Umbulali Wokhula waseMonsanto: Ukudalulwa Kwezesayensi Kwembuliwe

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Futhi ubone: I-MDL Monsanto Glyphosate Cancer Case Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa
futhi Ilungelo Lase-US Lokumangalela I-EPA Yokukhishwa Kwemibhalo YeGlyphosate

NguCarey Gillam 

Izingcezu zepuzzle seziqala ukuhlangana, kepha kuze kube manje akusona isithombe esihle.

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto Co lwembulwe kuleli sonto ngomyalelo wenkantolo okhombisa ukuthi izimangalo zenkampani ezinde mayelana nokuphepha kwemithi yayo ethengiswa kakhulu kunazo zonke iRoundup herbicide akuxhomekile kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani isho, kepha kwimizamo yokusebenzisa ubuqili isayensi.

UCongressman Ted Lieu waseCalifornia uye ubizele ukuthi kuphenywe yiCongress kanye noMnyango Wezobulungiswa ukuthi balubhekisise lolu daba, futhi weluleka abathengi ukuthi “masinyane” bayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup.

"Kumele sithole ukuthi iMonsanto noma i-Environmental Protection Agency ilahlekise umphakathi," kusho uLieu esitatimendeni. "

Amakhulu amakhasi ama-imeyili namanye amarekhodi ube yingxenye yefayela lasenkantolo yomphakathi kuleli sonto ngenxa yeziphikiso zikaMonsanto ngemuva kokuthi ijaji lombuso eSan Francisco lathi ngeke besagcinwa bevalwe uphawu yize kungenzeka kube "namahloni" eMonsanto. IJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria wengamele amacala angaphezu kwama-55 alethwe ngabantu abafakwe ngabantu abavela ezindaweni ezizungeze i-United States abasola ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-Mousanto's Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuthi benze i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ngaphezu kwalawo macala, aqhubekela phambili ngokuhlanganyela kulokho okwaziwa ngokuthi yi- “multdistrict litigation (MDL), amakhulu amanye amacala enza izimangalo ezifanayo alindile ezinkantolo zombuso.

Imibuzo mayelana nesithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ikhemikhali elibizwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate, ibilokhu ijikeleza iminyaka phakathi kocwaningo olukhulayo olubonisa ukuxhumana nomdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. I-International Agency for Research on Cancer ngo-2015 yahlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu futhi ososayensi abaningi bamazwe ngamazwe babike ucwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingaba nemithelela eminingi eyingozi kubantu.

Abamangali abasenkantolo babanga ukuthi ukuhlanganiswa kwe-glyphosate nabasebenza ngokusebenza okuthile abasetshenziswa emikhiqizweni ebizwa ngeMonsanto enophawu lwe-Roundup kuyingozi kakhulu kune-glyphosate iyodwa, kanti iMonsanto ifuna ukufihla leyo mininingwane.

UMonsanto ukuphikile ukuthi kunokuxhumeka komdlavuza ne-glyphosate noma i-Roundup futhi uthi iminyaka engama-40 yocwaningo kanye nokuhlolisisa okwenziwa izinhlangano ezilawulayo emhlabeni wonke kuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo. NgoLwesithathu a Ikomidi le-European Chemicals Agency uthe ukubuyekezwa kwayo kutholwe ukuthi i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogen.

Imibhalo ibonakala ikhombisa inkampani ukuthi ayinantshisekelo yokuhlola ukukhathazeka okwandayo ngemikhiqizo yayo kunokuthi ivikele izigidigidi zamaRandi emalini eyitholayo unyaka nonyaka kusuka ekubulaweni kokhula.

Kepha ukubheka imibhalo etholwe ngabamangali abavela eMonsanto njengengxenye yokutholwa okuyalelwe yinkantolo kubonakala kukhombisa inkampani ukuthi ayinantshisekelo yokuhlola ukukhathazeka okwandayo ngemikhiqizo yayo kunokuvikela izigidigidi zamadola emalini eyenzayo minyaka yonke kusuka ekubulaweni kokhula. Le mibhalo ikhombisa izingxoxo zezikhulu zeMonsanto ngemikhuba eminingi ehluphayo, kufaka phakathi ukubhalwa kwesipoki umbhalo wesandla we-glyphosate ongabonakala ubhalwe ngusosayensi ozimele, ozimele uMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazokhokhela ukubamba iqhaza. Omunye usosayensi onjalo kungadinga "ngaphansi kwezinsuku eziyishumi" ukwenza umsebenzi odingekayo kepha kungadinga ukukhokhwa okungaphezulu kwama- $ 10, amarekhodi akhombisa.

