<Buyela kuzindaba namanothi kaCarey Gillam

Izindaba namanothi kaCarey Gillam

October 28, 2019

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo.