I-Gene Editing Mishaps Gqamisa Isidingo Sokwengamela i-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imizamo yenkampani yaseMidwestern yokwakha izakhi zofuzo izinkomo zokuqala zobisi ezingenazimpondo emhlabeni ifike kwangqingetshe kuleli hlobo lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration ithola izakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni obekungafanele zibekhona. Amaphutha abanjwe yi-FDA - kepha inkampani ilahlekile - igqamisa ukubaluleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni kokudla okuhleliwe kofuzo ngesikhathi lapho amaqembu embonini efuna ukupheliswa komthetho.

Izinkomo ezingenazimpondo: umsebenzi wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo?

Abakhiqizi bengulube, isibonelo, "bathi uhulumeni wesifundazwe kufanele anciphise imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa kokuhlelwa kofuzo emfuyweni," abathi kunciphisa ucwaningo nentuthuko, i-Wall Street Journal kubika isonto eledlule. Abakhiqizi bafuna ukwenganyelwa kususwe kwi-FDA kuye eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US, okuyi isivele ivumela izitshalo ezihlelwe zofuzo kufanele itshalwe futhi ithengiswe ngaphandle kokubheka okulawulayo.

Kepha i-FDA ihlela ukudinga ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo, njengoba benza ngemithi emisha yezilwane. Imithethonqubo izoqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zofuzo ziphephile ezilwaneni nakubathengi, futhi zisiza abathengi ukuthi bakhululeke ngobuchwepheshe, okhulumela i-FDA utshele iJournal.

Ukutholakala kwe-FDA yezakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni ezingenazimpondo, nokunye okusanda kubikwa okubi okubandakanya ulibofuzo olusha amasu wobunjiniyela, aqinise icala lokuthi uhulumeni ahlolisise, futhi abe namaqembu ezimboni alwela ukulawula i-fiasco yobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Izakhi zofuzo ezingeziwe i-Recombinetics zilahlekile

Abaphenyi benkampani ezinze eMinnesota iRecombinetics, Inc., babike ephepheni le-2016 ukuthi badale izinkomo zokuqala ezifakiwe (ezingenazimpondo) besebenzisa inqubo yokuhlela izakhi zofuzo ebizwa ngeTALENS ukushintsha ukulandelana kofuzo ezinkomeni. Abaphenyi babike ukuthi abatholanga imithelela engahlosiwe. Babhala ukuthi, "izilwane zethu azinayo imiphumela ebhekiswe ngaphandle."

Kepha lapho abacwaningi be-FDA behlola kabusha i-DNA kuleli hlobo, besebenzisa ukulandelana kofuzo okwakuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi yiRecombinetics, bathole imiphumela engeyona eyokuqondisa. Izinkomo ezimbili ezihleliwe zaziphatha amakhophi e-plasmid yebhaktheriya asetshenziswe enqubeni yokuhlela, kufaka phakathi izakhi zofuzo zokumelana nama-antibiotic cishe kuwo wonke amaseli emizimba yazo. Izakhi zofuzo azivamile ukuvela ezinkomeni.

Lokhu "kuphakamisa izingqinamba zokuphepha kokuvikela ngoba kunesidingo esiqinile somhlaba wonke sokunciphisa ukusabalala kwezakhi zofuzo ezinikeza ukumelana nemithi elwa namagciwane," kubhala uJonathan Latham, PhD, ku Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Iphinde iphakamise imibuzo ngokungabi bikho kobuciko bezindlela zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo futhi inikeze isisindo sezimpikiswano zokubhekwa kukahulumeni. Izinhlelo zokufuya izinkomo ezingenazimpondo eBrazil zachithwa ngemuva kokuvela kwemiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe, kubika i-Wired, ngoba abalawuli lapho babekwazi ayisabheki izinkomo njenge-GMO.

