Izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokwenza kabusha izinhlelo zokudla zizolimaza isimo sezulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan

Encwadini yakhe entsha yokuthi ungagwema kanjani inhlekelele yesimo sezulu, usozigidi owayenikela ngezimali uBill Gates uxoxa ngezinhlelo zakhe zoku imodeli yokudla kwase-Afrika phezu "kwenguquko eluhlaza" yaseNdiya, lapho usosayensi wezitshalo enyusa isivuno sezitshalo futhi wasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi eziyinkulungwane, ngokusho kukaGates. Uthi, isithiyo sokuqalisa ukulungiswa okufanayo e-Afrika ukuthi abalimi abaningi emazweni ampofu abanayo imali yokuthenga umanyolo.  

"Uma singasiza abalimi abampofu ukuthi bakhulise isivuno sabo, bazothola imali eningi futhi bazodla okuningi, futhi izigidi zabantu kwamanye amazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni zizokwazi ukuthola ukudla okwengeziwe nezakhi zomzimba ezizidingayo," kusho uGates kuphetha. Akazibheki izinto eziningi ezisobala ngenkinga yendlala, njengoba nje eqa izinto ezibalulekile mpikiswano ngesimo sezulu, njengoba uBill McKibben esho Ukubuyekezwa kweNew York Times yencwadi kaGates Indlela Yokugwema Inhlekelele Yesimo Sezulu. 

Amasango ahluleka ukusho, ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi indlala yimbangela enkulu yokuthi ubumpofu nokungalingani, hhayi ukushoda. Futhi ubonakala engazi ukuthi "inguquko eluhlaza" edonse amashumi eminyaka yezolimo zezimboni eNdiya ishiye i- ifa elibi lokulimaza Kokubili i-ecosystem kanye nabalimi abasafufusa, abake baba ukubhikisha ezitaladini kusukela ngonyaka odlule.   

"Imibhikisho yabalimi eNdiya ibhala umlando wesifuba seGreen Revolution," kusho u-Aniket Aga wabhala kwiScientific American ngenyanga edlule. Emashumini eminyaka kusetshenzelwa isu eliluhlaza, “kusobala ukuthi izinkinga ezintsha zezolimo zezimboni zengeze ezinkingeni zakudala ze ukulamba futhi ukungondleki, ”Kubhala u-Aga. "Azikho izingqinamba ezingaba khona emkhakheni wokumaketha ezizolungisa imodeli yokukhiqiza eyisisekelo nesimeme."

Le modeli okushukumisela abalimi ekusebenzeni okulima okuya ngokuya kukhule futhi kungafani okwehlukile thembela kuzibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokulimaza kwesimo sezulu umanyolo wamakhemikhali - ingenye yeGates Foundation ebilokhu igqugquzela e-Afrika iminyaka eyi-15, ngaphezu kokuphikisana nokunyakaza kokudla kwase-Afrika abathi isisekelo sicindezela izinto eziseqhulwini ezinkampanini zezamabhizinisi ezolimo zomhlaba wonke zilimaza imiphakathi yazo.  

Amakhulu ezinhlangano zomphakathi ayabhikisha iGates Foundation's amasu ezolimo kanye nomthelela wazo kwiNgqungquthela Yezwe Yezokudla Yezwe ezayo. Abangaphakathi bathi lobu buholi busongela ukuphazamisa imizamo ebonakalayo yokuguqula uhlelo lokudla, e umzuzu obalulekile lapho iningi le-sub-Saharan Africa likhona ukuxega ekushayweni okuningi futhi ukukhula kwenkinga yendlala ngenxa yobhadane kanye nezimo zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Konke lokhu akubonwanga yimithombo yezindaba emikhulu ekhipha ukhaphethi obomvu wencwadi kaGates. Nazi ezinye zezizathu abagxeki abathi uhlelo lweGates Foundation lokuthuthukisa ezolimo alulungile esimweni sezulu. Isisekelo asiphendulanga ezicelweni eziningi zokuphawula. 

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene: Kungani silandela izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokuvuselela uhlelo lokudla 

Ukunciphisa ukukhishwa kwegesi lokushisa 

UBill Gates akanamahloni ngokuthanda kwakhe umanyolo wokwenziwa, njengoba yena kuchaza kule blog ukukhipha isitshalo sokusabalalisa umanyolo i-Yara eTanzania. UGates uchaza umanyolo wokwenziwa “njengento eyenziwe ngomlingo engasiza ukukhipha izigidi zabantu ebuphofini.” 

ICorp Watch ichaza uYara ngokuthi “umanyolo omkhulu odala inhlekelele yesimo sezulu. ” I-Yara ingumthengi omkhulu wezimboni waseYurophu omkhulu wegesi yemvelo, enxenxa ngenkuthalo ukuthosa, futhi ingumkhiqizi ophambili womanyolo wokwenziwa ososayensi bathi banesibopho ngoba ukukhathazeka kuyanda ekukhishweni kwe-nitrous oxide, a igesi yokushisa okunamandla okuphindwe izikhathi ezingama-300 kune-carbon dioxide ekufudumaleni kweplanethi. 

Ngokombiko othile iphepha le-Nature lakamuva, ukukhishwa kwe-nitrous oxide okuqhutshwa kakhulu ezolimo kuyanda ngokwanda kwempendulo yempendulo okusibeka ku-a indlela embi kakhulu yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

UGates uyavuma ukuthi umanyolo wokwenziwa ulimaza isimo sezulu. Njengesixazululo, uGates uthemba ukwakheka kwezobuchwepheshe emkhathizwe, kufaka phakathi iphrojekthi yokulinga yokwenza onjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ukulungisa i-nitrogen enhlabathini. "Uma lezi zindlela zisebenza," kubhala uGates, "bazosinciphisa kakhulu isidingo sikamanyolo nakho konke ukungcola okubhekene nakho." 

Okwamanje, ukugxila okuyinhloko kwemizamo kaGates yokuguqula indawo eluhlaza okwenziwe e-Afrika kukhulisa ukusetshenziswa kukamanyolo wokwenziwa ngenhloso yokwandisa isivuno, noma ngabe kukhona abukho ubufakazi bokukhombisa ukuthi iminyaka eyi-14 yale mizamo isize abalimi abancane noma abampofu, noma ikhiqize inzuzo enkulu yesivuno.

Ukunweba izindlela ezilimaza isimo sezulu ezilimaza isimo sezulu uqobo 

IGates Foundation isebenzise ngaphezulu kwe- $ 4 billion kusukela ngo-2006 ukuze "sisize ekuqhubeni uguquko kwezolimo”E-Afrika. Ubuningi be- imali iya ku ucwaningo lobuchwepheshe kanye nemizamo yokuguqula abalimi base-Afrika basebenzise izindlela zezimboni zezolimo futhi bandise ukufinyelela kwabo ezimbewini zentengiso, umanyolo nokunye okokufaka. Abaxhasi bathi le mizamo nika abalimi izinqumo abazidingayo ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa futhi bazikhuphule ebuphofini.

Abagxeki bathi "inguquko eluhlaza" amasu alimaza i-Afrika ngokwenza izimiso zemvelo zintekenteke kakhudlwana, ukufaka abalimi ezikweletini, Futhi ukuphambukisela izinsiza zomphakathi kude kusukela izinguquko ezijulile zesistimu kwakudingeka ukubhekana nesimo sezulu kanye nezinkinga zendlala. 

"IGates Foundation igqugquzela uhlobo lokulima ngohlobo olulodwa lwezimboni nokulungiswa kokudla okungabondli abantu bethu," iqembu labaholi bezenkolo base-Afrika wabhala encwadini ukuwa kokugcina, kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isisekelo "sokwesekwa kokunwetshwa kwezolimo olunzulu lwezimboni sijulisa inkinga yabantu." 

Isisekelo, bathi, "Kukhuthaza abalimi base-Afrika ukuthi basebenzise indlela ephezulu yokufaka okokufaka esezingeni eliphezulu esekwe kumodeli yebhizinisi eyakhiwe endaweni yaseNtshonalanga" futhi "ifaka ingcindezi kubalimi ukuthi batshale isivuno esisodwa noma ezimbalwa ngokususelwa ekuthengiseni okuphezulu noma okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo ( GM) imbewu. ”

Uhlelo lwezolimo oluhamba phambili lwamaGates, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), kuqondisa abalimi emmbileni nakwezinye izitshalo eziyinhloko ngenhloso yokukhulisa isivuno. Ngokusho kwe-AGRA uhlelo lokusebenza lwe-Uganda (kugcizelelwa okwabo):

  • Inguquko kwezolimo ichazwa njenge inqubo lapho abalimi besuka ekukhiqizweni okuhlukahlukene kakhulu, okuziphilisa besiya ekukhiqizweni okukhethekile okugxile emakethe noma kwezinye izindlela zokushintshisana, okubandakanya ukuthembela okukhulu ezinhlelweni zokulethwa kokufakwa kanye nokukhishwa kanye nokwanda kokuhlanganiswa kwezolimo neminye imikhakha yezomnotho wasekhaya nowamazwe omhlaba.

