Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: IFleishmanHillard, Ketchum, FTI Consulting

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kuthunyelwe ekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; ibuyekezwe ngoNovemba 2020

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe, i-US Right to Know ilandelela amahlazo okukhohlisa omphakathi ahlanganisa amafemu e-PR ukuthi imidondoshiya yezolimo iBayer AG neMonsanto bathembele kuyo ngemikhankaso yabo yokuvikela umkhiqizo: Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, uKetchum PR noFleishmanHillard. Lawa mafemu banemilando emide yokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza izinhloso zezepolitiki zamakhasimende abo, kubandakanya nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, imikhankaso yezokuvikela imboni kawoyela.

Amahlazo wakamuva

I-NYT idalula amasu e-FTI Consulting firm's shady embonini kawoyela: Phakathi ku Novemba 11, 2020 indatshana yeNew York Times, UHiroko Tabuchi wembula ukuthi i-FTI Consulting “isize kanjani ukuklama, abasebenzi nokuqhuba izinhlangano namawebhusayithi axhaswe yizinkampani zamandla ezingabonakala zimelela ukwesekwa emazingeni aphansi kohlelo lwezinto ezimbiwa phansi.” Ngokususelwa ezingxoxweni zakhe nabayishumi nababili ababengabasebenzi be-FTI namakhulu emibhalo yangaphakathi, uTabuchi ubika ngendlela i-FTI eyayiqapha ngayo izishoshovu zezemvelo, yaqhuba imikhankaso yezepolitiki ye-astroturf, yabamba izingosi ezimbili zezindaba nemininingwane futhi yabhala izindatshana ezisekela umkhakha mayelana nokuthwebula, ukumangalelwa kwesimo sezulu nokunye okushisayo Izinkinga zebutton ngesiqondiso esivela ku-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kanye namafemu ayo e-PR bahlela umzamo we-GOP wokwesabisa abacwaningi bomdlavuza: U-Lee Fang kubikwe iThe Intercept ku-2019 kumadokhumenti aphakamisa ukuthi abalawuli abamelene neMonsanto futhi basebenzise ingcindezi yokwenza ucwaningo lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Indaba ibika ngamasu akhohlisayo e-PR, kufaka phakathi indlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo incwadi emayelana nesayensi ye-glyphosate esayinwe ngusihlalo omkhulu we-GOP.

Imibhalo yeMonsanto yembula amaqhinga okudicilela phansi uphenyo lwentshisekelo yomphakathi: Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhishwe ngamacala enkantolo ngo-Agasti 2019 iveze amasu amaningi inkampani kanye namafemu ayo e-PR asetshenziselwe ukukhomba izintatheli nabanye abathonya abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO, futhi bazama ukuphikisa uphenyo ngemisebenzi yabo yi-US Right to Know.

Bona amashidi weqiniso we-USRTK, ngokuya ngemibhalo etholwe kuphenyo lwethu, ukubika ngabantu besithathu ababambe iqhaza ekuvikeleni imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane: Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane.

NgoMeyi 2019, sabika ngamahlazo amaningi afaka amafemu eBayer PR:

Isikhalazo se 'Monsanto File'

Izintatheli at ULe Monde wabika ngoMeyi 9 ukuthi bathole "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde ufake isikhalazo nehhovisi lomshushisi waseParis lisola ukuthi lo mbhalo ubandakanya ukuqoqwa nokuqhutshwa kwemininingwane yomuntu ngokungemthetho, okugqugquzela ihhovisi lomshushisi vula uphenyo lobugebengu. “Lokhu kutholakala okubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu anenhloso yokuthulisa amaphimbo aqinile. Ngiyabona ukuthi bebezama ukungihlukanisa, ” Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okusohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 TV.

"Lokhu kutholakale kubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu afanele okuvala umsindo."

