Funda ama-imeyili, imibhalo ekhombisa imizamo ye-EPA yokwehlisa ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR glyphosate

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuvuselelwa: I-ATSDR ishicilele eyabo bhala iphrofayili enobuthi ye-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2019. Bona ukumbozwa: Umbiko we-ATSDR Uqinisekisa izingozi zomdlavuza weGlyphosate, I-NRDC (4.11.2019); Ezinye izixhumanisi zomdlavuza eziboniswe ekubukezweni okusalungiswa kwe-pesticide ejwayelekile, IBloomberg (4.8.2019); Ama-imeyili Khombisa i-Monsanto Cozy ngama-Feds, Izindaba Zenkantolo (4.15.2019).

Lo mbhalo kaCarey Gillam wawunjalo eshicilelwe okokuqala eHuffington Post ngo-Agasti 2017:

Amarekhodi akhombisa Imizamo ye-EPA Yokwehlisa Ukubuyekezwa Kwe-Herbicide Kwafika Ngokusebenzisana NeMonsanto

Ezokuxhumana ze-imeyili zikahulumeni ezisanda kukhishwa zikhombisa umzamo ophikelelayo wezikhulu eziningi ngaphakathi kwe-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukwehlisa ukubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwe-ejensi kahulumeni emayelana nokubulala ukhula okuthe xaxa kukaMonsanto. Ngokuphawulekile, amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi imizamo ye-EPA yeza ngokuyalelwa yiMonsanto, nokuthi izikhulu ze-EPA zazisiza ngokwanele ukugcina i-giant giant ivuselelwa ngenqubekela phambili yabo.

Ezokuxhumana, iningi lazo zitholwe ngezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), zikhombisa ukuthi kwakusekuqaleni konyaka wezi-2015 ngenkathi i-EPA neMonsanto ziqala ukusebenza ngekhonsathi ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa ngobuthi obabuboshwe eCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) yayiqhuba nge-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup herbicide.   Imininingwane evezwe kule mibhalo iza njengoba iMonsanto izivikela yona amacala okusolwa ukuthi izamile ukufihla ubufakazi bokulimala ngemithi yayo yokubulala ukhula.

I-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), i-federal agency yezempilo yomphakathi kanye ne-CDC eyingxenye yoMnyango Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu e-US (HHS), ibekwe icala lokuhlola imiphumela emibi yezempilo yabantu kusukela ekuvezweni kuya izinto ezinobungozi emvelweni. Ngakho-ke kwaba nengqondo ukuthi i-ATSDR ibheke i-glyphosate, esetshenziswa kakhulu emapulazini ase-US, otshanini bokuhlala kanye nasezivandeni, ezinkundleni zokudlala nasezinkundleni zegalofu. IGlyphosate isetshenziswa kakhulu ekukhiqizeni ukudla kanti izinsalela ze-glyphosate zitholakele ekuhlolweni komchamo womuntu.

I-ATSDR yamemezela ngoFebhuwari 2015 ukuthi ihlela ukushicilela iphrofayli enobuthi ye-glyphosate ngo-Okthoba walowo nyaka. Kepha ngo-Okthoba, lokho kubuyekezwa bekumisiwe, futhi kuze kube manje akukho ukubuyekeza okunjalo okushicilelwe. (Ukuvuselela: the ukubuyekeza okusalungiswa kwagcina kushicilelwe ngo-Ephreli 2019.) Imibhalo iveze ukuthi lokhu kwakungeyona ingozi, akukho ukubambezeleka kwezomthetho, kepha kwakungumphumela womzamo wokusebenzisana phakathi kweMonsanto neqembu lezikhulu eziphezulu ze-EPA.

KwiMonsanto, isikhathi sokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR besikhathaza. NgoMashi 2015, i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) yamemezela ukuthi i-glyphosate ibe kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noMonsanto besaba ukuthi i-ATSDR ingaba nokukhathazeka okufanayo ngekhemikhali. Imibiko yangaphambilini bachazile ukuthi esinye isikhulu se-EPA, uJess Rowland, wakhuluma kanjani noMonsanto ngo-Ephreli 2015 ngokuzimisela kwakhe ukuzama ukubulala ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR. URowland, owathatha umhlalaphansi ngo-2016, wayeyiphini lomqondisi ophikweni oluphikisana nemiphumela yezempilo eHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA (OPP). Izinsolo zokubambisana phakathi kweRowland neMonsanto zinazo kudonse uphenyo yiHhovisi loMhloli Jikelele le-EPA.

Kodwa imibhalo eminingi esanda kutholakala ngaphakathi kwe-EPA ne-HHS ikhombisa ukuthi usizo oluya eMonsanto aluveli eRowland kuphela kodwa nasezikhulwini ze-EPA ezisezingeni eliphakeme. Esikhundleni sokukhuthaza nokusiza ukubuyekezwa kwe-toxicology ye-glyphosate, izikhulu ze-Monsanto ne-EPA zakhalaza kaninginingi ku-ATSDR naku-HHS ngokuthi ukubukeza okunjalo "kwakungokuziphindaphinda" ngokungadingekile futhi kufanele kubuyele emuva ekubuyekezweni kwe-EPA nakho okuqhubekayo.

Umugqa wesikhathi olandelayo ukhombisa ukuthi izehlakalo zenzeka kanjani:

Meyi 19, 2015 - UMichael Dykes, ngaleso sikhathi owayeyiphini likamongameli wesikhathi eside kaMonsanto ezindabeni zikahulumeni, ubhalele ngqo uJim Jones we-EPA, Umsizi Womphathi Wehhovisi Lezokuphepha Kokuvikela Nokungcola. UJones ubengamele iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane le-EPA (OPP) futhi wayeqokwa njengomongameli owayephethe amandla amakhulu. Ntambama bekuncipha ngenkathi i-imeyili ingena ngo-3: 28 ntambama uDykes ukhumbuze uJones ukuthi basanda kuxoxa ngokubuyekezwa kwe-HHS 'ATSDR glyphosate emhlanganweni.

“Ubungazi ngokubuyekezwa kwabo. Ngabe kukhona okuthile okufundile ngemizamo yabo? ” UDykes ubuze.

UJones akazange achithe isikhathi. Cishe ngemuva kwehora udlulisele lo myalezo kuMqondisi we-OPP uJack Housenger, yekubhala “IMonsanto icabanga ukuthi i-atsdr yenziwa yi-glyphosate Assessment. Ningahlehlisa lokho? ” IHousenger iphendula ngokushesha: “Yebo. UJess uhlole nabo…. Kube nzima ukuthola imininingwane. ”

Kungakapheli ihora uJones wayala ilungu labasebenzi bakhe ukuthi limtholele imininingwane yokuxhumana nomphathi ophethe i-ATSDR. Uphendule ngakusasa ekuseni ukuthi uDkt Patrick Breysse wayengumuntu oyiphuzu. UBreysse ujoyine iCDC ngo-2014 njengomqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health, obhekele i-ATSDR ye-NCEH.

