I-Q & A eno-Carey Gillam ku-Whitewash

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Incwadi kaCarey Gillam iyatholakala kwa-Island Press: I-Whitewash: Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza, Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. I-Whitewash bathole Umklomelo we-2018 Rachel Carson Environmental Book kusuka kuNhlangano Yezintatheli Zezemvelo kanye no Umklomelo Wezindondo Zegolide wezi-2018 kusuka kubashicileli abazimele.

Ngokuya ngeminyaka engu-20 yocwaningo kanye nemibhalo eminingi yemikhakha yangaphakathi, I-Whitewash uphenyo olunzima mayelana nesayensi yezolimo esetshenziswa kakhulu emlandweni. Emashumini amaningi eminyaka i-glyphosate inconyiwe njengekhemikhali "eliphephe ngokwanele ukuphuza," kepha ucwaningo olukhulayo lwesayensi lubopha i-glyphosate kumagciwane kanye nezinye izinsongo zezempilo nezemvelo.

I-Whitewash “kufanele kufundwe,” kusho Uhlu Lencwadi.  Kirkus Izibuyekezo izingcingo I-Whitewash "Indaba eshaya kanzima, evula amehlo," kanye "nempikiswano enamandla yendawo yezomthetho ebeka izintshisekelo zomphakathi ngaphezu kwenzuzo yezinkampani." I- Ukubuyekezwa kwencwadi yeNhlangano Yezintatheli Zemvelo ichaza I-Whitewash “njengokufundwa okunesibindi, okuphoqelelayo kusukela ekuqaleni kuze kube sekugcineni, ikakhulukazi kubafundi abathanda uhlobo lokubika okungasali kahle, lwesikhumba sezicathulo okwakuwuphawu lobuntatheli obukhulu.”

Q: Carey, ubulokhu ubika ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane neMonsanto cishe iminyaka engama-20. Njengentatheli, kungani kwakubalulekile ukubhala incwadi mayelana nesihloko? Kungani manje?

IMP: Ochwepheshe bezempilo emhlabeni wonke bayabona ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane zinomthelela omkhulu ezinhlobonhlobo zezinkinga zezempilo ezihlupheka abantu beminyaka yonke, kodwa idlanzana lezinkampani ezinamandla futhi ezinethonya liye laqinisekisa abenzi benqubomgomo ukuthi ubungozi empilweni yabantu kanye nezemvelo buphilile kufanele imivuzo elethwa yilezi zimakhemikhali ngokulwa nokhula, izimbungulu, noma izifo zezitshalo. Lezi zinkampani ziyahlanganisa futhi ziba namandla amakhulu, futhi zisebenzisa ithonya lazo ukududula amazinga aphezulu naphezulu emithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyingozi ezimpilweni zethu, kufaka phakathi nohlelo lwethu lokudla. Silahlekelwe umuzwa wokuqapha odinga kakhulu la makhemikhali, futhi imizamo kaMonsanto yokukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa okwandisiwe kwe-glyphosate ingesinye sezibonelo ezinhle kakhulu zokuthi le ndlela yokufuna inzuzo eyinkampani ibaluleke kanjani ngaphezu kokuvikela umphakathi.

Q: Abantu kungenzeka ukuthi abalazi igama elithi "glyphosate" noma "Roundup." Kwenzenjani? Kungani kufanele abantu banakekele?

A: I-Roundup herbicide isimangalo sikaMonsanto sodumo. Ngaphambi kokuthi ilethe izitshalo ezakhiwe ngofuzo emakethe, iMonsanto yayenza futhi ithengise umbulali wokhula weRoundup. IGlyphosate iyisithako esisebenzayo — izinto empeleni ezibulala ukhula — eRoundup. IGlyphosate nayo isiyasetshenziswa emikhiqizweni engamakhulukhulu ejwayele ukusetshenziselwa izinkambu zamapulazi, utshani nezingadi, izinkundla zegalofu, amapaki nezindawo zokudlala. Inkinga ukuthi akuphephile njengoba iMonsanto igcinile, futhi amashumi eminyaka ocwaningo lwesayensi ayixhumanisa nezifo ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

IMonsanto yazi ngalezi zingozi futhi yasebenza kanzima ukuyifihla.

