AmaChlorpyrifos: i-pesticide ejwayelekile eboshelwe ekulimaleni kwengqondo ezinganeni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu, ixhunyaniswe kakhulu ne ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Lokhu nokunye ukukhathazeka kwezempilo kuholele amazwe amaningana futhi amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvimbela i-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali yilokho kusavunyelwe ezitshalweni zokudla e-US ngemuva ukunxenxa ngempumelelo ngomkhiqizi wayo.

AmaChlorpyrifos ekudleni  

AmaChlorpyrifos ama-insecticide afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo kumagama omkhiqizo iDursban neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos isibulala-zinambuzane se-organophosphate, i-acaricide kanye ne-miticide esetshenziswa ikakhulu ukulawula amahlamvu nezinambuzane ezithwalwa ngumhlabathi ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zokudla nezokudla. Imikhiqizo iza ifomu eliwuketshezi kanye nama-granules, izimpushana, namaphakethe ancibilikiswa ngamanzi, futhi ingasetshenziswa ngumhlabathi noma imishini yasemoyeni.

AmaChlorpyrifos asetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene ezibandakanya ama-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry, ummbila, ukolweni, ezisawolintshi nokunye ukudla imindeni nezingane zabo ezikudlayo nsuku zonke. Ama-USDA Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezibulala-zinambuzane kutholwe izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos kuma-citrus namakhabe ngisho nangemva kokugezwa nokuhluzwa. Ngokwevolumu, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa kakhulu emmbileni nakosoya, kunamakhilogremu angaphezu kwesigidi asetshenziswa minyaka yonke esitshalweni ngasinye. Amakhemikhali awavunyelwe ezitshalweni eziphilayo.

Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ukukhathazeka ngempilo yabantu

I-American Academy of Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane abangaphezu kwama-66,000, uxwayise lokho ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwama-chlorpyrifos kubeka engcupheni enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, i-IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kokukhula kwezimoto. Izifundo ezisemqoka zibhalwe ngezansi.

IChlorpyrifos ibuye ixhunyaniswe nobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane obunzima futhi ingadala ukudlikizela, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumula, futhi kwesinye isikhathi, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile

I-Chlorpyrifos inobuthi obukhulu kangangoba i-European Food Safety Authority ukuthengiswa okungavunyelwe kwekhemikhali kusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ezinye izifundazwe zaseMelika zivimbele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusetshenzisweni kokulima, kufaka phakathi California futhi Hawaii.

I-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow Chemical ngo-2000 ukuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwama-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthoba 2015, i-EPA yathi ihlela uku kuhoxise konke ukubekezelela izinsalela zokudla i-chlorpyrifos, okusho ukuthi bekungeke kusaba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezilindelekile zama-chlorpyrifos ezitshalweni zokudla zidlula izinga lokuphepha ngaphansi komthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Lesi sinyathelo sivele ngenxa yesicelo sokuvinjelwa koMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo kanye ne-Pesticide Action Network.

NgoNovemba 2016, i-EPA yakhipha Ukubuyekezwa kokuhlolwa kwengozi yomuntu kwezempilo kuma-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuthi akuphephile ukuvumela ikhemikhali ukuthi liqhubeke lisetshenziswe kwezolimo. Phakathi kokunye, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe lokhu kuvinjelwa kuzokwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ibambezela ukuvinjelwa

Ngemuva kokukhethwa kukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kwabambezeleka. NgoMashi 2017, ngo esinye sezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisemthethweni njengesikhulu esiphezulu sezemvelo esizweni, Umphathi we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasenqaba isicelo ngamaqembu ezemvelo futhi wathi ukuvinjelwa kwama-chlorpyrifos ngeke kuqhubekele phambili.

The Associated Press kubikwa ngoJuni 2017 ukuthi uPruitt uhlangane nesikhulu esiphezulu seDow u-Andrew Liveris ezinsukwini ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvinjelwa. Abezindaba nabo babike ukuthi uDow unikele ngo- $ 1 million emisebenzini yokuqala kaTrump.