UFrancois Veillerette, isazi sezemvelo nasohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 ukuthi iqukethe imininingwane yokuxhumana yomuntu siqu, imibono nezinga lokuzibandakanya maqondana neMonsanto. "Lokhu kushaqisa kakhulu eFrance," esho. "Asicabangi ukuthi lokhu kuvamile." IBayer isivele yavuma ukuthi uFleishmanHillard waqamba “'uhlu lwamawashi 'lwezibalo ze-pro- noma anti-pesticides”Emazweni ayisikhombisa kulo lonke elaseYurophu, kubika i-AFP. Lezi zinhlu zaziqukethe imininingwane ngezintatheli, osopolitiki namanye amaqembu athintekayo. I-AFP ithe yafaka isikhalazo enkampanini yezomthetho yaseFrance ngoba ezinye zezintatheli zayo zazisohlwini olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa futhi wakusho kwamiswa ubudlelwano bayo namafemu athintekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kanye nePublicis Consultants, kusalindwe uphenyo. "Okusemqoka kakhulu kithi ukudala obala," Kusho uBayer. "Asikubekezeleli ukungaziphathi kahle enkampanini yethu." (Amafemu kamuva asulwa ekwenzeni okungalungile yinkampani yabameli eqashwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli ekuhlolweni komdlavuza waseMonsanto

Ukwengeza ezinkingeni zeBayer PR, i-AFP ibike ngoMeyi 18 ukuthi umsebenzi wenye inkampani "yokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele" PR isebenza neBayer neMonsanto - FTI Consulting - wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ezimele ecaleni likahulumeni waseSan Francisco elaphela ngo Isahlulelo esingu- $ 80 million ngokumelene neBayer ngenxa yokukhathazeka komdlavuza we-glyphosate.

Isisebenzi se-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonakale exoxa nezintatheli ngemibono yezindaba ecaleni. Uthe usebenzela i-BBC futhi akazange adalule ukuthi empeleni usebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UKetchum noFleishmanHillard basebenzisa i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, imboni yezolimo yathinta uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabili ababengabakwa-Omnicom, ukuzokwakha PR kuyacasula ukuvuselela isithombe yemikhiqizo yayo ehlanganisiwe ye-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Kukhethwe iMonsanto UFleishmanHillard ukuze "akhe kabusha" igama lakhe phakathi "kokuphikisana okukhulu" nokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ngokusho kweHolmes Report. Cishe ngaso leso sikhathi, uFleishmanHillard naye waba yi- I-ejensi ye-PR yerekhodi leBayer, kanye noMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo (i-CBI) - iqembu lokuhweba kuxhaswe ngemali IBayer (iMonsanto), iCorteva (iDowDuPont), iSyngenta neBASF - baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yakwaKetchum ukuze yethule umkhankaso wokumaketha obizwa nge-GMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujija aqashwe yila mafemu afaka phakathi “wooing mama Blogger”Nokusebenzisa amazwi ochwepheshe okuthiwa“ abazimele ”ku-“susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Mayelana nama-GMO. Kodwa-ke, kwavela ubufakazi bokuthi amafemu e-PR ahlela futhi abhalele abanye ochwepheshe "abazimele". Isibonelo, imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa lokho Kubhalwe uKetchum okuthunyelwe kwe GMO Izimpendulo ezisayinwe ngu- Uprofesa wase-University of Florida owathi uzimele njengoba wayesebenza ekusithekeni neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. Iphini likamongameli omkhulu eFleishmanHillard kuhlelwe inkulumo a UC Davis uprofesa futhi wamqeqesha kanjani "ukunqoba abantu ekamelweni" at an Impikiswano ye-IQ2 ukukholisa umphakathi ukwamukela ama-GMO. UKetchum naye unikeze uprofesa amaphuzu okukhuluma kwinhlolokhono yomsakazo mayelana nocwaningo lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa beziyizithunywa ezibalulekile zemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni ukuthi ziphikisane nokulebula kwe-GMO, kubika i INew York Times ngo-2015. "Osolwazi / abacwaningi / ososayensi banesigqoko esikhulu esimhlophe kule mpikiswano kanye nokwesekwa ezifundazweni zabo, kusuka kosopolitiki kuya kubakhiqizi," uBill Mashek, iphini likamongameli eKetchum, wabhalela uprofesa wase-University of Florida. "Qhubeka nomsebenzi omuhle!" Iqembu lezentengiselwano le-CBI lisebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-11 zamaRandi kwi-GMO Answers kaKetchum kusukela ngo-2013, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela.