I-AGRA isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 524, ikakhulukazi ezinhlelweni zokwandisa ukufinyelela kwabalimi ezimbewini zentengiso nakumanyolo. Le phakethe yezobuchwepheshe "yokuguqula okuluhlaza" iphinde ixhaswe ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ngonyaka kwizibonelelo ezivela kohulumeni base-Afrika, ngokusho kuka ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngonyaka odlule by ITufts Global Development and Environment Institute kanye nombiko ohambisanayo Amaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane

Abaphenyi abatholanga sibonakaliso sokwanda komkhiqizo; idatha ikhombisa ukuzuza okuncane kwesivuno sika-18% kwezitshalo eziyisisekelo emazweni abhekiswe kuwo yi-AGRA, ngenkathi imali engenayo imile futhi nokuvikeleka kokudla kube kubi kakhulu, ngenani labantu abalambile nabangondlekile kahle lenyuke ngama-30%. I-AGRA uphikise ucwaningo kepha ayikaze inikeze ukubikwa okuningiliziwe kwemiphumela yayo eminyakeni eyi-15. Okhulumela i-AGRA usitshele ukuthi umbiko uzovela ngo-Ephreli.

Abaphenyi abazimele nabo ibike ukwehla kwezitshalo zendabuko, njengamabele, okuyikhona okumelana nesimo sezulu futhi okunye umthombo obalulekile wama-micronutrients ezigidi zabantu.

"Umfuziselo we-AGRA owafakwa ekulimeni kwaseRwanda okwakungafani nhlobo cishe wacekela phansi izindlela zokulima zendabuko ezinomsoco futhi ezisimeme, ”kusho uJomo Kwame Sundaram, owayengumsizi kanobhala-jikelele we-UN kwezentuthuko yezomnotho, wabhala endatshaneni echaza ngocwaningo.  Iphakethe le-AGRA, uyaphawula, 'wabekwa isandla esindayo ”eRwanda, lapho kuthiwa uhulumeni uvimbela ukutshalwa kwezinye izitshalo eziyisisekelo kwezinye izindawo.”  

Ukuphambukisa izinsizakusebenza kwi-agroecology 

“Uma izinhlelo zomhlaba zokudla zizokwazi ukusimama, izindlela zokutshala ezisebenzisa kakhulu isivuno kanye nezindawo zokudla ezidayiswayo kumele zingasasebenzi, ”kubhala abaholi bezenkolo base-Afrika khalaza kwiGates Foundation.

Ngempela, eziningi ongoti bathi a Ukushintshwa kwepharadigm kuyadingeka, kude ne iyunifomu, amasistimu wokutshala i-monoculture ekubhekaneni nezindlela ezahlukahlukene, zezolimo ukuthi ingabhekana nezinkinga nemikhawulo yezolimo zezimboni kufaka phakathi ukungalingani, ukwanda kobuphofu, ukungondleki kanye nokucekelwa phansi kwemvelo.  

URupa Marya, MD, onguprofesa wezokwelapha e-UCSF, uxoxa nge-agroecology engqungqutheleni ye-EcoFarm yango-2021

Inhlangano Yezizwe Yezokudla Nezolimo umbiko wepaneli yezazi nge-agroecology ngokusobala kudinga ukuthi kususwe indlela “yezinguquko ezimbonini” kwezolimo ezimbonini nasezenzweni zemvelo yezolimo ezikhonjiswe ukukhulisa ukwehluka kwezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko nokwakha ukuqina kwesimo sezulu. 

Kepha izinhlelo zokukhulisa i-agroecology zilambele ukuthola imali njengoba izigidigidi zosizo nemixhaso izokwenyusa izindlela zezolimo zezimboni. 

Izintandokazi zabanikeli zenzuzo, ezingahlehli kanye nemiphumela yesikhathi esifushane ibuyisela emuva ukutshalwa kwezimali kwi-agroecology ngokusho kombiko wango-2020 kusuka ku-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food). Ama-85% wamaphrojekthi we-Gates Foundation axhaswe yi-Afrika kule minyaka edlule anqunyelwe ekusekeleni ezolimo zezimboni, kusho umbiko, kuyilapho kuphela u-3% wamaphrojekthi afaka izinto zokuhlelwa kabusha kwe-agroecological.

Abacwaningi qaphela, “i-agroecology ayi azilingani ngezindlela ezikhona zokutshala imali. Njengabanikeli abaningi abasiza umphakathi, iBMGF [iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation] ifuna izinzuzo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo ekutshalweni kwezimali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezibhekiswe kwezobuchwepheshe. ” 

Lezi zinketho zinesisindo esinzima ezinqumweni zokuthi amadola ocwaningo abiwa kanjani ezinhlelweni zokudla zomhlaba wonke. Umamukeli omkhulu kunabo bonke Imali yezolimo yeGates Foundation yi-CGIAR, inhlanganisela yezikhungo zocwaningo eziyi-15 eziqashe izinkulungwane zososayensi futhi ziphethe amabhange ayi-11 abaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni

Eminyakeni yamuva nje, ezinye izikhungo ze-CGIAR zithathe izinyathelo zokubheka izindlela ezihlelekile nezisuselwa kumalungelo, kepha uhlelo oluhlongozwayo lokwakha kabusha i- "One CGIAR" enebhodi elilodwa namandla amasha wokusetha i-ajenda liphakamisa ukukhathazeka. Ngokusho kokudla kwe-IPES, isiphakamiso sokuhlelwa kabusha isongela "ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwama-ajenda ocwaningo lwesifunda futhi iqinise ukubamba kwabaxhasi abanamandla kakhulu," njengeGates Foundation, "enqena ukwehluka kumasu wenguquko oluhlaza."

The inqubo yokwakhiwa kabusha eholwa ngummeli weGates Foundation futhi owayengumholi weSyngenta Foundation, "Aama-ppears kufanele aqhutshekelwe phambili ngendlela ephoqelelayo, "kusho i-IPES," ngokuthengwa okuncane kulabo okucatshangwa ukuthi bazozuza eNingizimu Yomhlaba wonke, ngokungafani okwanele phakathi kwesiyingi sangaphakathi sabashisekeli bezinguquko, futhi ngaphandle kokucatshangelwa okufanele ukushintsha kwezinhlelo zokudla. ”

Okwamanje, iGates Foundation inayo wakhahlela enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 310 ku-CGIAR “ukusiza abalimi abayizigidi ezingama-300 ukuba bazijwayeze ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu.” 

Ukusungula ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezitshalo ze-GMO zokubulala izinambuzane

Umlayezo wokuthatha uBill Gates incwadi entsha ukuthi intuthuko yezobuchwepheshe singondla umhlaba futhi silungise isimo sezulu, uma nje sikwazi tshala izinsiza ezanele ngalezi zinto ezintsha. Izinkampani ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane / imbewu zikhuthaza ingqikithi efanayo, ukuziphendulela kabusha kusuka kwabenqabayo besimo sezulu kuya ekuxazululeni izinkinga: ukuthuthuka kwezolimo ezidijithali, ukunemba kwezolimo kanye nobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuzonciphisa imvelo yezolimo futhi "kunike amandla abalimi abancane abayizigidi eziyikhulu" ukujwayela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, “konke ngonyaka ka-2030,” ngokusho kuka I-Bayer CropScience.

IGates Foundation nemboni yamakhemikhali “ukuthengisa okwedlule njengezinto ezintsha e-Afrika, ”Kusho uTimothy Wise, umcwaningi osebenza ne-Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, ku-a iphepha elisha leTufts GDAE. UWise uthe, "Ukwenzeka kwangempela, kuyenzeka emikhakheni yabalimi njengoba besebenza nososayensi ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko, kanye nokwakha ukubekezela kwesimo sezulu ngokwamukela imikhuba yezolimo." 

Njengesibikezelo sokuqhamuka kwezobuchwepheshe okuzayo, uGates ukhomba encwadini yakhe ethi Impossible Burger. Esahlukweni esithi "Sizikhulisa Kanjani Izinto," uGates uchaza ukwaneliseka kwakhe nge-veggie burger eyophayo (ku okungukuthi ungumtshali-zimali omkhulu) kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi ama-burger asezitshalweni nenyama esekelwa ngamaseli azoba yizixazululo ezinkulu zokushintsha kwesimo sezulu. 

Uqinisile, kunjalo, ukuthi ukusuka enyameni efuywe efektri kubalulekile kwisimo sezulu. Kepha ingabe i-Impossible Burger iyisixazululo esimeme, noma nje iyindlela yokuthengisa yokuguqula izitshalo ezikhiqizwe ngokwemboni imikhiqizo yokudla enelungelo lobunikaziNjengo-Anna Lappe Uchaza, Ukudla Okungenakwenzeka “Konke kungena ku-GMO soy,” hhayi nje njengesithako esiyinhloko se-burger kodwa futhi njengesihloko se- uphawu lokuqina lwenkampani.  

Sekuyiminyaka engama-30 imboni yamakhemikhali ithembisa ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zizothuthukisa isivuno, zinciphise izibulala-zinambuzane futhi zondle umhlaba ngokusimama, kepha akwenzekanga kanjalo. Njengoba uDanny Hakim abike ku New York Times, Izitshalo ze-GMO azange zikhiqize isivuno esingcono,  futhi baqhuba ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-khula, ikakhulukazi i-glyphosate, okuxhunyaniswe nomdlavuza phakathi kwezinye impilo nezinkinga zemvelo. Njengoba ukhula luba lukhuni, imboni yathuthukisa imbewu enokubekezelela okusha kwamakhemikhali. I-Bayer, isibonelo, iqhubekela phambili ngezitshalo ze-GMO yakhelwe ukusinda ukubulala ukhula okuyisihlanu.