NgoFebhuwari ka-2018, i-EPA ufinyelele endaweni yokuhlala edinga iSyngenta ukukhokha inhlawulo engu- $ 150,000 nokuqeqesha abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngemuva kokuba inkampani yehlulekile ukuxwayisa abasebenzi ukuthi bagweme amasimu lapho kusanda kufuthwa khona ama-chlorpyrifos nabasebenzi abaningana abangena emasimini babegula futhi edinga ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayihlongoze inhlawulo cishe ephindwe kasishiyagalolunye emikhulu.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience (phambilini uDowDuPont) wathi izophela ukukhiqizwa kwama-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okushicilelwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli base-US kuncike emininingwaneni engelona iqiniso enikezwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos emakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Ukuhlaziywa okuvela kubacwaningi base-University of Washington bathi ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1970 yeDow.

NgoSepthemba 2020 i-EPA yakhipha okwesithathu ukuhlolwa kwengozi kuma-chlorpyrifos, ethi "yize kutadwe iminyaka eminingana, ukubuyekezwa kontanga, kanye nenqubo yomphakathi, isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela yokuthuthuka ihlala ingasonjululwanga," futhi isengasetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni ukudla.

Isinqumo size ngemuva imihlangano eminingi phakathi kwe-EPA neCorteva.

Amaqembu nezifundazwe zimangalela i-EPA

Ngemuva kwesinqumo sabaphathi bakaTrump sokubambezela noma yikuphi ukuvinjelwa kuze kube okungenani u-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kanye noMkhandlu Wezokuvikela Wezemvelo wafaka icala ngokumelene ne-EPA ngo-Ephreli 2017, efuna ukuphoqa uhulumeni ukuthi alandele izincomo zokuphatha kuka-Obama zokuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos. Ngo-Agasti 2018, umbuso Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala itholakele ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos, futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwayo okuhlongozwayo zingakapheli izinyanga ezimbili. Ngemuva kwalokho ukubambezeleka okuningi, Umphathi we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler umemezele ngoJulayi 2019 ukuthi i-EPA ngeke ivimbele ikhemikhali.

Izifundazwe eziningana ziye zamangalela i-EPA ngokwehluleka kwayo ukuvimba ama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont futhi Oregon. Izifundazwe zithi emibhalweni yasenkantolo yokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele avinjelwe ekukhiqizeni ukudla ngenxa yezingozi ezihambisana nakho.

I-Earthjustice ibuye yafaka icala eNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika eNkantolo Yesifunda Yesishiyagalolunye ukufuna ukuvinjelwa ezweni lonke egameni lamaqembu akhuthaza abezemvelo, abasebenzi basemapulazini kanye nabantu abakhubazeke ngokufunda.

Izifundo zezokwelapha nezesayensi

Intuthuko ye-neurotoxicity

“Ucwaningo lwezifo olubukeziwe lapha lubike ukuhlangana kwezibalo phakathi kokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kuya kuCPF [chlorpyrifos] kanye nezinkinga zemizwa zangemva kokubeletha, ikakhulukazi ukushoda kwengqondo okuhlobene nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sobuchopho…. Amaqembu ahlukahlukene okucwaninga ngaphambi komhlaba emhlabeni wonke akhombise ngokungaguquki ukuthi i-CPF iyi-neurotoxicant yentuthuko. Intuthuko ye-CPF neurotoxicity, esekelwa kahle yizifundo ezisebenzisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezilwane, imizila yokuchayeka, izimoto, nezindlela zokuhlola, imvamisa ibonakala ngokushoda kwengqondo kanye nokuphazamisa ubuqotho besakhiwo. ” Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: kusuka ekutholeni komtholampilo kuya kumamodeli wangaphambi kokusebenza kanye nezinqubo ezingaba khona. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Kusukela ngo-2006, izifundo ze-epidemiological ziye zabhala ezinye izinzwa eziyisithupha ezithuthukisa i-neurotoxicants — i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, ne-polybrominated diphenyl ether." Imiphumela ye-Neurobehavioural yobuthi bokuthuthuka. ILancet Neurology, 2014.

