ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani ezine kuphela manje ezilawula ngaphezu kuka-60% wokuphakelwa komhlaba wembewu nezibulala-zinambuzane. Ukwengamela umphakathi ngemisebenzi yabo kubalulekile ekutholeni ukudla okuphephile nokunempilo. Kodwa-ke zonke lezi zinkampani - iMonsanto / Bayer, iDowDuPont, iSyngenta, i-BASF - zinde imilando yokufihla ingozi kwemikhiqizo yabo. Njengoba amarekhodi abo engakhuthazi ukwethenjwa, bathembele kubalingani benkampani yangaphandle ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo.

Amashidi eqiniso ngezansi akhanya kule nethiwekhi ye-propaganda efihliwe: amaqembu angaphambili, izifundiswa, izintatheli kanye nabalawuli abasebenza ekusithekeni nezinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane. 

Imininingwane esiyibika lapha isuselwa kuphenyo lwe-US Right to Know oluthole amashumi ezinkulungwane zamakhasi emibhalo yangaphakathi yezinkampani nezomthetho kusukela ngonyaka wezi-2015. Uphenyo lwethu lukhuthaze umkhankaso wokuphikisana nomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ozame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi wethu. Ngokuvumelana ne Imibhalo yeMonsanto ivezwe ngo-2019,  "Uphenyo lwe-USRTK luzoba nomthelela kuyo yonke imboni." 

Sicela wabelane ngalawa maqiniso, futhi bhalisa lapha ukwamukela izindaba ezivela ekuphenyweni kwethu. 

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: ukwenziwa kweqembu langaphambili leMonsanto

I-AgBioChatter: lapho izinkampani nezifundiswa behlela isu kuma-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nommeli wezokuvikela embonini yezolimo kanye neye GMO

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo iyiqembu eliphambili lenkampani

Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: UHillard noKetchum PR

Kwenziwe kabusha isiza imboni yamakhemikhali i-PR nemizamo yokunxenxa

Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla ukudla kanye nemboni yezolimo abalingani be-PR

ICornell Alliance yeSayensi is a umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi eCornell ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Umkhandlu Wezokwazisa nge-Biotechnology, Izimpendulo ze-GMO, iCropLife: Imboni yokubulala izinambuzane imizamo ye-PR 

UDrew Kershen: umkhakha weqembu lezolimo ngaphambili ongumholi

I-Food Evolution GMO Idokhumentari ifilimu esakaza inkulumo-ze, kusho izifundiswa eziningi

UGeoffrey Kabat: izibopho zamaqembu ezimboni zikagwayi namakhemikhali

Ukuhlola kweGlyphosate Spin: ukulandelela izimangalo mayelana ne-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu

Izimpendulo ze-GMO is a Ukuphathwa kwezinkinga Ithuluzi le-PR lama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides

UHank Campbell i-maze yamabhulogi esayensi athanda iMonsanto

UHenry I. Miller kwehliswe yiForbes ngehlazo lokubhala ngemiphefumulo leMonsanto

Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele: Iqembu elixhaswa ngemali nguKoch livikela izibulala-zinambuzane, uwoyela, izimboni zikagwayi

I-International Food Information Council (IFIC): Ukuthi iBig Food iziphotha kanjani izindaba ezimbi

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiqembu lokwamukela izimboni zokudla, imibhalo ikhombisa

UJay Byrne: hlangana nendoda engemuva komshini weMonsanto PR

UJon Entine, Iphrojekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo: izithunywa ezibalulekile zeMonsanto, iBayer kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali

UKeith Kloor: ukuthi intatheli yesayensi isebenze kanjani nabalingani bemboni ekusithekeni

UKevin Folta izimangalo ezilahlekisayo nezikhohlisayo

UMark Lynas weCornell Alliance weSayensi amaphromoshini akhohlisayo futhi anganembile nge-ajenda yezentengiselwano yomkhakha wezolimo

IMonsanto yaqamba laba "abalingani bemboni" kuyo Uhlelo lwe-PR lokubhekana nesinqumo somdlavuza we-glyphosate (2015)

UNina Federoff yagqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukusekela iMonsanto

UPamela Ronald's izibopho emaqenjini angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali

UPeter Phillips kanye nezihlobo zakhe uchungechunge oluyimfihlo "lwelungelo lokwazi" e-University of Saskatchewan

SciBabe uthi udle izibulala-zinambuzane zakho, kepha ngubani omkhokhelayo?

Isayensi Media Center ithuthukisa imibono yenkampani yesayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi / IZITATIMENDE spin isayensi embonini

UStuart Smyth imboni yezolimo izibopho kanye nezimali 

UTamar Haspel idukisa abafundi beWashington Post kumakholamu akhe okudla

I-Val Giddings: i-BIO VP yangaphambili iyinkampani esebenza kakhulu embonini yezolimo

Amanye ama-fact sheet mayelana namaqembu aphambili aphambili, amaqembu ezohwebo nababhali be-PR

I-BIO: iqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha we-biotech

Isikhungo Senkululeko Yabathengi

Izitshalo Zokuphila Zomhlaba Wonke

I-International Life Sciences Institute

UJulie Kelly

UKavin Senapathy / MAMIzinganekwane

I-Ketchum PR

I-US Farmers and Ranchers Alliance

Izinsiza eziningi ezivela e-US Right to Know

Izifundo zezifundo ezibhalwe kabusha yi-US Right to Know 

Amaphepha eMonsanto: Ingobo yomlando wedokhumenti ye-Roundup / Glyphosate 

Ingobo yomlando wedokhumenti ye-Dicamba

I-Roundup ne-Dicamba Trial Tracker blog olusha njalo 

Ishidi lamaqiniso leGlyphosate: Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo Mayelana ne-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ishidi lamaqiniso lakwaDicamba

Ukusabalala kwezindaba zomhlaba wonke ze Ukutholwa kwe-US Right to Know 

Uma uthanda umsebenzi wethu, sicela QHAFAZA LAPHA ukusisiza sikhuphule ukushisa kuphenyo lwe-USRTK.

I-Gene Editing Mishaps Gqamisa Isidingo Sokwengamela i-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imizamo yenkampani yaseMidwestern yokwakha izakhi zofuzo izinkomo zokuqala zobisi ezingenazimpondo emhlabeni ifike kwangqingetshe kuleli hlobo lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration ithola izakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni obekungafanele zibekhona. Amaphutha abanjwe yi-FDA - kepha inkampani ilahlekile - igqamisa ukubaluleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni kokudla okuhleliwe kofuzo ngesikhathi lapho amaqembu embonini efuna ukupheliswa komthetho.

Izinkomo ezingenazimpondo: umsebenzi wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo?

Abakhiqizi bengulube, isibonelo, "bathi uhulumeni wesifundazwe kufanele anciphise imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa kokuhlelwa kofuzo emfuyweni," abathi kunciphisa ucwaningo nentuthuko, i-Wall Street Journal kubika isonto eledlule. Abakhiqizi bafuna ukwenganyelwa kususwe kwi-FDA kuye eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US, okuyi isivele ivumela izitshalo ezihlelwe zofuzo kufanele itshalwe futhi ithengiswe ngaphandle kokubheka okulawulayo.

Kepha i-FDA ihlela ukudinga ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo, njengoba benza ngemithi emisha yezilwane. Imithethonqubo izoqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zofuzo ziphephile ezilwaneni nakubathengi, futhi zisiza abathengi ukuthi bakhululeke ngobuchwepheshe, okhulumela i-FDA utshele iJournal.

Ukutholakala kwe-FDA yezakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni ezingenazimpondo, nokunye okusanda kubikwa okubi okubandakanya ulibofuzo olusha amasu wobunjiniyela, aqinise icala lokuthi uhulumeni ahlolisise, futhi abe namaqembu ezimboni alwela ukulawula i-fiasco yobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Izakhi zofuzo ezingeziwe i-Recombinetics zilahlekile

Abaphenyi benkampani ezinze eMinnesota iRecombinetics, Inc., babike ephepheni le-2016 ukuthi badale izinkomo zokuqala ezifakiwe (ezingenazimpondo) besebenzisa inqubo yokuhlela izakhi zofuzo ebizwa ngeTALENS ukushintsha ukulandelana kofuzo ezinkomeni. Abaphenyi babike ukuthi abatholanga imithelela engahlosiwe. Babhala ukuthi, "izilwane zethu azinayo imiphumela ebhekiswe ngaphandle."

Kepha lapho abacwaningi be-FDA behlola kabusha i-DNA kuleli hlobo, besebenzisa ukulandelana kofuzo okwakuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi yiRecombinetics, bathole imiphumela engeyona eyokuqondisa. Izinkomo ezimbili ezihleliwe zaziphatha amakhophi e-plasmid yebhaktheriya asetshenziswe enqubeni yokuhlela, kufaka phakathi izakhi zofuzo zokumelana nama-antibiotic cishe kuwo wonke amaseli emizimba yazo. Izakhi zofuzo azivamile ukuvela ezinkomeni.

Lokhu "kuphakamisa izingqinamba zokuphepha kokuvikela ngoba kunesidingo esiqinile somhlaba wonke sokunciphisa ukusabalala kwezakhi zofuzo ezinikeza ukumelana nemithi elwa namagciwane," kubhala uJonathan Latham, PhD, ku Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Iphinde iphakamise imibuzo ngokungabi bikho kobuciko bezindlela zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo futhi inikeze isisindo sezimpikiswano zokubhekwa kukahulumeni. Izinhlelo zokufuya izinkomo ezingenazimpondo eBrazil zachithwa ngemuva kokuvela kwemiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe, kubika i-Wired, ngoba abalawuli lapho babekwazi ayisabheki izinkomo njenge-GMO.

Abaphenyi be-FDA bathi ukutholakala kwabo “kugqamisa indawo engaba khona yezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuhlola ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo,” futhi bathi basola ukuthi amaphutha okuhlanganisa “abikiwe noma awanakwa” ekuhlolweni kokuhlela izakhi zofuzo. Baphawula ezinye izibonelo zezinguquko ezingalindelekile - a Ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-2017 othole ukususwa okuyinkimbinkimbi nokufakwa ku-genome yegundane ehleliwe, futhi ucwaningo lwe-2018 lokho kwabika ukulimala kwe-DNA emigqeni yamangqamuzana omuntu.

Ngakho-ke abacwaningi beRecombinetics bakuphuthelwa kanjani ukuhlanganiswa okungahlosiwe kwe-DNA?

“Asibukanga”

"Bekungeyona into ebilindelekile, futhi besingayifunanga," kusho uTad Sonstegard, isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani yezolimo iRecombinetics 'Acceligen, ngokusho kwe Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT Technology. Isheke eliphelele “bekufanele ngabe lenziwe,” kusho yena. Umagazini ophefumulelwe kucashunwe uSonstegard echaza, “Besingafuni ukuhlanganiswa kweplasmid. Bekufanele sibe nayo. ”

Lokho bekufanele kube yindawo esobala yokubheka, kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advocacy, weMibiko yabathengi. "Ukuthi noma iyiphi i-DNA evela ku-bacterial plasmid esetshenzisiwe ohlelweni lokuhlela izakhi zofuzo yathathwa yadluliselwa kuzoba ngenye yezinto zokuqala obuzozibheka uma unentshisekelo yokuthola imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe," kusho uHansen.

Ngokubona kwakhe, iqiniso lokuthi iRecombinetics ilahlekelwe yinkinga kusikisela ukuthi, “abenzanga ukwengamela okudingekayo. Yingakho sidinga ukwenganyelwa nguhulumeni, ”kubandakanya izidingo zokuhlolwa kwezokuphepha ngaphambi kwezimakethe, esho.

U-Latham, ongusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo nowayengunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo, naye ukhomba kokutholakele kwakamuva okuvela eJapane akholelwa ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omkhulu kunalokho okutholwe yi-FDA, futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekulawulweni komhlaba. Esifundweni se2019, Abaphenyi baseJapan babika ukuthi ama-genome wegundane ahleliwe athole i-DNA ku-E.coli genome, kanye ne-DNA yezimbuzi nezinkomo. Le DNA elahlekile yavela kuma-reagents wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo, indlela yokulethwa esetshenziselwa ukwenza ukuhlela.

Lokhu okutholakele "kulula kakhulu: ukusika i-DNA ngaphakathi kwamaseli, kungakhathalekile ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo oluhlelekile lokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo, kubeka ama-genome ukuthola i-DNA engafuneki,", kubhala uLatham kuzindaba ze-Independent Science. Uthe lokhu okutholakele “kusho ukuthi, okungenani, isidingo sezinyathelo eziqinile zokuvimbela ukungcoliswa yi-DNA elahlekile, kanye nokuhlolisiswa ngokuphelele kwamangqamuzana ahlelwe izakhi zofuzo kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Futhi, njengoba icala leRecombinetics liphakamisa, lezi yizidingo abathuthukisi uqobo abangase bangahlangabezani nazo.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo

I-Recombinetics inayo “Uphikise ngomsindo” ukwengamela kwe-FDA sonke isikhathi futhi wacela ukuphathwa kukaTrump ukulwa namandla okwengamela kude ne-ejensi yokuphepha kokudla, ngokusho kweMIT Technology Review. Futhi ngenkathi iRecombinetics isho ngo-2016 ukuthi izinkomo zayo ezingenazimpondo ezihlelwe ngofuzo "bezingenayo imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlasela," lokho kutholwa kwasetshenziswa njengethuluzi lokwamukela izivakashi emkhankasweni wokulwa nokuhlolwa kwe-FDA.

