Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

Uhlelo lukaBayer lokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo lubhekene nokuphikiswa okukhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani eziningi zezomthetho zase-US sezisungule umfelandawonye wokulwa ne- $ 2 billion entsha isiphakamiso sokuhlala ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG ohlose ukuqukatha isikweletu esiqhubekayo senkampani esihlobene nezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup idala uhlobo lomdlavuza olwaziwa njenge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Lesi sivumelwano senzelwe ukunxephezela abantu abake bavezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup futhi asebevele benayo i-NHL noma bangathuthukisa i-NHL ngokuzayo, kepha abangakazithathi izinyathelo zokufaka icala.

Iqembu elincane labameli abahlanganisa lolu hlelo neBayer bathi "luzosindisa izimpilo" futhi linikeze izinzuzo ezinkulu kubantu abakholelwa ukuthi baba nomdlavuza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula.

Kepha abameli abaningi abagxeka lolu hlelo bathi uma luvunywa luzobeka isibonelo esiyingozi kwezinye izinhlobo zamacala athinta inqwaba yabantu abalimele yimikhiqizo noma imikhuba yezinkampani ezinamandla.

"Lesi akusona isiqondiso esifuna uhlelo lwezobulungiswa luhambe," kusho ummeli uGerald Singleton, inkampani yakhe ejoyine nezinye izinkampani zabameli ezingaphezu kuka-60 ukuphikisana nohlelo lukaBayer. "Asikho isimo lapho lokhu kuhle kwabamangali."

Uhlelo lokukhokha lukaBayer lwafakwa eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esifundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoFebhuwari 3, futhi kumele livunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuze lisebenze kahle. Uhlelo lokukhokhelwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi olwethulwe ngonyaka odlule lwalungu- edelelwa uChabria abese ehoxa. Ijaji belibheke ukwedluliswa kwamacala e-federal multidistrict Roundup okubandakanya izinkulungwane zabamangali abavela e-United States.

Izimpendulo zohlelo lokukhokha kumele zilindeleke ngoMashi 3 bese kulalelwa lolu daba kulindeleke ukuthi kube ngoMashi 31.

Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzisi be-Roundup bamanje abangahle babe nomdlavuza futhi bafune ukumangalela ngokuzayo bazoba ngaphansi kwemibandela yokuxazululwa kwezigaba ngaphandle kokuthi baphume ngokusemthethweni kuleyo nkathi esikhathini esithile. Omunye wemibandela abazobe bekhonjelwe wona uzobavimba ekufuneni ukulimala kokujeziswa kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo.

Leyo migomo neminye ebekiwe ayinabulungiswa ngokuphelele kubasebenzi basemapulazini nakwabanye okulindeleke ukuthi babe nomdlavuza ngokuzayo kusukela ekuvezweni yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula, ngokusho kukaSingleton. Lolu hlelo luzuzisa iBayer futhi luhlinzeka "ngemali yegazi" ezinkampanini ezine zabameli ezisebenzisane neBayer ukwakha lolu hlelo, esho.

Lawo mafemu asebenzisana neBayer ukusungula nokuphatha uhlelo bazothola isamba esihlongozwayo esingu- $ 170 million uma uhlelo luqala ukusebenza.

U-Elizabeth Cabraser, ongomunye wabameli abakha lesi sakhiwo esisha esihlongozwayo, uthe ukugxekwa akuyona incazelo efanelekile ngalesi sivumelwano. Empeleni, uthe lolu hlelo “lunikeza ukufinyelela okubalulekile futhi okudingeka ngokushesha, imfundo, ukufinyelela kwezempilo, kanye nezinzuzo zesinxephezelo” kubantu abake bathola umuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup kodwa abangakenzi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

"Sifuna ukwamukelwa kwalesi sivumelwano ngoba sizosindisa izimpilo futhi sithuthukise nezinga lempilo ngokuxilonga kusenesikhathi, sisize abantu… sibazise futhi siqwashise umphakathi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kweRoundup neNHL…" esho.

Okhulumela iBayer akaphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula.

Indawo entsha ehlongozwayo kuhloswe ngamacala azayo futhi ahlukile ku- $ 11 billion iBayer ebekelwe ukukhokhela izimangalo zomdlavuza ezikhona zase-US. Abantu abathintwe yisiphakamiso sokukhokhelwa kwesigaba kungabantu nje kuphela abaye bavezwa ku-Roundup kepha abakabi kumacala futhi abakathathanga zinyathelo kunoma yiliphi icala.

IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.

Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Yize lesi sivumelwano esihlongozwayo sithi “sibhekana nezikhalazo ezine ezaphakanyiswa iNkantolo maqondana nesinqumo sangaphambili, esasihoxisiwe,” u-Singleton nabanye abameli ababandakanyeka kweqembu eliphikisayo bathi lesi sicelo esisha sokubhadala simbi njengaleso sokuqala.

Ngaphezu kokukhathazeka ukuthi amalungu ekilasi ngeke abe nelungelo lokufuna izicelo zokukhokhelwa isijeziso, abagxeki baphikisana nesikhathi seminyaka emine "sokuma" esivimba ukufakwa kwamacala amasha. Abagxeki bathi futhi uhlelo lokwazisa abantu ngokuhlala ngezigaba alwanele. Abantu bazoba nezinsuku eziyi-150 ngemuva kwesaziso sokuthi “baphume” ekilasini. Uma bengaphumi, basekilasini ngokuzenzekelayo.

Abagxeki baphikisana nokwakhiwa okuhlongozwayo kwephaneli lesayensi elizosebenza "njengesiqondisi" sokwengezwa kwezinketho zesinxephezelo esikhathini esizayo "nokunikeza ubufakazi mayelana nokubulawa kwe-carcinogenicity - noma cha - kweBayer. Njengoba kunikezwe umlando obhaliwe kaMonsanto wokukhohlisa okutholakele kwesayensi, umsebenzi wephaneli lesayensi uzoba yinsolo, kusho uSingleton.

Isikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha sasizosebenza okungenani iminyaka emine futhi singanwetshwa ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi. Uma iBayer ikhetha ukungaqhubeki nesikhwama sesinxephezelo ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha, izokhokha enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 200 njenge- “pay end” esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, kusho isifinyezo sokukhokha.

Kunikezwe “isinxephezelo esikhulu”

Amafemu abhalise isivumelwano neBayer athi ekufayeleni kwabo enkantolo ukuthi lesi sivumelwano sihlelelwe ukunikeza abamangali abangase babe khona lokho "okufeza izintshisekelo zabo," kufaka phakathi ithuba lokuthola "isinxephezelo esikhulu" uma bethuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma .

Lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama sezinxephezelo ukwenza imiklomelo ephakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000 ngelungu ngalinye lesigaba. "Imiklomelo Yokukhokha Esheshayo" engu- $ 5,000 izotholakala ngokushesha, okudinga nje ukukhonjiswa kokuchayeka nokuxilongwa.

Labo bantu baqale ukuvezwa kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup okungenani izinyanga eziyi-12 ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo bazokwazi ukuthola imiklomelo. Imiklomelo engaphezulu kwama- $ 200,000 ingenziwa "ngezimo ezingavamile." Lawo malungu ekilasi afanelekayo atholakale ene-NHL ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2015, ngeke athole imiklomelo engaphezu kwe- $ 10,000, ngokwecebo. 