Abaphenyi be-FDA bathi ukutholakala kwabo “kugqamisa indawo engaba khona yezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuhlola ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo,” futhi bathi basola ukuthi amaphutha okuhlanganisa “abikiwe noma awanakwa” ekuhlolweni kokuhlela izakhi zofuzo. Baphawula ezinye izibonelo zezinguquko ezingalindelekile - a Ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-2017 othole ukususwa okuyinkimbinkimbi nokufakwa ku-genome yegundane ehleliwe, futhi ucwaningo lwe-2018 lokho kwabika ukulimala kwe-DNA emigqeni yamangqamuzana omuntu.

Ngakho-ke abacwaningi beRecombinetics bakuphuthelwa kanjani ukuhlanganiswa okungahlosiwe kwe-DNA?

“Asibukanga”

"Bekungeyona into ebilindelekile, futhi besingayifunanga," kusho uTad Sonstegard, isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani yezolimo iRecombinetics 'Acceligen, ngokusho kwe Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT Technology. Isheke eliphelele “bekufanele ngabe lenziwe,” kusho yena. Umagazini ophefumulelwe kucashunwe uSonstegard echaza, “Besingafuni ukuhlanganiswa kweplasmid. Bekufanele sibe nayo. ”

Lokho bekufanele kube yindawo esobala yokubheka, kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advocacy, weMibiko yabathengi. "Ukuthi noma iyiphi i-DNA evela ku-bacterial plasmid esetshenzisiwe ohlelweni lokuhlela izakhi zofuzo yathathwa yadluliselwa kuzoba ngenye yezinto zokuqala obuzozibheka uma unentshisekelo yokuthola imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe," kusho uHansen.

Ngokubona kwakhe, iqiniso lokuthi iRecombinetics ilahlekelwe yinkinga kusikisela ukuthi, “abenzanga ukwengamela okudingekayo. Yingakho sidinga ukwenganyelwa nguhulumeni, ”kubandakanya izidingo zokuhlolwa kwezokuphepha ngaphambi kwezimakethe, esho.

U-Latham, ongusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo nowayengunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo, naye ukhomba kokutholakele kwakamuva okuvela eJapane akholelwa ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omkhulu kunalokho okutholwe yi-FDA, futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekulawulweni komhlaba. Esifundweni se2019, Abaphenyi baseJapan babika ukuthi ama-genome wegundane ahleliwe athole i-DNA ku-E.coli genome, kanye ne-DNA yezimbuzi nezinkomo. Le DNA elahlekile yavela kuma-reagents wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo, indlela yokulethwa esetshenziselwa ukwenza ukuhlela.

Lokhu okutholakele "kulula kakhulu: ukusika i-DNA ngaphakathi kwamaseli, kungakhathalekile ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo oluhlelekile lokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo, kubeka ama-genome ukuthola i-DNA engafuneki,", kubhala uLatham kuzindaba ze-Independent Science. Uthe lokhu okutholakele “kusho ukuthi, okungenani, isidingo sezinyathelo eziqinile zokuvimbela ukungcoliswa yi-DNA elahlekile, kanye nokuhlolisiswa ngokuphelele kwamangqamuzana ahlelwe izakhi zofuzo kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Futhi, njengoba icala leRecombinetics liphakamisa, lezi yizidingo abathuthukisi uqobo abangase bangahlangabezani nazo.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo

I-Recombinetics inayo “Uphikise ngomsindo” ukwengamela kwe-FDA sonke isikhathi futhi wacela ukuphathwa kukaTrump ukulwa namandla okwengamela kude ne-ejensi yokuphepha kokudla, ngokusho kweMIT Technology Review. Futhi ngenkathi iRecombinetics isho ngo-2016 ukuthi izinkomo zayo ezingenazimpondo ezihlelwe ngofuzo "bezingenayo imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlasela," lokho kutholwa kwasetshenziswa njengethuluzi lokwamukela izivakashi emkhankasweni wokulwa nokuhlolwa kwe-FDA.