Phakathi ku ukuhlaziya ebisebenza eceleni kocwaningo lwale nkampani, abacwaningi abahlanu baseyunivesithi baphikise ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo kuyasinda futhi akudingeki. Omunye wabalobi, U-Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelulwa kwezilwane e-UC Davis kanye nommeli ohola phambili wokuqedwa komthetho, uchaze uhlelo lwe-FDA lokufuna ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe “njengohlanya.”

"Imiphumela yokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo ifana kakhulu nezinqubo zemvelo," kubhala abacwaningi ekuphawuleni kwabo. Noma imiphi "imiphumela engemihle engancishiswa ingancishiswa ngokwakhiwa ngokucophelela nangokuhlolwa okuningiliziwe," besho, bephawula ukuthi abacwaningi abavela eRecombinetics "abatholanga" ezinkomeni zabo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Baphinde bathi, ngokungahambisani nalokhu, ukuthi izinkomo ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziphethe i-DNA efanayo "esetshenziswe abantu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-1,000." "Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo," babhala, kungaba ukusabalalisa ukulandelana okuhleliwe kwe-genome "kubantu bezimbuzi zomhlaba wonke."

Ukunqanyulwa phakathi kokujaha ukuthengisa ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nesidingo sokuzikhandla okufanelekile ukuqonda imiphumela engeyona eqondiwe yokusetshenziswa kofuzo kanye nemithelela engaba nayo empilweni nasemvelweni, sekuyisikhathi eside kuyiphuzu elinamathelayo empikiswaneni ye-GMO. Ngokudla okuningi kwe-GMO, izinkampani beziphethe ukuhlolwa kokuphepha sonke isikhathi, ngaphandle kokubheka okuncane kukahulumeni. Kepha yiziphi izikhuthazo izinkampani okufanele zibheke kuzo izinkinga?

Emuva ngo-1998, ku ingxoxo noMichael Pollan yeNew York Times, UMonsanto owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ngaleso sikhathi wayengaqondile ekuhloleni kwakhe ukuthi izimfuno zemboni zikhona kuphi: ”IMonsanto akufanele ukuthi ivikele ukuphepha kokudla kwe-biotech. Intshisekelo yethu ukuthengisa okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo kungumsebenzi we-FDA. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo kudinga ukucaciswa kakhudlwana ukuze kufezekiswe isithembiso sayo - nguDavid Edgell, Ingxoxo (10.7.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwe-Gene ngokungenhloso kungeza i-DNA yezinkomo, i-DNA yezimbuzi, ne-DNA yebhaktheriya, abacwaningi begundane bathola - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent ScienceNews (9.23.19)

Izinkomo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo zine-screwup enkulu kwi-DNA yazo - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (8.28.19)

I-FDA ithola izakhi zofuzo zokumelana namagciwane ezingalindelekile ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo 'ezihleliwe' - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, no-Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

Izinguquko ezenziwa ngaphandle kokuqondisa akukhona ukuphela kokukhathazeka ezitshalweni ezihlelwe ngofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (7.10.19)

Kungani isifaniso esithi “isikelo samangqamuzana” seCRISPR sidukisa - ngu-Elinor Hortle, Ingxoxo (7.4.19)

I-CRISPR ibangela imiphumela engalindelekile ngisho nasendaweni ehlosiwe yokuguqulwa kofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (4.16.19)

Ukukhishwa kwe-CRISPR kubangela ukuguqulwa okungahlosiwe ku-DNA - Ukubuka kwe-GM (3.13.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwesisekelo se-CRISPR, okwaziwa ngokunemba, kushaya i-snag ngokuguqula okungu-off-target - nguSharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Izilimi ezinkulu nama-vertebrae angeziwe: Imiphumela engahlosiwe yokuhlelwa kofuzo lwesilwane - NguPreetika Rana noLucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

Ukulimala okungenzeka kwe-DNA okuvela ku-CRISPR 'kubhekelwe phansi kakhulu,' ucwaningo luthola - nguSharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Kuvela ukuthi ukuhlela kwe-CRISPR kungalimaza nama-genomes - Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (7.16.2018)

Isithiyo esisha esibucayi se-CRISPR: Amaseli ahleliwe angadala umdlavuza, kutholakala izifundo ezimbili - nguSharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Abahleli bezakhi zofuzo basePulazini bafuna izinkomo ezingenazimpondo, izingulube ezingenamsila, nebhizinisi ngaphandle kwemithetho - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (3.12.18)

Umbiko: Izilwane ezihlelwa yizakhi zofuzo zizoqinisa ukulima kwasezimboni kanye nenkinga yesimo sezulu, kungalimaza impilo yabantu - Abangane Bomhlaba (9.17.19)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? - nguStacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

I-Glyphosate Spin Check: Izimangalo Zokulandelela Mayelana Nokubulala Ukhula Okusetshenziswa Kakhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Phakathi kwempikiswano yomhlaba jikelele mayelana nokuphepha kwe-herbicides esekwe ku-glyphosate efana neMonsanto's Roundup, kwenziwa izimangalo eziningi ukuvikela ukuphepha komkhiqizo. Ekuvukeni kwe- izinqumo ezimbili zakamuva zamajaji othole ukuthi i-Roundup iyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ekudaleni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sihlole ezinye zalezi zimangalo futhi sazihlola ukuthi zinembile yini.

Uma unezibonelo eziningi ze-glyphosate spin ongathanda sizihlole, sicela ubathumele i-imeyili ku-stacy@usrtk.org noma tweet kithi @USRighttoKnow.

UMark Lynas, uCornell Alliance weSayensi

ICornell Alliance yeSayensi iwebhusayithi (Novemba. 2017)

Lo mbhalo kaMark Lynas uqukethe izitatimende eziningi ezinganembile nezidukisayo. Njengabaningi abagqugquzela imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate, izimangalo lapha zigxile ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ebeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015.

FAKA ISICELO: I-IARC "yigatsha elincane elaziwayo futhi elincanyana le-World Health Organisation" "elithola cishe yonke into ebanga umdlavuza"

IQINISO: I-IARC yisikhungo esikhethekile sokucwaninga ngomdlavuza se-WHO esinamaphaneli ochwepheshe aqukethe ososayensi abazimele abavela emikhakheni ehlukahlukene yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Eminyakeni yayo engama-50 umlando, IARC inayo kuhlolwe izinto eziyi-1,013 futhi kutholakale ama-49% alabo "bengahlukaniswa ngokuya komzimba wayo kubantu"; Ama-20% ahlukaniswa njengaziwa noma mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic kubantu.

FAKA ISICELO: "Okusalungiswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kuguqulwe kakhulu ngesikhathi sekwephuzile ukukhomba ekutholeni umdlavuza - noma ngabe isayensi abebeyihlola ikhomba kude nalokhu"

IQINISO: Lesi simangalo sitholwe ngombiko weReuters onamaphutha kaKate Kelland wokuthi washiya amaqiniso abalulekile, kuhlanganise iqiniso lokuthi iningi lemininingwane i-IARC engazange iluthathe kusuka “kokungakapheli kokuqala” kwakusuka esihlokweni sokubuyekeza esabhalwa ngokubambisana ngusosayensi waseMonsanto. I-athikili yokubukeza "ayizange inikeze imininingwane eyanele yokuhlola okuzimele iziphetho ezafinyelelwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto nabanye ababhali," Kusho IARC. UKelland ubhalile izindaba eziningana ukugxeka i-IARC; imibhalo ekhishwe ngo-2019 qinisekisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayenesandla ngasese kokunye ukubika kwakhe.

U-Lynas usebenzise omunye umthombo ukuvikela izimangalo zakhe ngokungalungile e-IARC: UDavid Zaruk, owake waba khona umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali owake wasebenzela inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller.

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “iyikhemikhali eliyingozi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni”

IQINISO: Lesi sitatimende asisekelwe kusayensi. Izifundo zixhuma i-glyphosate ku-a uhla lwezinkinga zezempilo kufaka phakathi umdlavuza, ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine, isifo sesibindi, ukukhulelwa okufushane, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa kanye nokulimala kwamabhaktheriya amathumbu azuzisayo. Ukukhathazeka kwezemvelo kufaka nemithelela emibi ku inhlabathi, izinyosi futhi izimvemvane.

SOURCE: UMark Lynas uyi owayeyintatheli waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha ngemikhiqizo yezolimo. Usebenzela i- ICornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ebekwe eCornell University exhaswa yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

ACSH iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2017)

FAKA ISICELO: Umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity we-glyphosate wawuyicala "lokukhwabanisa kwesayensi"

IQINISO: I-ACSH isekele izimangalo zayo "zokukhwabanisa" emithonjeni emibili efanayo uMark Lynas weCornell Alliance for Science osetshenziswe ngenyanga eyodwa kamuva ukuhlasela i-IARC kuwebhusayithi yeCornell: eyokuqala umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali UDavid Zaruk kanye ne alungile ku-Reuters ukuthi kulandele amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuthi UMonsanto unikeze intatheli.

SOURCE: Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo a iqembu langaphambili ethola uxhaso kusuka amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani, futhi ifaka izinsizakalo zayo kumaqembu ezimboni ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo, ngokusho kwe- kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi. Ama-imeyili asuka ku-2015 asungula lokho IMonsanto yayixhasa i-ACSH futhi ngacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Umsebenzi we-ACSH uphendule ngokuthi bese bevele bebandakanyekile emkhakheni wokushicilelwa wenkantolo ephelele mayelana ne-agrichemicals, phthalates kanye ne-diesel.

UYvette d'Entremont, owaziwa nge- "Sci Babe"

I-Self Magazine esihlokweni (Okthoba 2018)

IZIMANGALO: “Ngezifundo ezingaphezu kuka-800 kuyo, alukho ucwaningo oluye lwabonisa izingxenye ze-Roundup ezidala umdlavuza”… “akuzange kube nezifundo ezinkulu ezithembekile ezibonisa ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup nomdlavuza.”

IQINISO: Izifundo eziningi ezithembekile zixhumanisa iRoundup noma ingxenye yayo eyinhloko yeglyphosate nomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olwethulwe ku-EPA ngawo-1980s ukuthi ososayensi be-EPA ngaleso sikhathi bathi kwakuwubufakazi bokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza. Kunezifundo eziningi kakhulu ongazibala, kepha izingcaphuno zingatholakala ku-2015 I-International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph eGlyphosate.

Ngokwengeziwe, i- wide ukuhlaziywa kwesayensi wamandla okubanga umdlavuza we-glyphosate herbicides eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 2019 athola ukuthi abantu abanokuchayeka okuphezulu baba nengozi eyengeziwe yokuthola uhlobo lomdlavuza obizwa nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

SOURCE: U-Yvette d'Entremont "ungumhleli onikelayo" kuSelf Magazine onekholamu ebizwa nge- “SciBabe Explains.” ISelf Magazine ayivezi kubafundi bayo ukuthi iSciBabe abalingani nezinkampani ezikhiqiza imikhiqizo yazo. Ngo-2017, inkampani enandisa yokufakelwa iSplenda ihlangene neSciBabe ukusiza "ukunika amandla abalandeli be-SPLENDA® Brand ukuthi babambe iqhaza elibonakalayo ekuqhakambiseni izinganekwane mayelana ne-sucralose." Izinkampani zamakhemikhali zixhase ezinye zezingxoxo zakhe zokukhuluma ezingqungqutheleni zokulima.

UGeoffrey Kabat, udokotela wezifo zezifo

Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “icwaningisiswe kahle kakhulu ngobuthi kanti ukugxila okutholakala kubantu kuphansi kakhulu kangangoba asikho isidingo sokuqhubeka nokufunda… akukho lutho olusele ukufakazela olunye ucwaningo!”

IQINISO: Ebufakazini obufungelwe bufakazelwa ubufakazi obubhekene namacala aqhubekayo abhekene noMonsanto nomnikazi wayo uBayer AG, owayeyi-CEO yeMonsanto UHugh Grant wavuma inkampani ayikaze yenze ucwaningo lwe-epidemiology lwe-glyphosate-based herbicide formulations inkampani ethengisa. Le nkampani iphinde yafuna ukuvimba i- Ukuhlola ubuthi yokwakheka kwe-glyphosate yi-Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, lawa mazwana, uDkt Kabat awasho njengomthombo ongaziwa, awawanaki amaqiniso amabili abalulekile: izifundo ezizimele zixhuma i-glyphosate ezinhlotsheni eziningi izinkinga zezempilo nokukhathazeka kwemvelo, kanye nobufakazi obuvela emafayilini enkantolo buveza ukuthi iMonsanto iphazamise ukuhlolwa kwesayensi nokulawulwa kwe-glyphosate (bona izibonelo nemithombo lapha, lapha, lapha, Futhi lapha).