Isivumelwano sizohlinzeka ngezeluleko zamahhala zomthetho futhi sinikeze ”ukwesekwa ukusiza amalungu ekilasi ekuzulazuleni, ekubhaliseni nasekufakeni izicelo zemihlomulo yokuhlala.”

Ngokwengeziwe, lesi siphakamiso sithi ukukhokhelwa kuzokhokhela ucwaningo lwezokwelapha nolwezesayensi ekutholeni nasekwelapheni i-NHL.

Okuqaphelekayo, uhlelo luthi akekho umuntu ozolahlekelwa yilungelo lakhe lokufaka icala ngaphandle uma ekhetha ukwamukela isinxephezelo esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, futhi akekho noyedwa odinga ukwenza lokho kuze kube lelo lungu lesigaba ngasinye litholakala ukuthi line-NHL. Bebengeke bakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa kepha bebengafuna esinye isinxephezelo.

“Noma yiliphi ilungu lesigaba elingafaki isimangalo futhi lamukele isinxephezelo somuntu ngamunye ligcina ilungelo lalo lokumangalela iMonsanto ngokukhokhelwa isinxephezelo kunoma iyiphi inkolelo-mbono yezomthetho, okubandakanya ukulimala komuntu, ukukhwabanisa, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo, ubudedengu, ukufihla inkohliso, ukumelwa kabi ngobudedengu, ukwephula iwaranti, ukukhangisa okungelona iqiniso , nokwephula noma ikuphi ukuvikelwa komthengi noma umthetho noma izenzo ezingalungile nezikhohlisayo, ”kusho uhlelo.

Ukuqwashisa abantu ngokuxazululwa kwesenzo sekilasi, izaziso zizothunyelwa ngeposi / zithunyelwe nge-imeyili emapulazini, amabhizinisi nezinhlangano ezingama-266,000 kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni lapho ukubulala ukhula kwenkampani bekungasetshenziswa kanye nabantu abangama-41,000 abangenayo iHodgkin lymphoma futhi bacelwe ukuthola imininingwane ngesifo sabo. Ngokwengeziwe izingqwembe zizothunyelwa ngeposi ezitolo ezingama-2,700 XNUMX zibacela ukuthi babhale izaziso zokuxazululwa kwezigaba zesigaba.

Njengengxenye yendawo yokuhlala ehlongozwayo, iBayer ithe izofuna imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yokwengeza imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela kwizifundo zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana ne-glyphosate ukuphepha. Kodwa abagxeki bathi ukuhlinzeka ngezixhumanisi zewebhusayithi akwanele futhi iBayer idinga ukubeka isexwayiso esiqondile sengozi yomdlavuza emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula.

Ukuxazululwa kwesenzo esenziwe ngezigaba kusongela ukuthinta “amakhulu ezinkulungwane noma ngisho izigidi” zabantu abaye bavezwa i-Roundup futhi "baphakamisa imibuzo 'eyingqayizivele' futhi ejulile" ngaphansi koMthethosisekelo wase-US, ngokusho kuka inkantolo yokugcwalisa ngokuphikisana nohlelo lweBayer olwenziwe ngummeli wabamangali u-Elizabeth Graham.

UGraham utshele inkantolo ukuthi uma lolu hlelo lwamukelwa lungaba "nomthelela omangazayo hhayi kuleli cala kuphela, kepha nakusasa lecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi."

Abalimi abamnyama

 INational Black Farmers Association (NBFA) ilinganisele lolu daba ngoLwesithathu, yafaka ukugcwaliswa okude nenkantolo kaChhabria ethi "ingxenye enkulu" yamalungu ayo angaphezu kwe-100,000 "adalulwe futhi angalimala yiRoundup, kanye nesithako sayo esisebenzayo i-glyphosate."

Iningi labalimi selivele lisungule i-lymphoma engeyona eye-Hodgkin abasola ngokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup, futhi "ingebhe enkulu kakhulu ukuthi bazosheshe babe nezimpawu," kusho ukugcwalisa kwe-NBFA.

I-NBFA ifuna ukubona imikhiqizo ye-Roundup isuswa kwezentengiselwano noma kwezinye izinguquko ezenziwe ukuvikela abalimi, kusho ukufayila.

Ukukhathazeka kwe-NBFA kudinga ukuthi kubhekwane nakho yinkantolo, ikakhulukazi njengoba iBayer ibheka “ukulungisa isenzo sesigaba ngeqoqo labameli abathi bamele izintshisekelo zabo bonke abalimi abadalulwe ku-Roundup kodwa abasazothuthukisa kubangela umdlavuza. ”

Amacala enkantolo e-Australia

Njengoba iBayer isebenza ukuqeda amacala eRoundup e-United States, inkampani nayo ibhekene nezimangalo ezifanayo zabalimi nabanye abase-Australia. Isenzo sekilasi esifakwe iMonsanto siyaqhubeka, kanti ummangali oholayo uJohn Fenton, owafaka isicelo seRoundup njengengxenye yomsebenzi wasepulazini. UFenton watholakala ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2008.

Uchungechunge lwezinsuku ezisemqoka selusunguliwe: IMonsanto inangoMashi 1 ukuhlinzeka ngemibhalo yokutholwa kwabameli babamangali kanti uJuni 4 yisikhathi esinqunyiwe sokushintshaniswa kobufakazi bochwepheshe. Amaqembu azongena ekuxazululeni ngoJulayi 30 kanti uma kungenakutholakali lutho leli cala lizoqala ukuqulwa ngecala ngoMashi 2022.

UFenton uthe yize "ezolithanda ithuba" lokuthi aquliswe icala axoxe indaba yakhe, unethemba lokuthi ukulamula kuzoxazulula lolu daba. “Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuvumelana sekuqala ukushintsha ngenxa yalokhu ebekwenzeka eMelika. Abalimi sebazi kangcono futhi ngikholwa wukuthi bathatha izinyathelo zokuqapha ezingaphezu kwezangaphambili.

UFenton uthe unethemba lokuthi iBayer ekugcineni izobeka ilebula lokuxwayisa emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

"Okungenani ngesexwayiso umsebenzisi angazenzela eyakhe ingqondo ngokuthi iyiphi i-PPE (imishini yokuzivikela) akhetha ukuyigqoka."

Ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kwamakhemikhali kudonsa ukugxekwa kososayensi bayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ososayensi abaningi baseMelika abasebenzela i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bathi ababethembi abaholi abaphezulu balesi sikhungo ukuthi bazothembeka futhi bayesaba ukuziphindiselela uma bezobika ukwephulwa komthetho, ngokocwaningo lwabasebenzi olwenziwe ngo-2020.

Ngokusho the I-Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey yango-2020, okwenziwe yi-US Office of Personnel Management, amaphesenti angama-75 abasebenzi be-EPA ophikweni lweNational Program Chemicals Division abaphendule kulolu cwaningo bakhombisa ukuthi abacabangi ukuthi ubuholi obuphezulu bale nhlangano bugcine “amazinga aphezulu okuthembeka nobuqotho.” Amaphesenti angamashumi ayisithupha nanhlanu abasebenzi abaphendula oPhikweni Lokuhlola Ubungozi baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Okushaqisayo futhi, amaphesenti angama-53 abaphenduli ophikweni lwe-EPA's Risk Assessment Division athe abakwazi ukudalula ukusolwa kokwephula umthetho noma umthethonqubo ngaphandle kokwesaba ukujeziswa. Amaphesenti angamashumi amane nantathu abaphendula abasebenzi be-EPA e-Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Imizwa engemihle ekhonjiswe emiphumeleni yocwaningo ihambisana nemibiko ekhulayo yokungalungi ngaphakathi kwezinhlelo zokuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ze-EPA, ngokusho kwePublic Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

"Kufanele kube nokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ngaphezu kwengxenye yamakhemikhali e-EPA kanye nabanye ochwepheshe abasebenza ngezinkinga ezibalulekile zezempilo yomphakathi abazizwa bekhululekile ukubika izinkinga noma ukwephulwa kwefulegi," kusho uMqondisi Omkhulu we-PEER uTim Whitehouse, owayengummeli we-EPA. isitatimende.