Impumelelo ye-GMO Answers 'management management'

Njengophawu olulodwa lwempumelelo yalo njengethuluzi le-PR spin, Izimpendulo zeGMO zazikhona kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO ngo-2014 esigabeni se- “Crisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uziqhayisa ngokuthi kucishe kwaphindaphindeka kanjani ukunakwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO kanye "nokulinganisa okungu-80% kokusebenzisana" ku-Twitter. Okuningi kwalokhu kuxhumana okuku-inthanethi kuvela kuma-akhawunti abonakala ezimele futhi awadaluli ukuxhumana kwawo nomkhankaso we-PR wemboni.

Yize ividiyo kaKetchum ithi Izimpendulo zeGMO "zizokuchaza kabusha obala" ngolwazi oluvela kochwepheshe "abangenalutho oluhlungiwe noma olucutshunguliwe, futhi kungekho mazwi athulisiwe," uhlelo lweMonsanto PR luphakamisa ukuthi inkampani ibheke izimpendulo zeGMO ukusiza imikhiqizo yayo ngendlela efanele. I- idokhumenti kusuka ku-2015 kubhalwe Izimpendulo ze-GMO phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza; esigabeni "sezinsizakusebenza" esisekhasini 4, lolu hlelo lubhale izixhumanisi eziya kuzimpendulo ze-GMO kanye nemibhalo yeMonsanto engadlulisa umyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyona i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-CLIO futhi yasuswa ngemuva kokuyinaka.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Imlando yokukhohlisa: UFleishmanHillard, uKetchum

Kungani noma iyiphi inkampani ingabeka uFleishmanHillard noma uKetchum, bobabili abaphethwe yi-PR conglomerate Omnicom, phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwethembana kunzima ukuyiqonda. Zombili lezi zinkampani zinomlando omude wenkohliso ebhaliwe. Ngokwesibonelo:

Kuze kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayengu- PR ngokuqinile eRussia kanye noVladimir Putin. Ngokuvumelana ne imibhalo etholwe yiProPublica, UKetchum wabanjwa ebeka ama-pro-Putin op-eds ngaphansi kwamagama "ochwepheshe ababonakala bezimele" ezindaweni ezahlukene zezindaba. Ngo-2015, i- Uhulumeni waseHonduran ohlangene waqasha uKetchum ukuzama ukuvuselela isithunzi sayo ngemuva kwesigameko senkohlakalo esabiza izigidi zamadola.

Imibhalo idalulwe kuMama Jones kukhombisa ukuthi uKetchum usebenze nenkampani yonogada ezimele "ehlola iGreenpeace nezinye izinhlangano zemvelo kusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990s okungenani ngonyaka ka-2000, bephanga imibhalo emigqonyeni kadoti, bezama ukutshala izinkampani ezifihlekile ngaphakathi kwamaqembu, ukufaka amahhovisi amahhovisi, ukuqoqa amarekhodi efoni ezishoshovu, nemihlangano eyimfihlo engena ngaphakathi. ” UFleishmanHillard uphinde wabanjwa esebenzisa amaqhinga angekho emthethweni wokulwa nabameli bezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabameli bokulawulwa kukagwayi egameni lenkampani kagwayi iRJ Reynolds, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe nguRuth Malone ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomphakathi. Inkampani i-PR ize yaqopha ngokufihla umsindo imihlangano nezingqungquthela zokulawulwa kukagwayi.

UFileishman uHillard wayenjalo inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yeThe Tobacco Institute, okuyinhlangano eyinhloko yezimboni zikagwayi, iminyaka eyisikhombisa. Embhalweni ka-1996 Washington Post, uMorton Mintz elandisa le ndaba ngendlela iFleishmanHillard neTobacco Institute abaguqula ngayo iSikhungo Sempilo esincomekayo saba yiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha kagwayi emzamweni wawo wokuqeda ukukhathazeka komphakathi ngobungozi bokubhema intuthu kagwayi. UKethum futhi wasebenzela imboni kagwayi.

