Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

IGlyphosate embizeni yenkukhu esetshenziswa njengomanyolo ilimaza ukukhiqizwa kokudla, abacwaningi bathi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ososayensi baveze izindaba ezimbi kakhulu maqondana ne-herbicide glyphosate, esaziwa kangcono njenge-Roundup, ephepheni elisha locwaningo elishicilelwe kule nyanga.

Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland kuvezwe ephepheni eshicilelwe encwadini  Isayensi Yendawo Ephelele lowo manyolo ovela enkukhu esetshenziswa njengomanyolo unganciphisa isivuno sezitshalo lapho umquba uqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala ukhula esekwe ku-glyphosate, njenge-Roundup. Umanyolo wenzelwe ukwandisa ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ngakho-ke ubufakazi bokuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zingaba nomphumela ophambene bubalulekile.

Imfucumfucu yenkukhu, njengoba umquba ubizwa kanjalo, uvame ukusetshenziswa njengomanyolo, kufaka phakathi ezolimo eziphilayo, ngoba kubhekwa njengokucebile ngezakhamzimba ezibalulekile. Ukusetshenziswa kukadoti wenkukhu njengoba umanyolo ubulokhu ukhula kokubili ekulimeni nasekulimeni nasezingadini zasekhaya.

Ngenkathi ukusetshenziswa kukhula, “izingozi ezingaba khona ezihambisana nokuqongelelwa kwemithi emqubeni wezinkukhu zisazitshwa kakhulu,” kuxwayisa abacwaningi baseFinland.

Abalimi be-organic bebelokhu bekhula bekhathazeka ngokwengeziwe ngemikhondo ye-glyphosate kumanyolo womquba ovunyelwe ekukhiqizeni okuphilayo, kepha abaningi embonini bayanqikaza ukwazisa ngalolu daba.

Abalimi bafafaza i-glyphosate ngqo ezitshalweni eziningi ezitshalwe emhlabeni wonke, kufaka phakathi ubhontshisi, ummbila, ukotini, i-canola nezinye izitshalo ezakhiwe ngofuzo ukumelana nokwelashwa kwe-glyphosate. Zivamise futhi ukufafaza ngqo izitshalo ezinjengokolweni nama-oats, ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo - ngaphambi nje kokuvuna ukomisa izitshalo.

Njengoba kunikezwe inani lama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate asetshenziselwa ukwelapha izitshalo ezisetshenziswa ekudleni kwezilwane, kanye nenani lomquba osetshenziswe njengomanyolo, "kufanele sazi nakanjani ukuthi lolu hlobo lwengozi lukhona," kusho omunye wabalobi yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

"Akekho obonakala ezimisele kakhulu ukukhuluma kakhulu ngakho." UMuola uqaphele.

Ukusetshenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngqo ezitshalweni zokudla kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - manje eyiyunithi yeBayer AG - kusukela ngawo-1990, kanti ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kutholakala yonke indawo kangangokuba izinsalela zitholakala kakhulu emasampulini okudla, amanzi ngisho nomoya.

Ngenxa yokuthi kunezinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni kwabantu nezilwane, amazinga we-glyphosate atholakala ngokuvamile atholakala emqubeni womuntu nomquba wezilwane.

Lezi zinsalela ze-glyphosate kumanyolo ziyinkinga yabalimi ngezizathu eziningi, ngokusho kwabaphenyi baseFinland.

"Sithole ukuthi umquba wezinkukhu ungathola izinsalela eziphakeme ze- (glyphosate-based herbicides), wehlise ukukhula kwezitshalo nokuzala, futhi ngaleyo ndlela uvimbele imiphumela ekhuthaza ukukhula komquba lapho usetshenziswa njengomanyolo," kusho leli phepha. "Le miphumela ikhombisa ukuthi izinsalela zidlula enqubeni yokugaya izinyoni, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu, ziyaqhubeka zikumanyolo womquba isikhathi eside."

Abaphenyi bathi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zingaqhubeka ezinhlelweni zemvelo, zithinte izinto eziningana ezingezona okubhekiswe kuzo eminyakeni eminingi.

Imiphumela, bathi ifaka phakathi ukwehla kokusebenza komquba njengomanyolo; ukungcola okuhlala isikhathi eside okususelwa ku-glyphosate-based herbicide kwemijikelezo yezolimo; Ukungcoliswa “okungalawulwa” kwe-glyphosate yezindawo ezingabhekiwe; ukwanda kosongo "ezintweni ezisengozini ezingezona okubhekiswe kuzo," kanye nengozi eyengeziwe yokuphikiswa okuvela ku-glyphosate.

Abaphenyi bathi kufanele kwenziwe ezinye izifundo ukudalula ubukhulu bokungcola kwe-glyphosate kumanyolo wezinto eziphilayo nokuthi lokho kukuthinta kanjani ukusimama.

Ucwaningo lwaseFinland lunezela ebufakazini bezingozi zezinsalela ze-glyphosate kumanyolo, ngokusho kochwepheshe bezolimo.

"Imithelela yensalela ye-glyphosate eye yaqoqelwa ezindle zezinkukhu yindawo enganakwa kakhulu yocwaningo," kusho usosayensi wenhlabathi waseRodale Institute, uDkt. Yichao Rui. “Kodwa ucwaningo olukhona lukhombisile ukuthi lezo zinsalela zingaba nomthelela omubi ezitshalweni, uma umquba wezinkukhu ubusetshenziswa njengomanyolo. Izinsalela zeGlyphosate kumanyolo zikhonjisiwe ukuthi zinemiphumela engemihle ezitshalweni, kuma-microbiomes omhlabathi, nakwamagciwane ahambisana nezitshalo nezilwane kufaka phakathi abantu ngohlu lokudla. Lapho lokhu kungcola kusakazwa kungahloswanga ngomanyolo, kubangela ubunzima obukhulu emisebenzini nasezinsizakalweni zezinto eziphilayo. ”

Emhlabeni jikelele amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 ye-glyphosate kufuthwe emasimini - okwanele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi leRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinyiwe emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu e-United States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma umangalele uMonsanto, nasezivivinyweni ezintathu ezigcinwe kuze kube yimanje, amajaji atholile ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides yenkampani bekufanele isolwe ngokudala umdlavuza.

Ngokwengeziwe, i ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane kukhishwe kuleli hlobo kukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kungasongela ukuzala, kungeze nobufakazi obusha bokuthi umenzeli wokubulala ukhula angaba ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine. Amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-Endocrine angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.