Amaphepha eMonsanto - Izimfihlo Eziyingozi, Ukukhohlakala Kwebhizinisi, kanye Nokufuna Komuntu Ubulungiswa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Incwadi entsha yoMqondisi Wezocwaningo wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam iphumile manje futhi iqoqa izibuyekezo ezikhanyayo. Nayi incazelo emfushane yencwadi evela kumshicileli Isiqhingi Press:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupho alula. Konke ayekufuna kwakuwumsebenzi ozinzile kanye nekhaya elihle lomkakhe nezingane, okungcono kunempilo enzima ayaziyo esakhula. Wayengakaze acabange ukuthi angaba ubuso bokubambana kukaDavid noGoliyathi ngokulwa nesinye sezikhondlakhondla zezinkampani ezinamandla kakhulu emhlabeni. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yashiya uLee efakwe ikhemikhali enobuthi futhi ebhekene nomdlavuza obulalayo owaguqula impilo yakhe yabhekisa phansi. Ku-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoba uLee ebhekwe phambili kwezimpi ezisemthethweni ezinkulu kakhulu emlandweni wakamuva.

Amaphepha eMonsanto yindaba yangaphakathi yecala elibalulekile likaLee Johnson elibhekene neMonsanto. KuLee, leli cala lalingumjaho ophikisana newashi, nodokotela babikezela ukuthi ngeke aphile isikhathi eside ngokwanele ukuthi angathatha ukuma kofakazi. Eqenjini le-eclectic labammeli abancane, abanesifiso sokumela, bekuyindaba yokuziqhenya kobungcweti nokuzibeka engcupheni komuntu siqu, nezigidi zamadola abo kanye nodumo olutholwe kanzima kulayini.

Ngamandla okulandisa athintekayo, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi ekusithekeni kwempi yomthetho ekhathazayo, ibuyisa ikhethini ebuthakathakeni bohlelo lwenkantolo yaseMelika nobude abameli abazoya kulo ukulwa nobubi bezinkampani futhi bathole ubulungiswa kubathengi.

Bona okuningi mayelana ne- bhuka lapha. Thenga incwadi ku AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqhingi Press noma abathengisi bezincwadi abazimele.

Izibuyekezo

“Indaba enamandla, ixoxwa kahle, nomsebenzi omuhle wobuntatheli bokuphenya. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi ephoqelelayo kusukela ekuqaleni kuze kube sekugcineni, mayelana nezimpi zomthetho ezibaluleke kakhulu esikhathini sethu. ” - Lukas Reiter, umkhiqizi omkhulu we-TV nomlobi we "The Blacklist," "The Practice," ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto ahlanganisa isayensi nenhlekelele yabantu nedrama yasenkantolo ngesitayela sikaJohn Grisham. Kuyindaba yokukhohlakala kwezinkampani ngezinga elikhulu - isambulo esethusayo sokuhaha komkhakha wamakhemikhali, ukuzikhukhumeza, nokunganaki impilo yabantu nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kumele kufundwe. ” - UPhilip J. Landrigan, MD, uMqondisi, uHlelo Lwezempilo Yomphakathi Lomhlaba Wonke kanye neCommon Good, iBoston College

"Intatheli emnkantshubomvu ephenya uCarey Gillam utshela udaba lukaJohnson encwadini yakhe yakamuva ethi," The Monsanto Papers, "i-akhawunti esheshayo, ethintekayo yokuthi ingcebo yeMonsanto neBayer yashintsha kanjani kakhulu esikhathini esifushane kangaka. Ngaphandle kodaba oludingidwayo - isayensi nenkambiso yomthetho eyinkimbinkimbi - "Amaphepha eMonsanto" ukufundwa okuhlabahlosile okunikeza incazelo ekulula ukuyilandela yokuthi lamacala aqhubeka kanjani, amajaji afinyelela kanjani esinqumweni sawo nokuthi kungani iBayer ibonakala ngathi, empeleni , ngiphakamisa ifulegi elimhlophe manje. ” - St Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha icala eligculisayo lokuthi iMonsanto ibikuthanda kakhulu ukuvikela isithunzi senkomo yayo engukheshi kunokulalela ubufakazi besayensi ngezinto zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeni izinto eziyinkimbinkimbi zobuntu obusemthethweni, okunezela obunye ubuntu endabeni kaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyaziwe kwenhlangano okusobala ukuthi ayinandaba nempilo yomphakathi. ” - UKirkus