Kwangathi 20, 2015 Kwakungemuva nje kuka-8: 30 ekuseni kodwa uJones watshela umsebenzi ukuthi ayalele uHousenger ukuthi axhumane noBreysse, kwathi kungakapheli amahora amabili uHousenger wabhala i-imeyili kuBreysse echaza ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kabusha / ingozi yokuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kwase kuzophela, futhi kubuza uBreysse ukuthi “usasibona yini isidingo sokwenza ukuhlolwa kwakho.” UHousenger utshele uBreysse ukuthi usevele usefinyelele kumuntu obabelwe ukuhlolwa kwe-ATSDR futhi uveze ukuthi "uzosebenzisana" ne-EPA, kodwa lokho bekunganele. UHousenger akazange akhulume ngokufinyelela kukaMonsanto ku-EPA ngalolu daba, kodwa kunalokho wabuza “ukuthi lokhu kusetshenziswa kahle yini kwezinsiza zikahulumeni” ukuze i-ATSDR iqhubeke nokubuyekezwa kwayo. UBreysse uphendule ngokuthi uzobheka lokhu futhi uHousenger wambonga ngempendulo yakhe esheshayo. UBreysse wabe esexhumana nomqondisi wesigaba se-ATSDR ogama lakhe linguJames Stephens ukuhlela ingxoxo mayelana nesicelo se-EPA.

Kwangathi 21, 2015 UJames Stephens wabhalela emuva UPatrick Breysse ukuthi iqembu le-ATSDR licabanga ukuthi umsebenzi we-EPA “uyagqagqana kodwa awuphindi ngokuphelele…” futhi wathi iqembu le-ASTDR alikwazanga ukubona amakhophi okusalungiswa omsebenzi we-EPA. "Ngicabanga ukuthi sonke sizokwamukela ukuqhubeka kwezingxoxo ne-EPA kodwa singathemba ukuthi sizoyisebenzisela ukusisiza sithole kabanzi ngalokhu abakwenzayo," utshele uBreysse. Ngemuva kokuzwa kuStephens, UBreysse ubhale waphendula kuHousenger ethi abasebenzi be-ATSDR bazothintana ukuxoxa. UHousenger uphendule ngokubhala kwakhe ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR kuzoba "umzamo kahulumeni oyimpinda”Nokuthi uhlaka lwe-EPA luzophuma ngoJulayi ka-2015. (Njengalokhu kubhalwa, lokho kuhlolwa kokuqala kwe-EPA akukakhishwa, kepha ngo-2016 i-EPA yakhipha umbiko wokuhlolwa komdlavuza owamemezela ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingeke ibange umdlavuza.)

June 4, 2015 Ukucindezela inkinga, IHousenger ye-EPA iphinde yabhalela uBreysee ithi ayikaze izwe muntu okwamanje. UStephens we-ATSDR ubhale wazibophezela ethembisa ukuthi uzokuqinisekisa ukuthi “othile ukunikeza indandatho.”  Ama-imeyili angaphakathi eMonsanto kukhombisa ukuthi ngasikhathi sinye, uMonsanto wayephonsa futhi indaba "eyimpinda" ne-HHS, ehlangana ngoJuni 4 neSekela likaNobhala Womsizi we-HHS we-Global Health Mitchel Wolfe ukumcela ukuthi asize ekulahleni ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC futhi abone ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate "bekungeyona indima eyinhloko" ye-ejensi yakhe. “UDkt. UWolfe uthe uzolandela ukuthi kwenzekani nge-ATSDR futhi ukhuthazekile ukuthi abe nezingxoxo nabasebenzi be-EPA, ”futhi, imemo yaseMonsanto echaza kabanzi ngomhlangano.

June 9, 2015 UHenry Abadin, usosayensi ophethe i-ATSDR, kubika uStephens ukuthi ukhulume noHousenger futhi wachaza ukuthi le nhlangano ayikholwa ukuthi "ibizama ukwenza imizamo." Yize kunjalo, uthe utshele i-EPA, "asibanga nankinga ngokubeka imininingwane ye-glyphosate, kusalindwe umbiko wokugcina we-OPP."

June 19, 2015 Ukuqhubeka nokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR akuqhubekanga phambili, iDykes kaMonsanto iphinde yakhuluma noWolfe kaHHS, icela ukuvuselelwa ku-ATSDR. “Ngichazile… umbuzo wethu ubumayelana nenhloso nobubanzi bokubukeza okuphindwe kabili okwenziwe yi-ATSDR. Ngamtshela nokuthi sikhathazekile ngokuthi i-ATSDR ingaphuma noma yinini ngombiko. Ngiphinde ngagcizelela ukuthi sikhathazekile ngokuthi babuye babuyekeza ne-glyphosate njengabantu esikhulume nabo ku-EPA, ”kusho uDykes ebhalela ozakwabo.

June 21, 2015 KwakungeSonto, kepha iDonskes kaMonsanto yayisakhathazeke ngokwanele ngokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR ukukopisha ozakwabo abaningi nge-imeyili yasebusuku kakhulu ukubika ukuthi uqhubekile nokucindezela iphuzu "lokuziphindaphinda" ne-ATSDR kodwa ubekhathazekile ngokuthi "ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate kuza noma yiluphi usuku."  In umlayezo wombhalo wathumela ngalo lolo suku, usosayensi waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs wafinyelela kulowo owayekade eyisazi sobuthi se-EPA ogama lakhe linguMary Manibusan ecela oxhumana nabo e-ATSDR. “Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke kuleli qembu. angadinga usizo lwakho, ”kubhala uSachs. Imiyalezo ebithunyelwe ibiphakathi kwezinye amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto etholwe izisulu zomdlavuza ezimangalela iMonsanto ethi iRoundup idale izifo zabo.