I-IQ yezingane nokukhula kwengqondo

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort lokufunda komama nezingane ezisemadolobheni luthola ukuthi “ukutholakala okuphezulu kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], ngaphambi kokuzalwa, njengoba kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi le-umbilical, kwakuhlotshaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kuma-indices amabili e-WISC-IV, kusampula yedolobha izingane ezincane ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala… i-Working Memory Index ibihlobene kakhulu nokuchayeka kwe-CPF kulesi sibalo sabantu. ” Izikolo zeminyaka eyisikhombisa ze-Neurodevelopmental Scores kanye nokuvezwa kokubeletha kweChlorpyrifos, umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile wezolimo. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo lweqembu lokuzalwa lemindeni esebenza kakhulu epulazini laseLatino eCalifornia luthinta imethabolite yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate etholakala emchameni kwabesifazane abakhulelwe abanezibalo ezimbi kakhulu ezinganeni zabo zememori, isivinini sokucubungula, ukuqonda ngamazwi, ukucabanga okunengqondo kanye ne-IQ. “Okutholakele kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha emithini yokubulala izinambuzane i-OP [organophosphate], njengoba kulinganiswa ngama-metabolite e-urap DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kubantu besifazane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, kuhlotshaniswa namakhono empofu okuqonda ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Izingane ezisezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lokugxila komama be-DAP zazinokushoda okuphakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-7.0 IQ uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo ezikwi-quintile ephansi kakhulu. Ososeshini babebambisene, futhi asizange sibheke mngcele. ” Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi kokubeletha ku-Organophosphate Pesticides kanye ne-IQ ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu besifazane nezingane zabo "liphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-organophosphates kuhlotshaniswa kabi nokukhula kwengqondo, ikakhulukazi ukucabanga okunengqondo, nobufakazi bemiphumela eqala ezinyangeni eziyi-12 futhi kuqhubeke kusukela ebuntwaneni." Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi Kokubeletha ku-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kanye Nokuthuthukiswa Kokuqonda Kwezobuntwana. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu abaphakathi nedolobha lathola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu okuchayeka kuma-chlorpyrifos “zithole, ngokwesilinganiso, amaphuzu angu-6.5 aphansi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index namaphoyinti angu-3.3 aphansi ku-Bayley Mental Development Index eneminyaka emithathu ubudala uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abanamazinga aphansi okuchayeka. Izingane ezivezwe izinga eliphakeme, uma kuqhathaniswa namazinga aphansi, ama-chlorpyrifos nawo mancane amathuba okuthi abhekane nokubambezeleka kwe-Psychomotor Development Index kanye ne-Mental Development Index, izinkinga zokunaka, ukunakekelwa kokushoda / izinkinga zokuphazamiseka kwengqondo, kanye nezinkinga zesifo sokukhula ezisabalele ziseneminyaka emithathu ubudala. ” Umthelela Wokuvezwa Kwe-Chlorpyrifos Yangaphambi Kokubeletha Ekuthuthukisweni Kwe-Neurodevelopment Eminyakeni Eyi-3 Yokuqala Yokuphila Phakathi Kwezingane Zangaphakathi Nasedolobheni. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort esifundeni sezolimo eCalifornia lwandisa "ukutholwa kwangaphambilini kwezinhlangano phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype namazinga we-enzyme kanye nezizinda ezithile ze-neurodevelopment phakathi neminyaka yobudala besikole, kuveza ubufakazi obusha bokuthi izinhlangano ezingezinhle phakathi kwamazinga we-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kanye ne-IQ zingaba namandla kakhulu ezinganeni zomama ezinamazinga aphansi kakhulu enzyme ye-PON1. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kanye ne-neurodevelopment ezinganeni ezifunda isikole esifundweni se-CHAMACOS. Ucwaningo Lwemvelo, 2014.

I-Autism nezinye izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenziwa ngabantu luthole ukuthi, "Ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha noma kwengane kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane okhethiwe — kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, ne-permethrin-kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwamathuba okuba ne-autism spectrum disorder." Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nosana emithini yokubulala izinambuzane eziseduze kanye nokuphazamiseka kwe-autism spectrum ezinganeni: isifundo esilawulwa ngamacala abantu. BMJ, 2019.

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenzelwe abantu "lubone ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwe-ASD [i-autism spectrum disorders] kanye nokuhlala ngaphambi kokubeletha okusondelene nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e-organophosphate okwesibili (kwe-chlorpyrifos) kanye ne-trimesters yesithathu (i-organophosphates jikelele)". Ukuphazamiseka kweNeurodevelopmental kanye nePrenatal Residential Resurial to the Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2014.

Bona futhi: Ukunciphisa ibhalansi yengozi ye-Autism: Izindlela Ezinokwenzeka Zokuxhuma I-Pesticides ne-Autism. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2012.

