-GMO dicamba ukuze bavikele amasimu abo kakotini nawosoya.

Abalimi abatshala ezinye izinhlobo zezitshalo bebengenazo izindlela zokuvikela amasimu abo.

Umlimi waseNyakatho Carolina uMarty Harper, olima cishe amahektare angama-4,000 200,000 kagwayi kanjalo namantongomane, ukotini, ummbila, ubhontshisi, ukolweni namazambane, uthe umonakalo ohlobene nedicamba emasimini akhe kagwayi ungaphezu kwama- $ XNUMX. Uthe ingxenye yesivuno sakhe samakinati nayo isilimele.

Amapulazi angaphezu kuka-2,700 XNUMX anakho uthole ukulimala kwe-dicamba, ngokusho kukaprofesa wesayensi yezitshalo wase-University of Missouri uKevin Bradley.

Amakhemikhali Ekudleni Kwethu: Lapho “Kuphephe” Kungase Kungabi Kuphephe Ngempela

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuhlolisiswa kwesayensi kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam

Ababulali bokhula kuma-cracker kakolweni nasenhlamvini, izibulala-zinambuzane kujusi we-apula kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eminingi esipinashi, ubhontshisi wezintambo neminye imifino - konke kuyingxenye yokudla kwansuku zonke kwabantu abaningi baseMelika. Sekungamashumi eminyaka, izikhulu zikahulumeni zimemezele ukuthi imikhondo emincane yalezi zingcolisi iphephile. Kepha igagasi elisha lokuhlolisisa okungokwesayensi liyinselele kulokho kugomela.

Yize abathengi abaningi bengazi ngakho, unyaka nonyaka, ososayensi bakahulumeni babhala ukuthi amakhulukhulu amakhemikhali asetshenziswa abalimi emasimini abo nasezitshalweni ashiya kanjani izinsalela ekudleni okusetshenziswa kakhulu. Izithelo ezingaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-75 namaphesenti angaphezu kwama-50 emifino esampuli athwale izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e izibonelo zamuva zakamuva ezibikiwe yi-Food and Drug Administration. Ngisho nezinsalela zamakhemikhali abulala ngokuqinile izimbungulu i-DDT zitholakala ekudleni, kanye nohla lweminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. I-pesticide endosulfan, kuvinjelwe umhlaba wonke ngenxa yobufakazi bokuthi ingadala izinkinga zemizwa nezokuzala, nayo itholakale kumasampula okudla, kusho umbiko we-FDA.

Abalawuli baseMelika nezinkampani ezidayisela abalimi amakhemikhali baphikelela ekutheni izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane aziyona ingozi empilweni yabantu. Iningi lamazinga ezinsalela atholakala ekudleni angaphansi kwamazinga asemthethweni "okubekezelelana" asethwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), abalawuli bathi.

"AbaseMelika bathembele ku-FDA ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwemindeni yabo kanye nokudla abakudlayo," UKhomishani we-FDA uScott Gottlieb usho kanjena esitatimendeni ephelezelwa yi-ejensi ukukhishwa kombiko wayo wezinsalela ngomhlaka-1 Okthoba. "Njengeminye imibiko yakamuva, imiphumela ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga asele ensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane angaphansi kokubekezelelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency, ngakho-ke akubeki engozini kubathengi."

I-EPA inesiqiniseko sokuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni iphephile kangangoba i-ejensi inikeze izinkampani zamakhemikhali izicelo eziningi zokwenyusa ukubekezelelana okuvumelekile, inikeze isisekelo esisemthethweni samazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ukuze avunyelwe ekudleni kwaseMelika.

Kepha izifundo ezisanda kwenziwa zesayensi zenze ososayensi abaningi baxwayisa ukuthi iminyaka yezethembiso zokuphepha ingahle ingalungi. Ngenkathi kungekho muntu okulindeleke ukuthi afe efile ngokudla isitsha sokusanhlamvu okuqukethe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuvezwa okuphindaphindwayo kwezinga eliphansi ukulandelela inani lezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kungaba nomthelela ezinkingeni ezahlukahlukene zezempilo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ososayensi bathi.