“UGillam ulandisa ngokubalwa kwesikhashana nenkampani enkulu imikhiqizo yayo ebimakethwa njengephephile kusukela ngawo-1970. Njengokubhekwa kokukhohlakala kwezinkampani kanye nokuqondiswa komthetho ezimweni ezibucayi, incwadi kaGillam iveza isidingo sokuvikelwa nokuphepha kwabathengi. ” - Uhlu lwezincwadi

“Kufundwe kahle, kuphendulwa ikhasi. Ngangikhathazeke ngokuphelele ngenkohliso, ukuhlanekezelwa, nokuntuleka kwenkambiso yenkampani. ” - ULinda S. Birnbaum, Owabe enguMqondisi, Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Sezesayensi Yezemvelo kanye noHlelo Lukazwelonke Lwezidakamizwa, kanye neScholar eResidence, eDuke University

"Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto nabanye osekuyisikhathi eside bengathintwa!"
- UJohn Boyd Jr., uMsunguli noMongameli, iNational Black Farmers Association

Mayelana Nombhali

Intatheli ephenyayo uCarey Gillam uchithe iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-30 ebika ngeMelika yezinkampani, kubandakanya neminyaka eyi-17 esebenzela i-Reuters international agency. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 emayelana nobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane, iWhitewash: The Story of a Weed Killer, Cancer, and the Corruption of Science, iwine i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award evela kwi-Society of Environmental Journalists futhi isiyingxenye yekharikhulamu kwezempilo eziningana zemvelo zaseyunivesithi. izinhlelo. UGillam njengamanje unguMqondisi Wokucwaninga weqembu labathengi elingenzi nzuzo i-US Right to Know futhi ubhala njengomnikeli we I-Guardian.

Uhlelo lukaBayer lokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo lubhekene nokuphikiswa okukhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani eziningi zezomthetho zase-US sezisungule umfelandawonye wokulwa ne- $ 2 billion entsha isiphakamiso sokuhlala ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG ohlose ukuqukatha isikweletu esiqhubekayo senkampani esihlobene nezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup idala uhlobo lomdlavuza olwaziwa njenge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Lesi sivumelwano senzelwe ukunxephezela abantu abake bavezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup futhi asebevele benayo i-NHL noma bangathuthukisa i-NHL ngokuzayo, kepha abangakazithathi izinyathelo zokufaka icala.

Iqembu elincane labameli abahlanganisa lolu hlelo neBayer bathi "luzosindisa izimpilo" futhi linikeze izinzuzo ezinkulu kubantu abakholelwa ukuthi baba nomdlavuza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula.

Kepha abameli abaningi abagxeka lolu hlelo bathi uma luvunywa luzobeka isibonelo esiyingozi kwezinye izinhlobo zamacala athinta inqwaba yabantu abalimele yimikhiqizo noma imikhuba yezinkampani ezinamandla.

"Lesi akusona isiqondiso esifuna uhlelo lwezobulungiswa luhambe," kusho ummeli uGerald Singleton, inkampani yakhe ejoyine nezinye izinkampani zabameli ezingaphezu kuka-60 ukuphikisana nohlelo lukaBayer. "Asikho isimo lapho lokhu kuhle kwabamangali."

Uhlelo lokukhokha lukaBayer lwafakwa eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esifundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoFebhuwari 3, futhi kumele livunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuze lisebenze kahle. Uhlelo lokukhokhelwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi olwethulwe ngonyaka odlule lwalungu- edelelwa uChabria abese ehoxa. Ijaji belibheke ukwedluliswa kwamacala e-federal multidistrict Roundup okubandakanya izinkulungwane zabamangali abavela e-United States.

Izimpendulo zohlelo lokukhokha kumele zilindeleke ngoMashi 3 bese kulalelwa lolu daba kulindeleke ukuthi kube ngoMashi 31.

Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzisi be-Roundup bamanje abangahle babe nomdlavuza futhi bafune ukumangalela ngokuzayo bazoba ngaphansi kwemibandela yokuxazululwa kwezigaba ngaphandle kokuthi baphume ngokusemthethweni kuleyo nkathi esikhathini esithile. Omunye wemibandela abazobe bekhonjelwe wona uzobavimba ekufuneni ukulimala kokujeziswa kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo.

Leyo migomo neminye ebekiwe ayinabulungiswa ngokuphelele kubasebenzi basemapulazini nakwabanye okulindeleke ukuthi babe nomdlavuza ngokuzayo kusukela ekuvezweni yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula, ngokusho kukaSingleton. Lolu hlelo luzuzisa iBayer futhi luhlinzeka "ngemali yegazi" ezinkampanini ezine zabameli ezisebenzisane neBayer ukwakha lolu hlelo, esho.

Lawo mafemu asebenzisana neBayer ukusungula nokuphatha uhlelo bazothola isamba esihlongozwayo esingu- $ 170 million uma uhlelo luqala ukusebenza.

U-Elizabeth Cabraser, ongomunye wabameli abakha lesi sakhiwo esisha esihlongozwayo, uthe ukugxekwa akuyona incazelo efanelekile ngalesi sivumelwano. Empeleni, uthe lolu hlelo “lunikeza ukufinyelela okubalulekile futhi okudingeka ngokushesha, imfundo, ukufinyelela kwezempilo, kanye nezinzuzo zesinxephezelo” kubantu abake bathola umuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup kodwa abangakenzi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

"Sifuna ukwamukelwa kwalesi sivumelwano ngoba sizosindisa izimpilo futhi sithuthukise nezinga lempilo ngokuxilonga kusenesikhathi, sisize abantu… sibazise futhi siqwashise umphakathi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kweRoundup neNHL…" esho.

Okhulumela iBayer akaphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula.

Indawo entsha ehlongozwayo kuhloswe ngamacala azayo futhi ahlukile ku- $ 11 billion iBayer ebekelwe ukukhokhela izimangalo zomdlavuza ezikhona zase-US. Abantu abathintwe yisiphakamiso sokukhokhelwa kwesigaba kungabantu nje kuphela abaye bavezwa ku-Roundup kepha abakabi kumacala futhi abakathathanga zinyathelo kunoma yiliphi icala.

IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.

Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Yize lesi sivumelwano esihlongozwayo sithi “sibhekana nezikhalazo ezine ezaphakanyiswa iNkantolo maqondana nesinqumo sangaphambili, esasihoxisiwe,” u-Singleton nabanye abameli ababandakanyeka kweqembu eliphikisayo bathi lesi sicelo esisha sokubhadala simbi njengaleso sokuqala.

Ngaphezu kokukhathazeka ukuthi amalungu ekilasi ngeke abe nelungelo lokufuna izicelo zokukhokhelwa isijeziso, abagxeki baphikisana nesikhathi seminyaka emine "sokuma" esivimba ukufakwa kwamacala amasha. Abagxeki bathi futhi uhlelo lokwazisa abantu ngokuhlala ngezigaba alwanele. Abantu bazoba nezinsuku eziyi-150 ngemuva kwesaziso sokuthi “baphume” ekilasini. Uma bengaphumi, basekilasini ngokuzenzekelayo.

Abagxeki baphikisana nokwakhiwa okuhlongozwayo kwephaneli lesayensi elizosebenza "njengesiqondisi" sokwengezwa kwezinketho zesinxephezelo esikhathini esizayo "nokunikeza ubufakazi mayelana nokubulawa kwe-carcinogenicity - noma cha - kweBayer. Njengoba kunikezwe umlando obhaliwe kaMonsanto wokukhohlisa okutholakele kwesayensi, umsebenzi wephaneli lesayensi uzoba yinsolo, kusho uSingleton.

Isikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha sasizosebenza okungenani iminyaka emine futhi singanwetshwa ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi. Uma iBayer ikhetha ukungaqhubeki nesikhwama sesinxephezelo ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha, izokhokha enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 200 njenge- “pay end” esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, kusho isifinyezo sokukhokha.

Kunikezwe “isinxephezelo esikhulu”

Amafemu abhalise isivumelwano neBayer athi ekufayeleni kwabo enkantolo ukuthi lesi sivumelwano sihlelelwe ukunikeza abamangali abangase babe khona lokho "okufeza izintshisekelo zabo," kufaka phakathi ithuba lokuthola "isinxephezelo esikhulu" uma bethuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma .

Lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama sezinxephezelo ukwenza imiklomelo ephakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000 ngelungu ngalinye lesigaba. "Imiklomelo Yokukhokha Esheshayo" engu- $ 5,000 izotholakala ngokushesha, okudinga nje ukukhonjiswa kokuchayeka nokuxilongwa.

Labo bantu baqale ukuvezwa kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup okungenani izinyanga eziyi-12 ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo bazokwazi ukuthola imiklomelo. Imiklomelo engaphezulu kwama- $ 200,000 ingenziwa "ngezimo ezingavamile." Lawo malungu ekilasi afanelekayo atholakale ene-NHL ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2015, ngeke athole imiklomelo engaphezu kwe- $ 10,000, ngokwecebo. 

Isivumelwano sizohlinzeka ngezeluleko zamahhala zomthetho futhi sinikeze ”ukwesekwa ukusiza amalungu ekilasi ekuzulazuleni, ekubhaliseni nasekufakeni izicelo zemihlomulo yokuhlala.”

Ngokwengeziwe, lesi siphakamiso sithi ukukhokhelwa kuzokhokhela ucwaningo lwezokwelapha nolwezesayensi ekutholeni nasekwelapheni i-NHL.

Okuqaphelekayo, uhlelo luthi akekho umuntu ozolahlekelwa yilungelo lakhe lokufaka icala ngaphandle uma ekhetha ukwamukela isinxephezelo esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, futhi akekho noyedwa odinga ukwenza lokho kuze kube lelo lungu lesigaba ngasinye litholakala ukuthi line-NHL. Bebengeke bakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa kepha bebengafuna esinye isinxephezelo.

“Noma yiliphi ilungu lesigaba elingafaki isimangalo futhi lamukele isinxephezelo somuntu ngamunye ligcina ilungelo lalo lokumangalela iMonsanto ngokukhokhelwa isinxephezelo kunoma iyiphi inkolelo-mbono yezomthetho, okubandakanya ukulimala komuntu, ukukhwabanisa, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo, ubudedengu, ukufihla inkohliso, ukumelwa kabi ngobudedengu, ukwephula iwaranti, ukukhangisa okungelona iqiniso , nokwephula noma ikuphi ukuvikelwa komthengi noma umthetho noma izenzo ezingalungile nezikhohlisayo, ”kusho uhlelo.

Ukuqwashisa abantu ngokuxazululwa kwesenzo sekilasi, izaziso zizothunyelwa ngeposi / zithunyelwe nge-imeyili emapulazini, amabhizinisi nezinhlangano ezingama-266,000 kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni lapho ukubulala ukhula kwenkampani bekungasetshenziswa kanye nabantu abangama-41,000 abangenayo iHodgkin lymphoma futhi bacelwe ukuthola imininingwane ngesifo sabo. Ngokwengeziwe izingqwembe zizothunyelwa ngeposi ezitolo ezingama-2,700 XNUMX zibacela ukuthi babhale izaziso zokuxazululwa kwezigaba zesigaba.

Njengengxenye yendawo yokuhlala ehlongozwayo, iBayer ithe izofuna imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yokwengeza imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela kwizifundo zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana ne-glyphosate ukuphepha. Kodwa abagxeki bathi ukuhlinzeka ngezixhumanisi zewebhusayithi akwanele futhi iBayer idinga ukubeka isexwayiso esiqondile sengozi yomdlavuza emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula.