Okudidayo kobuchopho

"Okutholakele kwethu kukhombisa ukuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni abonwe ngokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile (ukungasebenzi) nangaphansi kombundu wanoma yiziphi izimpawu zokuvezwa kanzima, kunomthelela ongaba khona esakhiweni sobuchopho esampula yezingane ezingama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sithole ukungajwayelekile okuphawulekayo ezilinganisweni ze-morphological ze-cerebral surface ehambisana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kwe-CPF ngaphambi kokubeletha… .Ukukhuliswa kwesifunda kobuso be-cerebral kugqame kakhulu futhi bekutholakala endaweni ephakeme yesikhashana, yangemuva yesikhashana, kanye ne-postyral gyri ephansi, kanye ne-gyrus ephezulu engaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, ne-precuneus ngasodongeni lwe-mesial lwe-hemisphere yangakwesokudla ”. Ukungafani kobuchopho ezinganeni kudalulwe ngokweqile kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile we-organophosphate. Izinqubo zeNational Academy of Sciences, 2012.

Ukukhula kwesisu

Lolu cwaningo "lubone ukuhlangana okuphawuleka kakhulu phakathi kwamazinga we-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kwezinsana eqenjini lamanje elizalwe ngaphambi kwezinyathelo zomthetho ze-EPA zase-US zokuqeda ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokubulala izinambuzane." Ama-biomarkers ekuhloleni ukutholakala kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nemiphumela ekukhuleni kwengane. I-Toxicology kanye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile, lweqembu lamaqembu amaningi lathola ukuthi “lapho kubhekwa izinga lomsebenzi womama we-PON1, amazinga omama ama-chlorpyrifos angaphezulu komkhawulo wokutholwa okuhambisana nomsebenzi ophansi womama we-PON1 ahlotshaniswa nokwehliswa okuphawulekayo kodwa okuncane kokuzungezwa kwekhanda. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga we-PON1 womama kuphela, kepha hhayi ama-polymorphisms ezakhi zofuzo e-PON1, ahlotshaniswa nosayizi wekhanda owehlisiwe. Ngenxa yokuthi usayizi omncane wekhanda utholakale ubikezela ikhono elilandelayo lokuqonda, le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos angaba nomthelela omubi ekukhuleni kwe-fetal neurodevelopment komama abakhombisa umsebenzi ophansi we-PON1. ” Ku-Utero Pesticide Exposure, Umsebenzi We-Maternal Paraoxonase, kanye ne-Head Circumference. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labomama abambalwa nezinsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "luqinisekisa ukutholwa kwethu kwangaphambilini kokuhlangana okuphambene phakathi kwamazinga ama-chlorpyrifos ku-umbilical cord plasma kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude ... Ngaphezu kwalokho, ubudlelwane bokuphendula ngomthamo babuye babonwa esifundweni samanje. Ngokuqondile, ukuhlangana phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos nesisindo esincishisiwe sokuzalwa nobude kwatholakala ikakhulu ezinganeni ezisanda kuzalwa ezinamazinga aphezulu okuvezwa angama-25%. ” Ukuchayeka kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude phakathi kweqoqo elincane lase-Urban. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2004.

Lung Cancer  

Ekuhlolweni kwabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwama-54,000 bezibulala-zinambuzane ku-Agricultural Health Study, ososayensi e-National Cancer Institute babike ukuthi izehlakalo zomdlavuza wamaphaphu zihambisana nokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kulokhu kuhlaziywa kwesifo somdlavuza phakathi kwabafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane ezinelayisense e-chlorpyrifos eNyakatho Carolina nase-Iowa, sithole ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwezibalo zokwanda komdlavuza wamaphaphu, kodwa hhayi komunye umdlavuza ohloliwe, ngokuchayeka okwandayo kwe-chlorpyrifos." Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafakizicelo Bezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KumaChlorpyrifos Esifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Ijenali yeNational Cancer Institute, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala kwabantu abahlala eCentral Valley eCalifornia lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhona kuma-pesticides angama-36 asetshenziswa kakhulu e-organophosphate ngokwehlukana kwandise ingozi yokuhlaselwa yisifo sikaParkinson. Ucwaningo "lunezela ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyathinteka" ku-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kuma-organophosphates kanye nengozi yesifo sikaParkinson. Imithi Yokusebenza Nemvelo, 2014.