Ngokusho kweJaji uVince Chhabria, owengamele icala lakamuva lombuso elaphumela ekulimaleni kweMonsanto, amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-80, abamangali baveze ubufakazi obukhulu ukuthi iMonsanto ayisebenzisanga ngendlela efanelekile nokuphephile ekuphepheni komkhiqizo wayo. ” Ijaji wabhala futhi:

Mayelana nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kubantu, isayensi yakamuva ikhulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithethonqubo yamanje ayinikeli ngokuvikelwa kwezempilo okwanele. Bheka ukubikwa nguCarey Gillam, "Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma 'kuphephe' kungenzeka kungaphephi ngempela,”Nezincazelo zososayensi lapha, lapha futhi lapha.

SOURCE: UDkt Geoffrey Kabat ubuhlobo obude embonini kagwayi futhi ushicilele amaphepha avuna umkhakha kagwayi oxhaswe imboni kagwayi. Usebenza ebhodini labaqondisi benhlangano yabazali yeGenetic Literacy Project, okuyiyona isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. UKabat ubuye ebhodini lokweluleka leqembu langaphambili Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo.

UPatrick Moore, umxhumanisi we-PR

Ukuxoxwa ngevidiyo neCanal + (Mashi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ungaphuza ingxenye eyodwa kwezine ye- [glyphosate] futhi ngeke ikulimaze."

IQINISO: Ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate. Ngokusho kwale nkampani iwebhusayithi, “I-glyphosate ayisona isiphuzo futhi akumele ifakwe - njengoba nje ubungeke uphuze imoto yokugeza imoto. Kuhlale kubalulekile ukusebenzisa imikhiqizo ngenhloso ehlosiwe futhi njengoba kuqondiswe kwilebula. ” (Okuthunyelwe kuphinde kucacise ukuthi uMoore “akayena umuntu olwela amalungelo abantu waseMonsanto noma umsebenzi.”)

SOURCE: UMorell uvezwe njengomunye wabasunguli beGreenpeace "obiza iqembu lakhe langaphambili" njengoba ephikisana nokususwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi noma izimboni ezingcolisayo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, "Kwasukasukela, UDkt. Patrick Moore wayeyilungu laseGreenpeace lokuqala. Manje usengumxhumanisi wobudlelwano nomphakathi ezinkampanini ezingcolisa iGreenpeace esebenza ukuzishintsha. ” Ngo-2014, uMorey wafakaza ekomitini Lezigele laseMelika ukuthi abukho ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi imisebenzi yabantu ibangela ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke.

UKevin Folta, PhD, uprofesa e-University of Florida

Tweets 2015 futhi 2013

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngake ngaphuza i- [glyphosate] phambilini ukukhombisa ukungabi nabungozi”… “Ngikwenze bukhoma futhi ngizokwenza futhi. Kumele ixutshwe w / coke noma c-berry juice. Kunambitheka insipho. Ayikho i-buzz ”

IQINISO: Ngenkathi uDkt Folta kungenzeka ukuthi wayidla i-glyphosate, lesi iseluleko esibi esivela kumthombo ongathembekile. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngenhla, ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate.

SOURCE: USolwazi Folta uke udukise umphakathi ezikhathini eziningi mayelana nezixhumanisi zakhe zomkhakha wezolimo. Ku-2017, uDkt Folta wamangalela intatheli ephumelele i-New York Times nePulitzer-Prize u-Eric Lipton ngokubika Ukusebenzisana kukaFolta okungadalulwanga neMonsanto ukusiza ukunqoba ilebula ye-GMO. Icala lalikhona ixoshiwe.

U-Alison van Eenennaam, PhD, isazi sezakhi zofuzo, u-UC Davis 

ingxoxo yevidiyo kwiReal News Network (Meyi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngicabanga ukuthi kunezihlaziyo eziningana eziphelele kakhulu ze-meta eziye zenziwa muva nje ezibonisa ukuthi ayikho imiphumela eyingqayizivele yobuthi noma ye-carcinogenicity ehambisana nokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup. Kwakukhona i-German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment esanda kubuyekeza amakhulukhulu ezifundo zobuthi kanye nemibiko ecishe ibe yinkulungwane eshicilelwe, futhi yaphetha ngokuthi idatha ayikhombisanga i-carcinogenic noma i-mutagentic properties ye-glyphosate, futhi nokuthi i-glyphosate ayinabuthi ekuzaleni, ekuzaliseni, noma embryonic ukukhula kombungu ezilwaneni zaselebhu ... Futhi angizukubiza iJalimane njengezwe lapho ungalindela ukuthi benze khona ukuhlolwa kobungozi okungabhekanga ukuthi ithini imininingwane. ”

IQINISO: A Umbiko we-2019 ethunywe ngamaLungu ePhalamende e-European Union athola ukuthi i-ejensi yokuhlola ubungozi yaseJalimane "ikopisha futhi inamathisele amapheshana avela ezifundweni zeMonsanto." Bheka ukubika ku-Guardian ngu-Arthur Neslen, "Ukuvunyelwa kwe-EU glyphosate kwakususelwa embhalweni obhalwe uMonsanto, umbiko uthola."

SOURCE: UDkt van Eenennaam ungumgqugquzeli ohamba phambili wezilwane nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, futhi ungummeli oshisekayo wokwehliswa komthetho. Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uxhumanisile nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo obudlelwano bomphakathi ku-PR nokuthumela imiyalezo.

Ifilimu eliyi-Food Evolution 

Le documentary yobude besici ka-2017 ikhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo njengesixazululo sendlala emhlabeni kepha icwebezela impikiswano ebalulekile enkabeni yenkulumompikiswano ye-GMO: ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup, umuthi wokubulala ukhula izitshalo eziningi ze-GM ezenzelwe ukumelana nawo, ubangela umdlavuza. Le filimu ayikhulumi ngisho nangombiko we-IARC othole ukuthi i-glyphosate iyinto engaba ngumdlavuza womuntu, futhi ithembele emithonjeni emibili kuphela yokuthi i-glyphosate ayiyona inkinga.

FAKA ISICELO: Le filimu ikhombisa izithombe zikaMonsanto uRobb Fraley enikeza inkulumo; lapho ilungu lezilaleli limbuza ngezifundo ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza noma ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, uFraley waqhweba isandla sakhe ngokunganaki wathi zonke lezo zifundo "zingumbumbulu wesayensi."

IQINISO: Ubufakazi obuvela ezifundweni zezilwane kanye nemininingwane ye-epidemiological eshicilelwe emaphephabhukwini ahloniphekile axhumanisa i-glyphosate nemithelela emibi eminingi efaka umdlavuza kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa.

FAKA ISICELO: Umlimi uthi i-glyphosate “inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti. ”

IQINISO: Ukuqhathanisa ubuthi bokuvezwa kwesikhashana kwe-glyphosate ezintweni ezifana nekhofi noma usawoti akubalulekile futhi kuyadukisa; Ukukhathazeka ngezixhumanisi zomdlavuza kususelwa ekuvezweni okungapheli, okuhlala isikhathi eside ku-glyphosate.

SOURCE: IFood Evolution yakhiqizwa nguScott Hamilton Kennedy, elandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson futhi yaxhaswa yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu lezebhizinisi lezimboni. Izitshudeni eziningi ziyibize ngo ifilimu ye-propaganda, futhi abantu abaningana okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu bachaza i- inqubo yokuqopha ngobuqili nenenkohliso. UProfesa we-NYU uMarion Nestle ucele ukukhishwa kule filimu, kodwa umqondisi wenqaba.

Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele

IMF iwebhusayithi (Agasti 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: "Iqiniso liwukuthi, i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic."

IQINISO: Lo mbhalo kaJulie Gunlock awunikeli usekelo lwesayensi ngezimangalo zawo; okuwukuphela kwezixhumanisi okuholela kumabhulogi e-IWF angaphambilini asola amaqembu ezemvelo ngokuqamba amanga futhi "esabisa omama ngokungadingekile."

SOURCEIsithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane ithuthukisa imikhiqizo kagwayi, iphika isayensi yezulu kanye nabalingani neMonsanto emicimbini yokuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane. I-IWF ixhaswa kakhulu yizisekelo zamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisa.

I-International Food Information Council

IFIC iwebhusayithi  (Janawari 2016)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ukuzimisela kwe-IARC [ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yomuntu okungenzeka] kutholakale ngochwepheshe abaningi ukuthi bakhiphe ngaphandle inqwaba yezifundo ezingatholanga bufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate iyicancer. Ochwepheshe baphinde bathola ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kususelwa kusayensi enamaphutha nengenalusizo, abanye baze bafika ngisho ekutheni isiphetho 'besingalungile neze.' ”

IQINISO: I-IFIC incike emithonjeni yezimboni ngalezi zimangalo, exhumanisa nezindatshana zikaVal Giddings, PhD, owayengumphathi weqembu lezokuhweba waphenduka Umxhumanisi we-PR embonini yezolimo; noKeith Solomon, isazi sezobuthi owaye kuqashwe uMonsanto ukuhlola umbiko we-IARC.

SOURCE: The Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Wokudla Womhlaba Wonke, exhaswa yizinkampani ezinkulu zokudla namakhemikhali, ithuthukisa futhi ivikele ushukela, okokunandisa okokuzenzela, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane, ukudla okusetshenzwe nama-GMO. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lukhonjwe i-IFIC njengomunye "wabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza.

Lesi sithombe esithunyelwe ekhasini le-IFIC glyphosate (bese sisuswa ngemuva kokuthi sisinakile) siyisibonelo sohlobo lwemiyalezo umkhakha wezokudla oyisebenzisayo ukuzama ukukholisa abesifazane ukuthi bathembe “ochwepheshe” babo. 

Izibopho zikaPamela Ronald's to Chemical Industry Front Groups

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kubuyekezwe ngoJuni 2019

UPamela Ronald, PhD, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, uDavis nombhali wencwadi yango-2008 ethi “Tomorrow's Table,” ungummeli owaziwayo wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Okungaziwa kakhulu iqhaza likaDkt. Ronald ezinhlanganweni eziziveza njengabantu abazimele ngaphandle kwezimboni, kodwa empeleni basebenzisana nezinhlangano zamakhemikhali ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ezinhlelweni ezingafihli lutho emphakathini. 

Ixhumana neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo

UPamela Ronald unobudlelwano obuningi neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo, i IGenetic Literacy Project, kanye nomqondisi wayo omkhulu, uJon Entine. Ubasize ngezindlela eziningi. Ngokwesibonelo, imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2015, UDkt. Ronald uqoke u-Entine njengomuntu ophakeme futhi ofundisa ezokuxhumana kwezesayensi e-UC Davis, futhi wabambisana ne-Genetic Literacy Project ukusingatha imboni yezolimo exhaswe ngemali umcimbi womlayezo abaqeqeshe abahlanganyeli ukuthi bangayikhangisa kanjani imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ichazwe ku umklomelo Okwezwe uphenyo njenge “website eyaziwayo yenkulumo-ze” eyadlala indima enkulu emkhankasweni weMonsanto wokuhlambalaza umbiko wenhlangano yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ngeglyphosate. Kwi Idokhumenti ka-2015 PR, IMonsanto ikhombe i-Genetic Literacy Project phakathiabalingani bemboni ” inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya "nokuhlela ukukhala" ngombiko womdlavuza. I-GLP kusukela lapho isishicilele izindatshana eziningi ezihlasela ososayensi bomdlavuza njenge- "anti-chemical enviros" eyaqamba amanga futhi yazibandakanya nayo inkohlakalo, ukuhlanekezela, ukufihla nokukhwabanisa.

I-Entine inezibopho zesikhathi eside embonini yamakhemikhali; umsebenzi wakhe uhlanganisa ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, industrial Amakhemikhali, amapulasitiki, ukukhwabanisa, Kanye imboni kawoyela, imvamisa nge ukuhlaselwa kososayensi, izintatheli futhi izifundiswa.  Faka umkhankaso i-Genetic Literacy Project ngo-2011 lapho UMonsanto wayeyikhasimende yenkampani yakhe yezobudlelwano nomphakathi. I-GLP ekuqaleni ehlotshaniswa ne-STATS, izintatheli zeqembu elingenzi nzuzo zichaze njenge- “umkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho imbewu ingabaza isayensi futhi “eyaziwa ngokuvikela kwayo imboni yamakhemikhali. " 

Ngo-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project yathuthela enhlanganweni entsha yabazali, i-Science Literacy Project. Ukufakwa kwentela kwe-IRS ngalowo nyaka kubonisiwe ukuthi uDkt. Ronald wayeyilungu lebhodi eyasungula i-Science Literacy Project, kodwa ama-imeyili kusuka ngo-Agasti 2018 khombisa ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uqinisekise u-Entine ukuthi asuse igama lakhe kwifomu lentela ngemuva kokuthi kwaziwe ukuthi ubhalwe lapho (ifomu elichitshiyelwe lentela selikhona manje kuyatholakala lapha). UDkt. Ronald ubhalele u-Entine, “Angizange ngisebenze kuleli bhodi futhi angizange nginike mvume yokuthi igama lami libhalwe. Ngicela uthathe izinyathelo ngokushesha ukwazisa i-IRS ukuthi igama lami lifakwe ohlwini ngaphandle kwemvume. ” U-Entine ubhale ukuthi unezinkumbulo ezihlukile. “Ngikhumbula kahle ukuthi wavuma ukuba yingxenye yebhodi futhi wahola ibhodi lokuqala… Wawunomdlandla futhi ungisekela empeleni. Akukho kungabaza engqondweni yami ukuthi uvumelane nalokhu. ” Yize kunjalo wavuma ukuzama ukususa igama lakhe embhalweni wentela.