IMexico isanda kumemezela uhlela ukuvimbela ukungeniswa kommbila we-GMO, bethi izitshalo “azithandeki” futhi “azidingeki.”

ENingizimu Afrika, elinye lamazwe ambalwa ase-Afrika avumela ukutshalwa kwezentengiselwano kwezitshalo ze-GMO, ngaphezu kwe- I-85% yommbila nesoya manje seyakhiwe, futhi iningi lifuthwa nge-glyphosate. Abalimi, amaqembu omphakathi, abaholi bezombusazwe futhi odokotela baphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nokwenyuka kwamazinga omdlavuza. Futhi fukungavikeleki kwe-ood liyakhuphuka, futhi.  Isipiliyoni seNingizimu Afrika ngamaGMO kube “Iminyaka engama-23 yokwehluleka, ukulahleka kwemvelo kanye nendlala ekhulayo, ”Kusho i-African Centre for Biodiversity.

Inguquko ehlaza okwesibhakabhaka e-Afrika, kusho umsunguli waleli qembu uMariam Mayet, "iyisiphetho" esiholela ekwehliseni impilo yomhlabathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, kanye nokuvalela abalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga bazuze, kodwa bazuze ikakhulukazi izinkampani zamazwe amaningi aseNyakatho. ” 

“Kubalulekile ukuthi manje, kulesi sikhathi esibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni,” kusho i-African Center for Biodiversity, “ukuthi siguqule umkhondo, siqede ezolimo zezimboni futhi siguqulele ohlelweni lwezolimo nokudla okunobulungiswa futhi oluzwakalayo.”  

UStacy Malkan uphethe umhleli futhi ungumsunguli we-US Right to Know, iqembu locwaningo eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi. Bhalisela iphephandaba leLungelo Lokwazi ngezibuyekezo ezijwayelekile.

 

Ukukhushulwa okungalungile, okukhohlisayo kukaMark Lynas kwe-ajenda yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMark Lynas uyintatheli wangaphambilini waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane owenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngaleyo mikhiqizo esakhiweni sakhe IGates Foundation exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science. Izindlu eCornell University kusukela ngonyaka we-2014, ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso wobudlelwano nomphakathi eqeqesha abakhulumayo futhi yakhe amanethiwekhi wethonya, ikakhulukazi emazweni ase-Afrika, ukukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ososayensi, ongoti bezokudla bathi uLynas akalungile kwisayensi

Ososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza izitatimende ezinganembile nezingahambisani nesayensi emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, izifundiswa zangena ngoJulayi 2020 esihlokweni ULynas ubhalele iCornell Alliance for Science ethi i-agroecology "inobungozi bokulimaza abampofu." Abagxeki bachaza udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi”Kanye ne-“ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela”Ukuthi“ngephutha uhlanganisa ukongiwa kwe-agroecology bese enza iziphetho zasendle. "

Isazi sezolimo nomhlaba uMarc Corbeels, iphepha lakhe uLynas okwakuthiwa uzolichaza kule ndatshana, uthe uLynas wenza “ukwenziwa okwandile. ” UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezepolitiki eQueen's University, ucele ukuthi kuhoxiswe; “Into efanele ukuyenza kungaba khipha ucezu lwakho olunamaphutha kakhulu lokho kudida izinto eziyisisekelo ngamasu ezolimo, ”kusho uTaylor kuTwitter. Uchaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “Imibono emsulwa” kanye “nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza 'ngokwesayensi'. ”  

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo ngomsebenzi kaLynas (kugcizelela okwethu):

  • “Ngingasho ngokusobala ukuthi akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO nokuthi iningi lezitatimende (zikaLynas) zingamanga, ” ubhale uDavid Schubert, PhD, Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory & Professor e-The Salk Institute, encwadini ayibhalele ISan Diego Union Tribune.
  • “Nayi eminye imikhakha ye- amaphuzu angalungile noma alahlekisayo uLynas akwenzayo mayelana nesayensi noma ukuthuthukiswa kwe-GE, ”kubhala uDoug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, owayengusosayensi omkhulu, Inyunyana Yososayensi Abakhathazekile. “Esikhundleni sokuphikisana noma ukuxoxa ngesayensi yangempela, uLynas uphonsa iziphakamiso futhi usebenzise ukuthembela egunyeni kunedatha noma ucwaningo. " 
  • Izimangalo zikaLynas mayelana nokuqiniseka kokuphepha kwe-GMO “akunasayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo, ” ngokusho kukaBelinda Martineau, PhD, unjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo owasiza ekwakheni ukudla kokuqala kwe-GMO (bheka incwadi eya ku-NYT futhi I-Biotech Salon).
  • Ekubuyekezweni Incwadi kaLynas Imbewu Yesayensi, isazi semvelaphi yabantu uGlenn Davis Stone uchaze le ncwadi njenge “ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwamaphuzu okuxoxa embonini evamile. ” 
  • "The Uhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezimpahla lwalokho uMark Lynas okungahambanga kahle ngakho kokubili ama-GMO nesayensi lubanzi, futhi iphikisiwe ngephuzu ngabathile abahola phambili emhlabeni izazi ngezolimo futhi izazi zezinto eziphilayo,”Kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, PhD, owayengumqondisi weFood First, ku I-Huffington Post.
  • UMark Lynas une “wenza umsebenzi ophume…" kubhale uThimothewu A. Wise, owayengumqondisi wocwaningo eGlobal Development and Environment Institute eTufts University.
  • "Ukulandisa kukaLynas kungamanga,”Ngokusho kuka- Ukukhishwa kwe-2018 kusuka e-African Centre for Biodiversity, iqembu elizinze eNingizimu Afrika. 
  • “Maka Izimangalo zikaLynas zibonisa ukungazi okujulile kwezesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. Kufanele ungamnaki, ” uthumele uPete Myers, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Environmental Health Sciences, umshicileli we-EHN.org.

Amaqhinga 'okukhohlisayo, adukisayo futhi angenasimiso' 

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika athi uLynas usemelele kabi amaqiniso amaningi ukuthuthukisa uhlelo lwezombusazwe. Ngokombiko wangoDisemba 2018 yi-African Centre for Biodiversity, Lynas kanye neCornell Alliance for Science basebenzise izithombe zabalimi base-Afrika ngaphandle kolwazi nemvume yabo, bexhaphaza izithombe ngezindlela ezidukisayo zokuthi abalimi badinga ama-GMO.

ULynas usebenzise lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle komongo futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uLynas wabhala lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle kwemvume nangaphandle komongo, esikisela ukuthi uyisisulu “sokungabi nabulungisa emhlabeni wonke.” UNkk. R empeleni ungumlimi ophumelelayo futhi olwela izindlela zokulima kanye nokuziphilisa kahle, ngokusho kombiko we-ACBio. Ucele uLynas ukuthi asuse isithombe sakhe, kodwa uhlala kwi-feed yakhe ye-twitter. I-ACBio ithe embikweni wayo ukuthi amaqhinga kaLynas “eqe umugqa obomvu wokuziphatha futhi kumele ayeke.”  

Iqembu elibusa ukudla nalo kusho ekukhululweni kwezindaba ukuthi uLynas "unomlando wokwenza ububi eTanzania" ngomkhakha wezokuvikela imboni ye-biotech. “Ukuhambela kwakhe kuleli kuhlelwe kahle yindawo yokwamukela izivakashi, esebenzisa izinkundla ezifana nemihlangano ejwayelekile ye-Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa (OFAB), lapho abezindaba bekhona khona bezobika ngezinkulumo zakhe. Ukuhlasela kwakhe bekuqondiswe kakhulu emithethweni yezwe yokuvikela ukuphepha, ikakhulukazi indlela yayo yokuvikela kanye nemibandela eqinile yezikweletu. ”

I-Alliance for Food Ubukhosi (i-AFSA), umfelandawonye omele amaqembu abalimi angama-35 nabathengi e-Afrika yonkana, nayo isole uLynas ngokugqugquzela “izethembiso ezingamanga, ukumelwa kabi, namanye amaqiniso. ” Kundatshana ka-2018, bachaze uLynas "njengongqondongqondo" ongahloniphi abantu base-Afrika, amasiko namasiko abo. "

Imiyalezo yokubulala izinambuzane isuselwa kumaphoyinti okukhuluma embonini, hhayi isayensi

Esinye isibonelo sokubika okunganembile kukaLynas ngesakhe Isihloko se-2017 i-Cornell Alliance for Science ehlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-World Health Organisation ngokubika i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. U-Lynas wathi lo mbiko wophiko lochwepheshe "kwakuwukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa okusobala kwezesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo," okwakuhlelwe abantu abanqotshwe "ukuthukuthela nemizwelo." Uthe i-glyphosate "iyikhemikhali elibi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni." 

A hlola iqiniso yi-US Right to Know uthole ukuthi uLynas wenza izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezidukisayo nezinamaphutha futhi wathembela emithonjeni efanayo emibili enamaphutha njengebhulogi eyathunyelwa ngenyanga edlule yi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu iMonsanto lalikhokha ukusiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate neminye imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ekuphakamiseni icala lakhe ukuthi "amaqembu ezishoshovu ahlukumeza isayensi futhi abeka eceleni inqubomgomo esuselwa ebufakazini ku-glyphosate saga," u-Lynas akagcinanga ngokuthembela ezimpikiswaneni nasezimbonini, kodwa futhi wabushaya indiva ubufakazi obuningi, obabikwa kabanzi kwabezindaba, ukuthi iMonsanto ilawula ukubuyekezwa kwesayensi nokulawula ku-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka usebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha kufaka phakathi izifundo zokubhala ghost futhi izihloko, izifundo zokubulala, ukucindezela isayensi engabazisayo, ukuhlasela ososayensi futhi izinhlangano zokulawula ezinamandla ngenhloso yokuvikela inzuzo yayo kumikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate. 