June 23, 2015 NgoLwesibili, uJenkins kaMonsanto wayesenezindaba ezimnandi: Wayezwile kuHousenger ukuthi isikhulu se-EPA siphumelele ekutholeni isethembiso esivela ku-ATSDR sokubeka umbiko waso "umisiwe." Ukubuyekeza bekungafanga, noma kunjalo, wabhala: I-ATSDR ithi “inqubo yabo iyahlukaniswa hhayi ukuphindwaphindwa. Babheka iziphetho ezahlukahlukene base betshela i-EPA ukuthi “ababizi umdlavuza”, kodwa ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele siqhubeke nokuqapha. ”

Ngo-June 24, 2015 Usosayensi omkhulu kaMonsanto uWilliam Heydens uphendule: “'Uyabonakala futhi akaphindi'? Ngokuzimisela? Futhi ngizokukholwa ukuthi hhayi 'ukwenza ucingo ngomdlavuza' uma ngiwubona. Noma kunjalo, okungenani bayazi ukuthi bayabukwa, futhi ngethemba ukuthi lokho kubenza bangenzi noma yini ewubuphukuphuku… ”uJenkins ubhale waphendula, evuma ukuthi iMonsanto inokwesaba okukhulu okuvela ku-ATSDR kune-EPA njengoba lezi zinhlaka zombili zifike“ eziphethweni ezahlukahlukene ” kwezinye izindaba. Ubike ukuthi utshelwe ukuthi i-ATSDR "igcine kakhulu futhi i-IARC ithanda…"

By October 23, 2015 I-EPA neMonsanto babe nokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR ngokugcwele. Indlu ka-EPA ubhale ukuvuselela amaJonsins kaMonsanto: “Balinde i-glyphosate RA yethu. Futhi bavumile ukuhlanganyela lokho abakwenzayo. ”

Ngayo leyo nyanga, i-EPA's Cancer Assessment Review Committee (CARC), eyayiholwa yiRowland, yakhipha umbiko wangaphakathi othi okuphambene ne-IARC, ukubuyekezwa kwe-EPA nge-glyphosate kutholile "akunakwenzeka ukuthi zibangele umdlavuza kubantu. ”

I-EPA kusamele ikhiphe konke ukuhlolwa kwezinhlekelele yathi izophuma ngo-2015. Le nhlangano inikeze isikhathi esishintsha njalo sokuhlolwa, kodwa manje ithi ihlose ukukhipha uhlaka lokuhlola ubungozi esikhathini esithile kulo nyaka. Lokho kuzolandelwa yisikhathi sezinsuku ezingama-60 sokuphawula komphakathi. Ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuphawula komphakathi i-EPA izonquma ukuthi kukhona yini ukulawulwa kobungozi okudingekayo. Okwamanje, uMonsanto ukhombe ukuxhaswa kwe-EPA kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate njengokulahlwa kwe-IARC ekutholeni bobabili enkantolo kanye nabalawuli baseYurophu nabo ababheka izindaba zokuphepha ze-glyphosate.

I-EPA ayiphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula ngemizamo yayo yokubambezela umbiko we-ATSDR noma ukuxhumana neMonsanto maqondana nalowo mzamo.

Kodwa uBrent Wisner, ummeli omele izisulu eziningi zomdlavuza ezimangalela uMonsanto, uthe le mibhalo inikeza ubufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda bokuxhumana okungafanele phakathi kwe-EPA nenkampani yamakhemikhali. “Ngicabanga ukuthi kucace bha… ukuthi izikhulu ze-EPA kanye nabasebenzi baseMonsanto basebenze ndawonye ukufeza inhloso yokumisa lokho kuhlaziya e-ATSDR. Lokho kungukuhlanganyela. Angazi ukuthi yini enye ongayibiza ngalokho, ”kusho uWisner.

Ngokwengxenye yayo, i-ATSDR ithe kuleli sonto ukuthi ukubuyekezwa okuqale ngo-2015 “akuphelelanga” kepha kulindeleke ukuthi kukhishwe uhlaka lwephrofayili ye-glyphosate enobuthi ukuze umphakathi uphawule ngalo ngasekupheleni kwalo nyaka. Okhulumela le nhlangano unqabile ukuxoxa ngezimo ezithinta ukubambezeleka kokubuyekezwa.

Futhi uJones, omsebenzi wakhe we-EPA waphela lapho abaphathi bakaTrump sebethatha izintambo, wavikela ukuphendula kwakhe ekukhathazekeni kukaMonsanto mayelana nokubuyekezwa kwe-ATSDR, ethi lokhu kwakuhlobene kuphela "nokusetshenziswa kahle kwezinsiza zikahulumeni."

"Ukube likhona iqembu elangithinta langitshela ukuthi enye inhlangano ngaphakathi kwe-Administration yayihlola ngasikhathi sinye ikhemikhali njengenhlangano yami, ngangizongenelela," kusho uJones. “Akunanzuzo ukuthi uhulumeni ofanayo atshale imali elinganiselwe ukuze asebenze odabeni olufanayo. Njengoba wazi ukuthi izinsiza ezingeni likahulumeni zazikhona futhi ziyindlala okwenza ukuphinda kube yinkinga kakhulu. ” UJones uthe futhi "lapho izinhlangano ezimbili zihlola ikhemikhali elifanayo, maningi amathuba okuthi kube nokwehluka ekuhloleni kwazo.  Noma ngabe lokhu kwehluka akubalulekile ngombono wezempilo yomphakathi, kuchithwa amandla amakhulu kakhulu ukuzama ukuxazulula lokhu kungezwani ”futhi lokho akugcini nje ngokuthakazelisa umphakathi.

Indaba Elandele Isilingo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto - Izindatshana Zokubhala Kuhlehliswa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kusho ukuthini ukuthi “ghostwriting” nguMonsanto, ukuthi kuthinte kanjani, futhi kusenethonya kanjani, izinto ezitholakala kumajenali esayensi abuyekezwa ngontanga

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam noNathan Donley

Abathengi nezintatheli emhlabeni wonke bamangala ekuqaleni kwenyanga lapho uMonsanto, ngemuva kokuphoqelelwa enkantolo yezomthetho okokuqala ukuvikela ukuphepha kombulali wakhe odumile wokhula uRoundup, utholwe enecala ngomdlavuza wokuphela komgcini wezindawo waseCalifornia uDewayne Johnson.

Ijaji elivumelanayo lamalungu ayi-12 okutholiwe Ukuchayeka kukaMnu. Johnson kumuthi we-weedkiller kaMonsanto kwaba "yinto enkulu" ebambe iqhaza kulesi sifo sakhe nokuthi kunobufakazi "obucacile nobukholisayo" bokuthi iMonsanto yayisebenza "ngobubi noma ingcindezelo" ngoba ubungozi babusobala futhi iMonsanto yehluleka ukuxwayisa ngalabo abaziwayo izingozi.

Ngaphandle kobufakazi bobuchwepheshe obubambekayo ezinhlangothini zombili, ijaji linikezwe ama-imeyili enkampani yangaphakathi nezinhlelo zomsebenzi ezibonisa ukuthi uMonsanto ubelokhu onakalisa irekhodi lesayensi ngokubhala ngemibhalo eqinisekisa ukuphepha.