Ekuqaleni kwale nyanga, iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine kusho i-EPAImikhuba yokuhlola ubungozi ngaphakathi kohlaka loMthetho Wokulawulwa Kwezinto Eziyingozi "ibiphansi kakhulu."

"Ubuholi obusha be-EPA buzosebenza ngokugcwele ekulungiseni lo mkhumbi ocwilayo," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngemuva kokuthatha izintambo ngoJanuwari, uMongameli uJoe Biden wakhipha umyalelo omkhulu wokuthi i-EPA ngaphansi kweBiden ingaphambukela esimweni sayo kumakhemikhali amaningana ezinqumweni ezenziwa yile nhlangano ngaphansi kukamongameli wangaphambilini uDonald Trump.

In izincwadi yangomhla kaJanuwari 21, i-EPA Office of General Counsell yathi okulandelayo:

“Ngokuhambisana ne-Executive Order kaMongameli Biden Yokuvikela Impilo Yomphakathi kanye Nezemvelo kanye Nokubuyisela Isayensi Ukubhekana Nesimo Sezulu esikhishwe ngoJanuwari 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), lokhu kuzoqinisekisa isicelo sami egameni le-US Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) ukuthi uMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-US (i-DOJ) ufune futhi uthole ama-abeyance noma ukuhlala kwezinqubo zamacala okulindelwe enkantolo afuna ukubuyekezwa kokwahlulela kwanoma imuphi umthethonqubo we-EPA owakhishwa phakathi kukaJanuwari 20, 2017, noJanuwari 20, 2021, noma ufuna ukusungula umnqamulajuqu we-EPA ukumemezela umthethonqubo maqondana nesihloko sanoma yikuphi okunjalo

Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.

 

 

IBayer yenza uhlelo olusha lwama- $ 2 billion lokuqeda izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngoLwesithathu ubesazama futhi ukuphatha nokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo, kubekwa eceleni isivumelwano esingu- $ 2 billion neqembu labammeli bommangali uBayer athemba ukuthi bazothola ukuvunywa yijaji likahulumeni ngubani wenqaba uhlelo lwangaphambilini Ihlobo elidlule.

Ngokuphawulekile, lesi sivumelwano sidinga iBayer ukuthi ifune imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukufaka imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela ezifundweni zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

Ukwengeza, ngokusho kukaBayer, lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama esizonxephezela "abafaka izicelo ezifanelekile" ohlelweni lweminyaka emine; ukusungula iphaneli lesayensi elelulekayo okutholakele kwalo kungasetshenziswa njengobufakazi kumacala angahle abe khona esikhathini esizayo; kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokucwaninga nokuxilonga zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye / noma lwesayensi ekuhloleni nasekwelapheni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Uhlelo kumele luvunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia. UChhabria ubengamele ukubekwa kwamacala amaningi eRoundup multidistrict.

UBayer uthe amalungu amakilasi afanelekayo eminyakeni emine ezayo azokwazi ukuthola amazinga wemiklomelo ekhokhelwayo ngokuya ngemikhombandlela ebekwe esivumelwaneni. “Isigaba sokuhlala” sibhekise kubantu ababekade bevezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup kepha bengakafaki icala enkantolo abathi balimalekile ngenxa yalokho kuvezwa.

Amalungu ekilasi lezokuhlala azokwazi ukuthola isinxephezelo phakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000, kusho uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ukusatshalaliswa kwesikhwama sokuhlala kuzokwenzeka kanjena:
* Isikhwama Sesinxephezelo - Okungenani ama- $ 1.325 billion
* Uhlelo Lokuhlinzeka Ngokutholakala Kokuxilonga - $ 210 million
* Uhlelo Lwezimali Zocwaningo - $ 40 million
* Izindleko Zokulawulwa Kwezokuhlala, Izindleko Zokweluleka KwePhaneli Yesayensi, Izindleko Zesigaba Sokuhlala, Izintela,
kanye nezimali nezindleko ze-Ecrow Agent - Kuze kube yizigidi ezingama- $ 55
Uhlelo lokuhlongozwa oluhlongozwayo lwamacala ezenzo zesigaba esizayo luhlukile ku- isivumelwano sokukhokha IBayer yenziwa nabameli bamangali angamashumi ezinkulungwane asebevele baletha izimangalo ezithi ukutholakala kweRoundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate kubenze ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.
Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ucwaningo olusha luhlola umthelela we-Roundup herbicide kuma-honeybees

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Iqembu labacwaningi baseChina lithole ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate-based herbicide iyingozi kuma-honeybees noma ngaphansi kokunconywa okunconywayo.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ku iphephabhuku online Imibiko yeSayensi, Abaphenyi abasebenzisana neChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kanye neChinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathe bathole imithelela eminingi engemihle kuzinyosi lapho bebeka izinyosi kuRoundup - a glyphosateumkhiqizo osuselwe kuthengiswa ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Ukukhunjulwa kwezinyosi zezinyosi "kwakuphazamiseke kakhulu ngemuva kokuchayeka kuRoundup" kusikisela ukuthi ukuvezwa kwezinyosi ezingapheli emakhemikhali okubulala ukhula "kungaba nomthelela omubi ekuseshweni nasekuqoqweni kwezinsizakusebenza nasekuhlanganiseni imisebenzi yokudla" yizinyosi, abacwaningi bathi .

Futhi, "amandla okukhuphuka wezinyosi zezinyosi anciphe kakhulu ngemuva kokwelashwa ngokuhlungwa okunconyiwe kweRoundup," abacwaningi bathola.

Abaphenyi bathi kunesidingo “sohlelo lokuxwayisa nge-herbicide olunokwethenjelwa” ezindaweni zasemakhaya eChina ngoba abafuyi bezinyosi kulezo zindawo “ngokuvamile abaziswa ngaphambi kokuba kufuthwe amakhambi okubulala ukhula” futhi “kwenzeka izehlakalo ezinobuthi njalo zezinyosi zezinyosi”.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo eziningi ezibalulekile zokudla kuncike kuzinyosi zezinyosi nezinyosi zasendle ukuze kuthunyelwe impova, futhi ukwehla okuphawuliwe kubantu bezinyosi baphakamise ukukhathazeka emhlabeni jikelele mayelana nokutholakala kokudla.

Iphepha elivela eRutgers University eshicilelwe ehlobo eledlule uxwayise ngokuthi "isivuno sezithelo sama-aphula, ama-cherry kanye namajikijolo kulo lonke elase-United States sincishiswa ukungabi khona kwezipolishi."