Ukuxazululwa kwesenzo esenziwe ngezigaba kusongela ukuthinta “amakhulu ezinkulungwane noma ngisho izigidi” zabantu abaye bavezwa i-Roundup futhi "baphakamisa imibuzo 'eyingqayizivele' futhi ejulile" ngaphansi koMthethosisekelo wase-US, ngokusho kuka inkantolo yokugcwalisa ngokuphikisana nohlelo lweBayer olwenziwe ngummeli wabamangali u-Elizabeth Graham.

UGraham utshele inkantolo ukuthi uma lolu hlelo lwamukelwa lungaba "nomthelela omangazayo hhayi kuleli cala kuphela, kepha nakusasa lecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi."

Abalimi abamnyama

 INational Black Farmers Association (NBFA) ilinganisele lolu daba ngoLwesithathu, yafaka ukugcwaliswa okude nenkantolo kaChhabria ethi "ingxenye enkulu" yamalungu ayo angaphezu kwe-100,000 "adalulwe futhi angalimala yiRoundup, kanye nesithako sayo esisebenzayo i-glyphosate."

Iningi labalimi selivele lisungule i-lymphoma engeyona eye-Hodgkin abasola ngokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup, futhi "ingebhe enkulu kakhulu ukuthi bazosheshe babe nezimpawu," kusho ukugcwalisa kwe-NBFA.

I-NBFA ifuna ukubona imikhiqizo ye-Roundup isuswa kwezentengiselwano noma kwezinye izinguquko ezenziwe ukuvikela abalimi, kusho ukufayila.

Ukukhathazeka kwe-NBFA kudinga ukuthi kubhekwane nakho yinkantolo, ikakhulukazi njengoba iBayer ibheka “ukulungisa isenzo sesigaba ngeqoqo labameli abathi bamele izintshisekelo zabo bonke abalimi abadalulwe ku-Roundup kodwa abasazothuthukisa kubangela umdlavuza. ”

Amacala enkantolo e-Australia

Njengoba iBayer isebenza ukuqeda amacala eRoundup e-United States, inkampani nayo ibhekene nezimangalo ezifanayo zabalimi nabanye abase-Australia. Isenzo sekilasi esifakwe iMonsanto siyaqhubeka, kanti ummangali oholayo uJohn Fenton, owafaka isicelo seRoundup njengengxenye yomsebenzi wasepulazini. UFenton watholakala ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2008.

Uchungechunge lwezinsuku ezisemqoka selusunguliwe: IMonsanto inangoMashi 1 ukuhlinzeka ngemibhalo yokutholwa kwabameli babamangali kanti uJuni 4 yisikhathi esinqunyiwe sokushintshaniswa kobufakazi bochwepheshe. Amaqembu azongena ekuxazululeni ngoJulayi 30 kanti uma kungenakutholakali lutho leli cala lizoqala ukuqulwa ngecala ngoMashi 2022.

UFenton uthe yize "ezolithanda ithuba" lokuthi aquliswe icala axoxe indaba yakhe, unethemba lokuthi ukulamula kuzoxazulula lolu daba. “Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuvumelana sekuqala ukushintsha ngenxa yalokhu ebekwenzeka eMelika. Abalimi sebazi kangcono futhi ngikholwa wukuthi bathatha izinyathelo zokuqapha ezingaphezu kwezangaphambili.

UFenton uthe unethemba lokuthi iBayer ekugcineni izobeka ilebula lokuxwayisa emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

"Okungenani ngesexwayiso umsebenzisi angazenzela eyakhe ingqondo ngokuthi iyiphi i-PPE (imishini yokuzivikela) akhetha ukuyigqoka."

Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Izifundo ezintsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo yokuzala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba iBayer AG ifuna ukwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto eglyphosate ibangela umdlavuza, izifundo eziningana ezintsha ziphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nomthelela wamakhemikhali ongahle ube khona empilweni yokuzala.

Ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane okukhishwe kuleli hlobo kukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kungasongela ukuzala, kungeze nobufakazi obusha bokuthi umenzeli wokubulala ukhula angaba ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine. Amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-Endocrine angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.