IMonsanto yazi ngalezi zingozi futhi yasebenza kanzima ukuyifihla ngenkathi ithuthukisa ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo. Izitshalo zikaMonsanto ezakhiwe ngofuzo zonke zakhelwe ukukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate. Isici esiyinhloko sezakhi zofuzo uMonsanto usufake kubhontshisi baso be-GMO, ummbila, i-canola, isithombo sebhitrudi, nezinye izitshalo yisici esivumela lezo zivuno ukuthi zisinde ekufuthweni ngqo nge-glyphosate. Ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule lezi zitshalo "ezibekezelela i-glyphosate" maphakathi nawo-1990, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kwanda kakhulu. Njengamanye ama-pesticides asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kokudla, izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni, kufaka phakathi okusanhlamvu, ukudla okulula, uju, isinkwa, neminye imikhiqizo.

Umbuzo: Ubhala lokho I-Whitewash kukhombisa ukuthi sikhohliwe izifundo zikaRachel Carson futhi Thulile Spring. Usho ukuthini ngalokho?

A: UCarson wabeka izingozi ezihambisana nokusetshenziswa ngokungakhethi kwezibulala-zinambuzane zokwenziwa, futhi wabikezela umonakalo ababengawenza nabazowuletha emvelweni yethu. Ubuye wasola imboni yamakhemikhali ngokusabalalisa ngamabomu ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemikhiqizo yabo. Incwadi yakhe bekungukuvuka okukhuthaze ukunyakaza kwemvelo nokuholele ekwakhiweni kwe-Environmental Protection Agency. Kepha emashumini eminyaka edlule, umphakathi jikelele kanye nabezombusazwe kanye nabalawuli bethu bakhohlwe ngokusobala isidingo sokuqapha nokubhekisisa ekubhekaneni nalezi zinambuzane kanye nezinkampani ezizuzayo ngazo. Ubona ukucindezela kwabaholi bethu bezepolitiki ukuthola imithethonqubo embalwa, yokusetshenziswa okungavinjelwe okungaphezulu kwe-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekukhiqizeni kwethu ukudla, ngenkathi ucwaninga ngokuthi lezibulala-zinambuzane ziwubangela kanjani umdlavuza, ukuthi zikulimaza kanjani ukukhula kwengqondo yezingane, nokuthi ziyiguqula kanjani impilo yokuzala konke okutholayo kwaphoqelelwa eceleni.

Q: Uthole izimboni zezokuxhumana nezokulawula eziveza ubufakazi bethonya lezinkampani kuma-ejensi alawulayo njenge-EPA. Ingabe ubufakazi obembulile buthatha ukubaluleka okusha ngokubheka isimo samanje sezepolitiki e-US? Abantu bangazigcina kanjani izinhlangano ezilawulayo ziphendula ngokusebenzela umphakathi?

IMP: Yebo, kucace bha ukuthi iMonsanto nezinye izinkampani ezinkulu ezinjengeDow Chemical zijabulela amandla amakhulu nabalawuli, bona kanye abantu okufanele bavikele umphakathi. Izinkampani zisebenzisa imali namandla azo ezepolitiki ukuthonya izinqumo ezilawulayo kanye nokuhlolwa kwesayensi ezinhlakeni zokulawula. Uma thina abathengi nabakhokhi bentela sifuna ukuvikela izingane zethu, imindeni yethu, ikusasa lethu, kudingeka sinake, sizifundise ngalezi zinkinga, sibhale futhi sishayele abenzi bomthetho bethu, futhi sisekele izinhlangano ezisebenza egameni lethu ukuvikela impilo yethu nemvelo yethu. Sidinga ukubambelela kuzinqubomgomo ezivikela umphakathi, hhayi inzuzo yezinhlangano ezinkulu. Ubungxiwankulu bukhulu — ukuphishekela ingcebo ngemakethe yamahhala kunikela ngokuhle okuningi, lokho kuyiqiniso. Kepha uma sivumela ama-ajenda enzuzo yenkampani eze kuqala kunempilo nenhlalakahle yabantu bakithi kanye nomhlaba wethu sizidela kakhulu.