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Ucwaningo olusha lungeza ubufakazi bokuthi ukhula olubulala ukhula luphazamisa ama-hormone

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lungeza ubufakazi obukhathazayo ekukhathazekeni kokuthi ukubulala ukhula okusetshenziswa kabanzi ikhemikhali glyphosate angaba namandla okuphazamisa ama-hormone abantu.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini I-Chemosphere okubizwa ngokuthi IGlyphosate nezimpawu ezibalulekile zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Ukubuyekezwa, abathathu bososayensi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate ibonakala inezici ezisemqoka eziyisishiyagalombili kwezilishumi ezihambisana i-endocrine ephazamisa amakhemikhali . Ababhali baxwayisile, nokho, ukuthi izifundo ezizayo zamaqoqo zisadingeka ukuqonda kahle imithelela ye-glyphosate ohlelweni lomuntu lwe-endocrine.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, Tammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, ngamunye ohlangene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, uthe iphepha labo libuyekeza okokuqala ukuhlanganisa ubufakazi bemishini ku-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disruptting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi i-Roundup, i-herbicide eyaziwayo esekwe eMonsanto, ingaguqula i-biosynthesis yamahomoni ezocansi, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ama-EDC angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nezokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.

Leli phepha elisha lilandela ukushicilelwa ekuqaleni konyaka ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane okukhombise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kusongela ukuzala.

IGlyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, edayiswa emazweni ayi-140. Yangeniswa ngokuthengisa ngonyaka we-1974 ngabakwaMonsanto Co, ikhemikhali liyisithako esisebenzayo emikhiqizweni ethandwayo efana neRoundup kanye namakhulu abanye ababulali bokhula abasetshenziswa ngabathengi, omasipala, izinsiza, abalimi, abasebenzisa igalofu, nabanye emhlabeni jikelele.

UDana Barr, uprofesa wase-Emory University eRollins School of Public Health, uthe ubufakazi “buvame ukuveza ngokusobala ukuthi i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa izakhiwo.”

“Akuyona into engalindelekile ngoba i-glyphosate inokufana okuthile kwesakhiwo namanye ama-endocrine aphazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; kodwa-ke, ikhathaza kakhulu ngoba ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude eminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ”kusho uBarr, oqondisa uhlelo esikhungweni sokucwaninga ngokuvezwa kwabantu esixhaswe yiNational Institutes of Health esikhishwe e-Emory. "IGlyphosate isetshenziswa ezitshalweni eziningi kakhulu nasezicelweni eziningi zokuhlala ezinjengokuchayeka kokuqoqeka nokuqoqekayo kungabonakala."

Phil Landrigan, umqondisi weGlobal Observatory on Pollution and Health, kanye noprofesa wesayensi yezinto eziphilayo
eBoston College, uthe ukubuyekeza kudonse ndawonye "ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-glyphosate iyisiphazamisi se-endocrine.

“Umbiko uhambisana nenqwaba yezincwadi ezibonisa ukuthi i-glyphosate inemiphumela engemihle yezempilo - okutholakele okuguqula isikhathi eside sokusebenza kukaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenayo imithelela emibi empilweni yabantu, ”kusho uLandrigan.

Ama-EDC bekuyinto ekhathazayo kusukela ngama-1990s ngemuva kochungechunge lwezincwadi eziphakamise ukuthi amanye amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu kuma-pesticides, izinyibilikisi zezimboni, amapulasitiki, okokuhlanza, nezinye izinto angaba namandla okuphazamisa ukuxhumana phakathi kwamahomoni nama-receptors awo.

Ososayensi ngokuvamile babona izakhiwo eziyishumi ezisebenzayo zama-ejenti aguqula isenzo se-hormone, ebhekisa kulezi njengezici eziyishumi "eziyinhloko" zabaphazamisi be-endocrine. Izici eziyishumi zimi kanje:

Ama-EDC anga:

  • Ukusatshalaliswa kwama-hormone okuguqula amazinga wokujikeleza kwamahomoni
  • Yenza ushintsho ku-hormone metabolism noma imvume
  • Guqula isiphetho samaseli akhiqiza ama-hormone noma aphendula nge-hormone
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Hlanganisa ama-hormone receptors
  • Hlanganyela noma usebenze ama-hormone receptors
  • Ukudluliswa kwesiginali eguquguqukayo kumaseli aphendula ama-hormone
  • Yenza ukuguqulwa kwe-epigenetic kumaseli akhiqiza ama-hormone noma aphendula ama-hormone
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Ukuhambisa ama-hormone okuhamba ngaphesheya kwezingqamuzana zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe ukubuyekezwa kwemininingwane yemishini kukhombisile ukuthi i-glyphosate ihlangabezane nazo zonke izici ezibalulekile ngaphandle kwezimbili: "Mayelana ne-glyphosate, abukho ubufakazi obuhambisana namandla aphikisayo ama-hormonal receptors," kusho bona. Futhi, "abukho ubufakazi bokuthi kunomthelela ekuguqulweni kwamahomoni noma ekususweni," ngokusho kwabalobi.

Ucwaningo olwenziwe emashumini ambalwa edlule lubhekise kakhulu kwizixhumanisi ezitholakala phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, ikakhulukazi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kuka-100,000 abantu bamangalele uMonsanto e-United States okusolwa ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula egxilwe enkampanini ye-glyphosate kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bathuthukise i-NHL.

Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto sekuyisikhathi eside ifuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yayo yokubulala ukhula. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe izivivinyo ezintathu kwezintathu kanti umnikazi wayo waseGerman uBayer AG usebenzise unyaka nohhafu odlule uzama ukuhlala amacala aphume enkantolo.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baqaphela ubuningi be-glyphosate, bethi "ukusetshenziswa okukhulu" kwaleli khemikhali "kuholele ekusakazekeni kwemvelo okubanzi," kufaka phakathi ukuvezwa okukhulayo okuxhumene nokusetshenziswa komuntu kombulali wokhula ngokudla.

Abaphenyi bathi yize abalawuli bethi amazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate atholakala kakhulu ekudleni aphansi ngokwanele ukuthi aphephe, "ngeke bakwazi ukubekeka engcupheni" yabantu abadla ukudla okune-chemical, ikakhulukazi okusanhlamvu nezinye izitshalo- ukudla okusekelwe, okuvame ukuba namazinga aphezulu kunobisi, inyama noma imikhiqizo yenhlanzi.

Imibhalo kahulumeni wase-US ikhombisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zitholakele ezinhlotsheni eziningi zokudla, kufaka phakathi uju oluphilayo, Futhi i-granola nabaqhekezi.

Abaphenyi bakahulumeni waseCanada nabo babike izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni. Umbiko owodwa okhishwe ngo-2019 ososayensi abavela e-Agri-Food Laboratories yaseCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bathola i-glyphosate kuma-sampuli ayi-197 kwangu-200 oju abaluhlolayo.

Ngaphandle kokukhathazeka ngemithelela ye-glyphosate empilweni yomuntu, kufaka phakathi nokuchayeka ekudleni, abalawuli base-US bakuvikele ngokuqinile ukuphepha kwamakhemikhali. I- Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwemvelo sigcina ukuthi ayitholakalanga "noma iziphi izingozi empilweni yomuntu ngenxa yokuchayeka ku-glyphosate. ”

AmaChlorpyrifos: i-pesticide ejwayelekile eboshelwe ekulimaleni kwengqondo ezinganeni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu, ixhunyaniswe kakhulu ne ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Lokhu nokunye ukukhathazeka kwezempilo kuholele amazwe amaningana futhi amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvimbela i-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali yilokho kusavunyelwe ezitshalweni zokudla e-US ngemuva ukunxenxa ngempumelelo ngomkhiqizi wayo.