“Cishe miningi eminye imiphumela yezempilo; asikazifundi nje ”

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard lishicilele umhlaziyi ngo-Okthoba esho ukuthi ucwaningo oluthe xaxa ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane "ludingeka ngokushesha" njengoba abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 abantu baseMelika benensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo. Umzila oyinhloko wokuchayeka kulezi zinambuzane ngukudla kwabantu abakudlayo, kusho iqembu labacwaningi baseHarvard.

Ososayensi abaningana abasebenzisana neHarvard bashicilele i- cwaningo ngasekuqaleni kwalo nyaka wabesifazane ababezama ukukhulelwa. Okutholakele kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo, kusho ososayensi.

“Ngokusobala amazinga okubekezelelana akhona manje asivikela kubuthivu obukhulu. Inkinga ukuthi akucaci ukuthi ukutholakalela ezingeni eliphansi izinsalela zezibulali zinambuzane ngokudla kungaba yingozi empilweni noma kungabi yingozi kangakanani, ”kusho uDkt Jorge Chavarro, ongusolwazi ohlangene noMnyango Wezokudla Neziphephelo eHarvard I-TH Chan School of Health Public, nomunye wababhali bokufunda.

“Ukuvezwa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudla kuhlotshaniswa [neminye] imiphumela yokuzala kubandakanya ikhwalithi yesidoda kanye nengozi enkulu yokulahleka kokukhulelwa kwabesifazane abelashwa ngemithi yokungazali. Kukhona eminye imiphumela eminingi yezempilo; asikazifundisisi ngokwanele ukwenza ukuhlola okwanele kobungozi, ”kusho uChavarro.

Isazi sezinto ezinobuthi uLinda Birnbaum, oqondisa i-US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), naye uzwakalise ukukhathazeka ngezingozi zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudalula obekucatshangwa ukuthi kuphephile. Ngonyaka odlule wabiza "Ukwehliswa jikelele ekusetshenzisweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo" ngenxa yezinkinga eziningi ngempilo yabantu, esho ukuthi "imithetho ekhona yase-US ayihambisani nentuthuko yesayensi ekhombisa ukuthi amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu abangela izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo emazingeni obekucatshangwa ukuthi aphephile."

Engxoxweni uBirnbaum uthe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini ziphakathi kwezinhlobo zokuchayeka ezidinga ukubhekelwa ngokomthetho okukhulu.

“Ngabe ngicabanga ukuthi amazinga asethwe njengamanje aphephile? Mhlawumbe akunjalo, ”kusho uBirnbaum. "Sinabantu abanobungozi obuhlukile, kungaba ngenxa yofuzo lwabo, noma ubudala babo, noma yini engabenza bathambekele kakhulu kulezi zinto," esho.

“Yize sibheka amakhemikhali eyodwa ngesikhathi, kunobufakazi obuningi bezinto ezisebenza ngendlela ehambisanayo. Izinqubomgomo zethu eziningi zokuhlola ezijwayelekile, eziningi ezakhiwa eminyakeni engama-40 kuya kwengama-50 edlule, azibuzi imibuzo obekufanele siyibuze, ”wengeza.

Umthetho awusho ukuthi uphephile

Amanye amaphepha esayensi akamuva akhomba kokutholakele okukhathazayo. Eyodwa ngeqembu lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba elishicilelwe ngoMeyi kutholakale i-glyphosate herbicide ngemithamo njengamanje ebhekwa “njengephephile” iyakwazi ukudala izinkinga zezempilo ngaphambi kokuqala kokuthomba. Ucwaningo oluningi luyadingeka ukuqonda izingcuphe ezingaba khona ezinganeni, abalobi bezocwaningo bathi.