Q: IMonsanto izame ukucwaninga nokukuhlambalaza lapho ushicilela izindaba eziphikisana nezintshisekelo zebhizinisi labo. Yiziphi izindlela izintatheli — noma ososayensi — abangazisebenzisa uma bebhekene nalokhu kubuyiselwa emuva? Ziyini izigxobo uma kungenjalo?

IMP: IMonsanto, nezinhlangano ezisekelwa nguMonsanto, zisebenzele impela ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wami iminyaka eminingi. Kepha angingedwa; balandele izintatheli bevela ezinhlwini eziningi zezindaba ezinkulu, kufaka phakathi i- New York Times, kanye nososayensi, izifundiswa, nabanye abacwaninga kakhulu ngezimfihlo abafuna ukuzifihla. Ngikubona kuyibheji yokuhlonishwa ukuthi uMonsanto nabanye abasembonini yamakhemikhali bazizwe besongelwa ngokwanele ngumsebenzi wethu ukuze basihlasele. Akulula neze, ikakhulukazi ngezintatheli, ukuphonsela inselelo umshini wepropaganda yenkampani.

Izintatheli ezihambisana nomdlalo, eziphinda amaphuzu okukhuluma, futhi ezishicilela izindaba ezisekela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi ziklonyeliswa ngokufisa ukufinyelela kubaphathi abaphezulu futhi zinikezwe izindaba "ezikhethekile" mayelana nemikhiqizo emisha noma amasu amasha, konke okuwathola amaphuzu ebhonasi nabahleli . Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli eziphikisana nokusanhlamvu, ezibika ngocwaningo olungathandeki, noma eziveza ukwehluleka noma ubungozi bemikhiqizo ethile zivame ukuthi zilahlekelwe ukufinyelela kubaphathi abakhulu bezinkampani. Lo mncintiswano uthola isikweletu ngezingxoxo nezikhulu eziphezulu zezinkampani ngenkathi izintatheli ezingadlali lo mdlalo zibona amakhono azo obuntatheli ehlaselwa futhi ethukwa futhi eba yisihloko sezikhalazo eziphikelelayo ezenziwa yizinkampani kubahleli bazo.

Yini engenziwa? Abahleli nezintatheli ngokufanayo kudingeka babheke imigogodla yabo, babone ukuthi umsebenzi wentatheli ukuthola indaba ngemuva kwesiphetho, ukubuza imibuzo engathandeki nokwenza ubuqotho kuphela eqinisweni nasekubonakaleni. Lapho siphelelwa ubuntatheli obuzimele obuyiqiniso, lapho sizwa nje lokho okufunwa ngamandla, kuyaqinisekiswa ukuthi labo abangenawo amandla yibo abakhokha inani.

Umbuzo: Uxoxe nenani elikhulu labantu ngale ncwadi, kufaka phakathi ososayensi, abalimi, nabalawuli. Ingabe ikhona ingxoxo noma indaba ethile evelele kuwe?

Impendulo: Ngixoxisane nezinkulungwane zabantu ngomsebenzi wami, kusukela ezinhlotsheni zezombusazwe ezinamagama amakhulu kakhulu kuya kosaziwayo kuze kube nsuku zonke abesilisa nabesifazane, futhi ngithola ukuthi yilabo njalo abangaziphakamisi, labo “bantu abajwayelekile” ababamba inhliziyo yami. Ekucwaningeni le ncwadi, indaba engangithinta kakhulu eyikaTeri McCall, umyeni wakhe uJack wahlupheka kabuhlungu ngaphambi kokubulawa umdlavuza ngakusasa ngemuva kukaKhisimusi ngo-2015. Umndeni wakwaMcCall wawuphila impilo enokuthula futhi elula, ukhulisa ukwatapheya futhi wahlanganyela Izithelo ezisawolintshi epulazini labo laseCambria, eCalifornia, bengasebenzisi ezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ngaphandle kweRoundup ezingadini zabo zezithelo. Ukushona kukaJacks kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, uhlobo lomdlavuza oluxhunywe ne-glyphosate, kumchithe ngokuphelele uTeri nezingane zakhe nabazukulu. Ukhombise umusa namandla amaningi futhi unginike isikhathi sakhe esiningi — nezinyembezi zakhe — ekungitsheleni indaba kaJack. Ungowesifazane engimkhonzile ngokweqiniso.