AmaChlorpyrifos ekudleni  

AmaChlorpyrifos ama-insecticide afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo kumagama omkhiqizo iDursban neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos isibulala-zinambuzane se-organophosphate, i-acaricide kanye ne-miticide esetshenziswa ikakhulu ukulawula amahlamvu nezinambuzane ezithwalwa ngumhlabathi ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zokudla nezokudla. Imikhiqizo iza ifomu eliwuketshezi kanye nama-granules, izimpushana, namaphakethe ancibilikiswa ngamanzi, futhi ingasetshenziswa ngumhlabathi noma imishini yasemoyeni.

AmaChlorpyrifos asetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene ezibandakanya ama-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry, ummbila, ukolweni, ezisawolintshi nokunye ukudla imindeni nezingane zabo ezikudlayo nsuku zonke. Ama-USDA Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezibulala-zinambuzane kutholwe izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos kuma-citrus namakhabe ngisho nangemva kokugezwa nokuhluzwa. Ngokwevolumu, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa kakhulu emmbileni nakosoya, kunamakhilogremu angaphezu kwesigidi asetshenziswa minyaka yonke esitshalweni ngasinye. Amakhemikhali awavunyelwe ezitshalweni eziphilayo.

Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ukukhathazeka ngempilo yabantu

I-American Academy of Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane abangaphezu kwama-66,000, uxwayise lokho ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwama-chlorpyrifos kubeka engcupheni enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, i-IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kokukhula kwezimoto. Izifundo ezisemqoka zibhalwe ngezansi.

IChlorpyrifos ibuye ixhunyaniswe nobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane obunzima futhi ingadala ukudlikizela, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumula, futhi kwesinye isikhathi, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile

I-Chlorpyrifos inobuthi obukhulu kangangoba i-European Food Safety Authority ukuthengiswa okungavunyelwe kwekhemikhali kusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ezinye izifundazwe zaseMelika zivimbele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusetshenzisweni kokulima, kufaka phakathi California futhi Hawaii.

I-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow Chemical ngo-2000 ukuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwama-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthoba 2015, i-EPA yathi ihlela uku kuhoxise konke ukubekezelela izinsalela zokudla i-chlorpyrifos, okusho ukuthi bekungeke kusaba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezilindelekile zama-chlorpyrifos ezitshalweni zokudla zidlula izinga lokuphepha ngaphansi komthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Lesi sinyathelo sivele ngenxa yesicelo sokuvinjelwa koMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo kanye ne-Pesticide Action Network.

NgoNovemba 2016, i-EPA yakhipha Ukubuyekezwa kokuhlolwa kwengozi yomuntu kwezempilo kuma-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuthi akuphephile ukuvumela ikhemikhali ukuthi liqhubeke lisetshenziswe kwezolimo. Phakathi kokunye, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe lokhu kuvinjelwa kuzokwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ibambezela ukuvinjelwa

Ngemuva kokukhethwa kukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kwabambezeleka. NgoMashi 2017, ngo esinye sezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisemthethweni njengesikhulu esiphezulu sezemvelo esizweni, Umphathi we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasenqaba isicelo ngamaqembu ezemvelo futhi wathi ukuvinjelwa kwama-chlorpyrifos ngeke kuqhubekele phambili.

The Associated Press kubikwa ngoJuni 2017 ukuthi uPruitt uhlangane nesikhulu esiphezulu seDow u-Andrew Liveris ezinsukwini ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvinjelwa. Abezindaba nabo babike ukuthi uDow unikele ngo- $ 1 million emisebenzini yokuqala kaTrump.

NgoFebhuwari ka-2018, i-EPA ufinyelele endaweni yokuhlala edinga iSyngenta ukukhokha inhlawulo engu- $ 150,000 nokuqeqesha abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngemuva kokuba inkampani yehlulekile ukuxwayisa abasebenzi ukuthi bagweme amasimu lapho kusanda kufuthwa khona ama-chlorpyrifos nabasebenzi abaningana abangena emasimini babegula futhi edinga ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayihlongoze inhlawulo cishe ephindwe kasishiyagalolunye emikhulu.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience (phambilini uDowDuPont) wathi izophela ukukhiqizwa kwama-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okushicilelwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli base-US kuncike emininingwaneni engelona iqiniso enikezwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos emakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Ukuhlaziywa okuvela kubacwaningi base-University of Washington bathi ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1970 yeDow.

NgoSepthemba 2020 i-EPA yakhipha okwesithathu ukuhlolwa kwengozi kuma-chlorpyrifos, ethi "yize kutadwe iminyaka eminingana, ukubuyekezwa kontanga, kanye nenqubo yomphakathi, isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela yokuthuthuka ihlala ingasonjululwanga," futhi isengasetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni ukudla.

Isinqumo size ngemuva imihlangano eminingi phakathi kwe-EPA neCorteva.

Amaqembu nezifundazwe zimangalela i-EPA

Ngemuva kwesinqumo sabaphathi bakaTrump sokubambezela noma yikuphi ukuvinjelwa kuze kube okungenani u-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kanye noMkhandlu Wezokuvikela Wezemvelo wafaka icala ngokumelene ne-EPA ngo-Ephreli 2017, efuna ukuphoqa uhulumeni ukuthi alandele izincomo zokuphatha kuka-Obama zokuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos. Ngo-Agasti 2018, umbuso Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala itholakele ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos, futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwayo okuhlongozwayo zingakapheli izinyanga ezimbili. Ngemuva kwalokho ukubambezeleka okuningi, Umphathi we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler umemezele ngoJulayi 2019 ukuthi i-EPA ngeke ivimbele ikhemikhali.

Izifundazwe eziningana ziye zamangalela i-EPA ngokwehluleka kwayo ukuvimba ama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont futhi Oregon. Izifundazwe zithi emibhalweni yasenkantolo yokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele avinjelwe ekukhiqizeni ukudla ngenxa yezingozi ezihambisana nakho.

I-Earthjustice ibuye yafaka icala eNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika eNkantolo Yesifunda Yesishiyagalolunye ukufuna ukuvinjelwa ezweni lonke egameni lamaqembu akhuthaza abezemvelo, abasebenzi basemapulazini kanye nabantu abakhubazeke ngokufunda.

Izifundo zezokwelapha nezesayensi

Intuthuko ye-neurotoxicity

“Ucwaningo lwezifo olubukeziwe lapha lubike ukuhlangana kwezibalo phakathi kokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kuya kuCPF [chlorpyrifos] kanye nezinkinga zemizwa zangemva kokubeletha, ikakhulukazi ukushoda kwengqondo okuhlobene nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sobuchopho…. Amaqembu ahlukahlukene okucwaninga ngaphambi komhlaba emhlabeni wonke akhombise ngokungaguquki ukuthi i-CPF iyi-neurotoxicant yentuthuko. Intuthuko ye-CPF neurotoxicity, esekelwa kahle yizifundo ezisebenzisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezilwane, imizila yokuchayeka, izimoto, nezindlela zokuhlola, imvamisa ibonakala ngokushoda kwengqondo kanye nokuphazamisa ubuqotho besakhiwo. ” Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: kusuka ekutholeni komtholampilo kuya kumamodeli wangaphambi kokusebenza kanye nezinqubo ezingaba khona. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Kusukela ngo-2006, izifundo ze-epidemiological ziye zabhala ezinye izinzwa eziyisithupha ezithuthukisa i-neurotoxicants — i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, ne-polybrominated diphenyl ether." Imiphumela ye-Neurobehavioural yobuthi bokuthuthuka. ILancet Neurology, 2014.