Phakathi ku ukuhlaziya ebisebenza eceleni kocwaningo lwale nkampani, abacwaningi abahlanu baseyunivesithi baphikise ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo kuyasinda futhi akudingeki. Omunye wabalobi, U-Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelulwa kwezilwane e-UC Davis kanye nommeli ohola phambili wokuqedwa komthetho, uchaze uhlelo lwe-FDA lokufuna ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe “njengohlanya.”

"Imiphumela yokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo ifana kakhulu nezinqubo zemvelo," kubhala abacwaningi ekuphawuleni kwabo. Noma imiphi "imiphumela engemihle engancishiswa ingancishiswa ngokwakhiwa ngokucophelela nangokuhlolwa okuningiliziwe," besho, bephawula ukuthi abacwaningi abavela eRecombinetics "abatholanga" ezinkomeni zabo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Baphinde bathi, ngokungahambisani nalokhu, ukuthi izinkomo ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziphethe i-DNA efanayo "esetshenziswe abantu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-1,000." "Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo," babhala, kungaba ukusabalalisa ukulandelana okuhleliwe kwe-genome "kubantu bezimbuzi zomhlaba wonke."

Ukunqanyulwa phakathi kokujaha ukuthengisa ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nesidingo sokuzikhandla okufanelekile ukuqonda imiphumela engeyona eqondiwe yokusetshenziswa kofuzo kanye nemithelela engaba nayo empilweni nasemvelweni, sekuyisikhathi eside kuyiphuzu elinamathelayo empikiswaneni ye-GMO. Ngokudla okuningi kwe-GMO, izinkampani beziphethe ukuhlolwa kokuphepha sonke isikhathi, ngaphandle kokubheka okuncane kukahulumeni. Kepha yiziphi izikhuthazo izinkampani okufanele zibheke kuzo izinkinga?

Emuva ngo-1998, ku ingxoxo noMichael Pollan yeNew York Times, UMonsanto owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ngaleso sikhathi wayengaqondile ekuhloleni kwakhe ukuthi izimfuno zemboni zikhona kuphi: ”IMonsanto akufanele ukuthi ivikele ukuphepha kokudla kwe-biotech. Intshisekelo yethu ukuthengisa okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo kungumsebenzi we-FDA. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo kudinga ukucaciswa kakhudlwana ukuze kufezekiswe isithembiso sayo - nguDavid Edgell, Ingxoxo (10.7.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwe-Gene ngokungenhloso kungeza i-DNA yezinkomo, i-DNA yezimbuzi, ne-DNA yebhaktheriya, abacwaningi begundane bathola - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent ScienceNews (9.23.19)

Izinkomo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo zine-screwup enkulu kwi-DNA yazo - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (8.28.19)

I-FDA ithola izakhi zofuzo zokumelana namagciwane ezingalindelekile ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo 'ezihleliwe' - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, no-Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

Izinguquko ezenziwa ngaphandle kokuqondisa akukhona ukuphela kokukhathazeka ezitshalweni ezihlelwe ngofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (7.10.19)

Kungani isifaniso esithi “isikelo samangqamuzana” seCRISPR sidukisa - ngu-Elinor Hortle, Ingxoxo (7.4.19)

I-CRISPR ibangela imiphumela engalindelekile ngisho nasendaweni ehlosiwe yokuguqulwa kofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (4.16.19)

Ukukhishwa kwe-CRISPR kubangela ukuguqulwa okungahlosiwe ku-DNA - Ukubuka kwe-GM (3.13.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwesisekelo se-CRISPR, okwaziwa ngokunemba, kushaya i-snag ngokuguqula okungu-off-target - nguSharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Izilimi ezinkulu nama-vertebrae angeziwe: Imiphumela engahlosiwe yokuhlelwa kofuzo lwesilwane - NguPreetika Rana noLucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

Ukulimala okungenzeka kwe-DNA okuvela ku-CRISPR 'kubhekelwe phansi kakhulu,' ucwaningo luthola - nguSharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Kuvela ukuthi ukuhlela kwe-CRISPR kungalimaza nama-genomes - Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (7.16.2018)