Ku-imeyili ka-2015, Isikhulu seMonsanto uWilliam Heydens uphakamise ukuthi abasebenzi baseMonsanto bangabhala ngephepha iphepha lokucwaninga njengoba wathi kwakwenziwe esikhathini esedlule: "Besizobhala izindleko ngokubhala kwethu bese bevele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," UHeydens wabhala.

Ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi kukhombisa abaphathi benkampani bezwakalisa ukungeneliseki ngososayensi owayekhathazeka nge-glyphosate, nokungathandi ukwenza izifundo aziphakamisile kwakudingeka kwenziwe. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zixoxe ngesidingo sokuthi "kutholwe / kuthuthukiswe umuntu onethezekile nephrofayli ye-genetox ye-glyphosate / Roundup futhi ongaba nomthelela kubalawuli ... lapho kuvela izingqinamba ze-genetox."

Amanye amarekhodi akhombisa ingxoxo yangaphakathi yokuthi i-glyphosate kanye nama-surfactants akhiwa kanjani ngokubambisana ekungeneni kwesikhumba somuntu lapho kuvezwa; imibhalo ekhuluma ngesidingo “ukuvikela” ukwakheka ezisebenzisa i-tallow amine njenge-surfactant yize kwenziwa, ngaphandle kokukhathazeka ngobuthi obuthuthukisiwe lapho kuhlanganiswa i-glyphosate ne-tallow amine.

Futhi mhlawumbe okulahlwa kakhulu - amarekhodi angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi isikhulu esiphezulu se-EPA esigabeni sezibulala-zinambuzane sisebenza ngokubambisana neMonsanto ukuvikela irekhodi lokuphepha le-glyphosate. UJess Rowland, obephethe umbiko we-EPA Cancer Assessment Committee Committee (CARC) obonisa ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, utshele uMonsanto ukuthi uzozama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate eMnyangweni Wezempilo Nezinsizakalo Zase-US, wathi: “Uma ngikwazi bulala lokhu kufanele ngithole indondo, ” ngokusho kwe-imeyili yangaphakathi ye-Monsanto ka-2015.

IRowland “ingaba wusizo njengoba siqhubekela phambili ngokuvikela okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate,” kusho uDan Jenkins, umxhumanisi omkhulu wokulawula waseMonsanto, wabhala nge-imeyili ka-2015. URowland washiya le nhlangano ngemuva nje kokuba umbiko weCARC udalulwe emphakathini, wathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-ejensi ngasekupheleni kuka-Ephreli 2016 ngaphambi kokuthi isuswe ezinsukwini ezimbalwa kamuva. Abameli bommangali banethemba lokususa uRowland emasontweni ambalwa ezayo, yize i-EPA ikuphikisile lokhu.

Imibhalo ekhishwe kuleli sonto ihlinzeka kuphela ngesifinyezo sokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweMonsanto uma kukhulunywa nge-glyphosate, futhi inkampani iphikise ukuthi ama-imeyili nokunye ukuxhumana kususwa kumongo ngabameli babamangali nabezindaba. Umsebenzi wenkampani wakhelwe "kwisayensi ezwakalayo," futhi “Ephethwe yimigomo ephakeme kakhulu yobuqotho kanye nokwenza izinto obala,” IMonsanto ithi.

I-EPA iphinde ivikele ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, ekhipha umbiko ngoSepthemba lokho kuphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate “cishe ayinakubangelwa umdlavuza kubantu.”

Kodwa embikweni okhishwe ngoLwesine, isigungu esikhethekile sokweluleka nge-EPA sathi ngeke bavumelane ngokugcwele nalesi sinqumo. Amanye amalungu ephaneli abukeze lolu cwaningo athi ucwaningo nge-glyphosate "lukhombisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-glyphosate ithinte izigameko zomdlavuza." Leli qembu lathi i-EPA ibikubeka eceleni ngokungafanele okutholakele kwezinye izifundo, futhi "izimpikiswano eziningi ezethulwe" yi-EPA njengezisekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate "azikholisi."

Izimpendulo zangempela ngemithelela yangempela ye-Roundup empilweni yomuntu sekuphele isikhathi eside, kubhekwa iqiniso lokuthi i-glyphosate iyimithi yokubulala ukhula esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi itholakala kakhulu kumasampula okudla namanzi nomchamo womuntu.