Womabili la mafemu kwesinye isikhathi asebenze ezinhlangothini zombili zodaba. UFleishmanHillard ubelokhu kuqashwe imikhankaso yokulwa nokubhema. Ku-2017, uKetchum wethule i- i-spin-off firm ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Cultivate ukwenza imali emakethe yokudla ephilayo ekhulayo, noma ngabe izimpendulo ze-GMO zikaKetchum zikuhlambalazile ukudla okungokwemvelo, zithi abathengi bakhokha “imali ephezulu” yokudla okungcono kunokudla okulinywa ngokujwayelekile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana kwe-FTI: ukukhohlisa kwesimo sezulu, izibopho zikagwayi

I-FTI Consulting, "ukuphathwa kwezinhlekelele" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer futhi okwakungumsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ocwaningweni lwakamuva lomdlavuza weRoundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuningana noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kufaka phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwamaqhinga okucasha, ukungabi sobala kanye nomlando wokusebenzisana nomkhakha kagwayi.

Ifemu yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-ExxonMobil yokubalekela ukubhekana nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Njengo-Elana Schor no-Andrew Restuccia kubikwe ePolitico ngo-2016:

“Ngaphandle kuka [Exxon] uqobo, ukuvimba okukhulu kwezwi kulokho okuvelayo kuqhamuke e-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani egcwele abasizi bakudala beRiphabhulikhi esize ukuhlanganisa i-GOP ekuvikeleni izibaseli. Ngaphansi kwesibhengezo se-Energy in Depth, okuwumsebenzi owenzelwe i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI ifake izintatheli ngama-imeyili aphakamisa “ukuhlangana” phakathi kwezishoshovu eziluhlaza kanye nama-AGs ombuso, futhi yaphakamisa imibuzo mayelana noxhaso lwe-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. ”

Abasebenzi bakwa-FTI Consulting bake babanjwa bezenza izintatheli phambilini. UKaren Savage ubike Januwari 2019 kuzindaba Zesimo Sezulu Sezulu, “Osomaqhinga ababili bezobudlelwano nomphakathi abamele i-Exxon muva nje bazenze izintatheli emzamweni wokuxoxisana nommeli omele imiphakathi yaseColorado emangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo ohlobene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Osomaqhinga — uMichael Sandoval noMatt Dempsey — baqashwe yi-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani ende exhumene nemboni kawoyela negesi. ” Ngokusho kwe-Climate Liability News, la madoda amabili abhalwe njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi ephethwe yizintshisekelo zikawoyela futhi enabasebenzi be-FTI Consulting, ebuye inikeze abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ucwaningo olwenziwe ngophethiloli umkhankaso wokufinyelela emphakathini. ”

I-Energy In Depth yaziveza njenge "mama ne-pop shop" emele abahlinzeki bamandla amancane kepha yadalwa yizinkampani ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ukunxenxa ukuqedwa komthetho, I-DeSmog blog ibike ngo-2011. Iqembu le-Greenpeace lathola i Imemo yomkhakha we-2009 ichaza I-Energy In Depth “njengomkhankaso omusha womkhakha obanzi wemboni… wokulwa nemithetho emisha yezemvelo, ikakhulukazi maqondana nokuqhekeka kuka-hydraulic” “obekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokuzibophezela kwezezimali kusenesikhathi” kwezintshisekelo ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ezibandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (manje ephethwe yi-ExxonMobil).

Esinye isici esifana nalawa mafemu yizinhlangano zawo zemboni kagwayi. I-FTI Consulting “inomlando omude wokusebenzisana nemboni kagwayi,” ngokusho kuka AmaTactics Tactics.org. Ukuseshwa kwelabhulali ye-UCSF Tobacco Industry Documents uletha amadokhumende angaphezu kuka-2,400 XNUMX ephathelene ne-FTI Consulting.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubikwa okuningi kumahlazo kaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFulentshi

Ukufunda ngesiNgisi

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

Isenzo Sombuso

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

Background

I-Dicamba ibisetshenziswa ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960 kodwa ngemikhawulo ebicubungule ukuthambekela kwamakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuthambeka- kusuka kude lapho kufuthwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula yaseMonsanto ethandwayo, efana neRoundup, iqala ukuphelelwa ngamandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo i-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo

Izidlakela zamakhemikhali ezethukile zifuna indlela enkantolo lapho kuvinjelwa ababulali babo bokhula

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bephawula “isimo esiphuthumayo,” imidondoshiya yamakhemikhali i-BASF ne-DuPont bacele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi ibavumele bangenelele ecaleni lapho inkantolo ekuqaleni kwenyanga yayalela ukuthi imithi yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ivinjelwe ngokushesha kanye nomkhiqizo we-dicamba owenziwe ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG .

Isenzo sezinkampani zamakhemikhali silandela a Isinqumo sangoJuni 3 yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye eyathi i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

I-EPA weqe lowo myalo, kodwa-ke, ukutshela abalimi ukuthi bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu amapulazi nabathengi abafake icala okokuqala bephikisana ne-EPA babuyela enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, ukucela umyalelo ophuthumayo ephethe i-EPA ngokudelela. Inkantolo yanikeza i-EPA kuze kuphele usuku ngoLwesibili, ngoJuni 16, ukuba iphendule.

Isiphithiphithi Ezweni Lepulazi

Umyalelo ovimbela imikhiqizo yezinkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lepulazi ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya nabakotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe yilaba abathathu izinkampani.

“Uhlelo lwezitshalo lwe-dicamba” luhlinzekela abalimi ukuthi batshale amasimu abo ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba, abangazifafaza “ngaphezulu-phezulu” ngombulali wokhula we-dicamba. Uhlelo luye lwacebisa izinkampani ezidayisa imbewu namakhemikhali futhi lusize abalimi abatshala ukotini okhethekile obekezelela i-dicamba noshuya ukubhekana nokhula olunenkani olumelana nemikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate-based Roundup.

Kepha kwinani elikhulu labalimi abangazitshali izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-dicamba herbicides kusho ukulimala nokulahleka kwezitshalo ngoba i-dicamba ithambekele ekukhuphukeni nasekukhukhulekeni amabanga amade lapho ingabulala khona izitshalo, izihlahla nezihlahlana hhayi ukuguqulwa kofuzo ukumelana nekhemikhali.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba drift. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi okonakele kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yaphawula kulesi sinqumo sayo.

Abalimi abaningi baqale bagubha isinqumo senkantolo futhi bakhululeka ukuthi amapulazi abo kanye nezithelo zabo zezithelo zizosinda kuleli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba ababhekane nawo ehlobo langaphambilini. Kepha ukukhululeka kube okwesikhashana lapho i-EPA ithi ngeke iphoqe ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa okunqunywe yinkantolo.

Ekugcwaliseni okwenziwe ngoLwesihlanu, IBASF incenge inkantolo hhayi ukuphoqelela ukuvinjelwa ngokushesha futhi watshela inkantolo ukuthi kuzodingeka ivalwe indawo yokukhiqiza eBeaumont, eTexas, okwamanje "esebenza amahora angama-24 ngosuku cishe ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" uma ingakwazi ukukhiqiza uhlobo lwayo lwe-dicamba herbicide olubiziwe Engenia. I-BASF isebenzise u- $ 370 million eminyakeni eyedlule ithuthukisa lesi sitshalo futhi iqashe abantu abayi-170 lapho, kusho inkampani.

Iqaphela "ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu" kumkhiqizo wayo, i-BASF iphinde yatshela inkantolo ukuthi kunokwanele komkhiqizo wayo njengamanje kuso sonke "isiteshi samakhasimende" sayo ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-26.7 kasoya nobotini. I-BASF inomkhiqizo owengeziwe obiza u- $ 44 million we-Engenia dicamba onawo, owanele ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-6.6 kabhontshisi nokotini, kusho inkampani.

UDuPont / Corteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, etshela inkantolo ekufayilini kwayo ukuthi ukuvinjelwa "kulimaza ngqo" inkampani "kanye nabalimi abaningi ezweni lonke abaphakathi nenkathi yokukhula." Kuzolimaza “isithunzi” senkampani uma kuvalwa umuthi wayo wokubulala ukhula, inkampani itshele inkantolo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukudala "imali engenayo" ngokuthengisa umuthi wayo we-dicamba, obizwa ngeFeXapan futhi uzolahlekelwa yileyo mali uma ukuvinjelwa kuphoqelelwa, kusho inkampani.