I-IQ yezingane nokukhula kwengqondo

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort lokufunda komama nezingane ezisemadolobheni luthola ukuthi “ukutholakala okuphezulu kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], ngaphambi kokuzalwa, njengoba kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi le-umbilical, kwakuhlotshaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kuma-indices amabili e-WISC-IV, kusampula yedolobha izingane ezincane ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala… i-Working Memory Index ibihlobene kakhulu nokuchayeka kwe-CPF kulesi sibalo sabantu. ” Izikolo zeminyaka eyisikhombisa ze-Neurodevelopmental Scores kanye nokuvezwa kokubeletha kweChlorpyrifos, umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile wezolimo. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo lweqembu lokuzalwa lemindeni esebenza kakhulu epulazini laseLatino eCalifornia luthinta imethabolite yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate etholakala emchameni kwabesifazane abakhulelwe abanezibalo ezimbi kakhulu ezinganeni zabo zememori, isivinini sokucubungula, ukuqonda ngamazwi, ukucabanga okunengqondo kanye ne-IQ. “Okutholakele kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha emithini yokubulala izinambuzane i-OP [organophosphate], njengoba kulinganiswa ngama-metabolite e-urap DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kubantu besifazane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, kuhlotshaniswa namakhono empofu okuqonda ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Izingane ezisezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lokugxila komama be-DAP zazinokushoda okuphakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-7.0 IQ uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo ezikwi-quintile ephansi kakhulu. Ososeshini babebambisene, futhi asizange sibheke mngcele. ” Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi kokubeletha ku-Organophosphate Pesticides kanye ne-IQ ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu besifazane nezingane zabo "liphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-organophosphates kuhlotshaniswa kabi nokukhula kwengqondo, ikakhulukazi ukucabanga okunengqondo, nobufakazi bemiphumela eqala ezinyangeni eziyi-12 futhi kuqhubeke kusukela ebuntwaneni." Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi Kokubeletha ku-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kanye Nokuthuthukiswa Kokuqonda Kwezobuntwana. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu abaphakathi nedolobha lathola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu okuchayeka kuma-chlorpyrifos “zithole, ngokwesilinganiso, amaphuzu angu-6.5 aphansi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index namaphoyinti angu-3.3 aphansi ku-Bayley Mental Development Index eneminyaka emithathu ubudala uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abanamazinga aphansi okuchayeka. Izingane ezivezwe izinga eliphakeme, uma kuqhathaniswa namazinga aphansi, ama-chlorpyrifos nawo mancane amathuba okuthi abhekane nokubambezeleka kwe-Psychomotor Development Index kanye ne-Mental Development Index, izinkinga zokunaka, ukunakekelwa kokushoda / izinkinga zokuphazamiseka kwengqondo, kanye nezinkinga zesifo sokukhula ezisabalele ziseneminyaka emithathu ubudala. ” Umthelela Wokuvezwa Kwe-Chlorpyrifos Yangaphambi Kokubeletha Ekuthuthukisweni Kwe-Neurodevelopment Eminyakeni Eyi-3 Yokuqala Yokuphila Phakathi Kwezingane Zangaphakathi Nasedolobheni. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort esifundeni sezolimo eCalifornia lwandisa "ukutholwa kwangaphambilini kwezinhlangano phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype namazinga we-enzyme kanye nezizinda ezithile ze-neurodevelopment phakathi neminyaka yobudala besikole, kuveza ubufakazi obusha bokuthi izinhlangano ezingezinhle phakathi kwamazinga we-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kanye ne-IQ zingaba namandla kakhulu ezinganeni zomama ezinamazinga aphansi kakhulu enzyme ye-PON1. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kanye ne-neurodevelopment ezinganeni ezifunda isikole esifundweni se-CHAMACOS. Ucwaningo Lwemvelo, 2014.

I-Autism nezinye izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenziwa ngabantu luthole ukuthi, "Ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha noma kwengane kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane okhethiwe — kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, ne-permethrin-kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwamathuba okuba ne-autism spectrum disorder." Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nosana emithini yokubulala izinambuzane eziseduze kanye nokuphazamiseka kwe-autism spectrum ezinganeni: isifundo esilawulwa ngamacala abantu. BMJ, 2019.

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenzelwe abantu "lubone ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwe-ASD [i-autism spectrum disorders] kanye nokuhlala ngaphambi kokubeletha okusondelene nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e-organophosphate okwesibili (kwe-chlorpyrifos) kanye ne-trimesters yesithathu (i-organophosphates jikelele)". Ukuphazamiseka kweNeurodevelopmental kanye nePrenatal Residential Resurial to the Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2014.

Bona futhi: Ukunciphisa ibhalansi yengozi ye-Autism: Izindlela Ezinokwenzeka Zokuxhuma I-Pesticides ne-Autism. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2012.

Okudidayo kobuchopho

"Okutholakele kwethu kukhombisa ukuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni abonwe ngokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile (ukungasebenzi) nangaphansi kombundu wanoma yiziphi izimpawu zokuvezwa kanzima, kunomthelela ongaba khona esakhiweni sobuchopho esampula yezingane ezingama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sithole ukungajwayelekile okuphawulekayo ezilinganisweni ze-morphological ze-cerebral surface ehambisana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kwe-CPF ngaphambi kokubeletha… .Ukukhuliswa kwesifunda kobuso be-cerebral kugqame kakhulu futhi bekutholakala endaweni ephakeme yesikhashana, yangemuva yesikhashana, kanye ne-postyral gyri ephansi, kanye ne-gyrus ephezulu engaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, ne-precuneus ngasodongeni lwe-mesial lwe-hemisphere yangakwesokudla ”. Ukungafani kobuchopho ezinganeni kudalulwe ngokweqile kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile we-organophosphate. Izinqubo zeNational Academy of Sciences, 2012.

Ukukhula kwesisu

Lolu cwaningo "lubone ukuhlangana okuphawuleka kakhulu phakathi kwamazinga we-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kwezinsana eqenjini lamanje elizalwe ngaphambi kwezinyathelo zomthetho ze-EPA zase-US zokuqeda ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokubulala izinambuzane." Ama-biomarkers ekuhloleni ukutholakala kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nemiphumela ekukhuleni kwengane. I-Toxicology kanye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile, lweqembu lamaqembu amaningi lathola ukuthi “lapho kubhekwa izinga lomsebenzi womama we-PON1, amazinga omama ama-chlorpyrifos angaphezulu komkhawulo wokutholwa okuhambisana nomsebenzi ophansi womama we-PON1 ahlotshaniswa nokwehliswa okuphawulekayo kodwa okuncane kokuzungezwa kwekhanda. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga we-PON1 womama kuphela, kepha hhayi ama-polymorphisms ezakhi zofuzo e-PON1, ahlotshaniswa nosayizi wekhanda owehlisiwe. Ngenxa yokuthi usayizi omncane wekhanda utholakale ubikezela ikhono elilandelayo lokuqonda, le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos angaba nomthelela omubi ekukhuleni kwe-fetal neurodevelopment komama abakhombisa umsebenzi ophansi we-PON1. ” Ku-Utero Pesticide Exposure, Umsebenzi We-Maternal Paraoxonase, kanye ne-Head Circumference. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labomama abambalwa nezinsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "luqinisekisa ukutholwa kwethu kwangaphambilini kokuhlangana okuphambene phakathi kwamazinga ama-chlorpyrifos ku-umbilical cord plasma kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude ... Ngaphezu kwalokho, ubudlelwane bokuphendula ngomthamo babuye babonwa esifundweni samanje. Ngokuqondile, ukuhlangana phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos nesisindo esincishisiwe sokuzalwa nobude kwatholakala ikakhulu ezinganeni ezisanda kuzalwa ezinamazinga aphezulu okuvezwa angama-25%. ” Ukuchayeka kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude phakathi kweqoqo elincane lase-Urban. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2004.