“Ukubaluleka kwalolu daba lokuthi ngabe i-Roundup iyawudala yini umdlavuza kukhulu kakhulu,” abameli babamangali kushiwo enkantolo yakamuva. "Ngeshwa, iMonsanto ayiqhamuki nokwabelana ngolwazi ngeRoundup nomphakathi."

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Imihlangano ezayo ye-EPA Yezokuphepha KweMonsanto Weed Killer Drawing scrutiny

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

IBayer kungcono ukunake lokhu.

Inkampani yaseJalimane kuhloswe ukuthola ama- $ 66 billion weMonsanto Co. iza phakathi nokukhathazeka okukhulayo ngekusasa lombulali wokhula othengisa kakhulu wenkampani, ikhemikhali elibizwa nge-glyphosate elenziwa uMonsanto emhlabeni eminyakeni engama-40 eyedlule njengesithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup herbicide. IMonsanto ivuna izigidigidi zamaRandi minyaka yonke, cishe ingxenye yesithathu yokuthengisa kwayo, kuleyo mikhiqizo.

Ngakho-ke akuyona into encane ukuthi maphakathi no-Okthoba i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ihlela ukuchitha izinsuku ezine ukubamba imihlangano yomphakathi nephaneli yokweluleka yesayensi ngesihloko sokuthi i-glyphosate ingawudala umdlavuza noma cha. Umqondo wokukhanyisa obala emphakathini ngalokhu kukhathazeka okwandayo mayelana ne-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni awuzange ume kahle ngeMonsanto nayo yonke imboni ezuza emikhiqizweni ye-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup. Izintshisekelo zezolimo sezihambe zaze zafika lapho ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi imihlangano akufanele ibanjwe nhlobo, futhi bathe uma ikhona, ososayensi abaningi abaphezulu emhlabeni kufanele bakhishwe ekubandakanyeni.

Imboni ngokusobala ayikwamukeli ukuhlolisiswa umphakathi okulethwa yile mihlangano, kodwa kufanele yaneliseke ukuthi i-EPA ikubeke kwacaca ukuthi ayinanhloso yokuphikisana nezimangalo zikaMonsanto zokuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Ngemuva kwakho konke, embikweni kaSepthemba 12 onikezwe umphakathi, i-EPA yanikela nge Ukuhlolwa kwamakhasi angama-227 yamandla okubangela umdlavuza we-glyphosate agcine ngokuphetha ngokuthi "okuhlongozwayo" ukuthi i-glyphosate '"kungenzeka ukuthi ingabi yi-carcinogenic kubantu' ngemithamo efanelekile ekuhlolweni kwengozi yabantu." Konke lokhu ngaphambi kokuba kubanjwe imihlangano.

Kuyisikweletu sayo, i-EPA ikhiphe ama-caveats amaningi kulowo mbiko, yavuma ukuthi olunye ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha yanikeza izincazelo ezahlukahlukene zokuthi kungani i-ejensi ingakholelwa ukuthi leyo miphumela yocwaningo ibalulekile, futhi / noma idlulwa ngenye izifundo. Le nhlangano ibuye yengeza inqwaba yeziqu, yathi ngokuphathelene nezifundo ze-epidemiological, imininingwane inciphile futhi iphelelwe yisikhathi. Ngenxa yokuthi kube "nokusetshenziswa okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kulandela ukwethulwa kwezitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate ngo-1996, kunesidingo sezifundo zakamuva kakhulu njengoba inani elikhulu lezifundo zenziwa ngaphambi konyaka we-1996," kusho i-EPA. Le nhlangano iphinde yathi ucwaningo ludinga ukwenziwa ekwakhiweni kwe-glyphosate, hhayi i-glyphosate kuphela.

Futhi i-ejensi ifake i-caveat ethize maqondana nocwaningo olubopha i-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), ithi: “Kunemibono engqubuzanayo yokuthi ungayichaza kanjani imiphumela isiyonke yeNHL. Abanye bakholelwa ukuthi imininingwane ikhombisa ukuhlangana okukhona phakathi kokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL. ” Le nhlangano yanezela: "Ngenxa yemikhawulo yokufunda kanye nemiphumela ephikisanayo ezifundweni zonke ... isiphetho maqondana nokuhlangana phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL ngeke sinqunywe ngokuya ngemininingwane etholakalayo."

