Bamba iPlum Pudding: Imikhombandlela Yokudla Kwamasampula wase-US Iyatatazelisa Izinsalela Zezibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Kwesinye isikhathi iqiniso ngokudla kwethu alihehi kakhulu.

Njengoba abaningi beqoqa lesi sikhathi samaholide ukuze badle ndawonye umndeni, kungenzeka ukuthi bazobe besebenzisa imithamo emincane yezibulala-zinambuzane ngepuleti ngalinye elidlulisiwe, kufaka phakathi uhlobo oluvame kakhulu olukhombisa ukuthi luyingozi ezinganeni nasempilweni yokuzala.

Imininingwane emisha ekhishwe muva nje yi-Food and Drug Administration (i-FDA) ikhombisa ukwenyuka kokutholakala kwezinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholwe ezinkulungwaneni zamasampula wokudla okusetshenziswa kakhulu. Imibhalo etholwe kule nhlangano ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information Act (FOIA) iphinde ikhombise ukuthi uhulumeni ulungiselela okuningi, ngokusebenzisa okungenani ikhemikhali elilodwa lokubulala ukhula eliyimpikiswano - i-herbicide eyaziwa nge-2,4-D - okulindeleke ukuthi liphindwe kathathu ngonyaka ozayo.

Futhi wangcwatshwa ekujuleni kwe- Umbiko wakamuva we-FDA wezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane idatha ekhombisa ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane esiyimpikiswano esibizwa nge-chlorpyrifos, esimakethwa yiDow Chemical futhi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa kwasendlini ngenxa yezingozi ezaziwayo, kwaba umuthi wokubulala izitshabalalisi owedlula zonke otholakala ekudleni kokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engama-207.

Sekukonke, cishe amaphesenti angama-50 okudla kwasekhaya namaphesenti angama-43 okudla okungenisiwe okusampuli kukhombisile izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekuhlolweni kwe-FDA ngonyaka wezimali ka-2015, okuyisikhathi esidalwe kulo mbiko omusha. Lokho kukhuphuke cishe ngamaphesenti angama-37 okudla kwasekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-28 okudla okungenisiwe okutholakala nezinsalela ngonyaka ka-2010, futhi kusuka kumaphesenti angama-38.5 namaphesenti angama-39, ngokulandelana, okutholwe yi-FDA eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule ngo-2005.

Isampula ye-FDA ibilokhu incipha eminyakeni edlule, yehla cishe ngamaphesenti angama-25 kusukela eminyakeni eyishumi edlule isuka kumasampula angaphezu kwama-7,900 kuya kumasampula angama-5,989 ahlolwe embikweni wayo wakamuva. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US nawo wenza ukuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ezinambuzane minyaka yonke, kepha ubheka amasampula angaphezu kuka-10,000. I- umbiko wezinsalela zakamuva ze-USDA, okwabuye kwaba yisikhathi sesikhathi sika-2015, okutholakele mayelana namaphesenti angu-85 amasampula aqukethe izinsalela ze-pesticides.

Ngokuphawulekayo, amasampula ezithelo nemifino - okubhekwa njengokukhetha okunempilo kokudla - akhombise imvamisa ephezulu kakhulu yezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane embikweni omusha we-FDA. Cishe amaphesenti angama-82 ezithelo ezifuywayo zaseMelika namaphesenti angama-62 emifino yasekhaya athatha izinsalela zababulali bokhula, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngabalimi.

Phakathi kwamasampuli okudla kwasekhaya, i-FDA ithe amaphesenti angama-97 ama-apula, amaphesenti angama-83 wamagilebhisi, amaphesenti ama-60 katamatisi, amaphesenti ama-57 wamakhowe namaphesenti ama-53 ama-plums aphethe izinsalela. Ngokuqondile isigamu sezithelo zezithelo namajeli kanye nokusabalala okufanayo kuye kwahlungwa ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Uma kubhekwa izithelo nemifino engenisiwe, i-FDA ithole ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-51 ezithelo ezingenisiwe namaphesenti angama-47 emifino engenisiwe ephethe izinsalela. Kukonke, ukudla okungenisiwe bekunezinsalela eziphakeme kakhulu ezingekho emthethweni zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kunokudla kwasekhaya okuyisampula. Ngaphezu kwamaphesenti ayi-9 wezithelo nemifino engenisiwe kwathathwa njengokuphula imingcele esemthethweni yezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane uma kuqhathaniswa namaphesenti angu-2.2 kuphela wezithelo ezikhuliswe eMelika namaphesenti ayi-3.8 emifino yasekhaya.

I-FDA ithe ezinye izinto ezithile ezilethwe ezweni zingadinga ukunakwa okukhethekile ngenxa yamazinga aphezulu ezibulala-zinambuzane, okubandakanya iklabishi, amakhowe, amawolintshi nejusi lewolintshi nelayisi.