Laba bobabili baphinde baxoxa ngefomu lentela ngoDisemba 2018 ngemuva kokuthi kuthunyelwe leli phepha. Kubhale u-Entine, “Ngikubhalile ku-original 990 ngokususelwa engxoxweni yocingo lapho uvumile ukuba khona ebhodini. Ngesikhathi ungimelela ukuthi awuvumelani nalokhu, ngicishe irekhodi njengoba ubucelile. ” Ku- enye i-imeyili ngalolo suku, ukhumbuze uDkt. Ronald ukuthi “empeleni ubuhlangene nale 'nhlangano: njengoba besisebenza ndawonye, ​​ngaphandle komzamo nangokwakhayo, ekwenzeni ikamu lamabhuzu enyuvesi yakho libe yimpumelelo enkulu.”  

Amafomu entela eSayensi Literacy Project manje abala amalungu amathathu ebhodi: Entine; UDrew Kershen, owayenguprofesa wezomthetho futhi owayesebhodini le- “Academics Review,” iqembu elalithi lizimele ngenkathi ithola izimali zayo ezinkampanini zezolimo; futhi UGeoffrey Kabat, ingcweti yezifo ezisebenza ku ibhodi labeluleki besayensi Okwe Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu lelo uthole imali evela kuMonsanto ngomsebenzi wayo wokuvikela ama-pesticides kanye nama-GMO.

Isungulwe, yahola iqembu le-UC Davis eliphakamisa imizamo ye-PR yomkhakha

UDkt Ronald wayengumqondisi osungula iWorld Food Center's Isikhungo Sokufunda Nokufunda Kwezolimo (IFAL), iqembu elasungulwa e-2014 e-UC Davis lokuqeqesha ubuhlakani kanye nabafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Leli qembu alizivezi ngokugcwele izimali zalo.

Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald unikele UJon Entine neqembu lakhe eliphambili embonini I-Genetic Literacy Project yesikhulumi e-UC Davis, ukuqoka i-Entine njengomuntu omkhulu ongakhokhiwe we-IFAL kanye nomfundisi nomeluleki ohlelweni lokuthweswa iziqu kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi. U-Entine akaseyena umngani e-UC Davis. Bona incwadi yethu yango-2016 eya kwiWorld Food Center ebuza ngezimali ze-Entine ne-IFAL kanye nabo incazelo engacacile mayelana nokuthi uxhaso lwabo luvelaphi.

NgoJulayi 2014, uDkt. Ronald waveza ku-imeyili asebenza naye ukuthi u-Entine wayeyi- umhlanganyeli obalulekile ongabanika iziphakamiso ezinhle zokuthi bangaxhumana nobani ukuze bathole imali eyengeziwe ngomcimbi wokuqala we-IFAL. NgoJuni 2015, i-IFAL yabamba iqhaza "Ikamu lokuqala le-Biotech Literacy Project”Nge-Genetic Literacy Project kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu leMonsanto. Abahleli bathi lo mcimbi uxhaswe yimithombo yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kepha imithombo engeyona eyezimboni iyenqabile ukuxhasa le micimbi kanye ne kuphela umthombo wokuthola imali ongalandeleka uvela embonini, ngokusho kokubikwa kukaPaul Thacker ku-The Progressive.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa lokho kubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okwakuthola okwayo imali evela embonini yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba, lisebenzise u- $ 162,000 engqungqutheleni yezinsuku ezintathu e-UC Davis. Inhloso yekamu ebhuthini, ngokwe-ajenda, bekuzoqeqesha nokuxhasa ososayensi, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezemfundo ukuze banxenxe umphakathi kanye nabenzi benqubomgomo ngezinzuzo zama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izikhulumi enkanjini yebhuthi i-UC Davis zifakiwe UJay Byrne, Owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampanini kaMonsanto; Hank campbell yezimali ezixhaswa yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo; osolwazi abanezibopho zomkhakha ezingadalulwanga ezifana USolwazi Emeritus Bruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois futhi USolwazi Kevin Folta waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UCami Ryan, manje osebenzela iMonsanto; UDavid Ropeik, umxhumanisi wokuqonda ngobungozi onenkampani ye-PR amaklayenti afaka iDow neBayer; kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo.

Izikhulumi eziyinhloko kwakunguDkt. Ronald, UYvette d'Entremont uSci Babe, "umxhumanisi wezesayensi" ovikela izibulala-zinambuzane neziswidi zokufakelwa ngenkathi ethatha imali ezinkampanini ezidayisa leyo mikhiqizo, noTed Nordhaus we-Breakthrough Institute. (UNordhaus naye wabalwa njengelungu lebhodi leSayensi Literacy Project kwifomu lokuqala lentela lika-2015/2016, kodwa igama lakhe lasuswa kanye noDkt. Ronald's kwifomu echitshiyelwe i-Entine efakwe ngo-2018; uNordhaus uthe akakaze asebenze ebhodini.)

Ukupheka ukuduba kukaChipotle

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald noJon Entine babambisene ekuthumeleni imiyalezo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kwesinye isikhathi, uDkt. Ronald uphakamise ukuthi ahlele ukuduba ngokumelene nechungechunge lokudlela laseChipotle ngenxa yesinqumo salo sokunikela nokuphromotha ukudla okungewona okwe-GMO.

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uDkt Ronald wathumela i-imeyili i-Entine futhi U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, owayeyisisebenzi sangaphambilini seMonsanto nochwepheshe wezokweluleka ngokubambisana e-UC Davis, ukusikisela ukuthi bathole umfundi ozobhala ngabalimi abasebenzisa izibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi kakhulu ukutshala ummbila ongewona owe-GMO. "Ngiphakamisa ukuthi silazise leli qiniso (uma nje sesithole imininingwane) bese sihlela ukuduba kwe-chipotle, ”Kubhala uDkt Ronald. U-Entine wayalela umlingani wakhe ukuthi abhale i-athikili ye-Genetic Literacy Project ngesihloko esithi "ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kuvame ukukhuphuka" lapho abalimi beshintshela kwimodeli engeyona eye-GMO ukuhlinzeka izindawo zokudlela ezinjengeChipotle. I- esihlokweni, obhaliswe ngokuhlanganyela ngu-Entine futhi etusa ubulungu bakhe be-UC Davis, wehluleka ukufakazela leso simangalo ngedatha.

Iqembu le-biotech spin elenziwe ngokubambisana iBioFortified

UDkt. Ronald wasungula futhi wakhonza njengelungu lebhodi (2012-2015) le I-Biology Fortified, Inc. (i-Biofortified), iqembu elithuthukisa ama-GMO kanye ineqembu lesishoshovu sozakwethu lokho kuyahlela imibhikisho yokubhekana nabagxeki baseMonsanto. Abanye babaholi beBiofortified kufaka phakathi ilungu lebhodi lokusungula uDavid Tribe, isazi sezofuzo e-University of Melbourne owasungula Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo, iqembu elalizimele ngenkathi ethola izimali zezimboni, futhi esebenzisana ne-IFAL ukusingatha iBiotech Literacy Project “camp boot” e-UC Davis.

Owayelilungu lebhodi uKevin Folta (2015-2018), usosayensi wezitshalo eNyuvesi yaseFlorida isihloko sendaba yeNew York Times ebika ukuthi udukise umphakathi ngokusebenzisana kwemboni okungadalulwanga. Ama-blogger ase-Biofortified afaka uSteve Savage, owake waba khona Isisebenzi saseDuPont saphenduka umxhumanisi wemboni; UJoe Ballanger, a umxhumanisi weMonsanto; no-Andrew Kniss, one uthole imali evela kuMonsanto. Imibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi amalungu eBiofortified axhumene nge imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane emkhankasweni wokunxenxa ukuphikisa imikhawulo yezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii.

Udlale indima ehamba phambili kumabhayisikobho e-propaganda axhaswa ngezimboni

UDkt. Ronald uveze ngokugqamile kwiFood Evolution, ifilimu eliwumbhalo mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuxhaswa yiqembu lezokuhweba i-Institute for Food Technologists. Inqwaba yezifundiswa zinayo wabiza inkulumo-ze yefilimu, nabantu abambalwa okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu ichaze inqubo ekhohlisayo yokuqopha ifilimu futhi wathi imibono yabo ikhishwe kumongo.

https://www.foodpolitics.com/2017/06/gmo-industry-propaganda-film-food-evolution/

Umeluleki womkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi obususelwa eCornell

UDkt Ronald usebhodini lokweluleka leCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ozinze eCornell University okhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane usebenzisa imiyalezo yezimboni zezolimo. Ixhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell Alliance for Science inayo waphikisana nokusetshenziswa koMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi ukuphenya izikhungo zikahulumeni, udukise umphakathi ngolwazi olungaqondile nezithunywa eziphakeme ezingathembekile; bheka imibhalo ekhasini lethu lamaqiniso.

Uthola imali evela embonini yezolimo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald uthola isinxephezelo ezinkampanini zezolimo ukuze akhulume emicimbini lapho ekhuthaza khona ama-GMO kubabukeli abakhulu izinkampani ezifuna ukubathonya, njengodokotela bezokudla. Ama-imeyili asuka kuNovemba 2012 ahlinzeka ngesibonelo sendlela uDkt Ronald asebenza ngayo nezinkampani.

Umsebenzi waseMonsanto uWendy Reinhardt Kapsak, udokotela wezokudla owake wasebenzela imboni yokudla spin iqembu IFIC, wamema uRonald ukuba azokhuluma ezingqungqutheleni ezimbili ngo-2013, iFood 3000 kanye ne-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference ne-Expo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi laba ababili kuxoxiswane ngezimali nokuthengwa kwezincwadi futhi wavuma ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uzokhuluma eFood 3000, ingqungquthela eyayihlelwe yinkampani ye-PR uPorter Novelli uKapsak athi izofinyelela "kwabezindaba abaphezulu abangama-90 ababa nomthelela wokudla kanye nabadlondlobele." (UDkt. Ronald ukhokhe u- $ 3,000 kulo mcimbi). UKapsak ucele buyekeza amaslayidi kaDkt. Ronald bese usetha ucingo lokuxoxa ngemiyalezo. Futhi kuphaneli bekukhona umongameli uMary Chin (udokotela wezokudla okwathi ubonisana neMonsanto), kanye nabamele iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation neMonsanto, noKapsak enikeza izinkulumo zokuvula. UKapsak ubike kamuva ukuthi iphaneli lithole ukubuyekezwa okukhulu ngabahlanganyeli bethi bazokwabelana ngombono wokuthi, "Kufanele sibe ne-biotech yokusiza ukondla umhlaba. "

Ezinye izingxoxo zokuxhaswa kwezimboni zikaDkt Ronald zifake owe-2014 inkulumo eMonsanto ngoba $ 3,500 kanye namakhophi wencwadi yakhe ayi-100 yena unqabile ukuthumela ku-tweet mayelana; nokubandakanyeka kokukhuluma ngo-2013 akubhalisele IBayer AG nge $ 10,000.

Amaphepha ahoxisiwe

I-Watch Retraction ibike ukuthi, “u-2013 ubungunyaka onzima kusazi sezinto eziphilayo uPamela Ronald. Ngemuva kokuthola iprotheni ebonakala ivusa amasosha omzimba elayisi ukuvikela isifo esivamile sebhaktheriya - esikisela indlela entsha yokwakha izitshalo ezingamelana nezifo - yena nethimba lakhe kwadingeka bahoxise amaphepha amabili ngo-2013 ngemuva kokuthi bengakwazanga ukuphindaphinda abakutholile. Amacala: uhlobo lwebhaktheriya olubhalwe kabi kanye ne-assay eguquguqukayo kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, ukunakekela nokusebenza obala akubonisile kwamzuzela 'ukwenza okulungile'wavuma kithi ngaleso sikhathi. "

Bona ukumbozwa:

"Wenzani ngokuhlehlisa okubuhlungu? I-Q & A enoPamela Ronald noBenjamin Swessinger, " I-Watch Retraction (7.24.2015)

"Ngabe isithunzi sesayensi sikaPamela Ronald, ubuso bomphakathi bamaGMOs, singasindiswa?”NguJonathan Latham, Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi (11.12.2013)

"UPamela Ronald wenza okulungile futhi, ehoxisa iphepha leSayensi, " I-Watch Retraction (10.10.2013)

"Ukwenza okulungile: Abaphenyi bahoxisa iphepha lokuzwa ikhoramu ngemuva kwenqubo yomphakathi, " I-Watch Retraction (9.11.2013)

I-Val Giddings: Ukusebenza Okuphezulu Kwemboni Yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, ingumdlali ophambili emizamweni yezimboni yezolimo yokuphikisana nemithetho ebonakalayo kanye nezokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi athunyelwa ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings usize ukusungula iqembu eliphambili lezinkampani futhi wadlala indima ebalulekile ekusithekeni kweminye imisebenzi ukuphoqa uhlelo lokususa izinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo emhlabeni.

UDkt Giddings wayeyiphini likamongameli we-Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), okuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotechnology. Manje uphethe inkampani yabeluleki i-PrometheusAB, futhi ungumuntu ophakeme ku-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF).