Kusobala ukuthi kuningi okusengcupheni - Njengamanje iMonsanto imangalelwa ngabantu abaningi abathi i-Roundup herbicide yenkampani yabanika yona noma amalungu omndeni wabo i-NHL, futhi inkampani ilwa impi yasenkantolo nezwe laseCalifornia ngemizamo yokulawula yokwengeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwama-carcinogens aziwayo noma okungenzeka abe khona. Futhi kusele udaba lokuhlolwa kwesikhathi eside kwe-EPA kokuhlolwa kwezinhlekelele kwezemvelo nakwezempilo kwe-glyphosate, lapho i-EPA ingeza khona imikhawulo ekusetshenzisweni kwe-glyphosate uma i-ejensi ibona kufanele lokho. Lokho kuhlolwa kobungozi bekufanele kuphume ngo-2015. I-ejensi yathi izokhishwa ngo-2016. Manje i-ejensi ithi ingaqedwa ngentwasahlobo ka-2017.

Ngokutholwa kweBayer, amacala amacala kanye nokuhlolwa kobungozi sekusondele, uMonsanto ubelokhu ekhipha zonke izitobha zokuvikela i-glyphosate. Ingcindezi ye-EPA yokuvikela i-glyphosate yaqala ngokushesha ngemuva kokuthi i-World Health Organisation International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) imemezele ngoMashi 2015 ukuthi ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate "Mhlawumbe" i-carcinogenic kubantu. Isinqumo se-IARC samenyezelwa ngoLwesihlanu, Mashi 20, 2015 kwathi ngoMsombuluko olandelayo ekuseni, uDan Jenkins waseMonsanto, umholi wezokulawulwa kwenkampani, wayesevele ukubiza nokuthumela nge-imeyili izikhulu ze-EPA befuna ukuthi "balungise" irekhodi ku-glyphosate. Ama-imeyili atholwe ngesicelo se-Freedom of Information abonisa ukuthi ama-Jenkins ahanjisiwe "Amaphuzu okukhuluma" ku-EPA ukuzama ukuphikisa i-IARC. Futhi kusukela lapho iMonsanto iye yaqinisa kuphela imizamo yayo yokwenza ize imiphumela yokutholwa kweqembu le-IARC, ihlasela ososayensi abangomakadebona njenge “engakhethwanga, engabuswa ngentando yeningi, engaziwa futhi engaphandle. ”

IMonsanto iphinde yafaka ama-imeyili namanye amarekhodi avela kusihlalo walelo komiti le-IARC, U-Aaron Blair, usosayensi ophumile eNational Cancer Institute, owayengusihlalo wethimba le-IARC. UBlair unomsebenzi omude wokunconywa nokuqokwa okuvuma ubungcweti bakhe, futhi useke wasebenza emaqenjini amaningi okubuyekezwa kwesayensi kuzwelonke nakwamanye amazwe, kubandakanya ne-EPA. Kepha iMonsanto ithathe njengomsolwa womsebenzi kaBlair.

Futhi kubonakala sengathi uMonsanto wenze ukujija ingalo eCongress. NgoMsombuluko, usihlalo weNdlu yeKomidi Lezokuqapha kanye Nezinguquko kuHulumeni ubhalele i- Izikhungo zezempilo zikazwelonke, Efunda izikhalazo eziningi uMonsanto nababambisene nayo abazenzile nge-IARC nangezinselelo zesibonelelo i-NIH esenze ku-IARC.

Ukubukeka kwe-EPA kokuqondanisa neMonsanto kubathukuthelisa abaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi i-EPA iyaphambuka ezimisweni zesayensi ezimisiwe futhi ingabunaki ubufakazi obubalulekile ukuze igcine izintshisekelo zenkampani ezizuza kuma-herbicides e-glyphosate zijabule.

“Leli khemikhali lingaba yisifo somzimba womuntu nganoma iyiphi incazelo enengqondo. Kungamampunge ukusho okunye, ”kusho UChristopher Portier, owayengumqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry e-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ngaphambi kwaleyo ndima, uPortier wachitha iminyaka engama-32 kwiNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), lapho asebenza khona njengomqondisi we-NIEHS, umqondisi we-Environmental Toxicology Programme, kanye nomqondisi ohlangene weNational Toxicology Program. Esethathe umhlalaphansi, uPortier, "owayengungcweti omenyiwe" ekubuyekezweni kwe-IARC nge-glyphosate, ubambe amatoho esikhwameni se-Environmental Defense Fund.