Kukhuthazwe, kuxhumene nenethiwekhi yezimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane

Izinkampani zezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yazo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi zivame ukukhuthaza uMark Lynas nomsebenzi wakhe. Bona isibonelo Iwebhusayithi kaMonsanto, ama-tweets amaningi wokuphromotha ngomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu okuhweba, amaqembu okubungaza, pro-umkhakha izifundiswa futhi abalobi, Futhi various Monsanto abasebenzi, kanye nenqwaba yama-athikili kaLynas kukhuthazwe ngu Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo, a iqembu le-propaganda ababambisana neMonsanto.

ILynas neCornell Alliance for Science nabo bayasebenzisana nabanye ababambe iqhaza kwinethiwekhi yezokuphepha kanye nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezolimo.

Iluleka iqembu labalingani beMonsanto i-Sense About Science

Imfihlo Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR yangomhla kaFebhuwari 2015 yaphakamisa Umuzwa Ngezesayensi njengeqembu elingasiza ekuholeni impendulo yomkhakha kwabezindaba ukudicilela phansi umbiko womdlavuza we-WHO nge-glyphosate. ULynas ukhonza ku- umkhandlu wokweluleka ye-Sense Mayelana neSayensi. I-Intercept ibikile ngo-2016 lokho "I-Sense About Science ayivezi ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho imithombo yayo yezindaba eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo," futhi "kwaziwa ukuthi bathatha izikhundla ezingavumelani nesayensi noma ezichithe ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala." Umuzwa Ngezesayensi abambisene neCornell Alliance for Science ukunikeza "ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli" ngomqondisi weqembu UTrevor Butterworth, ochazwe yizintatheli njengo “imboni yamakhemikhali umbhali wobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Related: IMonsanto ithembele kulaba "abalingani" ukuhlasela ososayensi abaphezulu bomdlavuza

Kuhlanganiswe nesayensi yezulu ukugxeka ukuqalisa i-pro-fracking, pro-nuke, GMO “movement”

U-Lynas uzibiza ngomunye wabasunguli “bokunyakaza” “kwe-ecomodernism,” uhlobo oluhambisanayo lwenkampani “lwezemvelo” umlobi waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot aluchaza ngokuthi “aluthathi zinyathelo zepolitiki ukuvikela umhlaba wemvelo.” Abakwa-eco-modernists bakhuthaza ukuthosiwe, amandla enuzi nemikhiqizo yezolimo njengezixazululo zemvelo. Ngokusho kwabaholi be-eco-modernist UTed Nordhaus noMichael Shellenberger we-Breakthrough Institute, ubuchwepheshe bamandla obuthandwa ngabazalwane besigidigidi samafutha uKoch “benza okungaphezulu kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kunalabo abathandwa yiLeft-apocalyptic Left.” 

Ku-a wehlulekile umcimbi wokuqalisa kwe-ecomodernism ngoSepthemba 2015, uLynas wazihlanganisa no-Owen Paterson, ovelele ophika isayensi yezulu e-UK ngubani kunciphise imali ngemizamo yokulungiselela izwe ukufudumala komhlaba ngesikhathi esengunobhala wezemvelo. Ngenyanga efanayo, uPaterson ukhulume eCornell Alliance for Science, lapho ephakamisa khona ama-GMO nge-hyperbolic inkulumo igcwaliswe nge izimangalo ezingasekelwa, futhi wasola abezemvelo ngokuvumela izingane ukuba zife e-Afrika. "Imikhankaso eluhlaza eyizigidigidi ibulala izingane ezihlwempu," kusho u-a isihloko ukubika ngenkulumo kaPaterson's Cornell evela eMkhandlwini WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto lalikhokha ukuvikela imikhiqizo yayo. 

Isendlalelo sikaMark Lynas

ULynas wabhala izincwadi eziningana ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu (enye yazo yamukelwa yiRoyal Society) ngaphambi kokuba akhange umhlaba wonke "Ukuguqulwa" kusuka kwisishoshovu se-anti-GMO kumgqugquzeli wobuchwepheshe ngenkulumo ekhuthazwa kabanzi yango-2013 e-Oxford ethi abagxekayo babe kuchazwe njengo ukudukisa. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngalowo nyaka uLynas waba ngumuntu eCornell University Office of International Programs eKolishi Lezolimo neLife Sciences, waqala usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana owenziwe ngonyaka we-2014 wokukhuthaza ama-GMO nge imali evela eGates Foundation.

Bheka: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso we-GMO propaganda?

ULynas wazibiza ngokuthi "ungumqondisi wezepolitiki" weCornell Alliance for Science kwiNew York Times yango-2015 i-op-ed. ICornell Alliance for Science ayichazi ukuthi luyini uhlelo lwayo lwezepolitiki, kepha imiyalezo kanye nezinhloso zeqembu zilandelela eduze uhlelo lwezohwebo lomkhakha wezolimo: ukukhulisa ukwamukelwa kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.

I-Mysterious Lynas PR push, futhi yavuza imemo ye-EuropaBio

Ukusatshalaliswa okukhulu kwabezindaba ngokuguqulwa kukaLynas 'pro-GMO ngo-2013 kwaphakamisa izinsolo zokuthi umkhankaso we-PR wemboni wawusiza ukumphakamisa ekusithekeni. A idalulwe imemo ka-2011 okuvela enkampanini yePR yomkhakha - echaza ngezinhlelo zokuqasha “amanxusa” asezingeni eliphakeme ukunxenxa ukwamukelwa kweGMO - kwandisa izinsolo zokusekelwa kwezimboni ngoba lo mbhalo uqambe igama elithi Lynas. Uthe iqembu akakaze asondele kuye.

Ngokombiko othile Umbiko Guardian, I-EuropaBio, iqembu lezokuhweba elinamalungu alo afaka phakathi iMonsanto neBayer, lihlele ukuqasha amanxusa e-PR ukusiza abenzi bezinqumo "ukucabanga kabusha ngesimo seYurophu ngezitshalo zeGM." Amanxusa abengeke akhokhelwe ngqo kodwa azothola izindleko zokuhamba kanye "nokuxhaswa kokuxhumana okuzinikele" okuvela embonini yezimali. Isikhulu senkampani i-PR sathi "sinentshisekelo" kuLynas, phakathi kwabanye, endimeni yenxusa. ULynas uphikile ukuthi unokuxhumana nabo. "Angikaze ngicelwe ukuthi ngibe yinxusa, futhi angizokwamukela isicelo esinjalo uma ngicelwa," etshela iGuardian.

IGates Foundation, ama-GMO neMonsanto

IBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, umxhasi oyinhloko weCornell Alliance for Science no $ 12 wezigidi kwizibonelelo, igxekiwe ngamasu ayo oxhaso lokuthuthukisa ezolimo axhasa ama-ajenda ebhizinisi lezolimo. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 okuvela eqenjini locwaningo IGRAIN ithole ukuthi iGates Foundation ichithe iningi lezimali zayo zokuthuthukisa ezolimo “ukondla abampofu e-Afrika” - cishe ama- $ 3 billion asetshenziswe ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi - fundisa ososayensi nabaphenyi emazweni acebile. Le mali isiza nasekuthengeni ithonya lezepolitiki kulo lonke elase-Afrika, kubika i-GRAIN. A Umbiko we-2016 weqembu lokukhuthaza i-Global Justice Now uphethe ngokuthi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo eGates Foundation “abhebhethekisa ukungalingani komhlaba wonke futhi agxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.”

IGates Foundation inwebe kakhulu imali yayo yamaphrojekthi wezolimo eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule lapho uRob Horsch, Inhloko yangaphambili kaMonsanto yentuthuko yamazwe omhlaba ijoyine ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kwesisekelo ithimba lobuholi. Incwadi entsha kaLynas ethi “Seeds of Science” ichitha isahluko (“The True History of Monsanto”) izama ukuchaza ezinye zezono zenkampani edlule nokudumisa uRob Horsch isikhathi eside. Sichitha esinye isahluko (“i-Afrika: Bayeke Badle Ummbila Wezingane Oyingqayizivele”) siphikisa ngokuthi abantu base-Afrika badinga imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo ukuze bazondle.