Imiphumela yokuzalwa

Iqoqo labazali be-Multiethnic labesifazane abakhulelwe nezinsana ezisanda kuzalwa lithole ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos “ahlotshaniswa nokwehla kwesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa kukonke (p = 0.01 futhi p = 0.003, ngokulandelana) nangesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi phakathi kwabase-Afrika baseMelika (p = 0.04) futhi banciphisa ubude bokuzalwa kumaDominican (p <0.001) ". Imiphumela Yokuchayeka Kokutshalwa Kwendawo Kokungcola Kwemvelo Emiphumeleni Yokuzalwa Emphakathini Wabantu Abaningi. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Neuroendocrine

“Ngokuhlaziywa kwezindlela eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuziphatha kobulili-dimorphic sibonisa ukuthi imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi yeCPF [chlorpyrifos] iyahlangana. Lo muthi we-organophosphorus osatshalaliswa kabanzi ungabhekwa njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine okungenzeka simelele ubungozi bokuphazamiseka kwengqondo okubangelwa ucansi ezinganeni. ” Ukuziphatha kwe-sex dimorphic njengezimpawu zokuphazanyiswa kwe-neuroendocrine ngamakhemikhali ezemvelo: Icala le-chlorpyrifos. I-NeuroToxicology, 2012.

eliqhaqhazelayo

"Okutholakele njengamanje kukhombisa ukuthi izingane ezinokuchayeka okuphezulu kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos zazisemathubeni amakhulu okukhombisa ukuzamazama okuncane noma okumaphakathi ukuya kokulinganayo engalweni eyodwa noma zombili lapho kuhlolwe phakathi kweminyaka yobudala eyi-9 nengu-13.9 yeminyaka…. Sihlangene, ubufakazi obandayo busikisela ukuthi Ukuchayeka kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni asetshenziswayo njengamanje, kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga zokuthuthuka eziqhubekayo nezinhlobonhlobo. ” Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos nokuzamazama kwengane. I-NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Izindleko zama-chlorpyrifos

Izilinganiso zezindleko zokuchayeka kumakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine e-European Union zithole ukuthi "Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kuhlotshaniswa nezigidi eziyi-13.0 (ukuhlaziywa kobucayi, izigidi ezingama-4.24 kuya kweziyi-17.1) kulahlekelwe amaphuzu e-IQ kanye nama-59 300 (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, amacala ayi-16 500 kuya ku-84 400) yokukhubazeka ngokwengqondo, kubiza u- € 146 billion (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, € 46.8 billion kuya ku- € 194 billion). ” Ukushoda kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kanye Nezindleko Ezihlanganisiwe Zokuchayeka Kumakhemikhali Aphazamisa i-Endocrine e-European Union. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015.

Indlala yegilo kumagundane

"Ucwaningo lwamanje lukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamagundane e-CD1, ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kokubeletha nangemuva kokubeletha, emazingeni emithamo ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] ngaphansi kwalawo avimbela ubuchopho i-AchE, kungadala ushintsho ku-thyroid." Ukuvezwa Kokuthuthuka Kwama-Chlorpyrifos Kukhuthaza Ukushintshwa Kumazinga we-Thyroid ne-Thyroid Hormone Ngaphandle Kwezinye Izimpawu Zobuthi kumagundane e-Cd1. Isayensi Yezobuthi, 2009.

Izinkinga ngezifundo zomkhakha

“NgoMashi 1972, uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo e-Albany Medical College babika imiphumela yocwaningo lwenhloso ye-chlorpyrifos kumxhasi walolu cwaningo, iDow Chemical Company. Umbiko wabo uphethe ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli elingabonwa-elibi-lomthelela (i-NOAEL) lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Sikhombisa lapha ukuthi ukuhlaziywa okufanele kwendlela yokuqala yezibalo bekufanele kutholakale i-NOAEL ephansi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela zezibalo ezitholakale okokuqala ku-1982 bekuzokhombisa ukuthi nomthamo ophansi kakhulu ocwaningweni umphumela wokwelashwa obalulekile. Ukuhlaziywa kwangempela, okwenziwe ngabasebenzi bezibalo abaqashwe yi-Dow, akuzange kubuyekezwe okusemthethweni; noma kunjalo, i-EPA icaphune ucwaningo lwaseCoulston njengocwaningo oluthembekile futhi yagcina i-NOAEL yayo ebikiwe njengendawo yokuhamba yokuhlolwa kwezingcuphe kuwo wonke ama-1980 kanye nama-1990. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokuhlala eziningi ezakhanselwa kamuva ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo ezingaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ” Ukuhlaziywa okunamaphutha kwesifundo somthamo womuntu ngamabomu kanye nomthelela wawo ekuhlolweni kwengozi ye-chlorpyrifos. Imvelo Yomhlaba Wonke, 2020.