Njengoba kungena isinqumo sejaji, nezinkulungwane zabamangali abafake amasudi afanayo balinda usuku lwabo enkantolo, kubalulekile ukuthatha isikhathi ukuqonda kahle ukuthi kusho ukuthini “ukubhala ghostwrit” okwenziwe nguMonsanto, ukuthi kube nomthelela muni, futhi kusenethonya kanjani, okokusebenza okutholakala emaphephandabeni esayensi abuyekezwa ontanga.

Sinikeza lesi sibonelo:

Lapho umagazini wesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT) ushicilele uchungechunge lwamaphepha abukeza amandla we-carcinogenic we-ejenti yokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate, isithako esikhulu seMonsanto's Roundup, ngoSepthemba 2016, lokho okutholakele kwakubaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba kwabikwa kabanzi ngabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele.

Amaphepha, eyanyatheliswa kumagazini okhethekile we I-CRT enesihloko esithi "Ukubuyekezwa Okuzimele Kwamandla Okuba Nomdlavuza WeGlyphosate," kuphambene ngqo nokutholwe yi-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), okuthi ngo-2015 okutholiwe I-glyphosate ibe yi-carcinogen yabantu. Ababhali bokubuyekezwa kwango-2016 bathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula kungenzeka angabeki ubungozi be-carcinogenic kubantu.

Lokhu okutholakele bekubaluleke kakhulu kuMonsanto - inkampani ibibhekene nokungabaza ngabalawuli baseYurophu ngokuvumela i-glyphosate ukuthi ihlale emakethe. Futhi, iMonsanto ibibhekene ne- ukukhula kwenqwaba yamacala ukufuna ukuthi umbulali wayo wokhula kubangele ukuthi abantu bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ososayensi abayishumi nesithupha abavela “kumaphaneli amane azimele” basayine amagama abo ku- umsebenzi oshicilelwe, bememezela abafundi ukuthi iziphetho zabo bezingenakho ukungenelela kukaMonsanto. Kugcizelela ukuzimela komsebenzi, i isimemezelo sentshisekelo isigaba sathi: “Akekho noyedwa kubasebenzi benkampani yeMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma yimiphi imibhalo yesandla ye-Expert Panel ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini. ”

Sekuvele-ke ukuthi la maphepha ayengazimele lutho. Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto baphoqeleka ekukhanyeni komphakathi ngokukhombisa ukuthi amaphepha akhishwa kwasekuqaleni njengecebo elikhohlisayo leMonsanto. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kodwa waba nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni. Amaphepha aqediwe abhekiswe ngqo ekudicileleni phansi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC.

Ngesinye i-imeyili yangaphakathi, Isikhulu sezokuphathwa kwezomthetho eMonsanto, uWilliam Heydens, utshele umgqugquzeli waleso sigungu: “Ngiwubheke wonke lo mbhalo futhi ngakhombisa ukuthi yini engicabanga ukuthi kufanele ihlale, ukuthi yini engahamba, futhi ezindaweni ezimbalwa ngenze ukuhlela okuncane.”

Imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi uHeydens kwaze kwaxabana ngaphezulu kwezitatimende ayezifuna zifakiwe kepha lowo mbhali uJohn Acquavella uthethe ukugxekwa kwe-IARC "okuvuthayo" futhi "okungadingekile. Imibhalo esalungiswa ikhombisa ukuthi ukuhlelwa kukaHeydens bekuphikisana nokuhlelwa kwe-Acquavella yize uHeydens bekungafanele abuyekeze amaphepha. UHeydens waze wathi: “Ngingakushaya indiva ukuphawula kukaJohn” futhi “Angisiboni isizathu sokususa umbhalo owenziwe uJohn ngezansi.”

Okunye ukuhlelwa kukhombisa uHeydens ezama ukulawula ithoni yombhalo wesandla, esishoyo: "Isitatimende esisuswe ngezansi asihlangene nokugxekwa kwe-IARC futhi kufanele sibuyiselwe emuva, uJohn weqe imingcele lapha" nokuthi "Ngingaphila ngokususa umbhalo ongezansi, ngicabanga ukuthi umbhalo ovezwe ngenhla… ungezwe futhi ku. ” Uphinde waphikisana nokubuyisela ibinzana elisusiwe ngoba linikeza "ukucaciseleka ngendlela i-IARC esebenza ngayo." "Lokhu akukhona ukuvuvukala, kuyachaza," wabhala.

Ukubaluleka kwamaphepha eMonsanto njengethuluzi lokuphikisana nokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen okungenzeka kwabekwa ku idokhumenti eyimfihlo yangomhlaka-11 Meyi 2015, eqamba ososayensi abaningana abangasetshenziswa njengababhali ukunika amaphepha ukuthembeka. I- imibhalo yangaphakathi khuluma ngamasu "okubhala okuyizipoki" okuhloswe ngawo ukusebenzisa ososayensi okungezona izinkampani njengababhali ukunikeza ukwethembeka kokutholakele.

Lapho ufungiswa phansi kwesifungo, UHeydens wavuma ukuthi imibhalo yesandla yathunyelwa kuye futhi wafunda “izingxenye ezithile zazo,” ngaphambi kokulethwa kwabo kulo magazini. Uthe "akakhumbuli" ukuthi wenza noma cha ukuhlelwa okungama-28 abameli babamangali ababala kumarekhodi angaphakathi.

Konke lokhu bekuphakathi kobufakazi obethulwe kumajaji eNkantolo Ephakeme yaseSan Francisco njengoba babecubungula izimangalo zikaJohnson. Kepha ubufakazi bokubhala ghost nokungaziphathi kahle kunemiphumela ebanzi kakhulu kunecala elilodwa.

Mangaki amaphepha abhalwe ghost amemezela ukuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane angcolisa izincwadi zesayensi? Futhi uma unikezwe ubufakazi bokungaziphathi kahle kulokhu, kungani la maphepha esashicilelwa? Kungani kungazange kube khona ukuhlehla, akukho ukucaciswa, akukho ukulungiswa kokudalulwa okusobala ngokusobala?

Ngo-Agasti odlule, ngemuva kokuthi imibhalo ithole ukunakwa ngabezindaba I-CRT umhleli Kusho uRoger McClellan “izinsolo ezibucayi” kwakufanele “ziphenywe ngokucophelela,” futhi yena no I-CRT Umshicileli uTaylor noFrancis bazothatha "izinyathelo ezifanele."

Ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho Isikhungo Sokuhlukahluka Kwezinto Eziphilayo kanye nezinye izinhlangano ezintathu zikazwelonke zemvelo nezempilo wathumela incwadi kuya I-CRT kanye noTaylor noFrancis abachaza kabanzi ngokungaziphathi kahle kwezokuziphatha bese becela ukuhoxiswa. Sekuphele isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka lolu phenyo luqalisiwe futhi, yize kunezicelo eziningi zokulandelwa yilezi zinhlangano, akukho zinyathelo ezithathiwe.