I-ITIF iyithangi lokucabanga ixhaswe izimboni zemithi, ezingenantambo, ezokuxhumana ngocingo, ezamafilimu nezama-biotech, aziwa kakhulu nge ukuphikisana “nokungathathi hlangothi ngokuphelele"Futhi ukugqugquzela i-ajenda yomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe. Iqembu yathuthela ku-biotechnology ngo-2011 noDkt. Giddings. Amalungu eCongress asebenza "njengosihlalo abahloniphekile" be-ITIF, kufaka phakathi nabameli baseMelika U-Anna Eshoo (D-CA), UDarrell Issa (R-CA) kanye namaSenat I-Orrin Hatch (R-UT) futhi UChris Coons (D-DE), kubonakala sengathi bayasekela futhi basiza amasu kagwayi uDkt Giddings awasebenzisile ukuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekumiseni Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa njengeqembu eliphambili owathi ngamanga wazimela ngenkathi ethatha imali yezimboni zezolimo futhi ezama ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

Abanye abahleli abakhulu babekhona UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampani eMonsanto; UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, uprofesa osafufusa eNyuvesi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign; futhi U-Eric Sachs, PhD, umqondisi wenqubomgomo yokulawula nezindaba zesayensi eMonsanto.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kungamanga izimangalo kuwebhusayithi yayo ukuthi ayemukeli imali yenkampani noma icela iminikelo yemisebenzi ethile; kepha ngokusho kwamafomu entela, iningi lemali yokuxhaswa kwe-Academics Review ivela kuMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo, iqembu lokuhweba elixhaswe futhi liphethwe izinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali emhlabeni: I-BASF, iBayer / iMonsanto, iDowDuPont neSyngenta / ChemChina.

Umugqa wesikhathi wemicimbi ebalulekile yokubuyekezwa kwezifundo:

NgoMashi 11, 2010: Byrne noDkt Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu langaphambili ukukhomba abagxeki bama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane ngosizo oluvela kuDkt Giddings. U-Byrne uthe yena noDkt. Giddings bangasebenza "njengezimoto ezithengiswayo" ukuxhuma amabhizinisi ezinkampani kuphrojekthi "ngendlela esiza ukuqinisekisa ukuthembeka nokuzimela (futhi ngaleyo ndlela kube nenani) labanikeli / abanikazi bokuqala ..." UByrne uqaphele ukuthi uyathuthuka yeMonsanto uhlu lwabagxeki bezimboni zezolimo abazolubhekisa:

NgoMashi 24, 2010:  UDkt Chassy umkhankaso iwebsite ye-Academics Review kanye noDavid Tribe, PhD, umfundisi omkhulu eNyuvesi yaseMelbourne, e-Australia, bobabili abesilisa ababalwe njengabaqambi bezifundo.

Ngo-Novemba 23, 2010: UDkt Giddings noDkt Chassy baxoxe ngokuthi yiziphi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni kungenzeka "iponele" Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa ukuphikisa iphepha lokho kwagxeka u-soy owenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

  • "Ngibheja ukuthi singaletha ukusekelwa okuhloniphekile ngakho," kusho uDkt. Giddings ebhalela uDkt. Chassy.
  • UChassy uphendule ngokwengxenye, "Ngibheja abangani bethu eMonsanto bazovuma ukubhala lesi sinqumo bese besikhokhela ukuthi sikuthumele."
  • UGiddings ubhale wathi, "Ngicabanga ukuthi abafana bakasoya bangase bazimisele ukwenza iphoyinti elithile ukuze babhale ukuphikiswa… Uma senza lokhu kahle singasebenzisa i-AcaRev Brand lapha kancane."

Ngemuva kwesonto, UDkt Chassy ubuze u-Eric Sachs uma uMonsanto ehlela ukuphikisa iphepha le-soy, futhi watshela iSachs: "IBhodi lase-US Soybean lizojabulisa isiphakamiso esivela kimi noGraham Brookes sokuphendula kuleso siqephu." (Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo kuthumele i- impendulo kusuka kwaCassy naseBrookes ngonyaka wezi-2012 kungadalulwa lutho ngabaxhasi.)

Ngo-Novemba 30, 2010: Ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili noDkt. Chassy, ​​u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto uthe angasiza ekugqugquzeleni umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kanye ne-GMO amaqembu okuhweba embonini ukuxhasa ukubukezwa kwezifundo. "Ukhiye kuzoba ukugcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhala uSachs.

Agasti 2011: UDkt Giddings ufake isiphakamiso ku iqembu lezokuhweba elixhaswe ngezimboni yi-CBI kwephrojekthi: "esikwenzayo ngonyaka ozayo ngqo kungumsebenzi wokuxhaswa esingakuthola," ubhalele uMqondisi Ophethe we-CBI u-Ariel Gruswich, nge-imeyili ekopishelwe uDkt. I-Chassy ne-Tribe. UGruswich unxuse la madoda ukuba ahlanganyele ucingo neqembu lakhe: "Ngikholwa ngempela ukuthi ukuzwa ngqo kini nonke kuzokhulisa amathuba okuxhaswa ezinkampanini," ubhale kanje. Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi i-CBI exhaswe yinkampani inikeze i-Academics Review $ 650,000 kusuka 2014 kuya 2016 "ukufinyelela kwesayensi."

April 2014: I-Academics Review ishicilele umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha, futhi abathi bayiqembu elizimele elingenakho ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo. Bona: "Izigxivizo zeminwe zeMonsanto zitholakale yonke indawo ihlaselwa ngokudla okunemvelo, ” nguStacy Malkan, Huffington Post

Ososayensi abaqeqeshwe ngezimboni abaqeqeshwe yizintatheli, izintatheli ukuthi zingawajikisa kanjani ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides  

Imali engaphezulu kwama- $ 300,000 embonini yamakhemikhali uDkt Giddings isize ukukhulisa i-Academics Review yaya ukukhokhela izingqungquthela ezimbili ezibizwa nge- Izinkambu zebhuthi ze- “Biotech Literacy Project”, ebanjelwe University of Florida e 2014 futhi UC Davis ngo-2015, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela. Amakamu ama-boot - ahlelwe yi-Academics Review nelinye iqembu eliphambili embonini,  Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - izintatheli eziqeqeshiwe nososayensi ukuthi bangayiqamba kanjani kabusha impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Bona: “Ukuhlwanyela ama-GMO: Imboni ye-Biotech iyikhulisa kanjani imithombo yezindaba efanelekile - futhi ayikukhuthazi ukugxekwa, ”NguPaul Thacker, I-Progressive

Ukususa ama-GMO kokulawula: "shaya yonke into embi"

Kuma-imeyili angoFebhuwari 2015, uDkt. Giddings uxoxe ngezifundiswa eziningana ngohlelo lokubhala amaphepha amahlanu ephephabhuku aphikisana nesidingo sokususwa komthetho embonini ye-biotech. UDkt. Giddings ubhale ukuthi la maphepha kufanele abambe, “lokhu engikubiza ngokuthi ingxabano kaHenry ethi 'Blow the whole damn thing up', okuyicala engicabanga ukuthi kufanele lenziwe.” Uprofesa wezomthetho wase-University of Arizona uGary Marchant, owaqala ukushintshana ngama-imeyili, wachaza, "iphepha 1 kuhloswe ngalo ukuthi kube yilo elihlasela isihloko sonke."

Alan McHughen, uthisha womkhakha womphakathi e-UC Riverside futhi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali umkhankaso wokumaketha Izimpendulo ze-GMO, unikele ukubhala iphepha 1. UHenry Miller, MD, uthe angasiza kepha kuningi abengakusebenzisa ukuze abe ngumbhali oyinhloko. (Ngemuva kwenyanga, uMiller wathumela isihloko ku Forbes ukuthi the New York Times kamuva wembula kwakubhalwe ghost nguMonsanto.)

Abanye abakopishe nge-imeyili mayelana namaphepha wephephabhuku babe UDrew Kershen weYunivesithi yase-Oklahoma College of Law; UGuy Cardineau, UYvonne Stevens futhi ULauren Burkhart wase-Arizona State University; USteven Strauss Oregon State University; UKevin Folta weYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UShane Morris we Ezemvelo Canada; U-Alison Van Eenennaam ka-UC Davis; UJoanna Sax weCalifornia Western School of Law; futhi UThomas Reddick we-Global Environmental Ethics Council.

Incwadi esayinwe ngusosayensi edidiyelwe ephikisana nocwaningo lweSeralini

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt Giddings uxhumanise incwadi yokungena ngemvume yososayensi kunxusa uWallace Hayes, umhleli oyinhloko we Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, ukucabanga kabusha ngephepha likaSepthemba 2012 ngumcwaningi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini owabika izicubu kumagundane ezondla ukudla kommbila we-Roundup-tolerant GM. Leli phepha lahlehliswa ngemuva konyaka futhi laphinde lashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Ukusiza ukuxhumanisa isibonakaliso encwadini, uDkt. esetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Omunye uprofesa osayine le ncwadi, uChris Leaver, uqaphele ukuthi "ubekade enza ngemuva kwezigcawu echaza ngeSense About Science" mayelana nocwaningo lwaseSéralini. I-Sense About Science inomlando omude of ukuphotha isayensi ukuze kuzuze izintshisekelo zebhizinisi.

Ababhalisi be- Incwadi kuya Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo ngamashumi URobert Wager, U-Alda Lerayer, UNina Fedoroff, Giddings, USteve Strauss, UChris Leaver, Shanthu Shantharam, Ingo Potrykus, UMarc Fellous, Moises Burachik, UKlaus-Dieter Jany, U-Anthony Trewavas, C Kameswara Rao, CS Prakash, Henry Miller, UKent Bradford, ISelim Cetiner, U-Alan McHughen, ULuis De Stefano-Beltrán, UBruce Chassy, ISalbah Al-Momin, UMartina Newell-McGloughlin, UKlaus Ammann, URonald Herring, ULucia de Souza.

Okuhlobene:Ama-imeyili atholakele: IMonsanto ixhunywe emkhankasweni wokuhoxisa iphepha le-GMO, " I-Watch Retraction

Abalimi abangomama abaphakanyisiwe kufanele bafake ama-GMO

Ezingxoxweni ne-lobbyist yeMonsanto mayelana nokuthi ingahlulwa kanjani imikhankaso yokufaka ilebula ye-GMO eColorado nase-Oregon ngo-2014, uDkt. Giddings uphakamise ukuthi “abalimi abangomama” ababukeka kahle bazoba yizithunywa ezinhle kakhulu zokudambisa ukukhathazeka ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. “Okudingwa yisimo ukuthi indawo yezindawo ze-TV ezinabesifazane abasha abakhangayo, okungcono abalimi bomama, echaza ukuthi kungani ukudla okutholwe nge-biotech kuphephe kakhulu futhi kuluhlaza kunazo zonke emlandweni we-ag futhi okufanele ukwesekwa, ”uDkt. Giddings ubhalele uLisa Drake, umkhokheli kaMonsanto wezindaba zikahulumeni.

NgoSepthemba 2015 ikhasi lokuqala New York Times story, ophumelele amahlandla amathathu iPulitzer Prize Eric Lipton uchaze ama-imeyili:

"Ku lokhu kunwetshwa kwe-imeyili okunwetshiwe, abanye bososayensi nezifundiswaabaye baqashwa ukusiza iMonsanto ukuthi iphushe umbuzo wayo wokuthi ngabe bayizithunywa ezihamba phambili yini. Ababili basikisela ukuthi iMonsanto isebenzise izikhangiso eziningi zethelevishini ezinabalimi esikhundleni salokho. I-Monsanto lobbyist iphendula ukuthi ukuvota kukhombisa ukuthi umphakathi uyakholelwa ososayensi. Empeleni le nkampani isivele inezikhangiso ze-TV ezinabalimi besifazane. ”

Bona: “Imboni yezokudla ibhalise izifundiswa kwi-GMO ebeka impi, ama-imeyili akhombisa, ”Ngu-Eric Lipton, New York Times.

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

I-AgBioChatter: Lapho Izinkampani, Isu Elihleliwe Lezemfundo kuma-GMO, Izibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-AgBioChatter iyi-server yangasese ye-imeyili esetshenziswa yimboni yezolimo kanye nabalingani bayo ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Amalungu ohlu afaka izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha wezimboni, abasebenza embonini ephezulu yezolimo kanye nabasebenzisana nomphakathi.

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i- “Academics (AgBioChatter)” “njengozakwethu bezimboni” kuTier 2 ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto zokudicilela phansi isithunzi seWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze kuvikelwe isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Izifundiswa eziningana ze-AgBioChatter nazo zidlala indima ebalulekile kwamanye amaqembu "ophathina bezimboni" aqanjwe ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuhlambalaza umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity, kufaka phakathi Izimpendulo ze-GMO, Ukuhlukaniswa, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi.

Ingemuva: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter axhunywe ngezansi - kanye neminye imibhalo etholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi futhi manje isingathwe endaweni Ingobo yomlando Yemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF - nikeza izibonelo eziningi zokuthi amaqembu ezifundiswa nezimboni asebenzisana kanjani ngezindlela ezicashile zokududula imiyalezo ehambisanayo nomkhakha kuzingxenyekazi ezahlukahlukene ukukhiqiza ukungabaza ngezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nama-GMO.