Futhi ephepheni ishicilelwe ngo-Okthoba 22 ku-JAMA Internal Medicine, abacwaningi baseFrance bathi lapho bebheka izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezixhumanisa nomdlavuza ocwaningweni lokudla kwabantu abangaphezu kwama-68,000, bathole izinkomba zokuthi ukudla kokudla okwenziwe ngamakhemikhali, okungenzeki kakhulu ukuthi kuthwale izinsalela zokwenziwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kunokudla okwenziwe ngezitshalo ezikhule ngokujwayelekile, kwakuhlotshaniswa nengozi encishisiwe yomdlavuza.

Iphepha le-2009 eshicilelwe ngumcwaningi waseHarvard nososayensi ababili be-FDA bathole amasampula okudla ayi-19 kwayi-100 izingane ezivame ukuwadla aqukethe okungenani isibulala-zinambuzane esisodwa esaziwa njenge-neurotoxin. Ukudla okwabhekwa ngabaphenyi kwakuyimifino emisha, izithelo namajusi. Kusukela lapho, ubufakazi sebukhulile ngemithelela yempilo yomuntu eyingozi yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ikakhulukazi.

Amazinga angamukeleki

"Izindinganiso zomthetho eziningi zamanje zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini aziyivikeli ngokuphelele impilo yomphakathi, futhi azikhombisi isayensi yakamuva," kusho u-Olga Naidenko, umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi wenhlangano engenzi nzuzo ye-Environmental Working Group, ekhiphe imibiko eminingana ukubheka izingozi ezingaba khona zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini. “Ezomthetho azikhombisi ukuthi 'uphephile,'” kusho yena.

Isibonelo esisodwa sokuthi iziqinisekiso zokuphepha zitholakale zintuleka kanjani uma kukhulunywa ngezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kuyisibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos. Imakethwa yiDow Chemical, eyaba yinkampani yeDowDuPont ngonyaka we-2017, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-30 ama-apula, isilimo esinengono emnandi edliwayo, amantongomane, u-anyanisi, amagilebhisi, i-broccoli, ama-cherries nekholifulawa otshalwe e-US futhi kuvame ukutholakala ekudleni okudliwe yizingane . I-EPA isishilo iminyaka ukuthi ukudalulwa okungaphansi kokubekezelelwa kwezomthetho okubekiwe bekungeyona into okufanele ikhathazeke ngayo.

Noma kunjalo ucwaningo lwesayensi eminyakeni yamuva nje kukhombise ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos kanye nokushoda kwengqondo ezinganeni. Ubufakazi bokulimaza ubuchopho obusakhula bunamandla kangangokuba i-EPA ngo-2015 kusho ukuthi "ayikwazi ukuthola ukuthi noma yikuphi ukubekezelelana njengamanje kuphephile."

I-EPA ithe ngenxa yamazinga angavumelekile okubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini okuphuza ihlela ukuvimbela lesi sibulala-zinambuzane ekusebenziseni ezolimo. Kepha ingcindezi evela kuDow futhi ama-lobbyists embonini yamakhemikhali agcine amakhemikhali esetshenziswa kabanzi emapulazini aseMelika. Umbiko wakamuva we-FDA uthole ukuthi bangu-11th izibulala-zinambuzane ezivame kakhulu ekudleni kwase-US okuvela emakhulwini afakiwe ekuhlolweni.

A inkantolo yenhlangano ngo-Agasti ithe ukuthi iTrump Administration yayifaka engcupheni impilo yomphakathi ngokugcina ama-chlorpyrifos esetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kokudla kwezolimo. I- inkantolo ibaluliwe "Ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi insalela yakho ekudleni ibanga ukulimala kwe-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni" futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi isuse konke ukubekezelela futhi ivimbele ikhemikhali emakethe. I-EPA isazothatha isinyathelo kulowo myalo, futhi kunjalo ukufuna ukulalelwa kabusha ngaphambi kwe-9 epheleleth Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi angakuchaza kanjani ukuma kwakhe okuguqukayo kuma-chlorpyrifos, okhulumela i-ejensi wathi i-EPA "ihlela ukuqhubeka nokubuyekeza isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela ye-neurodevelopmental" yamakhemikhali.