NoTaylor noFrancis uqobo inqubomgomo ukukhipha ukuhoxiswa kokungaziphathi kahle "lapho kube khona ukwephulwa kokuziphatha kokushicilela," icala lokuhoxa alikwazanga ukucaca bha.

Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto zikuso sonke lesi sibuyekezo "esizimele", njengoba kubhalwe kwimibhalo yangaphakathi kaMonsanto.

UTaylor noFrancis kumele banqume amazinga abazimisele ngawo ukubamba ososayensi abashicilela kumajenali abo - uma kungenjalo ngenxa yedumela lawo, ngakho-ke ngenxa yobuqotho besayensi uqobo kanye nelungelo lomphakathi leqiniso.

Kwenziwe Kanjani 'IMonsanto' Ukuthukuthela 'e-IARC ngokwehlukaniswa Komdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
NguCarey Gillam

Eminyakeni emithathu edlule kule nyanga Monsanto abaphathi babona ukuthi banenkinga enkulu ezandleni zabo.

KwakungoSepthemba 2014 futhi ikhemikhali elidayisa kakhulu kule nkampani, elibulala ukhula lathi glyphosate leso yisisekelo sophawu lukaMonsanto Roundup imikhiqizo, yayikhethwe njengenye yezibulala-zinambuzane ezimbalwa ezazizohlolwa yiWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). UMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka evikela ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokukhalaza ucwaningo lwesayensi olubonisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingadala umdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. Futhi noma ngabe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kwakusasele izinyanga, ososayensi uqobo lukaMonsanto babazi ukuthi umphumela ungaba yini-futhi babazi ukuthi ngeke kube kuhle.

Amarekhodi enkampani yangaphakathi awakhombisi nje kuphela izinga lokwesaba uMonsanto ayenalo mayelana nokubuyekezwa okuzayo, kodwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izikhulu zenkampani zazilindele ngokugcwele ososayensi be-IARC ukuthi bathole okungenani ukuxhumana okuthile komdlavuza ne-glyphosate. Ososayensi benkampani baxoxe "ngobungozi" obuzungeze imizamo yabo yokuvikela i-glyphosate phakathi kokutholakele okungathandeki okuningi kocwaningo kwizifundo zabantu nezilwane ezivezwe kumbulali wokhula. Ngaphezu kwezifundo ze-epidemiology, "futhi sinezinkinga ezingaba khona kwezinye izindawo i-IARC ezocubungula, okuwukuthi, ukuvezwa, i-genetox kanye nendlela yokwenza ..." kubhala usosayensi waseMonsanto ngo-Okthoba 2014. I-imeyili efanayo ixoxe ngesidingo sokuthola ababambisene nabo nokuhlela uxhaso “lokulwa” —izinyanga zonke ngaphambi komhlangano we-IARC ngoMashi 2015.

Futhi iMonsanto yabikezela ngaphakathi ngaphambi kokuthi i-IARC ihlangane nokuthi ukubuyekezwa kobufakazi besayensi kungaholela esinqumweni sokuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka" yayiyi-carcinogenic noma "mhlawumbe" yayikhona. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zazibikezele ngesinqumo se-IARC ku uhlelo lwangaphakathi "lokulungela" lokho kwexwayisa ozakwabo ukuthi “bacabangele futhi balungiselele umphumela…” Lo mbhalo ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayecabanga ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-IARC ikhombe i-glyphosate "njenge-carcinogen yabantu." Ukulinganiswa kwe-carcinogen okungenzeka kube "kungenzeka kodwa kuncane kakhulu," kusho imemo yeMonsanto. IARC ekugcineni yenzile hlela i-glyphosate njenge “mhlawumbe okubanga umdlavuza ebantwini.”

Njengoba umhlangano we-IARC wawususondele, imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ayizange ilinde isinqumo sangempela se-IARC ngaphambi kokuthatha isinyathelo. Ibhalise amaqembu ochwepheshe be-PR kanye nabaceli bokucela usizo, ososayensi nabanye kuhlelo oluhlose ukudala lokho okwenzelwe ukuthi kuvele njengesiphepho "sokukhala" kanye "nentukuthelo" yokulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. I-IARC ibinomlando "wezinqumo ezingabazekayo nezisolwa kwezepolitiki," kusho imemo yeMonsanto.

Uhlelo bekungukudala impikiswano eyanele yokuhlambalaza ngokuphelele ukuhlolwa kwe-IARC ngoba izikhulu zeMonsanto bezazi ukuthi abalawuli bazothonywa yi-IARC, futhi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwamakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kungaba sengozini.

"Kungenzeka ukuthi isinqumo se-IARC sibe nomthelela ekuthathweni kwezinqumo esikhathini esizayo," kusho uMonsanto encwadini yakhe yangaphakathi.

Isikhathi besibucayi ngoba ngo-2015 bobabili i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) kanye neKhomishini yase-Europe bebehlola ukugunyazwa kabusha kombulali wokhula waseMonsanto. Ukulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-European Union kanye ne-EPA kubambezele izinqumo zokugcina nge-glyphosate phakathi kwempikiswano esaqhubeka mayelana nokuphepha kwamakhemikhali.

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi kwakusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kwakukhona ubufakazi bokuba ne-carcinogenicity," kusho uPeter Infante, udokotela wezifo ezithathelana ngezifo osebenze iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-24 kuhulumeni wase-US efunda izingozi zomdlavuza kubasebenzi ekuvezweni yizinto ezinobuthi. "Kungabonakala kimi ukuthi iMonsanto ayithandi ukuthi umphakathi waziswe ngengozi yomdlavuza."

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi bekusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kunobufakazi bokuthi umzimba ubanga umdlavuza."

Ngemuva kwesinqumo se-IARC, kwaqubuka isiphepho semibhikisho esivela kubantu nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene kanye nokukhala kukaMonsanto ngentukuthelo. Abanye bangabaze ubuhlakani bezimali zaseMelika i-IARC neMonsanto kuqhubekile ukulandisa okungamanga ukuthi usihlalo weqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC wagodla imininingwane ebalulekile eqenjini.

Umzila wedokhumenti, okubandakanya ama-imeyili angaphakathi, ama-memos nokunye ukuxhumana okutholwe eMonsanto ngabameli babamangali ngokusebenzisa amacala asalindwe e-US, kucacisa ukuthi impikiswano, nenselelo yokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC ayizange ihlume ngokoqobo kumazwi ahlukahlukene, kepha eyenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kwesinqumo se-IARC futhi yaqhubeka ngemuva kwalokho. Inhloso bekungukuthi-futhi inguye-ukukholisa abalawuli ukuthi bakuyeke okutholwe yithimba lochwepheshe abazimele besayensi abakha iqembu le-IARC elalihlola i-glyphosate.

