Imihlangano ezayo ye-EPA Yezokuphepha KweMonsanto Weed Killer Drawing scrutiny

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

IBayer kungcono ukunake lokhu.

Inkampani yaseJalimane kuhloswe ukuthola ama- $ 66 billion weMonsanto Co. iza phakathi nokukhathazeka okukhulayo ngekusasa lombulali wokhula othengisa kakhulu wenkampani, ikhemikhali elibizwa nge-glyphosate elenziwa uMonsanto emhlabeni eminyakeni engama-40 eyedlule njengesithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup herbicide. IMonsanto ivuna izigidigidi zamaRandi minyaka yonke, cishe ingxenye yesithathu yokuthengisa kwayo, kuleyo mikhiqizo.

Ngakho-ke akuyona into encane ukuthi maphakathi no-Okthoba i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ihlela ukuchitha izinsuku ezine ukubamba imihlangano yomphakathi nephaneli yokweluleka yesayensi ngesihloko sokuthi i-glyphosate ingawudala umdlavuza noma cha. Umqondo wokukhanyisa obala emphakathini ngalokhu kukhathazeka okwandayo mayelana ne-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni awuzange ume kahle ngeMonsanto nayo yonke imboni ezuza emikhiqizweni ye-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup. Izintshisekelo zezolimo sezihambe zaze zafika lapho ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi imihlangano akufanele ibanjwe nhlobo, futhi bathe uma ikhona, ososayensi abaningi abaphezulu emhlabeni kufanele bakhishwe ekubandakanyeni.

Imboni ngokusobala ayikwamukeli ukuhlolisiswa umphakathi okulethwa yile mihlangano, kodwa kufanele yaneliseke ukuthi i-EPA ikubeke kwacaca ukuthi ayinanhloso yokuphikisana nezimangalo zikaMonsanto zokuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Ngemuva kwakho konke, embikweni kaSepthemba 12 onikezwe umphakathi, i-EPA yanikela nge Ukuhlolwa kwamakhasi angama-227 yamandla okubangela umdlavuza we-glyphosate agcine ngokuphetha ngokuthi "okuhlongozwayo" ukuthi i-glyphosate '"kungenzeka ukuthi ingabi yi-carcinogenic kubantu' ngemithamo efanelekile ekuhlolweni kwengozi yabantu." Konke lokhu ngaphambi kokuba kubanjwe imihlangano.

Kuyisikweletu sayo, i-EPA ikhiphe ama-caveats amaningi kulowo mbiko, yavuma ukuthi olunye ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha yanikeza izincazelo ezahlukahlukene zokuthi kungani i-ejensi ingakholelwa ukuthi leyo miphumela yocwaningo ibalulekile, futhi / noma idlulwa ngenye izifundo. Le nhlangano ibuye yengeza inqwaba yeziqu, yathi ngokuphathelene nezifundo ze-epidemiological, imininingwane inciphile futhi iphelelwe yisikhathi. Ngenxa yokuthi kube "nokusetshenziswa okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kulandela ukwethulwa kwezitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate ngo-1996, kunesidingo sezifundo zakamuva kakhulu njengoba inani elikhulu lezifundo zenziwa ngaphambi konyaka we-1996," kusho i-EPA. Le nhlangano iphinde yathi ucwaningo ludinga ukwenziwa ekwakhiweni kwe-glyphosate, hhayi i-glyphosate kuphela.

Futhi i-ejensi ifake i-caveat ethize maqondana nocwaningo olubopha i-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), ithi: “Kunemibono engqubuzanayo yokuthi ungayichaza kanjani imiphumela isiyonke yeNHL. Abanye bakholelwa ukuthi imininingwane ikhombisa ukuhlangana okukhona phakathi kokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL. ” Le nhlangano yanezela: "Ngenxa yemikhawulo yokufunda kanye nemiphumela ephikisanayo ezifundweni zonke ... isiphetho maqondana nokuhlangana phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL ngeke sinqunywe ngokuya ngemininingwane etholakalayo."