Phakathi ku iphepha elishicilelwe ngenyanga edlule in I-Endocrinology yamangqamuzana namaselula, Abaphenyi abane base-Argentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ucwaningo olusha luza njengoba iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuxazulula izimangalo ezingaphezu kuka-100,000 ezilethwe e-United States ngabantu abasola ukutholakala kwe-Roundup kaMonsanto kanye neminye imikhiqizo ye-herbicide esuselwa e-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala yafuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

UBayer uzuze ifa le-Roundup litigation lapho uthenge iMonsanto ku-2018, ngaphambi nje kokunqoba kwecala lokuqala kwabamangali.

Izifundo zibuye futhi njengoba amaqembu abathengi esebenza ukuqonda kangcono ukuthi angakunciphisa kanjani ukuvezwa kwabo yi-glyphosate ngokudla. Ucwaningo ishicilelwe ngo-Agasti 11 ithole ukuthi ngemuva kokushintshela ekudleni okuphilayo izinsuku ezimbalwa nje, abantu bangehlisa amazinga e-glyphosate atholakala emchameni wabo ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-70. Ngokuphawulekayo, abacwaningi bathola ukuthi izingane ezifundweni bezinamazinga aphakeme kakhulu e-glyphosate emchameni wazo kunabantu abadala. Bobabili abadala nezingane babone amaconsi amakhulu phambi kwe-pesticide kulandela ukuguqulwa kokudla.

IGlyphosate, isithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup, isibulali sokhula esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. IMonsanto yethule izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kuma-1990s ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuzo zonke izinkambu zezitshalo, babulale ukhula kepha hhayi izitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo. Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngabalimi kanye nabaninikhaya, izinsiza kanye nezinhlangano zomphakathi, kudonse ukukhathazeka okukhulayo eminyakeni edlule ngenxa yokugcwala kwayo nokwesaba ukuthi ingahle yenzeni empilweni yabantu neyemvelo. Ikhemikhali manje selitholakala kakhulu ekudleni nasemanzini nasemchameni womuntu.

Ngokusho kososayensi base-Argentina, eminye imiphumela ebikiwe ye-glyphosate ebonwe ezifundweni ezintsha zezilwane kungenxa yokuchayeka emithamo ephezulu; kodwa kunobufakazi obusha obukhombisa ukuthi ngisho nokuvezwa komthamo ophansi nakho kungashintsha ukuthuthukiswa kwendlela yokuzala yabesifazane, kube nemiphumela ekuzaleni. Lapho izilwane zivezwa ku-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuthomba, izinguquko ziyabonakala ekukhuleni nasekuhlukaniseni ama-ovary follicles nesibeletho, ososayensi bathi. Ngokwengeziwe, ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe nge-glyphosate ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungashintsha ukukhula kwenzalo. Konke kunezela ukukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides yiziphazamisi ze-endocrine, abacwaningi baphetha kanjalo.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osafufusa wasePurdue University, uthe ucwaningo olusha lukhulisa ulwazi mayelana nobukhulu bomonakalo ohambisana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides futhi lunikeza "ukuqonda kangcono ukuqonda ubucayi bokuchayeka okukhona kuyo yonke indawo yethu isiko manje. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka eminingi ukuthi i-Roundup kaMonsanto kungenzeka ibe nomthelela ezinkingeni zokuzala emfuyweni.

One ukutadisha okuphawulekayo eshicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi kumagazini Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, inqume ukuthi i-glyphosate noma i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "okubalulekile kwe-hormonal kanye ne-uterine target molecular" kumagundane akhulelwe adaluliwe.

Isifundo esihlukile muva nje eshicilelwe encwadini I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphenyi base-Iowa State University babheka ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kumagundane. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi ukuvezwa okungapheli okungapheli kwezinga eliphansi le-glyphosate "kuguqula i-ovarian proteome" (iqoqo lamaprotheni azwakalayo ohlobo oluthile lweseli noma lomzimba) futhi "ekugcineni kungathinta ukusebenza kwe-ovarian. Ephepheni elihlobene elivela kubaphenyi abafanayo be-Iowa State kanye nomlobi oyedwa owengeziwe, eshicilelwe ku I-Toxicology Yokuzala, abacwaningi bathi abatholanga imiphumela ephazamisa i-endocrine kumagundane adalulwe ku-glyphosate, noma kunjalo.  