"Ekubuyekezweni kwethu kwedatha eluhlaza kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ovelele, i-chlorpyrifos, kanye nenye into ehlobene nayo, kutholakale ukungafani phakathi kokubona kwangempela kanye neziphetho ezitholwe ilabhorethri yokuhlola embikweni olethwe ukugunyazwa kwe-pesticide." Ukuphepha Kokuhlolwa Kokuphepha Kwezibulala-zinambuzane: i-neurotoxicity yentuthuko ye-chlorpyrifos ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. Impilo Yezemvelo, 2018.

Amanye amaphepha eqiniso

Isikhungo saseHarvard Kennedy School Shorenstein: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinempikiswano nomphumela waso ekukhuleni kobuchopho: Ucwaningo nezinsizakusebenza

IHarvard University: I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu, ngonyaka owodwa kamuva

Ukulungiswa komhlaba: Ama-Chlorpyrifos: I-pesticides enobuthi elimaza izingane zethu kanye nemvelo

ISierra Club: Izingane namaChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kanye nemibono

Ukulingiswa nguBradley Peterson, ngeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; New York Times

Ifa likaTrump: Ubuchopho Obonakele, nguNicholas Kristof, New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane, esesigaba samakhemikhali esenziwe njengegesi yezinzwa eyenziwe yiNazi Germany, manje sesitholakala ekudleni, emoyeni nasemanzini okuphuza. Ucwaningo lwabantu nolwezilwane lukhombisa ukuthi lulimaza ubuchopho futhi linciphise ama-IQ ngenkathi lubangela ukuthuthumela ezinganeni. ”

Vikela Ubuchopho Bezingane Zethu, nguSharon Lerner, New York Times. “Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba eqinisweni ukuthi akulona uhlobo lwamakhemikhali olulimaza wonke umuntu ohlangana nalo - noma olubangela ukuthi bawele phansi. Esikhundleni salokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukwanda engcupheni yokuhlushwa yizinkinga ezithile zentuthuko okuthi noma zincane kangako, futhi zikhuthazelele. ”

Izithelo Zobuthi: IDow Chemical Ifuna Abalimi ukuthi Baqhubeke Basebenzisa I-Pesticide Exhumene Ne-Autism ne-ADHD, nguSharon Lerner, The Intercept. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yamakhemikhali enelungelo lobunikazi lama-chlorpyrifos futhi esenza iningi lemikhiqizo enayo, ibuphikisana ngokungaguquguquki nobufakazi besayensi obukhulayo bokuthi ikhemikhali yayo eyi-blockbuster iyazilimaza izingane. Kodwa umbiko kahulumeni wakwenza kwacaca ukuthi i-EPA manje isemukela isayensi ezimele ekhombisa ukuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane osetshenziselwa ukutshala ukudla kwethu okuningi akuphephile. ”

Lapho idatha eyanele inganele ukwenza inqubomgomo: Ukwehluleka ukuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos, nguLeonardo Trasande, i-PLOS Biology. “Ososayensi banesibopho sokukhuluma uma abenzi bezinqubomgomo behluleka ukwamukela imininingwane yesayensi. Badinga ukumemezela ngokugcizelela imiphumela yokwehluleka kwenqubomgomo, noma ngabe ezinye zezisekelo zesayensi zihlala zingaqinisekile. ”

Akavinjelwanga Kanjani Lo Muthi Wezibulala-zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli beThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos ngokusobala siyingozi futhi sisetshenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuthi kudlula kalula kusuka kumama kuya embungwini futhi kuxhunyaniswe nezinkinga ezahlukahlukene ezibucayi zezokwelapha, kufaka phakathi ukukhula kahle, isifo sikaParkinson nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Lokho akumangazi ngokuphelele. Ikhemikhali lakhiwa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II ukuze lisetshenziswe njengegesi yezinzwa. Nakhu okumangazayo: Amathani esibulala-zinambuzane asafuthwa njalo ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-United States minyaka yonke, cishe eminyakeni emihlanu ngemuva kokuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency inqume ukuthi kufanele ivinjelwe. ”

Lesi sibulala-zinambuzane sihlobene kakhulu nama-nerve agents asetshenziswa eMpini Yesibili Yomhlaba. I-EPA kaTrump ayinandaba, nguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. “Esikwaziyo ngama-chlorpyrifos kuyethusa. Mhlawumbe ucwaningo olwaziwa kakhulu ngolwenziwa ngabaphenyi baseColumbia University abenza ukucabanga kobuchopho ezinganeni ezisencane kakhulu ezinama-chlorpyrifos. Imiphumela iyashaqisa futhi ayicaci. Ngokwamagama abacwaningi: "Lolu cwaningo lubika izinhlangano ezibalulekile zokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kwisidakamizwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu kwezemvelo, emazingeni asetshenziswayo, ngezinguquko ezihlelekile ebuchosheni bomuntu obusakhulayo."