Kusobala ukuthi kuningi okusengcupheni - Njengamanje iMonsanto imangalelwa ngabantu abaningi abathi i-Roundup herbicide yenkampani yabanika yona noma amalungu omndeni wabo i-NHL, futhi inkampani ilwa impi yasenkantolo nezwe laseCalifornia ngemizamo yokulawula yokwengeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwama-carcinogens aziwayo noma okungenzeka abe khona. Futhi kusele udaba lokuhlolwa kwesikhathi eside kwe-EPA kokuhlolwa kwezinhlekelele kwezemvelo nakwezempilo kwe-glyphosate, lapho i-EPA ingeza khona imikhawulo ekusetshenzisweni kwe-glyphosate uma i-ejensi ibona kufanele lokho. Lokho kuhlolwa kobungozi bekufanele kuphume ngo-2015. I-ejensi yathi izokhishwa ngo-2016. Manje i-ejensi ithi ingaqedwa ngentwasahlobo ka-2017.

Ngokutholwa kweBayer, amacala amacala kanye nokuhlolwa kobungozi sekusondele, uMonsanto ubelokhu ekhipha zonke izitobha zokuvikela i-glyphosate. Ingcindezi ye-EPA yokuvikela i-glyphosate yaqala ngokushesha ngemuva kokuthi i-World Health Organisation International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) imemezele ngoMashi 2015 ukuthi ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate "Mhlawumbe" i-carcinogenic kubantu. Isinqumo se-IARC samenyezelwa ngoLwesihlanu, Mashi 20, 2015 kwathi ngoMsombuluko olandelayo ekuseni, uDan Jenkins waseMonsanto, umholi wezokulawulwa kwenkampani, wayesevele ukubiza nokuthumela nge-imeyili izikhulu ze-EPA befuna ukuthi "balungise" irekhodi ku-glyphosate. Ama-imeyili atholwe ngesicelo se-Freedom of Information abonisa ukuthi ama-Jenkins ahanjisiwe "Amaphuzu okukhuluma" ku-EPA ukuzama ukuphikisa i-IARC. Futhi kusukela lapho iMonsanto iye yaqinisa kuphela imizamo yayo yokwenza ize imiphumela yokutholwa kweqembu le-IARC, ihlasela ososayensi abangomakadebona njenge “engakhethwanga, engabuswa ngentando yeningi, engaziwa futhi engaphandle. ”

IMonsanto iphinde yafaka ama-imeyili namanye amarekhodi avela kusihlalo walelo komiti le-IARC, U-Aaron Blair, usosayensi ophumile eNational Cancer Institute, owayengusihlalo wethimba le-IARC. UBlair unomsebenzi omude wokunconywa nokuqokwa okuvuma ubungcweti bakhe, futhi useke wasebenza emaqenjini amaningi okubuyekezwa kwesayensi kuzwelonke nakwamanye amazwe, kubandakanya ne-EPA. Kepha iMonsanto ithathe njengomsolwa womsebenzi kaBlair.

Futhi kubonakala sengathi uMonsanto wenze ukujija ingalo eCongress. NgoMsombuluko, usihlalo weNdlu yeKomidi Lezokuqapha kanye Nezinguquko kuHulumeni ubhalele i- Izikhungo zezempilo zikazwelonke, Efunda izikhalazo eziningi uMonsanto nababambisene nayo abazenzile nge-IARC nangezinselelo zesibonelelo i-NIH esenze ku-IARC.

Ukubukeka kwe-EPA kokuqondanisa neMonsanto kubathukuthelisa abaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi i-EPA iyaphambuka ezimisweni zesayensi ezimisiwe futhi ingabunaki ubufakazi obubalulekile ukuze igcine izintshisekelo zenkampani ezizuza kuma-herbicides e-glyphosate zijabule.

“Leli khemikhali lingaba yisifo somzimba womuntu nganoma iyiphi incazelo enengqondo. Kungamampunge ukusho okunye, ”kusho UChristopher Portier, owayengumqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry e-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ngaphambi kwaleyo ndima, uPortier wachitha iminyaka engama-32 kwiNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), lapho asebenza khona njengomqondisi we-NIEHS, umqondisi we-Environmental Toxicology Programme, kanye nomqondisi ohlangene weNational Toxicology Program. Esethathe umhlalaphansi, uPortier, "owayengungcweti omenyiwe" ekubuyekezweni kwe-IARC nge-glyphosate, ubambe amatoho esikhwameni se-Environmental Defense Fund.