Ukugxekwa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yekoloniyalizim e-Afrika

  • Imbewu Ye-Neo-Colonialism: Kungani Abagqugquzeli be-GMO Bakuthola Kubi Kangaka Nge-Afrika, isitatimende ngu Umbutho Wobumbano Lokudla e-Afrika, 5/7/2018
  • Ngabe amaGates noRockefeller basebenzisa ithonya labo ukusetha i-ajenda emazweni ampofu?"Ucwaningo lukhomba izisekelo zikaBill noMelinda Gates kanye neRockefeller phakathi kwabanikeli abacebile abasondelene nohulumeni futhi okungenzeka ukuthi bathanda izinto eziseqhulwini," nguJohn Vidal, Tyena Guardian, 1/15/2016
  • Amandla Wentuthuko Nokuthuthuka. Ngubani owenza i-ajenda? nguJens Martens noKarolin Seitz, Umbiko ka-2015 (ikhasi 48).
  • I-Philanthrocapitalism: Izinhlelo ze-Gates Foundation zase-Afrika aziwona usizo, nguPhilip L Bereano, uSolwazi Emeritus e-University of Washington, Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwesithathu, 2017
  • IBill Gates Isiza KFC Ukuthatha i-Afrika, ngu-Alex Park, Umama Jones, 1/10/2014
  • IGates Foundation's Agenda Agenda e-Afrika 'Olunye Uhlobo Lobukoloniyali,' Kuxwayisa Ababhikishi, nguLauren McCauley, Amaphupho ajwayelekile, 3/23/2015
  • IGates Foundation ihola phambili ekuphangweni kwezolimo e-Afrika, nguColin Todhunter, Isazi Semvelo, 1/21/2016
  • Ngabe iGates Foundation iyisebenzisa kanjani imali yayo ukondla umhlaba?Umbiko wokusanhlamvu, 2014
  • UBill Gates usemkhankasweni wokuthengisa ama-GMO e-Afrika, kepha akalikhulumi lonke iqiniso, nguStacy Malkan, Okunye, 3/24/2016

Ama-GMOs 2.0: Ngabe i-Synthetic Biology Ikhomba Ekudleni noma Esiphuzweni Eduze Kwakho?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isikole esidala stevia.

Isitshalo esidala se-stevia esenziwe ngemvelo.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Huffington Post.

NguStacy Malkan

Isiko lethu lihlaselwe ngombono wokuthi ubuchwepheshe bungasisindisa - noma okungenani buvule amathuba amahle ebhizinisi! UCargill, isibonelo, usebenza ku ubuchwepheshe bokudla obusha elingisa i-stevia, esikhundleni sikashukela esivela emaqabungeni ezitshalo, "emakethe yokudla eqhumayo yemidlalo."

Umkhiqizo omusha kaCargill, i-EverSweet, usebenzisa imvubelo eyenziwe ngofuzo ukuguqula ama-molecule kashukela alingise izakhiwo ze-stevia, ngaphandle kwesidingo sesitshalo uqobo.

Yakhiwa kusetshenziswa i-synthetic biology (noma i- “synbio” ngamafuphi), uhlobo olusha lobunjiniyela obufaka phakathi ukuguqula noma ukudala i-DNA ukuze kuhlanganiswe izinto ezihlanganisiwe kunokuzikhipha emithonjeni yemvelo - inqubo kwesinye isikhathi ebizwa ngokuthi yi-GMOs 2.0.

NgoJuni 1, Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa zase-US qeda indlela ye-EverSweet enegama “elibhekwa njengokuphephile” (GRAS). Ekugcineni ingasetshenziswa “kuyo yonke into kusuka kubisi kuya kumathebulethi wethebulethi neziphuzo ezidakayo, kodwa iziphuzo eziphansi noma ezingekho zero ziyindawo emnandi,” ngokusho kwe- I-Navigator Yokudla.

Futhi-ke kuqala inguquko entsha elandelayo yobuchwepheshe bokudla: izinkampani ezijaha ukuhambisa ukukhiqizwa kokudla zisuka ezweni ziye ebhodini ngaphandle kwemithetho noma imithethonqubo ekhona edinga ukuhlolwa kwesayensi noma ukwenza izinto obala.

Bazoyithengisa kanjani abathengi bezinto zokwenziwa?

Inselelo enkulu ebhekene ne-biology yokwenziwa ukuthi abathengi banamuhla bafuna ukudla okusha kwemvelo okunamalebula alula acacile - ini Izindaba Zebhizinisi Lokudla wabiza “ukuthambekela konyaka” ngonyaka odlule.

"Kungani singafuna ukudla kwe-synbio?" U-Eve Turrow Paul, umbhali kanye nomeluleki womkhiqizo wezinkampani, ubuze ngokungaphenduli I-Huffington Post. “Awu, izizathu ezimbalwa. Into yokuqala ohlwini ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu. ”

Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu yisona sizathu sokuqala se-biology yokwenziwa? Kuthiwani ngokuthwebula imakethe yokudla okuqhumayo yemidlalo?

Kukhona lapho inselelo ye-PR ebhekene nobuchwepheshe obusha bokudla: ungayibeka kanjani imikhiqizo yokudla eyenziwe ngamasu welebhu ezwakala ngendlela exakile ngezinjongo zamalungelo obunikazi nenzuzo njengento ephephile empeleni izinzuzo abathengi.

Inkampani enkulu kunazo zonke yezolimo, ukudla kanye nokwenziwa kwebhayoloji yahlangana ndawonye eSan Francisco ngo-2014 ukuxoxa ngale nselelo ye-PR.

UDana Perls wabangane bomhlaba, obehambele lo mhlangano, wawuchaza ngokuthi “ukuqonda okwethusayo enqubeni yokwenziwa kwebhayoloji yokwakha umlando wezindaba ophekwe ngoshukela ukuze udideke umphakathi, ungazinaki izingozi, futhi ufune nengubo 'yokusimama' yemikhiqizo emisha yokwenziwa yebhayoloji engenza inzuzo. ”

Ochwepheshe be-PR kulo mhlangano bancome ukuthi kugwenywe amagama anjenge- “synthetic biology” nelithi “genetic engineering” (okwethusa kakhulu, ukubuyela emuva ngokweqile), futhi baphakamisa ukuhamba ngezincazelo ezingacacile ezinjengokuthi “ukuvutshelwa okutholakele” nokuthi “uhlobo olufanayo.”

Bancome ukugxila kwabezindaba ezindabeni zethemba nezethembisayo, ukuthatha imizwa yomphakathi, nokwenza izishoshovu zokudla “zizwe sengathi sonke simasha ngaphansi kwesibhengezo esifanayo” ukuze kube nokusimama kokudla, ukusebenzela obala kanye nobukhosi bokudla.

Kubhekwe ukubonakala

Umuntu othile ubelalele. Indaba mayelana neCargill's ithuba elikhulu le-stevia akazange akhulume ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma i-biology yokwenziwa, kepha wachaza “ukuvutshelwa njengendlela.” Kuphele ngesethembiso sokuthi uCargill akanalutho alufihlayo mayelana nokuthi izithako zenziwa kanjani futhi uzokubeka ilebula ngokucacile nangokunembile imikhiqizo.

"Sikhombe lesi sikhala ngendlela esobala ngokuphelele," wathi USteve Fabro, umphathi wezokukhangisa wezinhlelo zomhlaba wonke weCargill.

Isithako esisha sihambisana nezinguquko ezinkulu eCargill. Ngemuva kweminyaka emibili inciphile inzuzo, inkampani ezimele enkulu kunazo zonke eMelika isiyazibeka kabusha “ukuze yanelise abathengi ezimakethe zaseNtshonalanga ezibalekela izinhlobo zokudla ezijwayelekile ezincike ezintweni eziphansi, ezisetshenziswayo eziye zaba yizinkampani ezifana neCargill,” kubika uJacob Bunge ku- I-Wall Street Journal.

Abathengi “bafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwabo, ngubani owenzile, hlobo luni lwenkampani, ingabe banesimilo, baziphatha kanjani izilwane?” UCargill Chief Executive uDavid MacLennan utshele iBunge.

Ngezithako zokwenziwa zebhayoloji, lokho kungaba yinselele.

Lapho bebuzwa kahle ukuthi bahlela kanjani ukubiza i-EverSweet, ukuhola kwezokuxhumana kukaCargill uKelly Sheehan uphendule nge-imeyili, 

“Abathengi kufanele bakwazi ukutshela umehluko kwilebula phakathi kuka-stevia ovela emaqabungeni nase-steviol glycosides akhiqizwa ngokuvutshelwa. UStevia osuka eqabeni e-US njengamanje ubhalwe ngokuthi 'i-stevia leaf extract.' I-EverSweet izobhalwa e-US ngokuthi 'steviol glycosides' noma 'Reb M noReb D.' E-EU okulindelwe ukuthi i-EverSweet izothola inombolo ka-E eguquliwe ukuhlukanisa le mikhiqizo emibili. ”

 UShehan wengeze wathi, “UCargill uzibophezele ekubonakaleni nasekwabelaneni ngemininingwane yomkhiqizo e Cargill.com kusuka 'ku-stevia leaf extract' kuya ku-'non-GMO stevia leaf extract.' ”

Uyadida? Mhlawumbe, kepha izinqumo zokulebula zingashiyelwa izinkampani. Njengama-GMO esizukulwane sokuqala, ukufakwa ilebula akudingeki e-US (yize iVermont izodinga ilebuli ye-GMO eqala ngoJulayi 1 ngaphandle kokuthi Kuyangenelela iCongress) nezinkampani zikhululekile ukukhangisa imikhiqizo yazo “njengemvelo” (yize i-FDA injalo ukubukeza ukusetshenziswa yalelo gama). Azikho izindinganiso zokuphepha futhi azikho izidingo zokuhlola zokudla ezakhiwe nge-synthetic biology.

Lolu hlelo lokuxegisa luthokozela izinkampani ezimagange ukuthola amalungelo obunikazi obusha bokudla.

Njengoba uPerls echaze umhlangano we-synthetic biology PR, “Ingqikimba ecacile emhlanganweni bekuwukuthi imithetho embalwa kahulumeni iba ngcono, kanye nokuzilawula kwezimboni kungcono kakhulu. Kube nokuvumelana okujwayelekile egumbini lokuthi umphakathi akufanele ukhathazeke ngokushoda kwemininingwane yezokuphepha; kodwa-ke, izifundo zebhizinisi zangaphakathi nezizixhasayo zingumnikazi womphakathi futhi azinakwabiwa nomphakathi. ”

Sike sayizwa kuphi le ndaba phambilini?

Ulwazi lobunikazi, amalungelo obunikazi, ukungabi bikho obala kanye nokuzihlola komkhakha kube yizimpawu zezizukulwane zokuqala ze-GMO - kanye nophethiloli wokukhula kokungathembani kwabathengi kanye nezidingo zokubeka obala okuye kwabamba imboni yezokudla.

Izinkampani ezizuza kuma-GMO wendabuko - ikakhulukazi iMonsanto, iDow nezinye izinkampani ezinkulu zembewu yamakhemikhali - ziphendulile ekuhlaseleni okwenziwa izinkampani ezinkulu: ngokuphonsa imali enkulu Imisebenzi ye-PR ukuhlasela abagxeki kanye spin imikhiqizo yabo njengoba kunesidingo ukondla umhlaba.

Izethembiso zokumaketha zehlulekile ukwenzeka. Umbiko kaMeyi 2016 weNational Academy of Sciences utholakele akukho bufakazi ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zishintshe izinga lokukhuphuka kwezithelo, futhi azikho izinzuzo ezicacile yamapulazi amancane, ampofu emazweni asathuthuka.

Noma kunjalo, abasekeli be-GMO bathi, njengoba UBill Gates wakwenza kwinhlolokhono yeWall Street Journal, yokuthi abantu base-Afrika bazobulawa yindlala ngaphandle kwalapho bemukela izitshalo ze-GMO ezilungele isimo sezulu, ezinothe ngamavithamini. Amasango akuyekile ukusho ukuthi lezi zilimo namanje azikho ngemuva kweminyaka engu-20 yokulingwa nezethembiso.

Esikhundleni salokho, izitshalo eziningi ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo zinjalo izilimo ezibekezelela ukhula lokho kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana zezempilo izinkinga kuxhunyiwe kuya Amakhemikhali ukuvezwa. Lezi zilimo zikhuphukile ukuthengiswa kwamakhemikhali ephethwe izinkampani ezifanayo lezo ungumnikazi wamalungelo obunikazi ngezimbewu ze-GMO - imodeli enhle kakhulu yenzuzo, kepha leyo evele ingabi yinkulu kangako kwezempilo nakwezemvelo.

Isithembiso se-biology yokwenziwa

Izinhlobo ezifanayo zezethembiso ezahluleka ukwenzeka eminyakeni engama-20 yezitshalo ze-GMO zibhebhezela ukubhebhetheka kwezobunjiniyela bezizukulwane ezizayo.

Izindlela zokwenziwa zebhayoloji “zingaletha izitshalo ezinomsoco ochuma ngamanzi amancane, umhlaba, namandla, kanye nokufakwa okumbalwa kwamakhemikhali, ezimweni zezulu eziguquguqukayo nasemazweni angenakusekela ukulima okunamandla,” kubika uJosie Garthwaite I-Atlantic.

Ngenkathi abaxhasi begxila ezinzuzweni ezizayo zesikhathi esizayo, abagxeki baphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngezingozi nemiphumela engahlosiwe. Ngaphandle kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kokumaketha kokudla okwenziwe nge-biology, imithelela yezemvelo nezempilo ayaziwa kakhulu, kepha abagxeki bathi kunendawo eyodwa lapho izingozi sezivele zibonakala: ukulimala komnotho kubalimi bomdabu njengoba amakhemikhali akhuliswa elebhu angena esikhundleni sezitshalo ezilinywa ensimini. Abalimi baseParaguay naseKenya, ngokwesibonelo, bathembele ezitshalweni ze-stevia.

"Ngokuncintisana nabalimi abahlwempu nokukhohlisa abathengi ngemvelaphi yezithako zayo, i-EverSweet nezinye izibonelo zebhayoloji yokwenziwa zidala umunyu kuzo zombili izinhlangothi zomkhiqizo," kubhala uJim Thomas noSilvia Rabiero weThe ETC Group Iphrojekthi Syndicate.

Indlela eya phambili ye-biology yokwenziwa

Njengoba izintambo zempi zisondela emdeni omusha wokudla, kuphakama imibuzo enzima. Singaqinisekisa kanjani ukuthi izinto ezintsha kwezolimo zisiza umphakathi nabathengi? Ngabe ubuchwepheshe obusha bokudla buthuthukiswa kanjani ukubamba izimakethe, amalungelo obunikazi kanye nenzuzo yezinkampani ebeka phambili ukusimama, ukuphepha kokudla kanye nezixazululo zokushintsha kwesimo sezulu?

Kuzothatha okungaphezu kweziqubulo zokumaketha, futhi iwashi liyabheka ukuthola ukuthi ubuchwepheshe obusha buqhubekela phambili.

Njengoba u-Adele Peters abike ngakho fast Company, ubuchwepheshe obusha be-morphing technology obubizwa nge-CRISPR, obenza ukuthi “kwenzeke ukuhlela i-DNA ngokushesha nangokushesha,” buza esitolo esiseduze nawe.

"Uma ukuhlela isakhi sofuzo esisodwa kungathatha iminyaka ngamasu amadala, manje kungenzeka ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ngomfundi oyedwa webanga," kubika uPeters.

Yini engase ihambe ngokungahambi kahle?

Ngo-Ephreli, uMnyango Wezolimo waseMelika uthathe isinqumo sokuthi ikhowe leCRISPR angabi ngaphansi komthethonqubo.

NgoJuni 1, ososayensi bamemezele ukuqala kwephrojekthi yeminyaka eyi-10 ehlose ukwakha i-genome yomuntu. Le phrojekthi ibizwa ngeHuman Genome Project - Bhala, “ngoba ihlose ukubhala iDNA yokuphila,” kubika u-Andrew Pollack ku I-New York Times.

NgoJuni 8, iNational Academy of Sciences ukhishwe umbiko mayelana “nokushayela izakhi zofuzo,” uhlobo olusha lobunjiniyela olungasabalalisa ukuguqulwa kwezakhi zofuzo kuso sonke isibalo sezinto eziphilayo, kushintshe unomphela uhlobo.

Ukushayela kweGene "abakulungele ukukhishelwa emvelweni," kusho i-NAS kuyo isitatimende sephephandaba efuna "ucwaningo oluningi nokuhlolwa okuqinile." Ngeshwa, umbiko we-NAS wehlulekile ukuveza uhlaka lokulawula oluzovikela abantu nemvelo.

Kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-synthetic biology, ukuhlela izakhi zofuzo kanye nezakhi zofuzo kungaba nezinzuzo emphakathini? Mhlawumbe yebo. Kodwa bazokwenza? Futhi ziyini izingozi?

Uma izinkampani zivunyelwe ukusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela ukuze zizuze ezentengiselwano ngaphandle kokubheka kukahulumeni, akukho kuhlola okuzimele kwesayensi, futhi kungabi sobala, izinzuzo emphakathini zizoshiywa kwimenyu futhi abathengi bazoba sebumnyameni ngalokho esikudlayo nesikudlayo imindeni yethu.

UStacy Malkan ungumqondisi obambisene ne-US Right to Know, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo embonini yezokudla. Wenza nomsebenzi wokubonisana nabangane bomhlaba. Mlandele ku-Twitter @StacyMalkan

Okushiwo yiBill Gates Akukutsheli Ngama-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubika okuhlobene kwe-US Right to Know:

Njengezinkampani ezinkulu zokudla memezela izinhlelo ukufaka ilebuli yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-US, sibheka ngokucophelela izingxabano ze-pro and con mayelana nobuchwepheshe bokudla obuyimpikiswano. Amavidiyo amabili akamuva akhanyisa ukwehlukana kwama-GMO.

NgoJanuwari, uBill Gates wachaza ukuxhasa kwakhe ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo ku ingxoxo neWall Street Journal kaRebecca Blumenstein:

“Lokho okubizwa ngamaGMO kwenziwa ngokuguqula izakhi zofuzo zalesi sitshalo, futhi kwenziwa ngendlela lapho kunenqubo yokuphepha ephelele, futhi kuyamangalisa ngoba kunciphisa inani lezibulala-zinambuzane ozidingayo, kukhuphula umkhiqizo (futhi) kungasiza ngokungondleki ngokuthola ukuvikeleka kwamavithamini. Ngakho-ke ngicabanga ukuthi, nge-Afrika, lokhu kuzokwenza umehluko omkhulu, ikakhulukazi njengoba bebhekene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu…

I-US, China, Brazil, zisebenzisa lezi zinto futhi uma ufuna abalimi e-Afrika bathuthukise ukudla okunomsoco futhi bancintisane emakethe yomhlaba, uyazi, inqobo nje uma izinto zokuphepha ezilungile zenziwa, lokho kuyazuzisa ngempela. Kungumjikelezo wesibili wenguquko eluhlaza. Ngakho-ke abantu base-Afrika ngicabanga ukuthi bazokhetha ukunika abantu babo ukudla okwanele. ”

Uma uGates eqinisile, izindaba ezinhle lezo. Lokho kusho ukuthi ukhiye wokuxazulula inkinga yendlala ukwehlisa imigoqo ezinkampanini ukuze zithengise izitshalo zazo ezikwazi ukumelana nesimo sezulu, nezithuthukisiwe zokudla okunempilo.