Iqiniso lokuthi lisasetshenziswa kakhulu liyakhathaza futhi lithukuthelise odokotela abagxile kwezempilo yezingane futhi libashiye bezibuza ukuthi yikuphi okunye ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni okungenzeka ukuthi kuyabenzela abantu.

"Okusemqoka ukuthi ukukhathazeka okukhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi kwama-chlorpyrifos kusuka ekutholakaleni kwayo ekudleni," kusho uDkt. Bradley Peterson umqondisi we-Institute for the Developing Mind esibhedlela sezingane eLos Angeles. Ngisho nokuchayeka okuncane kungaba nemiphumela emibi. ”

Isinqumo se-EPA sokuqhubeka nokuvumela ama-chlorpyrifos ekudleni kwaseMelika "siyisibonakaliso sokuchithwa okubanzi kobufakazi besayensi" obubekela inselelo impilo yabantu kanye nobuqotho besayensi, ngokuvumelana ne UDkt ULeonardo Trasande, oqondisa iDivision of Environmental Pediatrics ngaphakathi koMnyango Wezingane e-Langone Health yaseNew York University.

Isazi se-Epidemiologist uPhilip Landrigan, umqondisi wohlelo lweBoston College lweGlobal Public Health, kanye nowayengusosayensi we-US Centers for Disease Control, unxusa ukuthi kuvinjelwe zonke izidalwa eziphilayo, isigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlanganisa ama-chlorpyrifos, ngenxa yengozi eziyibangela izingane .

"Izingane zisengozini enkulu kula makhemikhali," kusho uLandrigan. "Lokhu kumayelana nokuvikela izingane."

Ukwanda kokubekezelelana uma kucelwa imboni

Umthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ugunyaza i-EPA ukuthi ilawule ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni ngokuya ngamazinga athile asemthethweni futhi inikeze i-EPA igunya elilinganiselwe lokusungula ukubekezelela iziqu zomthetho ezihlangabezana nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane.

Ukungabekezelelani kuyehluka ekudleni nasekudleni nasekubulaweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngakho-ke i-apula lingaphatha ngokusemthethweni uhlobo oluthile lwensalela yokubulala izinambuzane kune-plamu, ngokwesibonelo. Ukubekezelelana nakho kuyahlukahluka kuye ngamazwe, ngakho-ke lokho i-US ekubeka njengokubekezelelana okusemthethweni kwezinsalela ze-pesticide ekudleni okuthile - futhi kuvame ukwehluka kakhulu kunemikhawulo ebekwe kwamanye amazwe. Njengengxenye yokuhlelwa kwalokhu kubekezelelana, abalawuli bahlola idatha ekhombisa ukuthi kungakanani okusalayo okuqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi isibulali zinambuzane sisetshenziswe njengoba kuhloswe esitshalweni, futhi benza ukuhlolwa kokudla okuyingozi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amazinga ezinsalela ze-pesticides awabeki ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu .

Le nhlangano ithi ibangela ukuthi izidlo zezinsana nezingane zingahluka kakhulu kwezabantu abadala nokuthi badla ukudla okuningi ngosayizi wabo kunabantu abadala. I-EPA futhi ithi ihlanganisa imininingwane ngemizila yokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane - ukudla, ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi okuphuza lapho kuhlala khona - ngolwazi olumayelana nobuthi besibulala-zinambuzane ngasinye ukucacisa izingozi ezingaba khona ezidalwa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. Le nhlangano ithi uma izingozi "zingamukeleki," ngeke ikwamukele ukubekezelelana.

I-EPA iphinde ithi uma yenza izinqumo zokubekezelelana, “ifuna ukuvumelanisa ukubekezelelana kweMelika nezindinganiso zamazwe omhlaba lapho kungenzeka khona, ngokuhambisana nezindinganiso zokuphepha kokudla zase-US kanye nemikhuba yezolimo.”