Izitolo zabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele babike ngalokhu kusebenzisana ekusithekeni ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi nokuphikisana nemithethonqubo.

Imizamo ye-US Right to Know yokwenza izinto obala

I-US Right to Know ithole ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter ngo-2016 nango-2017 ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. NgoJulayi 2017, i-US Right to Know wamangalela iNyuvesi yaseFlorida ngokwehluleka kwayo ukukhipha amarekhodi omphakathi aceliwe afaka imboni yezolimo kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi, kufaka phakathi imibhalo evela esithangamini se-AgBioChatter.

NgoMashi 2018, ijaji laseFlorida lalichitha leli cala, lathi ama-imeyili e-AgBioChatter “ayeyizinto zomuntu siqu ezazivela kubantu bakaKevin Folta kuphela” hhayi ibhizinisi lasenyuvesi lomphakathi. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka i- imibhalo yenkantolo.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene nabezindaba

  • Inkululeko Yokweseka I-Press, "Yeka ukuthi izinkampani zikucindezela kanjani ukudalulwa kwamarekhodi omphakathi mayelana nazo," nguCamille Fassett (2/27/18)
  • I-New York Times, “I-Food Industry Yabhalisa Izifundiswa ku-GMO labeling war, Emails Show,” ebhalwe ngu-Eric Lipton; futhi ingobo yomlando ye-imeyili, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni ye-Biotech" (9/5/2015)
  • I-Alternet, “Ngabe kukhona okushaya amanzi okwenzekayo phakathi kweYunivesithi yaseFlorida nemboni yezolimo? Abathengi banelungelo lokwazi, ”nguDaniel Ross, i-Alternet (2/13/18)

Okuqukethwe kohlu lwe-AgBioChatter

The Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter atholakele ngokusebenzisa izicelo zomlando wamarekhodi womphakathi (amakhasi ayi-142) abonisa izifundiswa nabasebenzi bemboni yezolimo abaxhumanisa amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuze baphikise ukufakwa kwelebizo le-GMO, bakhuthaze futhi bavikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, bagxeke imboni, futhi bagweme izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko Yolwazi ngemininingwane ephathelene noprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni.

Ingqikithi enkulu yama-imeyili (futhi ikakhulukazi indima yelungu lohlu uJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto) kwakuwukuhlonza abagxeka imboni yezolimo namathuba okubahlasela. Lapha kubalwa uMehmet Oz, uVandana Shiva, uDon Huber, i-Consumers Union nabanye.

Enye indikimba ebalulekile kuma-imeyili e-AgBioChatter yimizamo yokuhlela izifundo zesayensi eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngobungozi bama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ngokuthi "ziqhutshwa yi-ajenda," kanti izifundo ezibika kahle ngemikhiqizo yezimboni yezolimo "ziyi-pro science."

Ezemfundo, ukusebenzisana kwezimboni 

Ngokwama-imeyili atholakele kuze kube manje ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi, izifundiswa, abasebenzi bemboni yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezinkampani ze-PR babambe iqhaza ohlwini lwama- "Chatter".

Abahlanganyeli abaziwayo babhalwe ngezansi kanye nezibopho zabo kokunye "Amaqembu abalingani bezimboni" iqanjwe ohlelweni lwe-PR lukaMonsanto ukuze hlela ukukhala ngokumelene nephaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngala maqembu, bheka amaphepha ethu eqiniso:

Futhi okuphawulwe ngezansi yizibopho eziya ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu langaphambili elithola imali yenkampani ukuze ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi futhi bahlasele abagxeki.

Izixhumanisi ezigcinwe kulondolozo lwe-Genetic Literacy Project zinikeza umuzwa wokuthumela imiyalezo evamile, ephindaphindwayo la maqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa zisebenzisa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, zama ukudicilela phansi abagxeki, ukuphikisana nokwesulwa kanye nokuphikisana nemizamo yokwenza izinto obala.

Amalungu ohlu lwe-AgBioChatter 

Ama-imeyili atholwe ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi laba bantu abalandelayo babeku-listerver ye-AgBioChatter njengezinsuku ezikuma-imeyili.

Andrew Apel, imboni yezolimo umxhumanisi nomhleli wangaphambili yencwajana yomkhakha webhayoloji i-AgBiotech Reporter

UGraham Brooks, Isazi Sezomnotho Wezolimo, i-PG Economics Ltd, e-UK

UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto; umongameli we v-Fluence Interactive inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi

UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, USolwazi Emeritus Wezokuphepha Kokudla kanye neSayensi Yezomsoco, iYunivesithi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign

UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, uMonsanto “ongumlingani wemboni”

UKevin Folta, PhD, USolwazi noSihlalo, uMnyango Wezesayensi Yezolimo, iYunivesithi yaseFlorida

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, umxhumanisi wemboni, owayengu-VP wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-BIO

  • Umuntu omkhulu kwa-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (exhaswe ngamaqembu emikhakha yezemithi, engenazintambo kanye neyezolimo)
  • Usizile ukusetha ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo njenge iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto
  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives

U-Andy Hedgecock, UDuPont Pioneer owayengumqondisi wezindaba zesayensi

UDrew Kershen, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor, University of Oklahoma, College of Law

UMarcel Kuntz, PhD, umqondisi wocwaningo kwa-CNRS, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Végétale, Grenoble, France 

  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives 

UChris Leaver, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor of Plant Science, eNyuvesi yase-Oxford

Adrienne Massey, PhD, IBiotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), umphathi ophethe izindaba zesayensi nezomthetho

URobert McGregor, Umhlaziyi Wezinqubomgomo, IPrince Edward Island, eCanada

Alan McHughen, PhD, ENyuvesi yaseCalifornia Riverside

UHenry Miller, MD, esikanye naye eHoover Institution, ihhovisi langaphambili le-FDA le-biotechnology

UVivian Moses, PhD, Isifo Sikashukela Nezempilo, eKing's College London

UPiero Morandini, PhD, umsizi wocwaningo, ENyuvesi yaseMilan

UWayne Parrott, PhD, UProfesa, Ukutshala Ukutshala kanye Nofuzo, University of Georgia

CS Prakash, PhD, UProfesa, i-Plant Genetics, i-Genomics ne-Biotechnology College yeSayensi yezoLimo, ezeMvelo kanye neNutrition, eTuskegee University

UCami Ryan, PhD, IMonsanto, ukuhola kwesayensi yezenhlalo, inqubomgomo yokulawula kanye nezindaba zesayensi eCanada

U-Eric Sachs, PhD, I-Monsanto, ezemvelo, ezenhlalo nezomnotho zihola phambili

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, I-Animal Genetics ne-Biotechnology Cooperative Extension Specialist, iYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis

UKarl Haro von Mogel, PhD, Umqondisi we-Biofortified wesayensi nabezindaba   

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngokutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu ezimboni nezifundiswa ezindabeni zokudla, bheka ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo yase-US Right to Know iyatholakala ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe yiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eSan Francisco.

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uhlobo lwalesi sihloko lushicilelwe okokuqala ngo I-Common Ground Magazine Mashi 2018 (Uhlobo lwe-PDF).

NguStacy Malkan

Wonke umuntu uyayithanda indaba emnandi ngekusasa. Mhlawumbe uzwile lokhu: ukudla kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme okwenziwe isayensi kuzokondla abantu abayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-9 abalindelwe emhlabeni ngo-2050. Ukudla okwenziwe emalabuni nasezitshalweni nasezilwaneni ezenziwe ngofuzo ukuze zikhule ngokushesha nangcono kuzokwenza ukuthi kudle umhlaba ominyene, ngokusho kwezindaba ezijikeleza ngezikhungo zethu zemidiya nezemfundo.

"6th abafundi bebanga bacabanga ngemibono emikhulu ye-biotech ukuze # Feedthe9 ″ ukhiphe i-tweet yakamuva emakwe embonini yamakhemikhali iwebhusayithi yokukhangisa Izimpendulo ze-GMOA. Imibono yabafundi ifaka phakathi "ukuzalela izaqathe ukuze zibe namavithamini amaningi" kanye "nommbila ozokhula ezimweni ezinzima zasebusika."

Konke kuzwakala kuthembisa kakhulu uze ubheke amaqiniso angemuva kwenkulumo.

Okokuqala, ezweni elihola umhlaba ekukhuleni kwezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs), izigidi zilambile. Ukunciphisa imfucuza yokudla, ukubhekana nokungalingani nokushintshela ku ezolimo Izindlela zokulima, hhayi ama-GMO, ziyizikhiye ekuvikelekeni kokudla emhlabeni, ngokusho kochwepheshe beNhlangano Yezizwe. Ukudla okuningi okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo emakethe namuhla akunazinzuzo nakancane kubathengi; enzelwe ukusinda izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi asheshise kakhulu ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifana glyphosate, dicamba futhi ngokushesha i-2,4D, ukudala lokho amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngokuthi kuyingozi umshini wokubulala izinambuzane.

Yize kunamashumi eminyaka yokuxokozela mayelana nezakhamzimba eziphakeme noma izitshalo ze-GMO ze-heartier, lezo zinzuzo zehlulekile ukwenzeka. I-Vitamin-A ithuthukisiwe Ilayisi Eligolide, isibonelo - “irayisi ebingasindisa izingane eziyisigidi ngonyaka,” kubika Isikhathi umagazini iminyaka 17 edlule - ayikho emakethe yize kunezigidi ezichithwe ekuthuthukisweni. "Uma ilayisi legolide liyindlela yokwelapha enjalo, kungani lichuma kuphela ezihlokweni ezinkulu, kude nezinsimu zepulazi lapho kuhloswe ukuba likhule khona?" kubuza uTom Philpott umama Jones isihloko esithi, I-WTF Yenzekeni Elayisi Legolide?

“Impendulo emfushane ukuthi abatshali bezitshalo abasazakhi izinhlobonhlobo zaso ezisebenza ensimini njengezihlobo zelayisi ezikhona… Uma uhlanganisa into eyodwa ku-genome, njengokunika ilayisi amandla okwenza i-beta-carotene, engozini yokushintsha ezinye izinto, njengejubane lokukhula kwayo. ”

Imvelo iyinkimbinkimbi, ngamanye amazwi, futhi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo kungaveza imiphumela engalindelekile.

Cabanga ngendaba ye-Impossible Burger.

I-burger esekwe ezitshalweni ethi "yopha" yenziwa ukuthi yenzeke ngemvubelo yobunjiniyela ukuze ifane neleghemoglobin, into etholakala ezimpandeni zezitshalo zesoya. I-GMO soy leghemoglobin (SLH) yehla ibe yiprotheyini ebizwa nge- “heme,” enikeza iburger izimfanelo ezifana nenyama - umbala wayo obomvu obomvu wegazi kanye ne-sizzle ku-grill - ngaphandle kwemithelela yezemvelo neyokuziphatha ekukhiqizeni inyama. Kepha i-GMO SLH ibuye yehle iye kwamanye amaprotheni angama-46 angakaze abe ekudleni kwabantu futhi angabeka izingozi zokuphepha.

Njengoba i New York Times kubika, isosi eliyimfihlo le-burger “liqokomisa izinselele zobuchwepheshe bokudla.” Indaba yayisekelwe imibhalo etholwe yi-ETC Group nabangane bomhlaba ngaphansi kwesicelo soMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi - imibhalo inkampani okungenzeka yayinethemba lokuthi ayisoze yakubona ukukhanya kosuku. Ngenkathi i-Impossible Foods icela i-Food and Drug Administration ukuthi iqinisekise ukuthi isithako sayo se-GMO "ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile" (GRAS) Times kubika, i-ejensi esikhundleni salokho "iveze ukukhathazeka ngokuthi ayikaze idliwe ngabantu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi iyi-allergen."

Izikhulu ze-FDA wabhala kumanothi echaza ucingo lwango-2015 nenkampani, "i-FDA yathi izimpikiswano ezikhona manje, ngazodwana futhi ngokuhlanganyela, bezinganele ukwenza ukuphepha kwe-SLH ukusetshenziswa." Kepha, njengoba Times Indaba ichaziwe, i-FDA ayishongo ukuthi i-GMO leghemoglobin ayiphephile, futhi inkampani ayidingi ukuvunyelwa yi-FDA ukuthi ithengise i-burger yayo noma kunjalo.

Izimpikiswano ezethulwe azizange zisungule ukuphepha - i-FDA

Ngakho-ke i-Impossible Burger isemakethe ngeziqinisekiso zenkampani zokuphepha futhi abathengi abaningi basebumnyameni ngalokho okukuyo. Ngenkathi inqubo ye-GMO ichazwa kuwebhusayithi ayithengiswa ngaleyo ndlela lapho kuthengiswa khona. Ekuvakasheni kwakamuva endaweni yokudlela yaseBay Area edayisa i-Impossible Burger, ikhasimende libuze ukuthi ngabe i-burger ishintshiwe yini. Utshelwe ngokunganembile, "cha."

Ukuntuleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni, izingozi zezempilo ezingaziwa kanye nabathengi abashiye ebumnyameni - lezi yizindikimba eziphindaphindwayo ekulandiseni okuqhubekayo mayelana neWild West yokuhlolwa kobunjiniyela kwezakhi zofuzo egxambukela esitolo esiseduze nawe.