Vele kunabanye abaningi engifunde kubo, engibazwelayo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi abebenenkinga yokushicilela ucwaningo, abaye bahlolwe noma babi kakhulu ngokutholakala kwabo kokulimala okuhlobene ne-glyphosate neminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane. Futhi abalimi-ngibahlonipha kakhulu abalimi ngokujwayelekile, kufaka phakathi ngamunye okwaxoxwa naye ngale ncwadi. Umsebenzi abawenzayo wokukhulisa ukudla kwethu uyinselele emangalisayo futhi basemgqeni wokuqala wezingozi zezibulala-zinambuzane nsuku zonke.

Ukudonsa imihlathi kuyindlela engcono yokuchaza eminye yemibhalo mina nabanye engiyitholile.

Q: Usuneminyaka ucwile kulesi sihloko. Ngabe kukhona okutholile ngenkathi ucwaninga futhi ubhala le ncwadi okukumangazile?

IMP: Ukwehla emihlathini kuyindlela engcono yokuchaza eminye yemibhalo mina nabanye esiyithole. Ukubona ngemuva kwekhethini, ukufunda ngamagama abo ukuthi abasebenza ezinkampanini basebenza kanjani ngenhloso yokusebenzisa isayensi, ukudukisa abathengi nosopolitiki, bekushaqisa. Njengomlobi wezindaba wesikhathi eside, ngingumuntu onobuhlungu obunzima. Noma kunjalo, ukujula kwenkohliso ebekwe obala kule mibhalo, neminye imibhalo esavela, kuyamangalisa.

Q: Unethemba lokuthi abafundi bazothathani bathathe ini I-Whitewash?

A: Umbhali ku New York Times wangitshela ngemuva kokufunda I-Whitewash ukuthi wesaba ukudla noma yini esiqandisini sakhe ngenxa yolwazi olunikezwa yile ncwadi mayelana nohla lwensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala kwimikhiqizo eminingi yokudla. Lokho akuyona neze inhloso yami, ukukhungathekisa noma ukwethusa abantu. Kepha ngithemba ukuthi abafundi bazoshukumiseleka ukuba banakekele kakhulu ukuthi ukudla kwethu kukhiqizwa kanjani, nokuthi sisebenzisa kanjani imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane eyingozi hhayi emapulazini kuphela kepha nasemagcekeni esikole nasemapaki lapho izingane zethu zidlala khona.

Futhi ngithemba ukuthi bazofuna ukuzibandakanya engxoxweni enkulu nasezingxoxweni zokuthi silakha kanjani ikusasa elilinganisa ngokwanele izingozi nemivuzo ehambisana nalezi zinambuzane. Njengoba I-Whitewash imibukiso, uhlelo lwamanje lwenzelwe ukupompa inzuzo yezinkampani kakhulu kunalokho ukukhuthaza ukusimama kokukhiqizwa kwemvelo nokudla isikhathi eside. Kunamandla amaningi asebenzayo okugcina isimo simile, ukuqhubeka nokuphusha izibulala-zinambuzane eziyingozi, cishe ngokoqobo phansi komphimbo wethu. Kukithi sonke ukuthi sibuyele emuva.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona, umcwaningi, nomlobi onolwazi olungaphezu kweminyaka engama-25 olumayelana nezinkampani zaseMelika. Owayekade eyintatheli enkulu yezindaba zamazwe omhlaba iReuters, uGillam ungena shí ebhizinisini elikhulu lokudla nezolimo. UCarey uphinde abe ngumqondisi wezocwaningo we Ilungelo Lethu Lase-US Lokwazi, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo ephenya ubungozi obuhambisana nohlelo lokudla lwenkampani, kanye nemikhuba kanye nomthelela wemboni yokudla kunqubomgomo yomphakathi.