U-Portier kanye nabanye ososayensi bamazwe angaphezulu kwama-90 bakhiphe i- umbiko onemininingwane kubeka ucwaningo oluthile oluhlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza kokubili ezifundweni zezilwane nasekubonweni kwabantu. Ososayensi bathe okuwukuphela kwendlela abalawuli abakwazi ukwehlisa ngayo ubufakazi ukugoba imithetho esungulwe kahle yokuhlolwa kwesayensi. Bathi ubufakazi obukhona bomuntu buyakhombisa ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kuyilapho imiphumela ebalulekile ye-carcinogenic ibonakala ezilwaneni zaselebhu zezinso ezingavamile nezinye izinhlobo zamathumba. Kukhona futhi "nobufakazi obuqinile be-genotoxicity kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative," kufaka phakathi ukutholakala kokulimala kwe-DNA egazini lomzimba labantu abadalulwe i-glyphosate, kusho ososayensi.

"Ukuhlolwa okufanele kakhulu nokwenziwe ngokwesayensi komdlavuza okubikwe kubantu nasezilwaneni zaselabhorethri kanye nemininingwane esekelayo yemishini ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu," kusho umbiko. "Ngenxa yalesi siphetho futhi bungekho ubufakazi obuphikisana nalokhu, kunengqondo ukuphetha ngokuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kufanele kubhekwe nokuthi kungenzeka kube ngumdlavuza wabantu."

“I-EPA isendaweni embi ngalokhu. Ukubuyiselwa emuva impela kuphume kulo mkhakha kususelwa ezintweni ezingezwakali kahle ngokwesayensi, ”kusho uMaarten Bosland, ongomunye wababhali balo mbiko ngocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. UBosland ungumqondisi weCentre for Global Health Outreach Department of Pathology e-University of Illinois eChicago, futhi uneziqu ze-Ph.D. ku-pathology yokuhlola. “Isamba semali esithintekayo kulesi sakhi sikhulu kakhulu. Kuyinhlanganisela yomhlaba wonke yezintshisakalo zezezimali ezithintwa yilokhu. ”

Kubukeka kungaphezu kokuqondana nje ukuthi umqondo we-EPA wokuchitha izifundo zesayensi i-IARC uthe ukhombisa ukuxhumana komdlavuza ngokusondelana nokutholwe yiphaneli elixhaswe ngemali yi-Monsanto elinamalungu ayi-16. Lelo qembu lososayensi abayi-16, bonke ngaphandle kwabane babo wayekade esebenza ngaphambilini kungaba njengabasebenzi noma ababonisi beMonsanto, wakhipha umbiko ngoDisemba esekela impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuthi abukho ubufakazi bangempela bokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza. Ukuhola umsebenzi kwaba UGary M. Williams, umqondisi wezifo zemvelo kanye ne-toxicology eNew York Medical College, kanye nomxhumanisi eMonsanto. UWilliams unomlando wokushicilela okutholakele okuhle nge-glyphosate; wayengumbhali wenye yeMonsanto izifundo ezenziwe kakhulu, umbiko wocwaningo lowezi-2000 owaphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate akuyona nje kuphela i-carcinogen, kodwa “kubhekwa ukuthi ayinabo ubuthi.”

Lelo phaneli lilungiselela ukukhipha ama-athikili amahlanu asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate kumagazini Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile Kwe-Toxicology maduzane, ngokusho kwe-Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy, ekhokhelwe yiMonsanto ukuhlela iphaneli.

Embikweni we-EPA, indawo eyodwa ekhanyayo yabagxeki be-glyphosate ukuthi i-EPA ifuna ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe. Ngokuqondile, i-ejensi iyasivuma isidingo sokuhlola ukwesaba ukuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kungaba nobuthi ngaphezu kwe-glyphosate kuphela. I-EPA ithuthukisa "uhlelo lokucwaninga" neNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ukuze "kuhlolwe iqhaza le-glyphosate ekwakhiweni kwemikhiqizo nomehluko ekwakhiweni kobuthi," kusho i-EPA.

Izimpendulo ezintsha azikwazi ukuza maduze ngokwanele kubathengi abakhathazeka ngamazinga aqhubekayo e-glyphosate ekudleni abakudlayo. I-FDA kulo nyaka itholakele amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate kuzinyosi zase-US, amanye amazinga angaphezu kokuphindwe kabili kwalokho okubhekwa njengokuphephile e-European Union.

Imihlangano eseWashington iqala ngo-Okthoba 18-21, kanti kulindeleke ukuthi idonse abantu abehlukene - abameli, izishoshovu, abalimi, abezemvelo kanye nababambisene nabo ezinkampanini bonke benza izinhlelo zabo zokuhamba.

Kufanele kube mnandi.

(I-Article ivele okokuqala ku- I-Huffington Post)