Amarekhodi angaphakathi atholwe ngamacala, kuhlanganiswe nemibhalo etholwe nge-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) nezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso futhi kukhombisa ukuthi izenzo ezisetshenziselwe ukudicilela phansi i-IARC beziyingxenye yamaphethini amashumi eminyaka amaqhinga akhohlisayo yiMonsanto ukuncenga abalawuli, abenzi bomthetho namalungu abezindaba nomphakathi ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-Roundup ziphephile. Le nkampani isisebenzise la maqhinga kaningi eminyakeni edlule ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abaningana abacwaningi babo abathole imiphumela eyingozi ehambisana ne-glyphosate.

"Ukukhala Kwe-orchestrate ”

Uhlelo lokuhlaselwa kwe-IARC, olwabekwa kumemo kaFebhuwari 2015, aluzange lubandakanye kuphela abantu baseMonsanto bangaphakathi be-PR, ososayensi kanye nochwepheshe bezokumaketha, kodwa nohlu lwabadlali bezimboni bangaphandle. Abantu abahlukahlukene babelwa imisebenzi. “Amasu namasu” afakiwe:

  • "I-Orchestrate Outry" enesinqumo se-IARC-Imboni iqhuba ukufinyelela okuqinile kwemidiya / imithombo yezokuxhumana ngenqubo nomphumela.
  • "Khomba / ucele ochwepheshe abavela eceleni ukuthi babhulogi, ba-op / bahlele, babhale i-tweet kanye / noma baxhumanise, baphinde babhale, baphinde babhale kabusha, njll." Le mibhalo ikhombisa “uchwepheshe” onjalo, uHenry Miller oyisifundiswa unikeze i-athikili ebhaliwe ukuthumela iForbes ukuthi ishicilelwe ngaphansi kwegama lakhe kungashiwo ukuthi uMonsanto ubandakanyekile. UForbes ufunde ngokukhohlisa ngenyanga edlule futhi baqeda ubudlelwane noMiller.
  • “Inform / Inoculate / Engage Industry Partners” —Ngokucacile abalingani bemboni ababalwe ohlwini babandakanya izinhlangano ezintathu ezithi zizimele ngeMonsanto kodwa sekuyisikhathi eside zibonwa ngabagxeki njengamaqembu aphambili enkampani — iMonsanto iqanjwe Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, womabili asuselwe e-US nase Umuzwa Ngezesayensi, esebenze e-United Kingdom nase-US, njengamaqembu ukusiza ngomsebenzi wayo. Eqinisweni, iSense About Science kwakuyiqembu elakhonjwa yiMonsanto ukuhola ukuphendula kwemboni futhi "linikeze inkundla yababukeli be-IARC." La maqembu enza njengoba kuhlelwe iMonsanto, athumela ukuhlaselwa okuthusayo e-IARC kumawebhusayithi awo.
  • Ukuzibandakanya ne-Regulatory Agencies-I-Monsanto ihlelelwe izinhlangano / abatshali bezolimo ukuthi "babhale abalawuli ngesikhalazo sokuthi bahlale begxile kwisayensi, hhayi esinqumweni sezombusazwe esenziwe yi-IARC."
  • "Push umbono womholi incwadi eya ephephandabeni eliyinhloko lansuku zonke ngosuku lwesinqumo se-IARC" ngosizo lwenkampani yezentengiso yasePotomac Group.

Uhlelo lokulungela lolo lubuye lusekele ukuxhasa "ukwakhiwa kwamaphepha amathathu amasha kwi-glyphosate egxile ku-epidemiology kanye ne-toxicology." Njengoba kuhlelwe, ngemuva nje kwesinqumo se-IARC uMonsanto wahlela ukuthi ososayensi abaningana — iningi labo ababengabasebenzi noma abeluleki abakhokhelwayo - babhale futhi bashicilele amaphepha ocwaningo asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Kwembulwa ngemibhalo yokutholwa ukuthi iMonsanto yaxoxa ngokubhalwa kwamaphepha ngesipoki. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, usosayensi wenkampani uWilliam Heydens utshele ozakwabo ukuthi inkampani "ingabhala izipoki" imibiko ethile ezophatha amagama ososayensi abangaphandle - "bazovele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," wabhala. Ubalule njengesibonelo isifundo sango-2000 esathathwa njengesinomthelela kubalawuli. Imibhalo ikhombisa Ukubhala nokuhlela okunzima kukaMonsanto ekubuyekezweni okusolakala ukuthi “kuzimele” okuholele kulokho.

IMonsanto iphikile yaliphika ilungelo lokubhala, kepha imemo eyodwa kusukela ngo-Agasti 2015 okuvela emafayilini kasosayensi waseMonsanto uDavid Saltmiras empeleni usebenzisa lelo gama, esho ukuthi “ghostwrote iphepha lokubuyekeza umdlavuza uGreim et al (2015)…” ebhekisa ephepheni elakhombisa ukuqanjwa ngusosayensi waseJalimane uHelmut Greim kanye noSaltmiras. (UMonsanto uvumile ukuthi uGreim wasebenza njengomxhumanisi enkampanini kanti ingxenye yomsebenzi wakhe kwakuwukushicilela imininingwane ebuyekezwa ngontanga ku-glyphosate).

Enye i-imeyili yangaphakathi kukhombisa ukubhalwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto wephepha locwaningo elinesihloko esithi "Imiphumela Yokuthuthuka Nokuzala… ngemuva Kokuvezwa KweGlyphosate." Usosayensi, uDonna Farmer, wenza umsebenzi omningi, kufaka phakathi lokho akubiza ngokuthi "ukusika nokunamathisela" kolwazi oluthile. Kepha igama lakhe alifakwanga njengombhali ngaphambi kokuba leli phepha linikezwe iphephabhuku. I- okushicilelwe uphethe ngokuthi abukho "ubufakazi obuqinile obuxhuma ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate emiphumeleni emibi yokukhula noma yokuzala."

Umzila wamaphepha futhi ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wesaba ukuthi inkampani yezempilo yase-US ehlela ukubuyekeza i-glyphosate e2015 ingavumelana ne-IARC futhi isebenzisane ne-EPA ukuvimba ngempumelelo leyo ejensi—I-Agency for Toxic Substances & Registry Registry (ATSDR) -kusukela ekwenzeni ukubuyekeza kwayo. "Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke," Isikhulu senkampani sabhala. 