Amazinga “aphephile” aphelelwe yisikhathi

I-Environmental Protection Agency ibeka imikhawulo yezomthetho, ebizwa ngokuthi “imikhawulo yezinsalela eziphakeme” (MRLs) yezinsalela ze-pesticides ekudleni. I-FDA ne-USDA bahlala beqinisekisa abathengi ukuthi uma izinsalela zingaphansi kwama-MRL asunguliwe, zombili zisemthethweni futhi ziphephile. Kepha ososayensi abaningi nochwepheshe bezokwelapha abavumelani, bethi izindlela zokulawula ziphelelwe yisikhathi futhi zincike kakhulu kokufakwayo kubadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abathengisa izibulala-zinambuzane.

“Izindlela zokuhlola ubungozi ezinhlanganweni zikahulumeni azikaze zivuselelwe imigomo yesayensi yanamuhla, kufaka phakathi ukubalwa kweqiniso lokuthi abantu bavezwa amakhemikhali amaningi nokuthi amaqembu athile, anjengezofuzo atholakala kalula, abancane kakhulu nabadala bangaba sengozini enkulu yokuvezwa , ”Kusho uTracey Woodruff, owayengusosayensi omkhulu we-EPA oqondisa uHlelo Lwezempilo Yokuzala kanye Nezemvelo e-University of California San Francisco School of Medicine.

Impikiswano ezungeze ama-chlorpyrifos igcizelela lokho kukhathazeka. Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-chlorpyrifos kusukela ngo-1965 futhi uhulumeni uhlale isikhathi eside ukuthi inqobo nje uma izinsalela zingaphansi kwama-MRL asunguliwe, ziphephile.

Kepha eminyakeni yamuva nje, lowo mbono wokulawula ushintshile njengoba ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi lesi sibulala-zinambuzane, esisetshenziswa kummbila nezithelo nemifino efana nama-cranberries, amahlumela aseBrussels, ne-broccoli, singaba nemiphumela eyingozi ye-neurodevelopmental emibungwini omama bayo abadalulwa nasebancane izingane. Ucwaningo lubopha ikhemikhali ekunakekeleni izinkinga zokusilela, ukuthuthumela, kanye ne-autism.

NgoDisemba 15, iHhovisi LaseCalifornia Lokuhlolwa Kobungozi Bezempilo ohlwini lwama-chlorpyrifos njengoba kwaziwa ngokuthi "kubangela ubuthi bokuzala." Futhi i-EPA ithe ayisakwazi vouch ukuphepha kwezinsalela ezitholakala ekudleni. I-EPA ibihlele ukwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kwezolimo. Kepha ukuphathwa kukaTrump kubuyise lelo cebo ekuqaleni konyaka ngemuva ukunxenxa okunzima kusuka kuDow nakwabanye abamele imboni yezolimo.

I-FDA yenqabile ukuphawula ngombiko wayo futhi yenqabile ukuphendula imibuzo ephathelene nokuphepha kwezinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos ezitholakala ekudleni.

Ukwanda ku-2,4-D kulindelekile

Ihlukile kumbiko wezinsalela ezishicilelwe yi-FDA, imibhalo yangaphakathi ye-FDA ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi isebenza ukuthola izinsalela zemithi yokubulala ukhula esetshenziswa kabanzi - i-glyphosate ne-2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Imemo yangaphakathi sangomhla kaMeyi walo nyaka esitholwe nge-FOIA sithi ukusetshenziswa kuka-2,4-D “kulindeleke ukuthi kube kathathu ngonyaka ozayo” ngenxa yezitshalo ezintsha ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezenzelwe ukubekezelela ukusetshenziswa ngqo kwe-herbicide.

I-FDA noma i-USDA ayivivinye njalo i-glyphosate yize iyi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi ukuhlolwa kwabafundi, amaqembu abathengi namanye amazwe kukhombisile izinsalela zombulali wokhula ekudleni. I-FDA yathi ekuqaleni kuka-2016 ukuthi ihlela ukuqala ukuhlola umbulali wokhula, futhi imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi usokhemisi oyedwa we-FDA ubike ngokutholwa izinsalela kuju futhi kumikhiqizo ye-oatmeal, kepha imiphumela ephelele yokuhlolwa kohlelo ayikhishwanga esidlangalaleni.

Imininingwane yohlelo lokuhlola igcinwa iyimfihlo, futhi kumadokhumenti akhishwe yi-FDA nge-FOIA, amabhulokhi amakhulu emininingwane acishiwe. I-FDA yenqabile ukuphawula ngesimo se-glyphosate nokuhlolwa kwe-2,4-D, kufaka phakathi lapho ingashicilela khona eminye imiphumela.

Ama-pesticides ahlolwe yi-FDA, futhi awathola, embikweni wesampula wokudla wakamuva, afakiwe endosulfan, isibulala-zinambuzane esivinjelwe emazweni angaphezu kwama-80 futhi siyakhishwa ngenxa yobungozi obuthile empilweni yomuntu; isibulala-zinambuzane I-DDT, okwakuvinjelwe ngawo-1970 e-United States, futhi malathion, isibulala-zinambuzane esihlukaniswe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer njenge-carcinogenic.

Le ndatshana yavela okokuqala Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.