Icala Elinamandla Lokulwa Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, nguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. “Ukubuyekezwa kwengozi yezempilo yabantu ehlanganiswe yi-EPA ngoNovemba kwathola ukuthi izinkinga zezempilo zazenzeka emazingeni aphansi okuchayeka kunalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kuyingozi. Izinsana, izingane, amantombazane amancane nabesifazane bavezwa amazinga ayingozi ama-chlorpyrifos ngokudla kuphela, kusho le nhlangano. Izingane zichayeke emazingeni aphindwe kayi-140 kunomkhawulo wokuphepha. ”

Izingane Zikhudlwana Ngemuva Kokuvinjelwa Kwama-pesticides ama-2, Ukuthola Okufundwayo, nguRichard Pérez-Peña, eNew York Times. "Abesifazane abakhulelwe eManhattan engenhla ababesengozini enkulu yokubulala izinambuzane ezivamile babenezingane ezincane ukwedlula omakhelwane babo, kodwa imikhawulo yakamuva kulezi zinto ezimbili yehlisa ukutholakala kalula futhi yanda nosayizi wezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo olushicilelwa namuhla."

Ubuthi Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Uma uluma ucezu lwesithelo, kufanele kube yinjabulo engenangqondo. Impela, lelo sitrobheli elibukeka njenge-steroidal elinendawo emhlophe yokugcoba amazinyo akubonakali kulungile ukuqala ngalo. Kepha akumele ucabange ngokukhula kobuchopho bengane lapho uyibeka ngaphezu kokusanhlamvu kwakho. Abaphathi bakaTrump, ngokubeka amathoyizi embonini yamakhemikhali phakathi kokudla kwethu nokuphepha komphakathi, kuphoqe ukuthi kuhlolisiswe kabusha ibhulakufesi neminye imikhuba okungafanele yethuse. ”

Epuletini lakho lesidlo sakusihlwa nasemzimbeni wakho: Isibulala-zinambuzane esiyingozi kakhulu ongakaze uzwe ngaso, nguStaffan Dahllöf, Ukuphenya Ukubika IDenmark. “Umphumela onoshevu wama-chlorpyrifos ezinambuzaneni awuphikiswa. Umbuzo ongaxazululeki ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezinjengezinhlanzi emanzini aseduze noma abasebenzi basemapulazini emasimini, noma kunoma ngubani odla imikhiqizo elashwa. ”

Ama-Neurotoxin ku-broccoli yengane yakho: lokho kuyimpilo ngaphansi kukaTrump, nguCarey Gillam, The Guardian. “Ingakanani impilo yengane yakho? Impendulo evela ebuholini be-US Environmental Protection Agency ithi: hhayi kangako… Ngakho-ke silapha - sinokukhathazeka kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwezingane zethu ezingenacala nezisengozini ngakolunye uhlangothi nabadlali abanamandla, abacebile bezinkampani ngakolunye uhlangothi. Abaholi bethu bezepolitiki nabezomthetho bakhombisile ukuthi bazithanda kakhulu kabani.

Ukubulala Izinambuzane Okuvamile Kungalimaza Ubuchopho Babafana Ngaphezu Kwamantombazane, nguBrett Israel, Environmental Health News. “Kubafana, ukuvezwa ama-chlorpyrifos esibelethweni kwakuhlanganiswa nakho amaphuzu aphansi ekuhlolweni kwememori yesikhashana uma kuqhathaniswa namantombazane avezwe inani elifanayo.

Amashidi amaningi wesayensi kumakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu 

Thola amanye amashidi eqiniso e-US Right to Know:

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba 

I-US Right to Know iyiqembu lezempilo lomphakathi eliphenyayo elisebenza emhlabeni wonke ukuveza ububi bezinkampani kanye nokwehluleka kukahulumeni okusongela ubuqotho bohlelo lwethu lokudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yethu.  Ungakwazi nikela lapha kuphenyo lwethu futhi bhalisela iphephandaba lethu lamasonto onke.