Irekhodi likhombisa ukuthi ngaphambi kwe-IARC, iMonsanto amanethiwekhi aqashiwe ososayensi bezemfundo e-US nase-Europe abavikele imikhiqizo kaMonsanto, kufaka phakathi umbulali wayo wokhula, ngaphandle kokumemezela ukusebenzisana kwabo neMonsanto. Futhi ukuthi la masosha athule asize iMonsanto idicilele phansi ososayensi ababike ucwaningo olubonisa ukulimala okuhambisana ne-glyphosate ne-Roundup, kufaka phakathi ukusebenza ngokubhideka kukaMonsanto ukuthola ucwaningo olulodwa oluyingozi ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini ehoxisiwe kumagazini wesayensi lapho yashicilelwa khona ngoSepthemba 2012. Le nkampani yaze yakwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngomunye wabaluleki bayo abakhokhelwayo owathola ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate's genotoxicity yanqaba ukwenza ezinye izivivinyo watusa.

Uma okushiwo yiMonsanto kuyiqiniso, leyo glyphosate iphephe kakhulu, nokuthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi idala umdlavuza noma ezinye izinkinga zempilo, pho kungani yonke intuthu nezibuko? Kungani inkampani izodinga ukubhala amaphepha okucwaninga ukuze iwanikeze abalawuli? Kungani iMonsanto ingadinga ukusungula amanethiwekhi ososayensi ukukhuthaza ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokudiliza ososayensi abacwaningo lwabo oluphakamisa ukukhathazeka? Kungani iMonsanto izama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate yi-US ATSDR?

Amakomidi amabili ePhalamende laseYurophu ahlele ukulalelwa komhlaka-11 Okthoba eBrussels ukuze acubungule le mibuzo neminye njengoba iKhomishini yaseYurophu ibhekene nesikhathi esinqunyiwe sokuthatha isinqumo ngokugunyazwa kabusha kwe-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuphela kuka-2017.

Abenzi bomthetho kufanele babunake ubufakazi bokuthi i-ejensi yabo yokuphepha kokudla ibonakala ilahle ibhola ekuhloleni okuzimele kocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. Amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi i-European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) uxoshe isifundo ukuxhumanisa umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto nomdlavuza ngokululekwa isikhulu se-EPA esathi uMonsanto wabona “silusizo” futhi oyingxenye cwaninga manje ngokuhlangana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-EPA neMonsanto.

Kufanele futhi banake izindaba zokuthi i-EFSA isusele isincomo sayo ku-glyphosate embikweni okopishe futhi wanamathisela ukuhlaziywa okuvela ocwaningweni lweMonsanto.

Usihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant wamenywa ukuba azothula inkulumo yakhe emhlanganweni wePhalamende ngo-Okthoba, kodwa wenqaba ukuvela noma ukuthumela omunye umuntu ovela eMonsanto. UDkt Roland Solecki, inhloko yezokuphepha kwamakhemikhali eGerman Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), naye unqabile, ngokusho kwabahleli. Ngihlela ukubamba iqhaza, njengoba nommeleli ovela e-IARC nabanye abaningi.

Kuyo yonke le mpikiswano, kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuthi ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kunezimpande ezijulile ezisukela emuva okungenani ngonyaka we-1985 lapho i-EPA toxicologists ibheka idatha ekhombisa izicubu ezingavamile amagundane akhishwe nge-glyphosate futhi wanquma ukuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka ukuthi ibanga umdlavuza kubantu."

Imibhikisho yeMonsanto ekugcineni yaguqula lokho kuhlukaniswa kodwa ngenxa yawo wonke amaqhinga akhohlisayo asanda kuvezwa emibhalweni, amazwi kasosayensi we-EPA eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-30 eyedlule kufanele abhekwe namuhla: “IGlyphosate iyasola… Impikiswano kaMonsanto ayamukeleki. "

Usosayensi we-EPA ku leso memo sango-1985 ubhale nokuthi: “Umbono wethu ungowokuvikela impilo yomphakathi lapho sibona imininingwane esolisayo. Akuwona umsebenzi wethu ukuvikela ababhalisile… ”

Izishayamthetho zaseYurophu zingaba nokuhlakanipha ukuwakhumbula lawo mazwi.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku I-EcoWatch.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona nombhali we I-Whitewash - Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. Ungumqondisi ocwaningayo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elingena nzuzo labathengi elibhekele iqiniso nokusebenzela obala ohlelweni lwethu lokudla.  

Umbulali Wokhula waseMonsanto: Ukudalulwa Kwezesayensi Kwembuliwe

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Futhi ubone: I-MDL Monsanto Glyphosate Cancer Case Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa
futhi Ilungelo Lase-US Lokumangalela I-EPA Yokukhishwa Kwemibhalo YeGlyphosate

NguCarey Gillam 

Izingcezu zepuzzle seziqala ukuhlangana, kepha kuze kube manje akusona isithombe esihle.

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto Co lwembulwe kuleli sonto ngomyalelo wenkantolo okhombisa ukuthi izimangalo zenkampani ezinde mayelana nokuphepha kwemithi yayo ethengiswa kakhulu kunazo zonke iRoundup herbicide akuxhomekile kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani isho, kepha kwimizamo yokusebenzisa ubuqili isayensi.

UCongressman Ted Lieu waseCalifornia uye ubizele ukuthi kuphenywe yiCongress kanye noMnyango Wezobulungiswa ukuthi balubhekisise lolu daba, futhi weluleka abathengi ukuthi “masinyane” bayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup.

"Kumele sithole ukuthi iMonsanto noma i-Environmental Protection Agency ilahlekise umphakathi," kusho uLieu esitatimendeni. "

Amakhulu amakhasi ama-imeyili namanye amarekhodi ube yingxenye yefayela lasenkantolo yomphakathi kuleli sonto ngenxa yeziphikiso zikaMonsanto ngemuva kokuthi ijaji lombuso eSan Francisco lathi ngeke besagcinwa bevalwe uphawu yize kungenzeka kube "namahloni" eMonsanto. IJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria wengamele amacala angaphezu kwama-55 alethwe ngabantu abafakwe ngabantu abavela ezindaweni ezizungeze i-United States abasola ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-Mousanto's Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuthi benze i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ngaphezu kwalawo macala, aqhubekela phambili ngokuhlanganyela kulokho okwaziwa ngokuthi yi- “multdistrict litigation (MDL), amakhulu amanye amacala enza izimangalo ezifanayo alindile ezinkantolo zombuso.

Imibuzo mayelana nesithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ikhemikhali elibizwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate, ibilokhu ijikeleza iminyaka phakathi kocwaningo olukhulayo olubonisa ukuxhumana nomdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. I-International Agency for Research on Cancer ngo-2015 yahlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu futhi ososayensi abaningi bamazwe ngamazwe babike ucwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingaba nemithelela eminingi eyingozi kubantu.