I-GMO nganoma yiliphi elinye igama…

I-biology yokwenziwa, i-CRISPR, ukuhlelwa kofuzo, ukuthuliswa kofuzo: la magama achaza izinhlobo ezintsha zezitshalo, izilwane kanye nezithako ezakhiwe ngezofuzo izinkampani eziphuthuma ukungena emakethe.

Indlela yakudala yobunjiniyela, ebizwa ngokuthi ama-transgenics, ifaka ukudlulisa izakhi zofuzo zisuka kolunye uhlobo ziye kolunye. Ngezindlela ezintsha zobunjiniyela - lokho amanye amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngamaGMOs 2.0 - izinkampani ziphazamisa imvelo ngezindlela ezintsha futhi ezingaba yingozi. Bangasusa izakhi zofuzo, bavule noma bavale izakhi zofuzo, noma bakhe ukulandelana okusha kwe-DNA kukhompyutha. Zonke lezi zinqubo ezintsha zingama-GMO ngendlela abathengi kanye ne-US Patent Office ababheka ngayo - i-DNA ishintshwa kumalebhu ngezindlela ezingeke zenzeke emvelweni, futhi isetshenziselwe ukwenza imikhiqizo enelungelo lobunikazi. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo zama-GMOs 2.0.

Ama-GMO we-biology yokwenziwa kufaka phakathi ukuguqula noma ukudala i-DNA ukuze kuhlanganiswe izinto ezihlanganisiwe kunokuzikhipha emithonjeni yemvelo. Izibonelo zifaka imvubelo yobunjiniyela noma ulwelwe ukudala ukunambitheka okufana ne-vanillin, i-stevia ne-citrus; noma amakha afana ne-patchouli, i-rose oil ne-clearwood - konke okungenzeka ukuthi sekuvele kumikhiqizo.

Ezinye izinkampani zithi izithako ezikhuliswa elebhu njengesixazululo sokusimama. Kepha udeveli usemininingwane izinkampani ezizimisele ukudalula. Yini ama-feedstocks? Eminye imikhiqizo yokwenziwa kwebhayoloji incike kushukela ovela kumakhemikhali amaningi asebenzisa amakhemikhali noma ezinye izidlo ezingcolisayo ezifana negesi ethosiwe. Kukhona nokukhathazeka ukuthi ulwelwe olunjiniwe lungabalekela emvelweni lube ngukungcola kokuphila.

Futhi yimuphi umthelela kubalimi abathembele ezitshalweni ezikhuliswe kahle? Abalimi emhlabeni wonke bakhathazekile ngokuthi abantu abangena esikhundleni esikhuliswa ngamalebhu, abathengiswa ngamanga “njengemvelo,” bangabakhipha ebhizinisini. Izizukulwane ngezizukulwane, abalimi baseMexico, eMadagascar, e-Afrika naseParaguay balime i-vanilla yemvelo ne-organic, ibhotela le-shea noma i-stevia. EHaiti, ukulima i-vetiver grass yokusetshenziswa kumakha aphezulu kakhulu kusekela abalimi abancane abangafika ku-60,000, okusiza ekuqiniseni umnotho owonakaliswe ukuzamazama komhlaba neziphepho.

Ngabe kunengqondo ukuhambisa lezi zinjini zezomnotho ziye eSouth San Francisco bese sondla ushukela olinywe efektri ngemvubelo ukuze senze amakha nesinongo eshibhile? Ngubani ozosizakala, futhi ngubani ozolahlekelwa, ekuguqulweni kwezitshalo kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme?

Izinhlanzi nezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo: izinkomo ezinezimpondo, izingulube ezithenwe ngokwemvelo, kanye namaqanda enkukhu aklanyelwe ukuba abe nomenzeli wemithi konke kusembhidlangweni wokuhlolwa kofuzo. Iphrojekthi yabesilisa bonke "terminator izinkomo" - enegama lekhodi "Abafana Kuphela" - ihlose ukudala inkunzi ezozala kuphela abantwana besilisa, ngaleyo ndlela "ibambe amathuba obudoda nokwenza imboni (yenyama) isebenze kangcono," kubika Ukubuyekezwa Kwezobuchwepheshe be-MIT.

Yini engase ihambe kabi?

Isazi sezakhi zofuzo esisebenza ezinkomeni ze-terminator, u-Alison Van Eenennaam wase-University of California, eDavis, ucela ukuthi abakwa-FDA bacubungule kabusha isinqumo sayo sango-2017 sokuphatha izilwane ezihlelwe yi-CRISPR sengathi ziyizidakamizwa ezintsha, ngaleyo ndlela zidinga izifundo zokuphepha; utshele i- Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT lokho “kungabeka umgomo omkhulu wokulawula ekusebenziseni le ndlela yokuhlela izakhi ezilwaneni.” Kepha akumele yini kube khona izidingo zokutadisha impilo, ukuphepha kanye nemithelela yemvelo yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nohlaka lokucabanga ngemithelela yokuziphatha, yokuziphatha neyenhlalo? Izinkampani zilwela kanzima ngaphandle kwezidingo; ngoJanuwari, uMongameli Trump wakhuluma nge-biotechnology okokuqala ngesikhathi esengumongameli futhi wenze isimemezelo esingacacile mayelana "nemithethonqubo yokwenza ngcono izinto."

Isilwane kuphela se-GMO emakethe kuze kube manje yi-AquaAdvantage salmon eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ze-eel ukuze ikhule ngokushesha. Izinhlanzi seziyathengiswa eCanada, kepha inkampani ngeke isho ukuthi ikuphi, futhi ukuthengiswa kwaseMelika kubanjiwe ngenxaizinkinga zokulebula.”Isifiso sokugcina imfihlo sinengqondo ngokubuka kokuthengisa: ama-75% wabaphenduli ku-a 2013 New York Times i-poll bathi ngeke badle izinhlanzi ze-GMO, futhi cishe okubili kokuthathu bathi ngeke bayidle inyama eshintshwe izakhi zofuzo.

Izindlela zokuthulisa i-Gene njengokuphazanyiswa kwe-RNA (RNAi) kungavala izakhi zofuzo ukudala izici ezithile. I-Arctic Apple engeyona nsundu yenziwa nge-RNAi ukwenqaba ukubonakaliswa kofuzo okwenza ama-apula abe nsundu futhi abe mushy. Njengoba inkampani ichaza kwiwebhusayithi yayo, "lapho i-apula lilunywa, lisikiwe, noma lilinyazwe ngenye indlela… alikho i-apula elinsundu elinsundu elisele ngemuva."

Ngabe abathengi empeleni bayasifuna lesi sici? Ukulungele noma cha lapha kuza. I-GMO Arctic Apple yokuqala, iGolden Delicious, yaqala ukubhekela izimakethe zokuhlola eMidwest ngenyanga edlule. Akekho osho ngqo ukuthi ama-apula afika kuphi, kepha ngeke abhalwe ukuthi i-GMO. Bheka uhlobo lwe- “Arctic Apples” uma ufuna ukwazi ukuthi ngabe udla i-apula elenziwe ngofuzo.

"Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi sizobona izitshalo eziningi ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziwela ngaphandle kwegunya lomthetho." 

Amasu wokuhlela we-Gene njenge-CRISPR, TALEN noma i-zinc finger nucleases isetshenziselwa ukusika i-DNA ukuze kwenziwe izinguquko zofuzo noma ukufaka izinto zofuzo. Lezi zindlela ziyashesha futhi zenziwe zinembe kakhulu kunezindlela zakudala ze-transgenic. Kodwa ukungabi bikho kokuqapha kukahulumeni kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka. "Kusengaba nemiphumela engahlosiwe kanye nemiphumela engahlosiwe," kuchaza uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union. “Uma ushintsha ufuzo lwezinto eziphilayo azihlali ziziphatha ngendlela olindele ngayo. Yingakho kubalulekile ukutadisha kahle imithelela yezempilo nezemvelo, kepha lezi zifundo azidingeki. ”

Ikhowe le-CRISPR elingenayo browning yeqe umthetho wase-US, njengoba Nature kubika ngo-2016. Uwoyela omusha we-CRISPR we-canola, owenzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, usezitolo manje futhi ungabizwa ngokuthi “okungeyona eye-GMO,” ngokuvumelana ne Bloomberg, njengoba uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US “usudlulile” ekulawuleni izitshalo ze-CRISPR. Le ndaba yaphawula ukuthi iMonsanto, iDuPont neDow Chemical "badlule esikhaleni sokulawula" futhi bashaya amadili okuthola ilayisense yokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokuhlela izakhi zofuzo.

Futhi lokho kuphakamisa elinye ifulegi elibomvu ngokulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO amasha azonikeza izinzuzo zabathengi izindlela zakudala ze-transgenic ezingazange zikwenze. "Ukuthi amasu ahlukile akusho ukuthi izici zizoba," kusho uDkt. Hansen. “Indlela yakudala yokwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo yayisetshenziswa kakhulu ukwenza izitshalo zimelane nokubulala ukhula nokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula. Izindlela ezintsha zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo cishe zizosetshenziswa ngendlela efanayo, kodwa kukhona ukusonteka okusha. ”

Ukuhaha Kwebhizinisi Kuqhathaniswa Nezidingo Zabathengi

Ingqungquthela "yokuguqula ukudla" yase-Atlantic ixhaswe yiDowDuPont. Bona okwethu ukubika ngaleyo ndaba.

Izinkampani ezinkulu kunazo zonke zezolimo emhlabeni ziphethe iningi lembewu kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi zihlanganisa amandla ezandleni zezinhlangano ezintathu kuphela zamazwe ngamazwe. IBayer neMonsanto basondela ekuhlanganeni, futhi ukuhlanganiswa kweChemChina / Syngenta neDowDuPont kuqediwe. IDowDuPont isanda kumemezela ukuthi uphiko lwayo lwebhizinisi lezolimo luzosebenza ngaphansi kwe- igama elisha uCorteva Agriscience, inhlanganisela yamagama asho “inhliziyo” “nendalo.”

Kungakhathaleki ukuthi yimaphi amaqhinga wokuphinda abeke uphawu lokuzama ukufaka uphawu, lezi zinhlangano zinemvelo esivele siyazi: zonke babe nemilando emide lokungazinaki izexwayiso zesayensi, ukumboza izingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo eyingozi nokushiya ngemuva ubucayi obunobuthi - Bhopal, dioxin, PCBs, napalm, Agent Orange, teflon, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, dicamba, ukubala nje amahlazo ambalwa.

Ukulandisa okugxila esikhathini esizayo kufihle lokho okwadlula kudala kanye neqiniso lamanje lokuthi lezi zinkampani zisebenzisa kanjani ubuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela namuhla, ikakhulu njenge ithuluzi lezitshalo ukusinda izifutho zamakhemikhali. Ukuze uqonde ukuthi lolu hlelo ludlala kanjani emhlabathini ekuholeni izindawo ezisebenzisa imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ze-GMO, funda imibiko mayelana nayo ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa eHawaii, amaqoqo omdlavuza e-Argentina, izindlela zamanzi ezingcolile e-Iowa futhi indawo yokulima eyonakele ngaphesheya kweMidwest.

Ikusasa lokudla ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwebhizinisi elikhulu lezolimo kanye nezinkampani zamakhemikhali akunzima ukuqagela - okuningi kwalokho asebevele bezama ukusithengisa: Izitshalo ze-GMO ezandisa ukuthengiswa kwamakhemikhali nezilwane zokudla ezenzelwe ukukhula ngokushesha futhi zilingane kangcono epulazini lefektri izimo, nemithi yokusiza. Umbono omuhle ngekusasa lenzuzo yezinkampani nokugxila kwengcebo namandla, kepha akukuhle kangako kubalimi, ezempilo yomphakathi, imvelo noma abathengi abafuna ikusasa elihlukile lokudla.

Izinombolo ezikhulayo zabathengi ziyafuna okwangempela, ukudla kwemvelo nemikhiqizo. Bafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwabo, ukuthi yakhiqizwa kanjani nokuthi yavelaphi. Kulabo abafuna ukwazi ngalokho abakudlayo, kusenendlela eqinisekile yomlilo yokugwema ama-GMO amadala namasha: thenga okuphilayo. Ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisiwe kwephrojekthi ye-Non-GMO kuphinda kuqinisekise ukuthi imikhiqizo ayenziwa ngobunjiniyela noma yenziwe nge-biology yokwenziwa.

Kuzobaluleka ukuthi imboni yokudla yemvelo ibambe umugqa ekuthembekeni kwalezi zitifiketi uma kuqhathaniswa nokuxokozela kwasendle kwama-GMO amasha.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi be-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”

Ifilimu ye-Food Evolution GMO Ikhonza I-Ajenda Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kubuyekezwe ngezibuyekezo ze-Food Evolution: 

NguStacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

Eminye imizamo yokuthumela imiyalezo embonini inzima kakhulu bagcina beqhakambisa amaqhinga abo we-PR ukwedlula umyalezo abazama ukuwudlulisa. Leyo yinkinga nge Ukuvela Kokudla, idokhumentari entsha yomqondisi oqokwe yi-Academy Award uScott Hamilton Kennedy futhi ilandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson.