IMonsanto ibisebenza kuleli cala elisekela ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesinqumo, kepha bobabili i-BASF neDuPont bagomela ngokungeyikho ukuthi icala lasenkantolo lisebenza kuphela emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto hhayi kweyabo. Inkantolo ikubeke kwacaca nokho ukuthi i-EPA yamukele ngokungemthetho imikhiqizo eyenziwe yizo zontathu lezi zinkampani.

Iholwa yiCentre for Food Safety, isicelo esimelene ne-EPA silethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iCentre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Ngokucela inkantolo ukuthi ithole i-EPA ngokwedelela, i-consortium ixwayise ngomonakalo wezitshalo ozofika uma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ingavinjelwe ngokushesha.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukufafazwa kwamakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyi-16 ngaphezulu kwe-dicamba kanye nomonakalo odaleke ezigidini zamahektare, kanye nezingozi ezinkulu ezinhlotsheni zezilwane ezisengozini enkulu," kusho le nhlangano. “Kukhona okunye futhi okusengcupheni: umthetho. INkantolo kumele isebenze ukuvimbela ukungabi nabulungisa futhi ixhase ubuqotho benqubo yokwahlulela. Futhi ngenxa yokushaywa indiva kwe-EPA ngokusobala ngesinqumo seNkantolo, abafaki bezikhalazo banxusa iNkantolo ukuthi ibukele phansi i-EPA. ”

Izithupha ze-EPA enkantolo, zithi abalimi basengasebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula engekho emthethweni i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinamazwana avela ku-BASF)

Abe-Environmental Protection Agency ngoMsombuluko limenyezelwe bekungeke kusihloniphe ngokushesha isinqumo senkantolo esikhishwe ngesonto eledlule esivimbela ukubulala ukhula okuthile okwenziwe izinkampani ezintathu ezinkulu zamakhemikhali emhlabeni.

Isinyathelo se-EPA sifana nesipho esivulekile se-BASF, iBayer kanye neCorteva Agrisciences ogama lawo le-dicamba elibhekwa yinkantolo ukuthi livunyelwe yi-EPA ngokungemthetho. Inkantolo isho ngqo ngokulandelana kwayo ikhishwe ngesonto eledlule ukuthi ayifuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Kodwa i-EPA imemezele ngoMsombuluko ukuthi ikhipha “incwadi yokukhansela” ezonika abalimi kuze kube nguJulayi 31 ukuthi basebenzise amasheya akhona eBayer Xtendimax, Engenia yeBASF, naseFexXapan kaCorteva.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sithole ukuthi i-EPA yenze amaphutha amaningi ekuvumeleni imikhiqizo ye-dicamba futhi yaphendula isicelo esifakwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, kanye I-Pesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS), abameli bayo abaphikise leli cala labafaka izicelo, esitatimendeni bathi isenzo se-EPA "asinanhlonipho" futhi "sibushaya indiva ubufakazi obubhalwe phansi futhi obuqand 'ikhanda bokulimala okukhulu kubalimi abavela kwenye inkathi yokufafaza eyingozi. . ” Isenzo se-EPA sibuye sizishaye indiva izingozi ezidalwa yicicamba ezinkulungwaneni zezilwane ezisengozini, kusho iCFS.

“Abaphathi bakaTrump baphinde bakhombisa ukuthi kabanaki umthetho. Bonke abasebenzisi abaqhubeka bengafuni ezinye izindlela kufanele bazi ukuthi basebenzisa umkhiqizo olimazayo, onesici, futhi ongekho emthethweni. Sizokuletha ukwehluleka kwe-EPA ukugcina umyalo weNkantolo eNkantolo ngokushesha okukhulu, ”kusho uCFS.

UNobhala wezoLimo eMelika uSonny Perdue ngesonto eledlule unxuse i-EPA ukuthi ibheke indlela ezothatha lesi sinqumo senkantolo, yaphinda amazwi eBayer, BASF kanye noCorteva abiza i-dicamba herbicides ngokuthi “amathuluzi” abalulekile kubalimi abatshala ubhontshisi wobhontshisi kanye nokotini.