Abamangali abasenkantolo babanga ukuthi ukuhlanganiswa kwe-glyphosate nabasebenza ngokusebenza okuthile abasetshenziswa emikhiqizweni ebizwa ngeMonsanto enophawu lwe-Roundup kuyingozi kakhulu kune-glyphosate iyodwa, kanti iMonsanto ifuna ukufihla leyo mininingwane.

UMonsanto ukuphikile ukuthi kunokuxhumeka komdlavuza ne-glyphosate noma i-Roundup futhi uthi iminyaka engama-40 yocwaningo kanye nokuhlolisisa okwenziwa izinhlangano ezilawulayo emhlabeni wonke kuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo. NgoLwesithathu a Ikomidi le-European Chemicals Agency uthe ukubuyekezwa kwayo kutholwe ukuthi i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogen.

Imibhalo ibonakala ikhombisa inkampani ukuthi ayinantshisekelo yokuhlola ukukhathazeka okwandayo ngemikhiqizo yayo kunokuthi ivikele izigidigidi zamaRandi emalini eyitholayo unyaka nonyaka kusuka ekubulaweni kokhula.

Kepha ukubheka imibhalo etholwe ngabamangali abavela eMonsanto njengengxenye yokutholwa okuyalelwe yinkantolo kubonakala kukhombisa inkampani ukuthi ayinantshisekelo yokuhlola ukukhathazeka okwandayo ngemikhiqizo yayo kunokuvikela izigidigidi zamadola emalini eyenzayo minyaka yonke kusuka ekubulaweni kokhula. Le mibhalo ikhombisa izingxoxo zezikhulu zeMonsanto ngemikhuba eminingi ehluphayo, kufaka phakathi ukubhalwa kwesipoki umbhalo wesandla we-glyphosate ongabonakala ubhalwe ngusosayensi ozimele, ozimele uMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazokhokhela ukubamba iqhaza. Omunye usosayensi onjalo kungadinga "ngaphansi kwezinsuku eziyishumi" ukwenza umsebenzi odingekayo kepha kungadinga ukukhokhwa okungaphezulu kwama- $ 10, amarekhodi akhombisa.

Ku-imeyili ka-2015, Isikhulu seMonsanto uWilliam Heydens uphakamise ukuthi abasebenzi baseMonsanto bangabhala ngephepha iphepha lokucwaninga njengoba wathi kwakwenziwe esikhathini esedlule: "Besizobhala izindleko ngokubhala kwethu bese bevele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," UHeydens wabhala.

Ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi kukhombisa abaphathi benkampani bezwakalisa ukungeneliseki ngososayensi owayekhathazeka nge-glyphosate, nokungathandi ukwenza izifundo aziphakamisile kwakudingeka kwenziwe. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zixoxe ngesidingo sokuthi "kutholwe / kuthuthukiswe umuntu onethezekile nephrofayli ye-genetox ye-glyphosate / Roundup futhi ongaba nomthelela kubalawuli ... lapho kuvela izingqinamba ze-genetox."

Amanye amarekhodi akhombisa ingxoxo yangaphakathi yokuthi i-glyphosate kanye nama-surfactants akhiwa kanjani ngokubambisana ekungeneni kwesikhumba somuntu lapho kuvezwa; imibhalo ekhuluma ngesidingo “ukuvikela” ukwakheka ezisebenzisa i-tallow amine njenge-surfactant yize kwenziwa, ngaphandle kokukhathazeka ngobuthi obuthuthukisiwe lapho kuhlanganiswa i-glyphosate ne-tallow amine.

Futhi mhlawumbe okulahlwa kakhulu - amarekhodi angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi isikhulu esiphezulu se-EPA esigabeni sezibulala-zinambuzane sisebenza ngokubambisana neMonsanto ukuvikela irekhodi lokuphepha le-glyphosate. UJess Rowland, obephethe umbiko we-EPA Cancer Assessment Committee Committee (CARC) obonisa ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, utshele uMonsanto ukuthi uzozama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate eMnyangweni Wezempilo Nezinsizakalo Zase-US, wathi: “Uma ngikwazi bulala lokhu kufanele ngithole indondo, ” ngokusho kwe-imeyili yangaphakathi ye-Monsanto ka-2015.

IRowland “ingaba wusizo njengoba siqhubekela phambili ngokuvikela okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate,” kusho uDan Jenkins, umxhumanisi omkhulu wokulawula waseMonsanto, wabhala nge-imeyili ka-2015. URowland washiya le nhlangano ngemuva nje kokuba umbiko weCARC udalulwe emphakathini, wathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-ejensi ngasekupheleni kuka-Ephreli 2016 ngaphambi kokuthi isuswe ezinsukwini ezimbalwa kamuva. Abameli bommangali banethemba lokususa uRowland emasontweni ambalwa ezayo, yize i-EPA ikuphikisile lokhu.

Imibhalo ekhishwe kuleli sonto ihlinzeka kuphela ngesifinyezo sokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweMonsanto uma kukhulunywa nge-glyphosate, futhi inkampani iphikise ukuthi ama-imeyili nokunye ukuxhumana kususwa kumongo ngabameli babamangali nabezindaba. Umsebenzi wenkampani wakhelwe "kwisayensi ezwakalayo," futhi “Ephethwe yimigomo ephakeme kakhulu yobuqotho kanye nokwenza izinto obala,” IMonsanto ithi.

I-EPA iphinde ivikele ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, ekhipha umbiko ngoSepthemba lokho kuphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate “cishe ayinakubangelwa umdlavuza kubantu.”

Kodwa embikweni okhishwe ngoLwesine, isigungu esikhethekile sokweluleka nge-EPA sathi ngeke bavumelane ngokugcwele nalesi sinqumo. Amanye amalungu ephaneli abukeze lolu cwaningo athi ucwaningo nge-glyphosate "lukhombisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-glyphosate ithinte izigameko zomdlavuza." Leli qembu lathi i-EPA ibikubeka eceleni ngokungafanele okutholakele kwezinye izifundo, futhi "izimpikiswano eziningi ezethulwe" yi-EPA njengezisekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate "azikholisi."

Izimpendulo zangempela ngemithelela yangempela ye-Roundup empilweni yomuntu sekuphele isikhathi eside, kubhekwa iqiniso lokuthi i-glyphosate iyimithi yokubulala ukhula esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi itholakala kakhulu kumasampula okudla namanzi nomchamo womuntu.

“Ukubaluleka kwalolu daba lokuthi ngabe i-Roundup iyawudala yini umdlavuza kukhulu kakhulu,” abameli babamangali kushiwo enkantolo yakamuva. "Ngeshwa, iMonsanto ayiqhamuki nokwabelana ngolwazi ngeRoundup nomphakathi."

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