Isithiyo esisha esibucayi se-CRISPR: Amaseli ahleliwe angadala umdlavuza, kutholakala izifundo ezimbili - nguSharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Abahleli bezakhi zofuzo basePulazini bafuna izinkomo ezingenazimpondo, izingulube ezingenamsila, nebhizinisi ngaphandle kwemithetho - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (3.12.18)

Umbiko: Izilwane ezihlelwa yizakhi zofuzo zizoqinisa ukulima kwasezimboni kanye nenkinga yesimo sezulu, kungalimaza impilo yabantu - Abangane Bomhlaba (9.17.19)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? - nguStacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uhlobo lwalesi sihloko lushicilelwe okokuqala ngo I-Common Ground Magazine Mashi 2018 (Uhlobo lwe-PDF).

NguStacy Malkan

Wonke umuntu uyayithanda indaba emnandi ngekusasa. Mhlawumbe uzwile lokhu: ukudla kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme okwenziwe isayensi kuzokondla abantu abayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-9 abalindelwe emhlabeni ngo-2050. Ukudla okwenziwe emalabuni nasezitshalweni nasezilwaneni ezenziwe ngofuzo ukuze zikhule ngokushesha nangcono kuzokwenza ukuthi kudle umhlaba ominyene, ngokusho kwezindaba ezijikeleza ngezikhungo zethu zemidiya nezemfundo.

"6th abafundi bebanga bacabanga ngemibono emikhulu ye-biotech ukuze # Feedthe9 ″ ukhiphe i-tweet yakamuva emakwe embonini yamakhemikhali iwebhusayithi yokukhangisa Izimpendulo ze-GMOA. Imibono yabafundi ifaka phakathi "ukuzalela izaqathe ukuze zibe namavithamini amaningi" kanye "nommbila ozokhula ezimweni ezinzima zasebusika."

Konke kuzwakala kuthembisa kakhulu uze ubheke amaqiniso angemuva kwenkulumo.

Okokuqala, ezweni elihola umhlaba ekukhuleni kwezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs), izigidi zilambile. Ukunciphisa imfucuza yokudla, ukubhekana nokungalingani nokushintshela ku ezolimo Izindlela zokulima, hhayi ama-GMO, ziyizikhiye ekuvikelekeni kokudla emhlabeni, ngokusho kochwepheshe beNhlangano Yezizwe. Ukudla okuningi okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo emakethe namuhla akunazinzuzo nakancane kubathengi; enzelwe ukusinda izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi asheshise kakhulu ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifana glyphosate, dicamba futhi ngokushesha i-2,4D, ukudala lokho amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngokuthi kuyingozi umshini wokubulala izinambuzane.

Yize kunamashumi eminyaka yokuxokozela mayelana nezakhamzimba eziphakeme noma izitshalo ze-GMO ze-heartier, lezo zinzuzo zehlulekile ukwenzeka. I-Vitamin-A ithuthukisiwe Ilayisi Eligolide, isibonelo - “irayisi ebingasindisa izingane eziyisigidi ngonyaka,” kubika Isikhathi umagazini iminyaka 17 edlule - ayikho emakethe yize kunezigidi ezichithwe ekuthuthukisweni. "Uma ilayisi legolide liyindlela yokwelapha enjalo, kungani lichuma kuphela ezihlokweni ezinkulu, kude nezinsimu zepulazi lapho kuhloswe ukuba likhule khona?" kubuza uTom Philpott umama Jones isihloko esithi, I-WTF Yenzekeni Elayisi Legolide?

“Impendulo emfushane ukuthi abatshali bezitshalo abasazakhi izinhlobonhlobo zaso ezisebenza ensimini njengezihlobo zelayisi ezikhona… Uma uhlanganisa into eyodwa ku-genome, njengokunika ilayisi amandla okwenza i-beta-carotene, engozini yokushintsha ezinye izinto, njengejubane lokukhula kwayo. ”

Imvelo iyinkimbinkimbi, ngamanye amazwi, futhi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo kungaveza imiphumela engalindelekile.

Cabanga ngendaba ye-Impossible Burger.

I-burger esekwe ezitshalweni ethi "yopha" yenziwa ukuthi yenzeke ngemvubelo yobunjiniyela ukuze ifane neleghemoglobin, into etholakala ezimpandeni zezitshalo zesoya. I-GMO soy leghemoglobin (SLH) yehla ibe yiprotheyini ebizwa nge- “heme,” enikeza iburger izimfanelo ezifana nenyama - umbala wayo obomvu obomvu wegazi kanye ne-sizzle ku-grill - ngaphandle kwemithelela yezemvelo neyokuziphatha ekukhiqizeni inyama. Kepha i-GMO SLH ibuye yehle iye kwamanye amaprotheni angama-46 angakaze abe ekudleni kwabantu futhi angabeka izingozi zokuphepha.

Njengoba i New York Times kubika, isosi eliyimfihlo le-burger “liqokomisa izinselele zobuchwepheshe bokudla.” Indaba yayisekelwe imibhalo etholwe yi-ETC Group nabangane bomhlaba ngaphansi kwesicelo soMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi - imibhalo inkampani okungenzeka yayinethemba lokuthi ayisoze yakubona ukukhanya kosuku. Ngenkathi i-Impossible Foods icela i-Food and Drug Administration ukuthi iqinisekise ukuthi isithako sayo se-GMO "ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile" (GRAS) Times kubika, i-ejensi esikhundleni salokho "iveze ukukhathazeka ngokuthi ayikaze idliwe ngabantu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi iyi-allergen."

Izikhulu ze-FDA wabhala kumanothi echaza ucingo lwango-2015 nenkampani, "i-FDA yathi izimpikiswano ezikhona manje, ngazodwana futhi ngokuhlanganyela, bezinganele ukwenza ukuphepha kwe-SLH ukusetshenziswa." Kepha, njengoba Times Indaba ichaziwe, i-FDA ayishongo ukuthi i-GMO leghemoglobin ayiphephile, futhi inkampani ayidingi ukuvunyelwa yi-FDA ukuthi ithengise i-burger yayo noma kunjalo.

Izimpikiswano ezethulwe azizange zisungule ukuphepha - i-FDA

Ngakho-ke i-Impossible Burger isemakethe ngeziqinisekiso zenkampani zokuphepha futhi abathengi abaningi basebumnyameni ngalokho okukuyo. Ngenkathi inqubo ye-GMO ichazwa kuwebhusayithi ayithengiswa ngaleyo ndlela lapho kuthengiswa khona. Ekuvakasheni kwakamuva endaweni yokudlela yaseBay Area edayisa i-Impossible Burger, ikhasimende libuze ukuthi ngabe i-burger ishintshiwe yini. Utshelwe ngokunganembile, "cha."

Ukuntuleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni, izingozi zezempilo ezingaziwa kanye nabathengi abashiye ebumnyameni - lezi yizindikimba eziphindaphindwayo ekulandiseni okuqhubekayo mayelana neWild West yokuhlolwa kobunjiniyela kwezakhi zofuzo egxambukela esitolo esiseduze nawe.

I-GMO nganoma yiliphi elinye igama…

I-biology yokwenziwa, i-CRISPR, ukuhlelwa kofuzo, ukuthuliswa kofuzo: la magama achaza izinhlobo ezintsha zezitshalo, izilwane kanye nezithako ezakhiwe ngezofuzo izinkampani eziphuthuma ukungena emakethe.

Indlela yakudala yobunjiniyela, ebizwa ngokuthi ama-transgenics, ifaka ukudlulisa izakhi zofuzo zisuka kolunye uhlobo ziye kolunye. Ngezindlela ezintsha zobunjiniyela - lokho amanye amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngamaGMOs 2.0 - izinkampani ziphazamisa imvelo ngezindlela ezintsha futhi ezingaba yingozi. Bangasusa izakhi zofuzo, bavule noma bavale izakhi zofuzo, noma bakhe ukulandelana okusha kwe-DNA kukhompyutha. Zonke lezi zinqubo ezintsha zingama-GMO ngendlela abathengi kanye ne-US Patent Office ababheka ngayo - i-DNA ishintshwa kumalebhu ngezindlela ezingeke zenzeke emvelweni, futhi isetshenziselwe ukwenza imikhiqizo enelungelo lobunikazi. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo zama-GMOs 2.0.

Ama-GMO we-biology yokwenziwa kufaka phakathi ukuguqula noma ukudala i-DNA ukuze kuhlanganiswe izinto ezihlanganisiwe kunokuzikhipha emithonjeni yemvelo. Izibonelo zifaka imvubelo yobunjiniyela noma ulwelwe ukudala ukunambitheka okufana ne-vanillin, i-stevia ne-citrus; noma amakha afana ne-patchouli, i-rose oil ne-clearwood - konke okungenzeka ukuthi sekuvele kumikhiqizo.

Ezinye izinkampani zithi izithako ezikhuliswa elebhu njengesixazululo sokusimama. Kepha udeveli usemininingwane izinkampani ezizimisele ukudalula. Yini ama-feedstocks? Eminye imikhiqizo yokwenziwa kwebhayoloji incike kushukela ovela kumakhemikhali amaningi asebenzisa amakhemikhali noma ezinye izidlo ezingcolisayo ezifana negesi ethosiwe. Kukhona nokukhathazeka ukuthi ulwelwe olunjiniwe lungabalekela emvelweni lube ngukungcola kokuphila.

Futhi yimuphi umthelela kubalimi abathembele ezitshalweni ezikhuliswe kahle? Abalimi emhlabeni wonke bakhathazekile ngokuthi abantu abangena esikhundleni esikhuliswa ngamalebhu, abathengiswa ngamanga “njengemvelo,” bangabakhipha ebhizinisini. Izizukulwane ngezizukulwane, abalimi baseMexico, eMadagascar, e-Afrika naseParaguay balime i-vanilla yemvelo ne-organic, ibhotela le-shea noma i-stevia. EHaiti, ukulima i-vetiver grass yokusetshenziswa kumakha aphezulu kakhulu kusekela abalimi abancane abangafika ku-60,000, okusiza ekuqiniseni umnotho owonakaliswe ukuzamazama komhlaba neziphepho.

Ngabe kunengqondo ukuhambisa lezi zinjini zezomnotho ziye eSouth San Francisco bese sondla ushukela olinywe efektri ngemvubelo ukuze senze amakha nesinongo eshibhile? Ngubani ozosizakala, futhi ngubani ozolahlekelwa, ekuguqulweni kwezitshalo kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme?

Izinhlanzi nezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo: izinkomo ezinezimpondo, izingulube ezithenwe ngokwemvelo, kanye namaqanda enkukhu aklanyelwe ukuba abe nomenzeli wemithi konke kusembhidlangweni wokuhlolwa kofuzo. Iphrojekthi yabesilisa bonke "terminator izinkomo" - enegama lekhodi "Abafana Kuphela" - ihlose ukudala inkunzi ezozala kuphela abantwana besilisa, ngaleyo ndlela "ibambe amathuba obudoda nokwenza imboni (yenyama) isebenze kangcono," kubika Ukubuyekezwa Kwezobuchwepheshe be-MIT.

Yini engase ihambe kabi?

Isazi sezakhi zofuzo esisebenza ezinkomeni ze-terminator, u-Alison Van Eenennaam wase-University of California, eDavis, ucela ukuthi abakwa-FDA bacubungule kabusha isinqumo sayo sango-2017 sokuphatha izilwane ezihlelwe yi-CRISPR sengathi ziyizidakamizwa ezintsha, ngaleyo ndlela zidinga izifundo zokuphepha; utshele i- Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT lokho “kungabeka umgomo omkhulu wokulawula ekusebenziseni le ndlela yokuhlela izakhi ezilwaneni.” Kepha akumele yini kube khona izidingo zokutadisha impilo, ukuphepha kanye nemithelela yemvelo yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nohlaka lokucabanga ngemithelela yokuziphatha, yokuziphatha neyenhlalo? Izinkampani zilwela kanzima ngaphandle kwezidingo; ngoJanuwari, uMongameli Trump wakhuluma nge-biotechnology okokuqala ngesikhathi esengumongameli futhi wenze isimemezelo esingacacile mayelana "nemithethonqubo yokwenza ngcono izinto."

Isilwane kuphela se-GMO emakethe kuze kube manje yi-AquaAdvantage salmon eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ze-eel ukuze ikhule ngokushesha. Izinhlanzi seziyathengiswa eCanada, kepha inkampani ngeke isho ukuthi ikuphi, futhi ukuthengiswa kwaseMelika kubanjiwe ngenxaizinkinga zokulebula.”Isifiso sokugcina imfihlo sinengqondo ngokubuka kokuthengisa: ama-75% wabaphenduli ku-a 2013 New York Times i-poll bathi ngeke badle izinhlanzi ze-GMO, futhi cishe okubili kokuthathu bathi ngeke bayidle inyama eshintshwe izakhi zofuzo.

Izindlela zokuthulisa i-Gene njengokuphazanyiswa kwe-RNA (RNAi) kungavala izakhi zofuzo ukudala izici ezithile. I-Arctic Apple engeyona nsundu yenziwa nge-RNAi ukwenqaba ukubonakaliswa kofuzo okwenza ama-apula abe nsundu futhi abe mushy. Njengoba inkampani ichaza kwiwebhusayithi yayo, "lapho i-apula lilunywa, lisikiwe, noma lilinyazwe ngenye indlela… alikho i-apula elinsundu elinsundu elisele ngemuva."

Ngabe abathengi empeleni bayasifuna lesi sici? Ukulungele noma cha lapha kuza. I-GMO Arctic Apple yokuqala, iGolden Delicious, yaqala ukubhekela izimakethe zokuhlola eMidwest ngenyanga edlule. Akekho osho ngqo ukuthi ama-apula afika kuphi, kepha ngeke abhalwe ukuthi i-GMO. Bheka uhlobo lwe- “Arctic Apples” uma ufuna ukwazi ukuthi ngabe udla i-apula elenziwe ngofuzo.

"Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi sizobona izitshalo eziningi ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziwela ngaphandle kwegunya lomthetho." 

Amasu wokuhlela we-Gene njenge-CRISPR, TALEN noma i-zinc finger nucleases isetshenziselwa ukusika i-DNA ukuze kwenziwe izinguquko zofuzo noma ukufaka izinto zofuzo. Lezi zindlela ziyashesha futhi zenziwe zinembe kakhulu kunezindlela zakudala ze-transgenic. Kodwa ukungabi bikho kokuqapha kukahulumeni kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka. "Kusengaba nemiphumela engahlosiwe kanye nemiphumela engahlosiwe," kuchaza uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union. “Uma ushintsha ufuzo lwezinto eziphilayo azihlali ziziphatha ngendlela olindele ngayo. Yingakho kubalulekile ukutadisha kahle imithelela yezempilo nezemvelo, kepha lezi zifundo azidingeki. ”

Ikhowe le-CRISPR elingenayo browning yeqe umthetho wase-US, njengoba Nature kubika ngo-2016. Uwoyela omusha we-CRISPR we-canola, owenzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, usezitolo manje futhi ungabizwa ngokuthi “okungeyona eye-GMO,” ngokuvumelana ne Bloomberg, njengoba uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US “usudlulile” ekulawuleni izitshalo ze-CRISPR. Le ndaba yaphawula ukuthi iMonsanto, iDuPont neDow Chemical "badlule esikhaleni sokulawula" futhi bashaya amadili okuthola ilayisense yokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokuhlela izakhi zofuzo.

Futhi lokho kuphakamisa elinye ifulegi elibomvu ngokulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO amasha azonikeza izinzuzo zabathengi izindlela zakudala ze-transgenic ezingazange zikwenze. "Ukuthi amasu ahlukile akusho ukuthi izici zizoba," kusho uDkt. Hansen. “Indlela yakudala yokwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo yayisetshenziswa kakhulu ukwenza izitshalo zimelane nokubulala ukhula nokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula. Izindlela ezintsha zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo cishe zizosetshenziswa ngendlela efanayo, kodwa kukhona ukusonteka okusha. ”

Ukuhaha Kwebhizinisi Kuqhathaniswa Nezidingo Zabathengi

Ingqungquthela "yokuguqula ukudla" yase-Atlantic ixhaswe yiDowDuPont. Bona okwethu ukubika ngaleyo ndaba.

Izinkampani ezinkulu kunazo zonke zezolimo emhlabeni ziphethe iningi lembewu kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi zihlanganisa amandla ezandleni zezinhlangano ezintathu kuphela zamazwe ngamazwe. IBayer neMonsanto basondela ekuhlanganeni, futhi ukuhlanganiswa kweChemChina / Syngenta neDowDuPont kuqediwe. IDowDuPont isanda kumemezela ukuthi uphiko lwayo lwebhizinisi lezolimo luzosebenza ngaphansi kwe- igama elisha uCorteva Agriscience, inhlanganisela yamagama asho “inhliziyo” “nendalo.”

Kungakhathaleki ukuthi yimaphi amaqhinga wokuphinda abeke uphawu lokuzama ukufaka uphawu, lezi zinhlangano zinemvelo esivele siyazi: zonke babe nemilando emide lokungazinaki izexwayiso zesayensi, ukumboza izingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo eyingozi nokushiya ngemuva ubucayi obunobuthi - Bhopal, dioxin, PCBs, napalm, Agent Orange, teflon, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, dicamba, ukubala nje amahlazo ambalwa.

Ukulandisa okugxila esikhathini esizayo kufihle lokho okwadlula kudala kanye neqiniso lamanje lokuthi lezi zinkampani zisebenzisa kanjani ubuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela namuhla, ikakhulu njenge ithuluzi lezitshalo ukusinda izifutho zamakhemikhali. Ukuze uqonde ukuthi lolu hlelo ludlala kanjani emhlabathini ekuholeni izindawo ezisebenzisa imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ze-GMO, funda imibiko mayelana nayo ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa eHawaii, amaqoqo omdlavuza e-Argentina, izindlela zamanzi ezingcolile e-Iowa futhi indawo yokulima eyonakele ngaphesheya kweMidwest.

Ikusasa lokudla ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwebhizinisi elikhulu lezolimo kanye nezinkampani zamakhemikhali akunzima ukuqagela - okuningi kwalokho asebevele bezama ukusithengisa: Izitshalo ze-GMO ezandisa ukuthengiswa kwamakhemikhali nezilwane zokudla ezenzelwe ukukhula ngokushesha futhi zilingane kangcono epulazini lefektri izimo, nemithi yokusiza. Umbono omuhle ngekusasa lenzuzo yezinkampani nokugxila kwengcebo namandla, kepha akukuhle kangako kubalimi, ezempilo yomphakathi, imvelo noma abathengi abafuna ikusasa elihlukile lokudla.

Izinombolo ezikhulayo zabathengi ziyafuna okwangempela, ukudla kwemvelo nemikhiqizo. Bafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwabo, ukuthi yakhiqizwa kanjani nokuthi yavelaphi. Kulabo abafuna ukwazi ngalokho abakudlayo, kusenendlela eqinisekile yomlilo yokugwema ama-GMO amadala namasha: thenga okuphilayo. Ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisiwe kwephrojekthi ye-Non-GMO kuphinda kuqinisekise ukuthi imikhiqizo ayenziwa ngobunjiniyela noma yenziwe nge-biology yokwenziwa.

Kuzobaluleka ukuthi imboni yokudla yemvelo ibambe umugqa ekuthembekeni kwalezi zitifiketi uma kuqhathaniswa nokuxokozela kwasendle kwama-GMO amasha.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi be-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”