I-EPA ithe ekuthatheni isinqumo sokuvumela abalimi ukuthi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-dicamba ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi ibiphendula "izingcingo eziningi ezingacelwanga nama-imeyili" etshela i-ejensi "kukhona ukukhathazeka kwangempela kanye nokubhujiswa kwezitshalo zikakotini nezobhontshisi kuholele enhlekeleleni embonini. ”

I-EPA ayizange ivume inqwaba yabalimi abatshala izitshalo ngaphandle kosoya obekezelela i-dicamba kanye nokotini abaye bathola ukulahleka kwezitshalo ngenxa ye-dicamba drift futhi besaba elinye ihlobo lokulimala kwezitshalo.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngonyaka ka-2018, yaphakamisa leso sibambiso lapho iqalisa izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa edlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngesikhathi sezulu esifudumele izinyanga ezikhulayo.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okugcwele kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba eminyakeni yamuva. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi omonakalo wezitshalo ze-dicamba kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

Esitatimendeni esikhishwe ngemuva kwesimemezelo se-EPA, i-BASF ithe iyasisekela isinqumo se-EPA sokuvumela ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwamasheya akhona we-BASF's Engenia herbicide ngoJulayi 31, kodwa yathi "kudingeka ukucaciseleka nokuguquguquka okwengeziwe". Le nkampani ithe isimise ngokushesha ukuthengisa nokuthumela i-Engenia herbicide ngemuva kwesinqumo sangesonto eledlule. 

Le nkampani ithe izoqhubeka nokuphinda ibhalise i-Engenia ne-EPA futhi ibheka izindlela zayo zokulandela amakhambi asemthethweni okuphikisana nomyalelo wenkantolo.

Kubuyekeziwe uthi umlawuli "wehlise ubungozi"

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinesitatimende esivela ku-BASF)

Ngokukhuza okumangalisayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency, inkantolo yenhlangano ngoLwesithathu kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi yemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe ama-giants amakhemikhali iBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Lesi sinqumo sikwenza kube ngokungemthetho ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa umkhiqizo.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sathola ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleka ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza amaphutha amaningi ekunikezeni ukubhaliswa okunemibandela," kusho isinqumo senkantolo.

IMonsanto ne-EPA bebecele inkantolo, uma ivumelana nabamangali, ukuthi ingakushintshi ngokushesha ukugunyazwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula. Inkantolo imane yathi: “Siyenqaba ukwenza kanjalo.”

Icala lilethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali basola i-EPA ngokwephula umthetho ekuhloleni imithelela yohlelo olwakhiwe yiMonsanto, oluthengwe yiBayer ngo-2018, oludale ukulimala kwezitshalo “okusabalele” kulezi zinsuku ezimbalwa zasehlobo futhi luyaqhubeka nokusongela amapulazi ezweni lonke.

"Isinqumo sanamuhla siphumelele kakhulu kubalimi nakwezemvelo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell weCentre for Food Safety, ongumeluleki waleli cala. “Kuhle ukukhunjuzwa ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neMonsanto neTrump Administration azikwazi ukweqa umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi senhlekelele efana nalena. Usuku lwabo lokwahlulela selufikile. ”

Inkantolo ithole ukuthi phakathi kwezinye zezinkinga, i-EPA “yenqabile ukulinganisela inani lomonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza lowo monakalo njengokuthi 'kungenzeka' nokuthi 'kusolwa,' lapho ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi i-dicamba idale umonakalo omkhulu futhi ongenakuphikiswa.”

Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi i-EPA yehlulekile ukwamukela ukuthi imikhawulo ebekwe ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba ngeke ilandelwe, futhi inqume ukuthi i-EPA “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi obukhulu bokuthi ukubhaliswa kuzoba nemiphumela yokuncintisana kwezomnotho izimboni zesoya nokotini. ”

Ekugcineni, inkantolo ithe, i-EPA yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi bokuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba esungulwe nguMonsanto, BASF kanye noCorteva "kuzodabula imiphakathi yezolimo."

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto isiphakamisile leso sibambiso lapho yethula imbewu yesoya nekotini engabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele-sezulu.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezixwayiso, iMonsanto, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba herbicides yalolu hlobo olusakazwayo lokufafaza. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwethulwe izilimo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi wokulimala kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

Njengoba kubikezelwe, kube nezinkulungwane zezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodiwe ezifundazweni eziningi. Esinqumweni sayo, inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi ngo-2018, kumahektare ayizigidi eziyi-103 kabhontshisi nokotini otshalwe e-United States, cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-56 atshalwe nembewu nge-Micanto's dicamba-tolerance, kusuka ku-27 million acres ngonyaka owandulele 2017.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

IBayer ikhiphe isitatimende kulandela lesi sinqumo ithi iphikisana kakhulu nesinqumo senkantolo futhi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

"Isinqumo se-EPA esinolwazi esisekelwe kwisayensi siyakuqinisekisa ukuthi leli thuluzi libalulekile kubalimi futhi alilethi ubungozi obungenangqondo bokunyakaza okungasetshenziswanga uma kusetshenziswe ngokwemikhombandlela yelebula," kusho inkampani. "Uma isinqumo sizoma, sizosebenza ngokushesha ukunciphisa noma yimuphi umthelela kumakhasimende ethu kule sizini."

UCorteva uphinde wathi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ibidinga amathuluzi abalimi nokuthi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

I-BASF ibize umyalo wenkantolo “ngendlela engakaze ibonwe” futhi yathi “inamandla amakhulu okulimaza amashumi ezinkulungwane zabalimi.”

Abalimi bangalahlekelwa “yimali ebonakalayo” uma bengakwazi ukubulala ukhula ezindaweni zabo zesoya nezikakotini ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho inkampani.

"Sizosebenzisa zonke izindlela zomthetho ezitholakalayo ukuphonsela inselelo le-oda," kusho iBASF.

Okhulumela i-EPA uthe okwamanje le nhlangano ibuyekeza isinqumo senkantolo futhi “izothutha ngokushesha iyokhuluma nomyalelo weNkantolo.”

Inkantolo ivumile ukuthi lesi sinqumo singabiza kakhulu kubalimi asebethengile futhi / noma batshale imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini futhi yahlela ukusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kuyo ngoba isinqumo asikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima laba balimi abangaba nabo ekutholeni imithi yokubulala ukhula esebenzayo neyomthetho ukuvikela izitshalo zabo (ezibekezelela i-dicamba)…" kusho umbuso. “Babekwe kulesi simo ngaphandle kwephutha labo. Kodwa-ke, ukungabi bikho kobufakazi obuningi obusekela isinqumo se-EPA kusiphoqa ukuthi sikushiye ukubhaliswa. ”

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.

UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto.

Umcimbi wango-2017 wokukhangisa uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” kufakwe uDkt Fedoroff futhi ososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: isibonelo, i-AAAS Board of Directors ngaphansi kukasihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esasibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokufakwa kophawu lweGMO ngonyaka ka-2012. Ngenkathi engumongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011. , UDkt Fedoroff usize ukwehlula isiphakamiso se-EPA sase-US ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ”

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi;
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo.

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. I-EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ”

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.”

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF:

Ukubika okuhlobene 

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012)

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

ICropLife International - amaqiniso asemqoka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifinyezo

ICropLife International (I-CLI) yinhlangano yezohwebo eyasungulwa ngonyaka we-2001 emele abakhiqizi babakhiqizi abakhulu kunabo bonke emhlabeni bezimbewu kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka I-BASF, iBayer, iMonsanto, iSyngenta, iCorteva (eyayiyiDowDuPont phambilini), iSumitomo Chemical kanye FMC.

Iqembu lezohwebo futhi linezinhlangano ezingamalungu eziyi-15: i-AfricaBio; I-AgroBio Brazil; I-AgroBio Mexico; ArgenBio; I-Biotechnology Innovation Organisation, Ukudla & Ag; I-CBI Japan; I-CIB Brazil; ICropLife Africa Middle East; CropLife America; CropLife Asia, CropLife Canada; CropLife Latin America; I-European Crop Protection Association (ECPA); I-EuropaBio; kanye ne-Japan Crop Protection Association.

Okuthunyelwe kwe-USRTK okuhlobene:
Meyi 31, 2018, “IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba Ozakwethu Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza"

Amalungu e-CLI