Lung Cancer  

Ekuhlolweni kwabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwama-54,000 bezibulala-zinambuzane ku-Agricultural Health Study, ososayensi e-National Cancer Institute babike ukuthi izehlakalo zomdlavuza wamaphaphu zihambisana nokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kulokhu kuhlaziywa kwesifo somdlavuza phakathi kwabafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane ezinelayisense e-chlorpyrifos eNyakatho Carolina nase-Iowa, sithole ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwezibalo zokwanda komdlavuza wamaphaphu, kodwa hhayi komunye umdlavuza ohloliwe, ngokuchayeka okwandayo kwe-chlorpyrifos." Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafakizicelo Bezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KumaChlorpyrifos Esifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Ijenali yeNational Cancer Institute, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala kwabantu abahlala eCentral Valley eCalifornia lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhona kuma-pesticides angama-36 asetshenziswa kakhulu e-organophosphate ngokwehlukana kwandise ingozi yokuhlaselwa yisifo sikaParkinson. Ucwaningo "lunezela ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyathinteka" ku-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kuma-organophosphates kanye nengozi yesifo sikaParkinson. Imithi Yokusebenza Nemvelo, 2014.

Imiphumela yokuzalwa

Iqoqo labazali be-Multiethnic labesifazane abakhulelwe nezinsana ezisanda kuzalwa lithole ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos “ahlotshaniswa nokwehla kwesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa kukonke (p = 0.01 futhi p = 0.003, ngokulandelana) nangesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi phakathi kwabase-Afrika baseMelika (p = 0.04) futhi banciphisa ubude bokuzalwa kumaDominican (p <0.001) ". Imiphumela Yokuchayeka Kokutshalwa Kwendawo Kokungcola Kwemvelo Emiphumeleni Yokuzalwa Emphakathini Wabantu Abaningi. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Neuroendocrine

“Ngokuhlaziywa kwezindlela eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuziphatha kobulili-dimorphic sibonisa ukuthi imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi yeCPF [chlorpyrifos] iyahlangana. Lo muthi we-organophosphorus osatshalaliswa kabanzi ungabhekwa njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine okungenzeka simelele ubungozi bokuphazamiseka kwengqondo okubangelwa ucansi ezinganeni. ” Ukuziphatha kwe-sex dimorphic njengezimpawu zokuphazanyiswa kwe-neuroendocrine ngamakhemikhali ezemvelo: Icala le-chlorpyrifos. I-NeuroToxicology, 2012.

eliqhaqhazelayo

"Okutholakele njengamanje kukhombisa ukuthi izingane ezinokuchayeka okuphezulu kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos zazisemathubeni amakhulu okukhombisa ukuzamazama okuncane noma okumaphakathi ukuya kokulinganayo engalweni eyodwa noma zombili lapho kuhlolwe phakathi kweminyaka yobudala eyi-9 nengu-13.9 yeminyaka…. Sihlangene, ubufakazi obandayo busikisela ukuthi Ukuchayeka kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni asetshenziswayo njengamanje, kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga zokuthuthuka eziqhubekayo nezinhlobonhlobo. ” Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos nokuzamazama kwengane. I-NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Izindleko zama-chlorpyrifos

Izilinganiso zezindleko zokuchayeka kumakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine e-European Union zithole ukuthi "Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kuhlotshaniswa nezigidi eziyi-13.0 (ukuhlaziywa kobucayi, izigidi ezingama-4.24 kuya kweziyi-17.1) kulahlekelwe amaphuzu e-IQ kanye nama-59 300 (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, amacala ayi-16 500 kuya ku-84 400) yokukhubazeka ngokwengqondo, kubiza u- € 146 billion (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, € 46.8 billion kuya ku- € 194 billion). ” Ukushoda kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kanye Nezindleko Ezihlanganisiwe Zokuchayeka Kumakhemikhali Aphazamisa i-Endocrine e-European Union. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015.

Indlala yegilo kumagundane

"Ucwaningo lwamanje lukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamagundane e-CD1, ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kokubeletha nangemuva kokubeletha, emazingeni emithamo ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] ngaphansi kwalawo avimbela ubuchopho i-AchE, kungadala ushintsho ku-thyroid." Ukuvezwa Kokuthuthuka Kwama-Chlorpyrifos Kukhuthaza Ukushintshwa Kumazinga we-Thyroid ne-Thyroid Hormone Ngaphandle Kwezinye Izimpawu Zobuthi kumagundane e-Cd1. Isayensi Yezobuthi, 2009.

Izinkinga ngezifundo zomkhakha

“NgoMashi 1972, uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo e-Albany Medical College babika imiphumela yocwaningo lwenhloso ye-chlorpyrifos kumxhasi walolu cwaningo, iDow Chemical Company. Umbiko wabo uphethe ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli elingabonwa-elibi-lomthelela (i-NOAEL) lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Sikhombisa lapha ukuthi ukuhlaziywa okufanele kwendlela yokuqala yezibalo bekufanele kutholakale i-NOAEL ephansi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela zezibalo ezitholakale okokuqala ku-1982 bekuzokhombisa ukuthi nomthamo ophansi kakhulu ocwaningweni umphumela wokwelashwa obalulekile. Ukuhlaziywa kwangempela, okwenziwe ngabasebenzi bezibalo abaqashwe yi-Dow, akuzange kubuyekezwe okusemthethweni; noma kunjalo, i-EPA icaphune ucwaningo lwaseCoulston njengocwaningo oluthembekile futhi yagcina i-NOAEL yayo ebikiwe njengendawo yokuhamba yokuhlolwa kwezingcuphe kuwo wonke ama-1980 kanye nama-1990. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokuhlala eziningi ezakhanselwa kamuva ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo ezingaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ” Ukuhlaziywa okunamaphutha kwesifundo somthamo womuntu ngamabomu kanye nomthelela wawo ekuhlolweni kwengozi ye-chlorpyrifos. Imvelo Yomhlaba Wonke, 2020.

"Ekubuyekezweni kwethu kwedatha eluhlaza kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ovelele, i-chlorpyrifos, kanye nenye into ehlobene nayo, kutholakale ukungafani phakathi kokubona kwangempela kanye neziphetho ezitholwe ilabhorethri yokuhlola embikweni olethwe ukugunyazwa kwe-pesticide." Ukuphepha Kokuhlolwa Kokuphepha Kwezibulala-zinambuzane: i-neurotoxicity yentuthuko ye-chlorpyrifos ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. Impilo Yezemvelo, 2018.