Le filimu, evulwa emashashalazini ngoJuni 23, ithi inombono oqondile ngempikiswano mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kepha ngesethulo sayo esinefilosofi yesayensi nedatha, iphuma ibukeka njengecala lezincwadi lenkulumo-ze yenkampani embonini yezolimo kanye izitshalo zayo ze-GMO.

Ukuthi inhloso yefilimu okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi isebenze njengemoto ethuthela imiyalezo embonini akuyona imfihlo. Ukudla Evolution kwaba kuhlelwe ngo-2014 futhi ixhaswe yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu labahwebi, ukuqeda umzamo wokuthumela imiyalezo iminyaka eminingi.

I-IFT ixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla, kanye neqembu umongameli ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguJanet Collins, owayengumphathi weDuPont noMonsanto ngubani manje kuyasebenzela ICropLife America, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. UMongameli Okhethiwe we-IFT USindi Stewart usebenzela iDuPont.

I-IFT ikhethe uKennedy ukuthi aqondise ifilimu, kodwa yena nomkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan bathi babenakho ukulawula ngokuphelele ifilimu abayichaza njengophenyo oluzimele ngokuphelele ngesihloko sama-GMO kubandakanya yonke imibono.

Ukwethembeka kwefilimu kunenkinga yokuzikhethela kwabo ukwamukela kuphela isayensi nososayensi abahambisana nabadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazuza kuma-GMO kanye namakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuwo, kuyilapho benganaki isayensi nedatha engahambelani naleyo ajenda.

Ukwelashwa kweMonsanto Science

Isibonelo esisobala sokungathembeki kwesayensi kuFood Evolution yindlela ifilimu esebenza ngayo ne-glyphosate. Ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula isenhliziyweni yendaba ye-GMO, kusukela Ama-80-90% wezitshalo ze-GMO zenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-glyphosate.

IFood Evolution ibika ukuthi ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ngenxa yama-GMO akuyona inkinga, ngoba i-glyphosate iphephile. Imithombo emibili isungula lesi simangalo kwifilimu: umlimi uthi i-glyphosate "inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti, ”noRobb Fraley kaMonsanto - ephendula owesifazane ezilalelini ombuza ngesayensi exhumanisa i-glyphosate nezinkinga zokuzalwa nomdlavuza - umtshela ukuthi konke lokho kuyisayensi embi," yi-pseudoscience. "

Yonke isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate "yi-pseudoscience," kusho uMonsanto.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngokukhathazeka kwe-carcinogenicity okugubuzele iMonsanto ku International isayensi ukukhwabanisa, noma abalimi abaningi Bamangalela iMonsanto esola ukuthi bathole umdlavuza ovela enkomishini ye-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngombiko wango-2015 wenhlangano yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ebeka i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noma Isinqumo saseCalifornia ukufaka i-glyphosate ohlwini lweProp 65 lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza, noma izifundo ezibuyekezwa kontanga ezixhumene imiphumela engemihle yezempilo ukuze glyphosate futhi Roundup.

Esikhundleni sokubuka ubufakazi, i-Food Evolution inikeza ababukeli ukwelashwa okuphelele kwesayensi yeMonsanto: noma yisiphi isayensi esiphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo yezolimo kufanele zinganakwa, kuyilapho izifundo ezibeka leyo mikhiqizo ekukhanyeni okuwukuphela kwesayensi kufanele kuxoxwe ngakho.

Amazinga aphindwe kabili kuSayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala

Ukuphathwa ngokulinganayo kwezihloko zokuxoxwa ngemibono ehlukene bekuzosiza ukwethembeka kweFood Evolution. Esikhundleni salokho, ifilimu ipenda abagxeki be-GMO ebabonisa ngokungathembeki noma ukuzenzela inzuzo ngomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, ngenkathi ishiya imininingwane ebalulekile ngemithombo yayo yezimboni.

Kwesinye isigcawu, umlingiswa ophambili wefilimu, uprofesa we-UC Davis u-Alison van Eenennaam, ukhulula ukuthi ukubonakala kwesiteji nomphathi weMonsanto empikiswaneni kungangcolisa igama lakhe lokuzimela. Ababukeli abakaze bafunde ukuthi wayejwayele sebenzela iMonsanto, noma ukuthi uphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi we-GE eziphakamisa intshisekelo yezezimali esihlokweni esiseduze.

Usosayensi we-Pro-industry Pamela Ronald, omunye umthombo oyinhloko wesayensi, uthola ukwelashwa kweqhawe ngaphandle kokusho lokho ezimbili zezifundo zakhe zihoxisiwe. Yize kunjalo ababukeli bashaywa ngesando ngezindaba zokuthi ucwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini - oluthola izinkinga zezinso nezicubu kumagundane afunzwa ummbila weGMO - "luhoxisiwe, lwahoxiswa, lwahoxiswa!"

Ifilimu ishiya iqiniso lokuthi isifundo bekuyi yaphinde yashicilelwa, futhi wahoxiswa endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kwesisebenzi sangaphambili seMonsanto uthathe isikhundla sokuhlela nephephabhuku lapho lashicilelwa khona ekuqaleni.

Ukulandisa kwe- “Africa Needs GMOs”

Kokunye ukulandisa okuphindwe kahle, iFood Evolution ithatha ababukeli ohambweni lomzwelo oluya ezweni elisathuthuka, nakwenye ithrekhi yemiyalezo yomkhakha oyintandokazi: kunokugxila ekutheni ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo busetshenziswa kanjani ohlelweni lwethu lokudla manje - ikakhulukazi ukudlulisa ukubekezelelana kwe-herbicide - kufanele gxila ekutheni ingasetshenziswa kanjani ngokuzayo.

Njengoba kunesikhathi esiningi se-air and tension eshubile, le filimu ihlola inkinga ye-banana wilt, isifo esibulala izitshalo eziyisisekelo e-Afrika, futhi iholela ababukeli ukuthi bakholelwe ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo buzosindisa isivuno, abalimi kanye nomphakathi.

Kungenzeka. Kepha ifilimu ayikunaki ukusho ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bomsindisi we-GE abukatholakali futhi kungenzeka bungasebenzi. Ngokusho kwephepha ku- Isitshalo se-Biotechnology Journal, ukumelana okuboniswa kulebhu kunamandla kepha kungahle kungahlali isikhathi eside ezindaweni ezivulekile.

Le filimu “iwukungathembeki okuyisisekelo.”

Okwamanje, isixazululo se-low-tech sisebenza kahle futhi kubukeka sengathi singasebenzisa imali ethile. Ngokusho kwephepha lika-2012 kwi Ijenali Yezentuthuko Nezomnotho Wezolimo, izikole zabalimi, ezisiza abalimi ukuthola ulwazi lwezandla ngamasu okuvimbela ukubola kwebhanana, kwaholela ekwehliseni amazinga okutheleleka nokubuyiswa kwezitshalo okuphezulu e-Uganda. Imiphumela yezikole zabalimi “iye yaphawuleka,” ngokwe-UN.

Isixazululo asidingi ukuthi kukhulunywe ngakho ku-Food Evolution.

"Ngokuyisisekelo ukungathembeki kwefilimu ukuthola isisombululo se-GE esingahle singasebenzi, njengoba ososayensi uqobo bevuma," kusho uMichael Hansen, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, "ngenkathi ehluleka ukukhomba enye indlela yokulawula inkinga esebenza kakhulu kahle, kepha akubandakanyi ukuthengisa umkhiqizo ukuze wenze imali. ”

Ngabe iMonsanto yayihlangene ne-Food Evolution?

IMonsanto nabalingani bayo bebekhuluma ngezinhlelo zedokhumentari ngasekupheleni kuka-2013, ngokusho kuka ama-imeyili atholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ama-imeyili awanabo ubufakazi obuxhumanisa lezo zingxoxo ne-Food Evolution, kepha basungula isifiso sikaMonsanto ngefilimu esizwakala sifana kakhulu naleso esidalwe nguKennedy.

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto yabhala ngoDisemba 2013 eqenjini labeluleki be-PR, “kusobala ukuthi intshisekelo enkulu yokulandela ifilimu eliyi-documentary. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana ngukuthi ukubamba iqhaza kukaMonsanto kwamukelekile, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sokuhlela. ”

Wancoma ukubizwa kocingo lokuhlela lukaJanuwari 2014. UJon Entine we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project wakhuphuka wahola, futhi wathi "uthole isibambiso sakhe esingu- $ 100,000 kumuntu ongusomabhizinisi ozimele uma singathola" (wonke umugqa unqanyuliwe). I-Entine futhi inokuxhumana ne-Institute for Food Technologists; ukhulume ngo “ubushoshovu bokulwa nokudla”Emhlanganweni wonyaka we-IFT wango-2012.

Omunye umuntu okukhulunywe ngaye kuma-imeyili eMonsanto, UKarl Haro von Mogel - ngubani owayexoxile nge-Sachs "Ukwehla kwefilimu exhaswe yi-'Big 6 '” futhi kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi "okungabaluleke ngaphezu kwemali yabo ukubamba iqhaza kwabo" - kwaxoxwa nabo kuFood Evolution, futhi wabandakanyeka nasekuqopheni isigcawu esisodwa, esikisela abanye ekusithekeni ukuxhumana nabenzi bamafilimu.

Ephendula ama-imeyili, uKennedy ubhale on Twitter: “@Foodevomovie has had ZERO $ or INPUT from #Imonsanto. Sisobala ngokuphelele futhi sijabule 2 sinengxoxo esekelwe eqinisweni. ”

Uthe enkulumweni yakhe, "lokho kushintshaniswa kwama-imeyili bekungahlangene nakancane nephrojekthi yethu ...

Abantu ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili bebengabandakanyeki ekuqopheni nasekululekeni, usho kanjalo, kanti uKarl Haro von Mogel “ubeyisihloko kule filimu futhi ebengenaqhaza noma ithonya kunoma yiziphi izinqumo zokudala / zokuhlela ngale filimu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi embonisweni . Futhi kungasiza ukuveza ukuthi ingxoxo ye-imeyili obhekise kuyo yenzeka kudala singakaze sazi uKarl noma omunye walaba bantu. ”

Sneak Peek Behind the Scene

Okunye ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okutholwe yi-US Right to Know inikeza ukubonwa ngemuva kwezigcawu ekuthuthukisweni kokulandisa ku-Food Evolution. Ukushintshisana kubonisa ukufuna kukaKennedy izibonelo azofaka “thina / izwe elisathuthuka sidinga i-GMO.”

“Noma yimuphi omunye umhlaba 'wethu / osathuthuka udinga i-GMO' unganginika amagama eceleni kwamawolintshi? Ulethisi weShintakus? ” Kubuza uKennedy. Umkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan uphendule ngohlu lwemikhiqizo ye-GMO kubandakanya irayisi elibekezelela isomiso, amakinati angenalo igciwane, amazambane angenayo i-carcinogen… “bese ufaka inkinobho yeGolden Rice.”

Ngenkathi uKennedy efuna "izitshalo eziphezulu ze-GMO ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje, nokuthi imaphi amazwe," uMark Lynas we ICornell Alliance yeSayensi ubhale wathi, "Ngempela iBt brinjal eBangladesh iyona kuphela eyi-GMO futhi esebenza kabanzi."

Ukubikwa kwefilimu okuqhutshwa ifreyimu kuyishaya indiva leyo mininingwane ngokungabi bikho kwezixazululo ze-GMO ezisebenzayo, futhi akusho ukuthi isibonelo esisondelene kakhulu, i-Vitamin-A ethuthukisiwe yeGold Rice, namanje ayitholakali ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu neminyaka yokulingwa, ngoba akusebenzi kahle ensimini njengama-rice akhona manje.

Yini inkulumo-ze?

Esigcawini okufanele sidlulise ukwethembeka kwesayensi, iFood Evolution ikhanyisa uphawu lwe-American Council on Science and Health okwamanje uNeil deGrasse Tyson uthi kukhona ukuvumelana komhlaba wonke mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO. Isiliphu esifanelekayo. ASCH kuyinto iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi kuhambelana eduze neMonsanto.

Indawo ye-logo ye-ACSH nayo iyavela ngemuva kulokhu Isiqeshana semizuzu engu-2 kusuka enkulumweni yakamuva yeClimate One, njengoba uKennedy ephikisana nesiphakamiso sokuthi ifilimu yakhe iyinkulumo-ze.

“Sinquma kanjani ukuthi yini inkulumo-ze?” Kubuza uKennedy. “Ngithi enye yezindlela esikwenza ngayo (ukubuza), ingabe imiphumela iyacelwa, noma imiphumela ithenjisiwe? Angibuzwanga ngemiphumela futhi angithembisanga imiphumela. Uma unenkinga ngefilimu, inkinga ikimi. ”

Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwavela ekuqaleni Huffington Post futhi bekulokhu liphinde lanyatheliswa ku-Alternet. 

Bona futhi: I-athikili yokulandelela kaStacy Malkan, Abalandeli bakaNeil deGrasse Tyson Owes Ingxoxo Ethembekile Ngama-GMO kune-Food Evolution. "Ukuxoxisana nabanye abahlaziyi beGMO abambalwa abavela kule filimu, noma bacelwa ukuba babe kuyo, kufakazela isithombe senqubo engajwayelekile ebandakanya ukuqoshwa ngokunyenya, ukuhlelwa kokukhetha, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo nokungadalulwa mayelana nokuxhaswa kwefilimu."