I-Neonicotinoids: ukukhathazeka okukhulayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoJanuwari 10, iThe Guardian lashicilela le ndaba mayelana nomphakathi omncane wasemaphandleni waseNebraska obelokhu unenkinga okungenani iminyaka emibili nokungcola okuhlanganiswe nembewu yommbila eboshwe nge-neonicotinoid. Umthombo uyisitshalo sendawo se-ethanol ebesizikhangisa njengesihlelekile “Ukwenza kabusha” indawo yezinkampani zembewu ezinjengeBayer, iSyngenta kanye nezinye ezazidinga indawo yokulahla okweqile kwalezi zitoko zembewu ephethwe yi-pesticide. Umphumela, abantu basemadolobheni bathi, indawo ehlanganiswe namazinga aphakeme ngokumangalisayo ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula kubantu nasezilwaneni. Besaba ukuthi umhlaba wabo namanzi manje sekonakele ngendlela engalungiseki.

Iziphathimandla zezemvelo zombuso zirekhode amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ku- izingxenye ezimangazayo ezingama-427,000 ngezigidigidi (ppb) ekuhlolweni kwelinye lamagquma amakhulu emfucuza esizeni sesakhiwo se-ethanol. Lokho kuqhathanisa namabhentshimakhi wokulawula athi amazinga kufanele abe ngaphansi kuka-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengaphephile.

Bona leli khasi ukuthola eminye imininingwane nemibhalo.

Isifundiswa sase-University of Nebraska uJudy Wu-Smart ubhale ukukhathazeka nobufakazi bemithelela ebonakalayo yokungcola kwendawo ezungezile, kufaka phakathi izinyosi nezinye izilwane zasendle ephephenir ubelokhu ehlanganyela nezinye izifundiswa.

Inganekwane yomgwaqo eMead, eNebraska, iyisibonakaliso sakamuva nje sokuthi ukwenganyelwa kokulawulwa kwezwe neonicotinoids kudinga ukuqiniswa, ngokusho kwabameli bezemvelo nabaphenyi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi aseMelika.

“Benza okubi futhi kucace bha ukuthi abanalo iqiniso ngakho, 'kusho uSarah Hoyle, ogxile ezindabeni zokubulala izinambuzane ze-Xerces Society, okuyinhlangano yezokulondolozwa ezinze e-Oregon.

Impikiswano ngesigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-neonicotinoids, noma ama-neonics, ibilokhu ikhula eminyakeni yamuva nje futhi isiphenduke impikiswano yomhlaba wonke phakathi kwama-behemoth ezinkampani athengisa ama-neonics kanye namaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi ama-insecticide anesibopho sezempilo ebanzi yemvelo kanye neyabantu ukulimaza.

Kusukela yethulwa ngawo-1990s, ama-neonicotinoids abe yisigaba esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, esithengiswa emazweni angama-120 okungenani ukusiza ukulawula izinambuzane ezilimazayo nokuvikela ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo. Izibulala-zinambuzane azifuthwa kuphela ezitshalweni kodwa futhi zimbozwe nembewu. Ama-Neonicotinoids asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo, kufaka phakathi irayisi, ukotini, ummbila, amazambane nosoya. Kusukela ngo-2014, ama-neonicotinoids amelwe ngaphezu kwe- Amaphesenti angama-25 omuthi wokubulala zinambuzane womhlaba wonke emakethe, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ngaphakathi kwekilasi, i-clothianidin ne-imidacloprid yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho kwephepha lowe-2019 elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Environmental Protection Agency yakhipha i- izinqumo eziphakanyisiwe zesikhashana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kanye thiamethoxam, izinambuzane ezithile ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe ibisebenza ukunciphisa inani elisetshenzisiwe ezitshalweni ezihambisana "nobungozi bezemvelo obungahle bube khona," ibeke umkhawulo lapho izibulala-zinambuzane zingasetshenziswa ekutshalweni kwezitshalo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobufakazi besayensi ukhombisa ukuthi ama-neonicotinoids ayimbangela ekusakazekeni i-colony collapse disorder yezinyosi, okuyizinambuzane ezibalulekile lapho kukhiqizwa ukudla. Babukwa futhi okungenani njengengxenye yokusolwa kwe- an “I-apocalypse yezinambuzane. Ama-insecticide nawo aboshelwe emaphutheni amakhulu ngezinyamazane ezinomsila omhlophe, kujulisa ukukhathazeka ngamandla amakhemikhali okulimaza izilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nabantu.

I-European Union ivimbele ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid ne-thiamethoxam ngo-2018, kanye ne IZizwe Ezihlangene zithi Ama-neonics ayingozi kangangoba kufanele abekelwe imigoqo “ebucayi”. Kepha e-United States, ama-neonics ahlala esetshenziswa kabanzi.