Amanye amaphepha eqiniso

Isikhungo saseHarvard Kennedy School Shorenstein: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinempikiswano nomphumela waso ekukhuleni kobuchopho: Ucwaningo nezinsizakusebenza

IHarvard University: I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu, ngonyaka owodwa kamuva

Ukulungiswa komhlaba: Ama-Chlorpyrifos: I-pesticides enobuthi elimaza izingane zethu kanye nemvelo

ISierra Club: Izingane namaChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kanye nemibono

Ukulingiswa nguBradley Peterson, ngeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; New York Times

Ifa likaTrump: Ubuchopho Obonakele, nguNicholas Kristof, New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane, esesigaba samakhemikhali esenziwe njengegesi yezinzwa eyenziwe yiNazi Germany, manje sesitholakala ekudleni, emoyeni nasemanzini okuphuza. Ucwaningo lwabantu nolwezilwane lukhombisa ukuthi lulimaza ubuchopho futhi linciphise ama-IQ ngenkathi lubangela ukuthuthumela ezinganeni. ”

Vikela Ubuchopho Bezingane Zethu, nguSharon Lerner, New York Times. “Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba eqinisweni ukuthi akulona uhlobo lwamakhemikhali olulimaza wonke umuntu ohlangana nalo - noma olubangela ukuthi bawele phansi. Esikhundleni salokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukwanda engcupheni yokuhlushwa yizinkinga ezithile zentuthuko okuthi noma zincane kangako, futhi zikhuthazelele. ”

Izithelo Zobuthi: IDow Chemical Ifuna Abalimi ukuthi Baqhubeke Basebenzisa I-Pesticide Exhumene Ne-Autism ne-ADHD, nguSharon Lerner, The Intercept. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yamakhemikhali enelungelo lobunikazi lama-chlorpyrifos futhi esenza iningi lemikhiqizo enayo, ibuphikisana ngokungaguquguquki nobufakazi besayensi obukhulayo bokuthi ikhemikhali yayo eyi-blockbuster iyazilimaza izingane. Kodwa umbiko kahulumeni wakwenza kwacaca ukuthi i-EPA manje isemukela isayensi ezimele ekhombisa ukuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane osetshenziselwa ukutshala ukudla kwethu okuningi akuphephile. ”

Lapho idatha eyanele inganele ukwenza inqubomgomo: Ukwehluleka ukuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos, nguLeonardo Trasande, i-PLOS Biology. “Ososayensi banesibopho sokukhuluma uma abenzi bezinqubomgomo behluleka ukwamukela imininingwane yesayensi. Badinga ukumemezela ngokugcizelela imiphumela yokwehluleka kwenqubomgomo, noma ngabe ezinye zezisekelo zesayensi zihlala zingaqinisekile. ”

Akavinjelwanga Kanjani Lo Muthi Wezibulala-zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli beThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos ngokusobala siyingozi futhi sisetshenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuthi kudlula kalula kusuka kumama kuya embungwini futhi kuxhunyaniswe nezinkinga ezahlukahlukene ezibucayi zezokwelapha, kufaka phakathi ukukhula kahle, isifo sikaParkinson nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Lokho akumangazi ngokuphelele. Ikhemikhali lakhiwa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II ukuze lisetshenziswe njengegesi yezinzwa. Nakhu okumangazayo: Amathani esibulala-zinambuzane asafuthwa njalo ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-United States minyaka yonke, cishe eminyakeni emihlanu ngemuva kokuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency inqume ukuthi kufanele ivinjelwe. ”

Lesi sibulala-zinambuzane sihlobene kakhulu nama-nerve agents asetshenziswa eMpini Yesibili Yomhlaba. I-EPA kaTrump ayinandaba, nguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. “Esikwaziyo ngama-chlorpyrifos kuyethusa. Mhlawumbe ucwaningo olwaziwa kakhulu ngolwenziwa ngabaphenyi baseColumbia University abenza ukucabanga kobuchopho ezinganeni ezisencane kakhulu ezinama-chlorpyrifos. Imiphumela iyashaqisa futhi ayicaci. Ngokwamagama abacwaningi: "Lolu cwaningo lubika izinhlangano ezibalulekile zokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kwisidakamizwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu kwezemvelo, emazingeni asetshenziswayo, ngezinguquko ezihlelekile ebuchosheni bomuntu obusakhulayo."

Icala Elinamandla Lokulwa Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, nguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. “Ukubuyekezwa kwengozi yezempilo yabantu ehlanganiswe yi-EPA ngoNovemba kwathola ukuthi izinkinga zezempilo zazenzeka emazingeni aphansi okuchayeka kunalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kuyingozi. Izinsana, izingane, amantombazane amancane nabesifazane bavezwa amazinga ayingozi ama-chlorpyrifos ngokudla kuphela, kusho le nhlangano. Izingane zichayeke emazingeni aphindwe kayi-140 kunomkhawulo wokuphepha. ”

Izingane Zikhudlwana Ngemuva Kokuvinjelwa Kwama-pesticides ama-2, Ukuthola Okufundwayo, nguRichard Pérez-Peña, eNew York Times. "Abesifazane abakhulelwe eManhattan engenhla ababesengozini enkulu yokubulala izinambuzane ezivamile babenezingane ezincane ukwedlula omakhelwane babo, kodwa imikhawulo yakamuva kulezi zinto ezimbili yehlisa ukutholakala kalula futhi yanda nosayizi wezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo olushicilelwa namuhla."

Ubuthi Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Uma uluma ucezu lwesithelo, kufanele kube yinjabulo engenangqondo. Impela, lelo sitrobheli elibukeka njenge-steroidal elinendawo emhlophe yokugcoba amazinyo akubonakali kulungile ukuqala ngalo. Kepha akumele ucabange ngokukhula kobuchopho bengane lapho uyibeka ngaphezu kokusanhlamvu kwakho. Abaphathi bakaTrump, ngokubeka amathoyizi embonini yamakhemikhali phakathi kokudla kwethu nokuphepha komphakathi, kuphoqe ukuthi kuhlolisiswe kabusha ibhulakufesi neminye imikhuba okungafanele yethuse. ”

Epuletini lakho lesidlo sakusihlwa nasemzimbeni wakho: Isibulala-zinambuzane esiyingozi kakhulu ongakaze uzwe ngaso, nguStaffan Dahllöf, Ukuphenya Ukubika IDenmark. “Umphumela onoshevu wama-chlorpyrifos ezinambuzaneni awuphikiswa. Umbuzo ongaxazululeki ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezinjengezinhlanzi emanzini aseduze noma abasebenzi basemapulazini emasimini, noma kunoma ngubani odla imikhiqizo elashwa. ”

Ama-Neurotoxin ku-broccoli yengane yakho: lokho kuyimpilo ngaphansi kukaTrump, nguCarey Gillam, The Guardian. “Ingakanani impilo yengane yakho? Impendulo evela ebuholini be-US Environmental Protection Agency ithi: hhayi kangako… Ngakho-ke silapha - sinokukhathazeka kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwezingane zethu ezingenacala nezisengozini ngakolunye uhlangothi nabadlali abanamandla, abacebile bezinkampani ngakolunye uhlangothi. Abaholi bethu bezepolitiki nabezomthetho bakhombisile ukuthi bazithanda kakhulu kabani.

Ukubulala Izinambuzane Okuvamile Kungalimaza Ubuchopho Babafana Ngaphezu Kwamantombazane, nguBrett Israel, Environmental Health News. “Kubafana, ukuvezwa ama-chlorpyrifos esibelethweni kwakuhlanganiswa nakho amaphuzu aphansi ekuhlolweni kwememori yesikhashana uma kuqhathaniswa namantombazane avezwe inani elifanayo.

Amashidi amaningi wesayensi kumakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu 

Thola amanye amashidi eqiniso e-US Right to Know:

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba 

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