Abaphenyi abavela e-University of Georgia kubikwe kulo magazini Isayensi Yezilwane Nezilwane ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwemfuyo okusanhlamvu okugcwele izinsalela ze-glyphosate kubonakale kuthwala ukulimala kwezilwane, ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwezifundo ngesihloko. Ngokuya ngokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate abonakala esebenza "njengezidakamizwa ezinobuthi zokuzala, ezinemiphumela ehlukahlukene kuzinhlelo zokuzala zabesilisa nabesifazane," kusho abacwaningi.

Imiphumela eyethusayo ibikhona futhi kubonakala ezimvwini. Ucwaningo olushicilelwe kumagazini Ukungcola kwemvelo ibheke imithelela yokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate ekukhuleni kwesibeletho kumawundlu ezinsikazi. Bathola ushintsho abathi lungathinta impilo yokuzala yezimvu futhi lukhombise ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate asebenza njengesiphazamisi se-endocrine.

Futhi kushicilelwe ku- Ukungcola kwemvelo, ososayensi baseFinland naseSpain bathi ku iphepha elisha ukuthi benze ukuhlolwa kokuqala kwesikhathi eside kwemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe- "sub-toxic" glyphosate ezinkukhu. Bazama ukudalula izigwaca zabesifazane nabesilisa emithini ye-glyphosate-based herbicides kusukela eminyakeni eyi-10 kuye emavikini angama-52.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingakwazi "ukuguqula izindlela ezibalulekile zomzimba, isimo se-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kanye ne-microbiome" kepha ababonanga imiphumela ekukhiqizeni. Bathe imiphumela ye-glyphosate ingahle ingabonakali njalo “ngokuhlolwa kwendabuko, ikakhulukazi okwesikhashana, ikakhulukazi okunobuthi, futhi lokho kuhlola kungenzeka kungabuboni ngokugcwele ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate neNeonicotinoids

Omunye izifundo ezintsha sha ukubheka imithelela ye-glyphosate kwezempilo kushicilelwe kule nyanga ku- Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yocwaningo Lwezemvelo Nempilo Yomphakathi.  Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane i-thiacloprid ne-imidacloprid, kungenzeka kube ngabaphazamisi be-endocrine.

Ama-insecticide ayingxenye yesigaba samakhemikhali se-neonicotinoid futhi aphakathi kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni.

Abaphenyi bathi babheke umphumela we-glyphosate nama-neonicotinoid amabili kuzinhloso ezimbili ezibucayi zohlelo lwe-endocrine: i-Aromatase, i-enzyme ebhekele i-estrogen biosynthesis, ne-estrogen receptor alpha, iphrotheni enkulu ekhuthaza ukusayinda kwe-estrogen.

Imiphumela yabo ibixubile. Abaphenyi bathi maqondana ne-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uvimbela umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa ukuvimbela "bekuyingxenye futhi kubuthakathaka." Okubalulekile ukuthi abacwaningi bathi i-glyphosate ayizange idale umsebenzi we-estrogenic. Imiphumela "ibingahambisani" nohlelo lokuhlola olwenziwe yi-US Environmental Protection Agency, oluphethe ngokuthi “abukho ubufakazi obukholisayo bokusebenzisana okungaba khona nendlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate,” kusho bona.

Abaphenyi babone umsebenzi we-estrogenic nge-imidacloprid ne-thiacloprid, kepha ekugxilweni okuphezulu kunamazinga okubulala izinambuzane alinganiswa kumasampula womuntu. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi “imithamo ephansi yalezi zinambuzane akumele ibhekwe njengengozi,” kodwa, ngoba le mibulala-zinambuzane, kanye namanye amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine, “kungadala umphumela we-estrogenic.”

Okutholakele okuhlukahlukene kuza njengoba amazwe amaningi nezindawo emhlabeni wonke zihlola ukuthi kufanele kukhawulwe noma kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ubuse ngenyanga edlule ukuthi kunobufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup, idale umdlavuza.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo