Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Ukuhlaliswa kwamacala omdlavuza weMonsanto Roundup kuyinkimbinkimbi ngummeli obambekayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Yini edingekayo ukuze uMike Miller axazulule? Lowo ngumbuzo ocindezelayo njengoba omunye wabameli abahola phambili enkantolo yamacala omdlavuza weRoundup ezweni lonke kuze kube manje enqabile ukuhambisana nabanye ababebhekene namacala okuvuma ukulungisa amacala egameni lezinkulungwane zeziguli zomdlavuza ezithi izifo zazo zibangelwe ukuvezwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto .

UMike Miller, oyinhloko yenkampani yabameli base-Orange, eVirginia ebizwa ngegama lakhe, ubengazimisele ukwamukela imigomo yokuhlinzekwa kokuxazululwa okuxoxwe ngayo ezingxoxweni zokulamula phakathi komnikazi waseMonsanto waseGerman uBayer AG kanye nethimba labameli babamangali. Lokho kubalwa kabusha kuyindawo ebambekayo ebambekayo ephazamisa ukuxazululwa, kusho imithombo esondelene necala.

Esikhundleni salokho, inkampani kaMiller yethula izivivinyo ezimbili kule nyanga, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eqale namuhla eContra Costa, eCalifornia, kanti eyodwa ezoqala ngoLwesibili eSt. Louis, eMissouri. Kungenzeka ukuthi uMiller angavuma ukukhokhelwa nganoma yisiphi isikhathi, aphazamise ukuqulwa kwecala, noma kunjalo. UMiller naye unecala elibhekene noFebhuwari eNkantolo Yesifunda sase-US eSan Francisco. Leli cala, elethwe yisiguli esinomdlavuza u-Elaine Stevick, lizoba icala lesibili elizobanjelwa enkantolo yombuso.

Isinyathelo sikaMiller sokuqhubeka nokuzama amacala simhlukanisa namanye amafemu abamangaleli baseRoundup, kufaka phakathi inkampani yezomthetho iBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman yaseLos Angeles kanye nenkampani iDenver, eseColorado i-Andrus Wagstaff. Njengenkampani iMiller, uBaum Hedlund no-Andrus Wagstaff bamele izinkulungwane zabamangali.

Lawo mafemu avumile ukukhansela noma ukuhlehlisa ukuvivinywa okuningi, kufaka phakathi okubili okubandakanya izingane ezincane ezinomdlavuza, ukuze kwenziwe lula ukuxazululwa.

Eminye imithombo ikhombe inani lokukhokha elingaba khona elingama- $ 8 billion- $ 10 billion, yize abanye abahlaziyi bethi leyo nombolo kuzoba nzima ukuthethelela abatshalizimali beBayer, abagade okwenzekayo.

Abagxeki basola uMiller ngokwenza ngendlela engalimaza ikhono lezinkulungwane zabamangali zokuthola izinkokhelo ezivela eBayer, kodwa abalandeli bakhe bathi ulwela izintshisekelo zamakhasimende akhe futhi wenqaba ukwamukela imigomo ayithola ingaphansi kakhulu. UMiller ungumakadebona ongumakadebona onomlando omude wokuthatha izinkampani ezinkulu, kufaka phakathi izigebenga zemithi, ngenxa yokulimala kwabathengi okuhlobene nomkhiqizo.

Umlamuli uKen Feinberg uthe akucaci ukuthi kungaba khona yini ukuxazululwa komhlaba wonke ngaphandle kukaMiller.

"UMike Miller unombono wokuthi amacala akhe abaluleke kanjani futhi ufuna lokho acabanga ukuthi kuyisinxephezelo esifanele," kusho uFeinberg. IJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria waqoka uFeinberg ukuba abe ngumlamuleli phakathi kweBayer nabameli babamangali ngoMeyi odlule.

IMonsanto ilahlekile zontathu lezi zivivinyo ibanjwe kuze kube manje. IMiller Firm isingathe ezimbili zalezo zivivinyo - yaletha abameli bakaBaum Hedlund ukuba bazosiza ecaleni lika  UDewayne “Lee” Johnson (ngemuva kokuthi uMike Miller elimale kanzima engozini ngaphambi nje kokuthethwa kwecala) kanye nangecala labamangali bendoda nenkosikazi, U-Alva no-Alberta Pilliod. UJohnson uklonyeliswe ngama- $ 289 million kwathi amaPilliod aklonyeliswa ngaphezulu kwama- $ 2 billion yize abahluleli becala ecaleni ngalinye behlisa le miklomelo. Elinye icala elenziwe kuze kube manje, ngezimangalo ezalethwa ngu-Edwin Hardeman, liphathwe yinkampani nommeli uJennifer Moore, u-Andrus Wagstaff.

Ukuzama kukaMiller ukusunduza izilingo ezintsha kunezingozi eziningana, kufaka phakathi iqiniso lokuthi iMonsanto ingaphumelela ecaleni elilodwa noma ngaphezulu, okunganikeza iBayer amandla ezinkulumweni zokuhlala. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma uMiller ebenganqoba izivivinyo ezinganikeza amandla amasha kubamangali ukuthi bacele imali ethe xaxa.

Ingcindezi yokuxazululwa ibilokhu izwakala iphakeme kuzo zombili izinhlangothi. Izinto eziyinkimbinkimbi zifaka phakathi ukubhaliswa kwenani labamangali 'elisayinwe amafemu abameli azungeze i-United States phakathi kokudalulwa kokuxazululwa okungenzeka kube khona. Eminye imibiko yabezindaba isikhiphe inani eliphelele labamangali kuma-80,000 ngenkathi eminye imithombo ithe le nombolo ingaphezulu kuka-100,000. Ingxenye enkulu yaleyo nombolo, nokho, ikhombisa abamangali abasayinisiwe kepha abangazifakanga izinyathelo enkantolo, kanti abanye abafake izicelo kodwa abanazo izinsuku zokuqulwa kwecala. Noma yikuphi ukukhokhelwa manje kuzomela amaphesenti amakhulu wabamangali, kepha hhayi konke, kusho imithombo.

Wonke amacala asola ukuthi umdlavuza ubangelwe ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto's glyphosate-based, kubandakanya ne-Roundup brand esetshenziswa kabanzi. Futhi konke okushiwo uMonsanto wayazi, futhi wakufihla, izingozi.

Phakathi kobufakazi obuye bavela ngaleli cala kukhona nemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhombisa ukuthi le nkampani yakhelwe ukushicilelwa kwamaphepha esayensi abonakala ngamanga ukuthi enziwa ososayensi abazimele kuphela; ukuxhaswa, nokusebenzisana, namaqembu angaphambili asetshenziselwe ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi ababika ingozi ngemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; nokusebenzisana nezikhulu ezithile ngaphakathi kwe-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuvikela nokuphakamisa isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuthi imikhiqizo yayo ayibanga umdlavuza.

Esivivinyweni saseCalifornia esiqale namuhla, uKathleen Caballero uthi usungule i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kokufafaza iRoundup kusuka ngo-1977 kuya ku-2018 njengengxenye yomsebenzi wakhe ebhizinisini lengadi nasekulungiseni ingadi, nasekusebenzeni kwakhe epulazini.

Ekulindeleke ukuba liqale ngoLwesibili eSt. Louis, kunabamangali abane - uChristopher Wade, uGlen Ashelman, uBryce Batiste no-Ann Meeks.

Icala lesithathu liphinde lahlelelwa le nyanga eNkantolo eNkulu yaseRiverside County. Leli cala lilethwe nguTreesa Cotton, owesifazane okutholwe ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2015 asola ngokuvezwa yi-Roundup kaMonsanto.

Izicathulo eziningi zeMonsanto (Imibhalo) Isethelwe kuDrop

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inkampani yabammeli iBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, ebibambisene neMiller Firm ekunqobeni ukunqoba okungokomlando kommangali uDewayne Lee Johnson phezu kweMonsanto ngo-Agasti, ifuna ukususwa kwamakhasi angamakhulu amaningana amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto atholakala ngokutholakala kepha kuze kube manje ugcinwe uvaliwe.

U-Baum Hedlund ngonyaka odlule wakhipha amakhulu amanye amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto afaka phakathi ama-imeyili, ama-memos, imiyalezo kanye nokunye ukuxhumana okwaba nomthelela esinqumweni esisodwa sokuthola ukuthi iMonsanto yasebenza "ngobubi" ngokungaxwayisi amakhasimende ngezinkinga zesayensi mayelana nokubulala ukhula kwayo okususelwa ku-glyphosate . Imithombo yeJury ithi lawo marekhodi angaphakathi abenomthelela omkhulu emiklomelweni yabo yokulimaza engu- $ 250 million yokujeziswa kweMonsanto, ijaji kuleli cala elehlise laba ngama- $ 39 million ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 78 million.

Abameli babamangali ezilingo ezimbili ezizayo bathi amarekhodi eMonsanto angakaze abonwe esidlangalaleni phambilini azoba yingxenye yobufakazi obusha abahlela ukubethula kulezi zivivinyo.

Namuhla futhi kungumnqamulajuqu wokuthi abameli babamangali baphendule esinyakazweni sikaMonsanto esithi “buyisela emuva bifurcate” icala likaFebhuwari 25 elibekelwe iNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia. (bona ukufakwa kukaDisemba 11 ngezansi ukuthola eminye imininingwane)