IMonsanto, eyaba yiyunithi yeBayer AG ekuqaleni konyaka, icele ngempumelelo i-EPA ukuthi yandise amazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ekudleni okuningana, kufaka phakathi ukolweni ne-oats.

Ngo-1993, isibonelo, i-EPA ibinokubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats ezingxenyeni eziyi-0.1 ngesigidi ngasinye (ppm) kepha ngo-1996 UMonsanto ubuze i-EPA ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kube ngu-20 ppm kanye ne- I-EPA yenza njengoba ibuziwe. Ku-2008, kusiphakamiso sikaMonsanto, i- I-EPA iphinde yabheka ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats, kulokhu iye ku-30 ​​ppm.

Ngaleso sikhathi, liphinde lathi lizokhuphula ukubekezelelana kwe-glyphosate ebhali kusuka ku-20 ppm kuye ku-30 ​​ppm, kuphakamise ukubekezelelana emasimini ommbila kusuka ku-1 kuye ku-5 ppm futhi kuphakamise ukubekezelelana kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kukolweni kusuka ku-5 ppm kuya ku-30 ​​ppm, ukwanda ngamaphesenti angama-500. I-30 ppm kakolweni ifaniswa namanye amazwe angaphezu kwama-60, kepha ingaphezulu kakhulu kokubekezelelwa okuvunyelwe emazweni angaphezu kwama-50, ngokusho kwe i-database yokubekezelelana kwamazwe omhlaba isungulwe ngemali ye-EPA futhi igcinwe manje yiqembu elizimele lezindaba zikahulumeni.

"I-Ejensi inqume ukuthi ukubekezelelana okwandisiwe kuphephile, okusho ukuthi, kunesiqiniseko esizwakalayo sokuthi akukho monakalo ozovela ekutholakaleni okuhlangene kwensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane," kusho i-EPA kwi-Federal Register yangoMeyi 21, 2008.

“Zonke lezi zitatimende ze-EPA - sithembe ukuthi kuphephile. Kodwa iqiniso asazi ukuthi liphephile ngempela yini, ”kusho uDkt. Bruce Lanphear, ongusosayensi wezokwelapha eChild & Family Research Institute, BC Children's Hospital, noprofesa emkhakheni wesayensi yezempilo eSimon Fraser University e IVancouver, eBritish Columbia. U-Lanphear uthe ngenkathi abalawuli becabanga ukuthi imiphumela enobuthi iyakhuphuka ngomthamo, ubufakazi besayensi bubonisa ukuthi amanye amakhemikhali anobuthi kakhulu emazingeni aphansi okuvezwa. Ukuvikela impilo yomphakathi kuzodinga ukucabanga kabusha ukucabanga okuyisisekelo mayelana nokuthi ama-ejensi alawula kanjani amakhemikhali, waphikisa ephepheni eshicilelwe ngonyaka odlule.

Eminyakeni yamuva bobabili iMonsanto neDow bathole amazinga amasha okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane i-dicamba kanye ne-2,4-D ekudleni futhi.

Ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kuvumela abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ezingashiya izinsalela eziningi, kepha lokho akusongeli impilo yabantu, ngokusho kweMonsanto. Kubhulogi ethunyelwe nyakenye, Usosayensi weMonsanto uDan Goldstein uqinisekise ukuphepha kwezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni ngokuvamile kanye ne-glyphosate ikakhulukazi. Ngisho noma beqa umkhawulo wezomthetho, izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zincane kakhulu futhi azinabungozi, ngokusho kukaGoldstein, othumele ibhulogi ngaphambi kokuthatha umhlalaphansi eMonsanto kulo nyaka.