U-Portier kanye nabanye ososayensi bamazwe angaphezulu kwama-90 bakhiphe i- umbiko onemininingwane kubeka ucwaningo oluthile oluhlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza kokubili ezifundweni zezilwane nasekubonweni kwabantu. Ososayensi bathe okuwukuphela kwendlela abalawuli abakwazi ukwehlisa ngayo ubufakazi ukugoba imithetho esungulwe kahle yokuhlolwa kwesayensi. Bathi ubufakazi obukhona bomuntu buyakhombisa ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kuyilapho imiphumela ebalulekile ye-carcinogenic ibonakala ezilwaneni zaselebhu zezinso ezingavamile nezinye izinhlobo zamathumba. Kukhona futhi "nobufakazi obuqinile be-genotoxicity kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative," kufaka phakathi ukutholakala kokulimala kwe-DNA egazini lomzimba labantu abadalulwe i-glyphosate, kusho ososayensi.

"Ukuhlolwa okufanele kakhulu nokwenziwe ngokwesayensi komdlavuza okubikwe kubantu nasezilwaneni zaselabhorethri kanye nemininingwane esekelayo yemishini ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu," kusho umbiko. "Ngenxa yalesi siphetho futhi bungekho ubufakazi obuphikisana nalokhu, kunengqondo ukuphetha ngokuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kufanele kubhekwe nokuthi kungenzeka kube ngumdlavuza wabantu."

“I-EPA isendaweni embi ngalokhu. Ukubuyiselwa emuva impela kuphume kulo mkhakha kususelwa ezintweni ezingezwakali kahle ngokwesayensi, ”kusho uMaarten Bosland, ongomunye wababhali balo mbiko ngocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. UBosland ungumqondisi weCentre for Global Health Outreach Department of Pathology e-University of Illinois eChicago, futhi uneziqu ze-Ph.D. ku-pathology yokuhlola. “Isamba semali esithintekayo kulesi sakhi sikhulu kakhulu. Kuyinhlanganisela yomhlaba wonke yezintshisakalo zezezimali ezithintwa yilokhu. ”

Kubukeka kungaphezu kokuqondana nje ukuthi umqondo we-EPA wokuchitha izifundo zesayensi i-IARC uthe ukhombisa ukuxhumana komdlavuza ngokusondelana nokutholwe yiphaneli elixhaswe ngemali yi-Monsanto elinamalungu ayi-16. Lelo qembu lososayensi abayi-16, bonke ngaphandle kwabane babo wayekade esebenza ngaphambilini kungaba njengabasebenzi noma ababonisi beMonsanto, wakhipha umbiko ngoDisemba esekela impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuthi abukho ubufakazi bangempela bokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza. Ukuhola umsebenzi kwaba UGary M. Williams, umqondisi wezifo zemvelo kanye ne-toxicology eNew York Medical College, kanye nomxhumanisi eMonsanto. UWilliams unomlando wokushicilela okutholakele okuhle nge-glyphosate; wayengumbhali wenye yeMonsanto izifundo ezenziwe kakhulu, umbiko wocwaningo lowezi-2000 owaphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate akuyona nje kuphela i-carcinogen, kodwa “kubhekwa ukuthi ayinabo ubuthi.”

Lelo phaneli lilungiselela ukukhipha ama-athikili amahlanu asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate kumagazini Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile Kwe-Toxicology maduzane, ngokusho kwe-Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy, ekhokhelwe yiMonsanto ukuhlela iphaneli.

Embikweni we-EPA, indawo eyodwa ekhanyayo yabagxeki be-glyphosate ukuthi i-EPA ifuna ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe. Ngokuqondile, i-ejensi iyasivuma isidingo sokuhlola ukwesaba ukuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kungaba nobuthi ngaphezu kwe-glyphosate kuphela. I-EPA ithuthukisa "uhlelo lokucwaninga" neNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ukuze "kuhlolwe iqhaza le-glyphosate ekwakhiweni kwemikhiqizo nomehluko ekwakhiweni kobuthi," kusho i-EPA.

Izimpendulo ezintsha azikwazi ukuza maduze ngokwanele kubathengi abakhathazeka ngamazinga aqhubekayo e-glyphosate ekudleni abakudlayo. I-FDA kulo nyaka itholakele amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate kuzinyosi zase-US, amanye amazinga angaphezu kokuphindwe kabili kwalokho okubhekwa njengokuphephile e-European Union.

Imihlangano eseWashington iqala ngo-Okthoba 18-21, kanti kulindeleke ukuthi idonse abantu abehlukene - abameli, izishoshovu, abalimi, abezemvelo kanye nababambisene nabo ezinkampanini bonke benza izinhlelo zabo zokuhamba.

Kufanele kube mnandi.

(I-Article ivele okokuqala ku- I-Huffington Post)