Ngabe uGates uqinisile?  

Enye ividiyo ekhishwe ngesonto elifanayo nengxoxo yeGates 'WSJ inikeza ngombono ohlukile.

The ifilimu elifushane yiCentre for Food Safety ichaza ukuthi isimo saseHawaii, esinezinkundla ezivulekile ezingaphezulu zezilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kunanoma isiphi esinye isifundazwe, sesingcoliswe yizinhlobo eziningi zezibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi.

Ifilimu futhi umbiko chaza ukuthi izinkampani ezinhlanu zamazwe omhlaba ezolimo ziqhuba izivivinyo ezingama-97% ze-GE field eHawaii, futhi iningi lezitshalo lenzelwe ukusinda ukubulala ukhula. Ngokusho kwevidiyo:

“Njengoba izivivinyo eziningi kangaka zemikhakha ye-GE zisesimweni esincane kangako, abantu abaningi eHawaii bahlala, basebenze futhi baye ezikoleni eziseduze nezindawo zokuhlola ezifuthwe ngamandla. Ama-pesticides avame ukukhukhuleka ngakho-ke akumangalisi ukuthi izingane nesikole kanye nemiphakathi yonke iyagula. Ukwenza izinto zibe zimbi kakhulu, ezimweni eziningi, lezi zinkampani akudingeki nokuthi ziveze lokho ezikufafazayo. ”

Uma isikhungo sokuphepha kokudla silungile, leyo yinkinga enkulu. Zombili lezi zindaba azinakulunga ngasikhathi sinye, akunjalo?

Amaqiniso phansi

Ukulandela umucu wokulandisa kwamaGates, umuntu angalindela ukuthi izinkambu zezolimo zaseHawaii - okuyizindawo ezihamba phambili zokuhlola izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-US - zibe nokuxokozela ngezibulala-zinambuzane eziphansi, ezikhuthaza isimo sezulu, nezitshalo ezithuthukiswe ngamavithamini.

Esikhundleni salokho, iningi lezitshalo ze-GMO ezilinywa eHawaii nase e-US izitshalo ezibekezelela ukhula eziqinisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kanye nekhemikhali le-World Health Organisation Ochwepheshe bomdlavuza bahlukanisa njenge “mhlawumbe okubanga umdlavuza ebantwini.”

Eminyakeni engama-20 kusukela iMonsanto yethula ummbila othi “Roundup Ready” GMO kanye nesoya, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate sekune kukhuphuke izikhathi ezingu-15 futhi manje “sekuyikhemikhali lezolimo elisetshenziswa kakhulu emlandweni womhlaba”, kubika iDouglas Main kuNewsweek.

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide esindayo kuye kwashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare epulazi. Ukubhekana nale nkinga, iMonsanto iyi ukuphuma ubhontshisi obusha obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo obuklanyelwe ukusinda enhlanganisweni yamakhemikhali abulala ukhula, i-glyphosate ne-dicamba. I-EPA inayo okwamanje ukuvuma inhlanganisela entsha yokubulala ukhula.

Kepha iDow Chemical isanda kuthola ilambu eliluhlaza kusuka kujaji lesifundazwe i-combo yayo entsha yokubulala ukhula engu-2,4D ne-glyphosate, ebizwa nge-Enlist Duo, eyenzelwe imbewu ye-Dow's Enlist GMO. I-EPA ilahle eceleni imininingwane yayo yezokuphepha ukuze ivume u-Enlist Duo, kubika uPatricia Callahan eChicago Tribune.

I-ejensi ibe isihlehlisa inkambo futhi yacela inkantolo ukuthi phuma ekuvunyelweni kwayo - isicelo ijaji esasiphika ngaphandle kokubeka isizathu.

Konke lokhu kuphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nezimangalo uBill Gates ezenziwe engxoxweni yakhe yeWall Street Journal mayelana nezinqubo eziphelele zokuphepha nokuncishiswa kokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane.

 Ukukhathazeka kukhula eHawaii, e-Argentina, e-Iowa

Esikhundleni sokuphithizela ngezinhlobo ezintsha ezethembisayo zezitshalo ze-GMO eziguquguqukayo, iHawaii iphithizela ngemizamo engaphansi ukuvikela imiphakathi kusuka ekubulaweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane, kudinga izinkampani zamakhemikhali ukuze udalule izibulala-zinambuzane bayasebenzisa, futhi vimbela i-GMO-ukutshala izitshalo ezindaweni eziseduze nezikole nasemakhaya asebekhulile.

Izikole eziseduze namapulazi eKauai zikhishiwe ngenxa yokukhukhuleka kwezibulala-zinambuzane, kanti odokotela eHawaii bathi babheka ukwanda kokukhubazeka kokuzalwa nezinye izifo abasola ukuthi kungenzeka zihlobene nezibulala-zinambuzane, kubika uChristopher Pala ku-Guardian futhi Isazi sezinto eziphilayo.

Ngokusho the American Academy of Pediatrics, ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane zangaphambi kokubeletha nokuphila kwasekuqaleni kuxhunyaniswa nomdlavuza wezingane, kwehle ukusebenza kwengqondo, izinkinga zokuziphatha kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa.

E-Argentina - umkhiqizi wesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni wezitshalo ze-GMO - odokotela nabo baphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamazinga aphakeme kunesilinganiso somdlavuza nezinkinga zokuzalwa abasola ukuthi zihlobene nezibulala-zinambuzane, kubika uMichael Warren ku The Associated Press.

Indaba kaWarren yango-2013 icaphune ubufakazi “bokusetshenziswa okungalawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane”:

“I-Associated Press ibhale amacala amaningi ezweni lonke lapho kusetshenziswa khona ubuthi ngezindlela ezingalindelwe yisayensi yezomthetho noma ngokuvinjelwa ngqo ngumthetho okhona. Isifutho singena ezikoleni nasemakhaya futhi sihlala emithonjeni yamanzi; abasebenzi basemapulazini bahlanganisa ubuthi bengenazo izinto zokuzivikela; abantu basemakhaya bagcina amanzi ezitsheni zezibulala-zinambuzane obekufanele ngabe zacekelwa phansi. ”

Phakathi ku indaba yokulandelela, IMonsanto ivikele i-glyphosate njengephephile futhi yafuna izilawuli ezithe xaxa ukunqanda ukusetshenziswa kabi kwamakhemikhali ezolimo, kanti uWarren ubike ukuthi:

"Odokotela base-Argentina okwaxoxwa nabo yi-AP bathi amacala abo - hhayi izivivinyo zaselabhorethri - akhombisa ukuhlangana okusobala phakathi kokufika kwezolimo eziqinile ezimbonini kanye nokwenyuka kwamazinga omdlavuza nezinkinga zokuzalwa emiphakathini yasemakhaya, futhi bafuna izifundo ezibanzi, zesikhathi eside ukunqabela ukuchayeka kwe-agrochemical njengembangela yalokhu nezinye izifo. ”

Okhulumela iMonsanto uThomas Helscher uphendule wathi, “ukungabi bikho kwemininingwane ethembekile kwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukusungula ukuthambekela kwezifo futhi kube nzima kakhulu ukusungula ubudlelwano obuyimbangela. Ngokwazi kwethu abukho ubudlelwano obuyimbangela obusunguliwe. ”

Ukungabikho kwemininingwane ethembekile kuhlanganiswa neqiniso lokuthi amakhemikhali amaningi ahlolelwa ukuphepha ngawodwana, kepha ukuvezwa ngokuvamile kubandakanya inhlanganisela yamakhemikhali.

 'Siphefumula, siyadla, futhi siphuza imishanguzo yemithi'

Kamuva Ucwaningo lwe-UCLA bathole ukuthi abalawuli beCalifornia bayahluleka ukuhlola ubungozi bezempilo bezingxube zezibulala-zinambuzane, noma imiphakathi yasepulazini - kufaka phakathi izindawo eziseduze nezikole, izikhungo zokunakekela izingane namapaki - ivezwe ezibulala zinambuzane eziningi, ezingaba nemithelela emikhulu kunaleyo ebilindelwe yezempilo.

Ukuvezwa nakho kwenzeka ngemizila eminingi. Ebika ngezinkinga zezempilo nokukhathazeka komphakathi e-Avia Teria, idolobha elisemakhaya e-Argentina elizungezwe amasimu kabhontshisi, u-Elizabeth Grossman wabhala ku-National Geographic:

“Ngenxa yokuthi kusetshenziswa izibulala-zinambuzane eziningi kakhulu emadolobheni ase-Argentina, izinselelo zokuqonda ukuthi yini engase ibangele izinkinga zempilo ziyabonakala, kusho uNicolas Loyacono, ongusosayensi nodokotela wezempilo e-University of Buenos Aires. Kule miphakathi, uLoyacono uthi, "siphefumula, siyadla, futhi siphuza imishanguzo yemithi."

E-Iowa, ekhulisa ummbila owenziwe izakhi zofuzo ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umbuso e-US, imithombo yamanzi ingcoliswe ngamakhemikhali aphuma emapulazini ommbila nasezilwaneni, kubika uRichard Manning kumagazini kaFebhuwari ka. Umagazini kaHarper:

“Ososayensi abavela emnyangweni wezolimo kuhulumeni nase-Iowa State University bakhiphe amapensela baluhlola uhlelo lwezixazululo ezinje zobuchwepheshe obuphansi. Uma ama-40% ezindawo zokutshala ezifunwa ummbila zingatshalwa nezinye izitshalo kanye nedlelo laphakade, lonke udoti lwezinkinga olubangelwe ukulima kwezimboni - ngokuqinisekile ukungcola kwe-nitrate kwamanzi okuphuza - kungaqala ukushabalala. ”

Lokhu okuhlangenwe nakho ezindaweni ezintathu ezihola umhlaba wonke ekukhiqizweni kwezitshalo ze-GMO kusobala ukuthi kuhambisana nombuzo wokuthi ngabe i-Afrika kufanele yini yamukele ama-GMO njengesisombululo esingcono kakhulu sokuvikeleka kokudla esikhathini esizayo. Manje kungani uBill Gates engakhulumi ngalezi zinkinga?

Ukubukwa kwepropaganda

Abaxhasi be-GMO bathanda ukugxila ekusetshenzisweni kwesikhathi esizayo kobuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, ngenkathi bedlala, benganaki noma bephika ubungozi. Kaningi bazama ukukhipha inyumbazane abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njengabangenalwazi noma abaphikisana nesayensi; noma, njengoba kwenza uGates, basikisela ukukhetha okungamanga ukuthi amazwe kumele amukele ama-GMO uma efuna "ukuvumela abantu bawo babe nokudla okwanele."

Lo mqondo weqa phezu kokuthi, ngemuva kwamashumi eminyaka yentuthuko, izitshalo eziningi ze-GMO zisakhiwa ukuze zimelane namakhemikhali okubulala ukhula noma zikhiqize ama-insecticide (noma zombili) ngenkathi izici eziyinkimbinkimbi (kanye ne-hyped), njengokuthuthuka kwamavithamini, zehlulekile ukuphuma emhlabathini.

“Njengebhodi lokuhambisa phezulu le-Back to the future franchise, irayisi legolide liwumqondo wakudala obonakala nje ngaphesheya kokuqondakala kweqiniso,” kubika uTom Philpott kuMama Jones.

Okwamanje, izinkampani zezolimo zomhlaba wonke ezinengxenye enkulu ye- ibhizinisi lembewu bayazuza kuzo zombili izimbewu ezingamelana nokubulala ukhula kanye nemithi yokubulala ukhula eklanyelwe ukumelana nayo, futhi izicelo eziningi ezintsha ze-GMO epayipini zilandela lo mthambo ofanayo.

Lezi zinkampani nazo zisebenzise amakhulu ezigidi zamadola ngemizamo yobudlelwano bomphakathi ukukhuthaza ezolimo ezinamandla, zamakhemikhali, ezolimo ze-GMO njengempendulo yendlala emhlabeni - kusetshenziswa amaphuzu afanayo okukhuluma abekwa uGates enkulumweni yakhe yeWall Street Journal, nokuthi amaqembu axhaswe ngamaGates nawo ayenanela.

Ngendatshana yakamuva ku Isazi sezinto eziphilayo, Ngicubungule imiyalezo yeCornell Alliance for Science, uhlelo lokuxhumana lwe-pro-GMO olwethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo semali engu- $ 5.6 million esivela kwiGates Foundation.

Ukuhlaziywa kwami ​​kutholile ukuthi leli qembu linikeza ulwazi oluncane mayelana nobungozi noma ukwehla kwama-GMO, futhi esikhundleni salokho kukhulisa i-PR mantra yomkhakha wezolimo ukuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni kanye nasidingo sama-GMO.

Isibonelo, i-FAQ yeqembu ithi,

"Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."

Lokhu kuphikisana neNhlangano Yezempilo Yomhlaba, okushoyo, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile ngokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM." Bangaphezu kwama-300 ososayensi, ama-MD nezifundiswa sebeshilo "akukho ukuvumelana okungokwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO."

The ukukhathazeka ososayensi bayakhulisa mayelana nokubulala ukhula okusekelwe e-glyphosate okuhambisana nama-GMO nakho kusobala ukuthi kufanelekile engxoxweni yezokuphepha.

Kodwa-ke esikhundleni sokuphakamisa lezi zingqinamba njengengxenye yengxoxo eqinile yesayensi, iCornell Alliance for Science ithumela abafo nabalingani bayo ukukhathazeka okuphansi mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii nase zihlasele izintatheli ababika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi lezi zinhlobo zama-shenanigans zisiza kanjani ukuxazulula indlala e-Afrika.

Isayensi yomphakathi iyathengiswa

ICornell Alliance for Science iyisibonelo sakamuva sephethini enkulu ehluphayo yamanyuvesi kanye nezifundiswa ezisebenzela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi ngaphezu kwesayensi.

Amahlazo akamuva ahlobene nalo mkhuba afaka osolwazi abaxhaswe yiCoca-Cola abathi yehlise isixhumanisi phakathi kokudla nokukhuluphala, uprofesa obheka isimo sezulu ochaze amaphepha akhe esayensi ngokuthi “okunikezwayo”Yabaxhasi bezinkampani, kanye nemibhalo etholwe yiqembu lami i-US Right to Know edalula osolwazi abasebenza eduze neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano babo neMonsanto.

In interview with the Chronicle of Education Ephakeme, UMarc Edwards, uprofesa waseVirginia Tech owasiza ekudaluleni inkinga yamanzi yaseFlint, uxwayise ngokuthi isayensi yomphakathi isengozini enkulu.

“Ngikhathazeke kakhulu ngesiko lezifundiswa kuleli kanye nezikhuthazo ezinhlanhlatha ezinikezwa ubuhlakani obusha. Izingcindezi zokuthola uxhaso zimangalisa nje. Sonke sikulesi treadmill se-hedonistic - siphishekela uxhaso, siphishekela udumo, siphishekela i-h-index - nomqondo wesayensi njengomsebenzi womphakathi uyalahleka… Abantu abafuni ukukuzwa lokhu. Kepha kufanele sikulungise lokhu, futhi sikulungise ngokushesha, uma kungenjalo sizolahlekelwa lobu budlelwano bomphakathi. Bazoyeka ukuseseka. ”

Njengesisekelo esicebe kunawo wonke emhlabeni futhi njengabaxhasi abakhulu bezocwaningo lwezemfundo, ikakhulukazi emkhakheni wezolimo, iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation isethubeni lokuxhasa isayensi ngokuthakazelisa umphakathi.

Amasu eGates Foundation, noma kunjalo, avame ukuhambisana nezintshisekelo zebhizinisi. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu labacwaningi elizinze eBarcelona iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% wezigidigidi ezingama- $ 3 iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukuzuzisa abantu abalambile emazweni ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi yocwaningo lobuchwepheshe obuphakeme.

A Januwari 2016 umbiko Iqembu lezokuvikela lase-UK iGlobal Justice Manje lithi ukusetshenziswa kweGates Foundation, ikakhulukazi kumaphrojekthi wezolimo, kukhulisa ukungalingani futhi kugxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.

"Mhlawumbe okugqame kakhulu ngeBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ngukuthi yize kuneqhinga layo eliqinile lokusebenzisana kanye nomthelela ongajwayelekile kohulumeni, izifundiswa kanye nabezindaba, kodwa akukho mazwi aphikisayo," kusho leli qembu.

Kepha amazwi ezinkampani asondele. Inhloko yethimba locwaningo nentuthuko kwezolimo eGates Foundation nguRob Horsch, owachitha amashumi eminyaka akhe umsebenzi eMonsanto.

 Icala lengxoxo ethembekile

Esikhundleni sokwenza icala le-propaganda yama-GMO, amaqembu axhaswe uBill Gates namaGates angadlala indima ebalulekile ekuphakamiseni ubuqotho besayensi mpikiswano ye-GMO, nokuqinisekisa ukuthi ubuchwepheshe obusha bokudla buzuzisa imiphakathi.

Ubuchwepheshe abuhle noma abubi ngokwemvelo; konke kuya ngomongo. Njengoba uGates akubeka, "inqobo nje uma izinto zokuphepha ezifanele zenziwa." Kepha lezo zinto zokuphepha azenziwa.

Ukuvikela izingane ekudalweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi eHawaii nase-Argentina nokuhlanza ukuhlinzekwa kwamanzi e-Iowa akudingeki kuvimbele ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo buqhubekele phambili. Kepha lezo zingqinamba ziqokomisa isidingo sokuthatha izinyathelo zokuqapha ngama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Lokho kungadinga ukuhlolwa okuqinile nokuzimele kwemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo, kanye nokuvikelwa kwabasebenza emapulazini nasemiphakathini.

Lokho kungadinga ukwenza izinto obala, kufaka phakathi ilebula yokudla kwe-GMO kanye nokufinyelela okuvulelekile kwimininingwane yesayensi, ukwaziswa komphakathi ngokufafazwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nokudalulwa okugcwele kwethonya lemboni ezinhlanganweni zezemfundo nezesayensi.

Kungadinga ukuba nengxoxo eqotho ngokwengeziwe ngama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze zonke izizwe zikwazi ukusebenzisa lonke ulwazi oluphelele lwesayensi njengoba zibheka ukuthi zingabusebenzisa noma cha ubuchwepheshe bezimboni zezolimo ukuze zinikeze ukudla.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli futhi ungumqondisi-co I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Bhalisela okwethu incwadi yezindaba lapha. UStacy ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, 'Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,' (New Society Publishing, 2007) futhi wasungula ngokubambisana iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics. Landela uStacy uqhubeke I-Twitter: @stacymalkan.