Cishe uhhafu wokudla okwenziwe isampula uqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane

Phakathi kokukhathazeka kwesayensi, i- idatha yakamuva kakhulu ye-FDA kuzinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kutholakale ukuthi cishe ingxenye yokudla i-ejensi eyayisampulile iqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane, ama-herbicides, ama-fungicides namanye amakhemikhali anobuthi asetshenziswa abalimi ekukhuliseni ukudla okungamakhulu amaningi.

Amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-90 ama-apula ama-apple asampuliwe atholakale aqukethe izibulala-zinambuzane. I-FDA iphinde yabika ukuthi amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-60 e-cantaloupe aphethe izinsalela. Kukonke, amaphesenti angama-79 ezithelo zaseMelika namaphesenti angama-52 emifino aqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezahlukahlukene - eziningi ezaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. Ama-pesticides atholakele kumikhiqizo yesoya, ummbila, i-oat nemikhiqizo kakolweni, nokudla okuphelile njengamabele, ama-crackers nama-macaroni.

Ukuhlaziywa kwe-FDA "cishe kuphela" kugxile kwimikhiqizo engabhalwanga njengeyinto ephilayo, ngokusho kokhulumela i-FDA uPeter Cassell.

I-FDA yehlisa iphesenti lokudla okuqukethe izinsalela ze-pesticides futhi igxile kumaphesenti amasampula okungekho ukwephula amazinga okubekezelelana. Embikweni wayo wakamuva kakhulu, kusho i-FDA ukuthi ngaphezu "kwama-99% wokudla kwasekhaya kanye no-90% kokudla kwabantu okuhambisanayo bekuhambisana nemithetho yenhlangano."

Umbiko ukhombise ukwethulwa kwale nkampani kokuhlolela i-glycosate killer killer ekudleni. IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni lathi ngonyaka we-2014 ukuthi bobabili i-FDA kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US kufanele baqale ukuhlola njalo ukudla kwe-glyphosate. I-FDA yenze izivivinyo ezinqunyelwe kuphela ifuna izinsalela ze-glyphosate, kodwa-ke, isampula ummbila kanye nesoya nobisi namaqanda kumbulali wokhula, kusho le nhlangano. Azikho izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholwe obisini noma amaqanda, kepha izinsalela zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-63.1 amasampula ommbila namaphesenti angama-67 amasampula wesoya, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Le nhlangano ayizange iveze okutholakele ngomunye wemithi yayo ye-glyphosate ku-oatmeal futhi imikhiqizo yezinyosi, noma ngabe usokhemisi we-FDA enza lokho akutholayo kwaziwa abaphathi nabanye ososayensi abangaphandle kwe-ejensi.

UCassell uthe okutholwe uju ne-oatmeal bekungeyona ingxenye yesabelo se-ejensi.

Sekukonke, umbiko omusha we-FDA wahlanganisa izampuli ezenziwe kusukela ngo-Okthoba 1, 2015, kuze kube nguSepthemba 30, 2016, futhi wafaka ukuhlaziywa kwamasampula angu-7,413 467 okudla okuhloliwe njengengxenye yohlelo “lokuqapha izibulala-zinambuzane” lwe-FDA. Iningi lamasampula kwakungukudla okwakudliwa ngabantu, kepha amasampula angama-47.1 kwakungukudla kwezilwane. Le nhlangano ithe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale emaphesentini angama-49.3 amasampula wokudla kwabantu akhiqizwa ekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-57 wokudla okungeniswe kwamanye amazwe enzelwe ukudla kwabathengi. Imikhiqizo yokudla yezilwane yayifana, nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-45.3 amasampula asekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-XNUMX wokudla okungenisiwe kwezilwane.

Amasampula amaningi okudla angenisiwe akhombisa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane eziphakeme ngokwanele ukwephula imingcele yezomthetho, kusho i-FDA. Cishe amaphesenti angama-20 amasampula womkhiqizo wokusanhlamvu nokusanhlamvu okhonjisiwe abonise amazinga aphezulu kakhulu wezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokwesibonelo.