Amaphepha eParaquat

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kusalindwe amacala amaningi e-United States okusolwa ukuthi i-paraquat yamakhemikhali yokubulala ukhula idala isifo sika-Parkinson, kanti icala lokuqala lokuya ecaleni ngenxa yezinsolo ezibhekiswe eSyngenta nge-paraquat nekaParkinson ekuqaleni bezihlelelwe u-Ephreli 12 kodwa zahlelwa kabusha ngoMeyi 10 eSt.Clair Inkantolo Yesifunda Yase-Illinois. Icala kulindeleke ukuthi libambezeleke ngenxa yokuqapha okuhlobene negciwane le-Covid-19.

Leli cala lase-Illinois - UHoffman V. Syngenta - elinye lamacala okungenani ayi-14 aphela ngeSyngenta asola ukuthi imikhiqizo yohlobo lwe-paraquat ibangela isifo sikaParkinson. Icala likaHoffman libiza ne-DRM Phillips Chemical Co ne-Growmark Inc. njengabamangalelwa. I-DRM isabalalise yathengisa umkhiqizo we-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States ngesivumelwano nomanduleli weSyngenta obizwa nge-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyethula i-Gramoxone esekwe nge-paraquat ngo-1962. Ngaphansi kwesivumelwano selayisense, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, futhi uthengise ukwakhiwa kweparaquat e-US

Abameli bezungeze i-United States bakhangisa ngabamangali, abafuna ukudonsa izinkulungwane zabantu abadalulwe i-paraquat manje abahlushwa yi-Parkinson.

Amanye amacala asanda kufakwa alethwe ezinkantolo zombuso eCalifornia nase-Illinois. Phakathi kwalawo macala kukhona URakoczy V. Syngenta,  UDurbin V. Syngenta futhi UKearns V. Syngenta.

Izifundo eziningi zesayensi zixhumanise i-paraquat neParkinson's, kufaka phakathi i- isifundo esikhulu sabalimi baseMelika ngokuhlanganyela kwenganyelwe izinhlaka eziningi zikahulumeni wase-US Abalimi basebenzisa i-paraquat ekukhiqizeni izitshalo eziningi, kufaka phakathi ummbila, isoya kanye nokotini. I-Agricultural Health Study (AHS) ithe ithole ukuthi “ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kwezolimo kungakhuphula amathuba okuba nesifo sikaParkinson.” Ngo-2011, abacwaningi be-AHS babika ukuthi “ababambiqhaza abasebenzisa i-paraquat noma i-rotenone babesengozini ephindwe kabili yokuhlaselwa yisifo sika-Parkinson kunabantu abangawasebenzisi la makhemikhali.”

Okuningi iphepha lamuva kusuka kubacwaningi be-AHS bathi "Izincwadi eziningi zikhombisa ukuhlangana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nesifo sikaParkinson's (PD). Kodwa-ke, ngaphandle kokumbalwa, kuncane okwaziwayo ngokuhlangana phakathi kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile ne-PD.

I-Parkinson yisifo esingalapheki esiqhubekayo sesistimu yezinzwa esinqinda amandla omuntu okulawula ukunyakaza, okubangela ukuthuthumela, ukulahlekelwa ibhalansi futhi ekugcineni kuvame ukushiya izisulu zilele embhedeni futhi / noma ziboshwe esihlalweni esinamasondo. Lesi sifo akusona esibulalayo kodwa ngokuvamile siqeda amandla kakhulu.

Isazi sezinzwa saseDashi uBastiaan Bloem, osanda kubhala incwadi ekhuluma ngeParkinson's, usola ukutholakala kabanzi kwemithi yokubulala ukhula efana ne-paraquat, kanye namanye amakhemikhali anobuthi asetshenziswa kwezolimo nasekukhiqizeni, ekusabalaleni kwalesi sifo.

Impela Unobuthi 

Kanye nokwesaba ngezixhumanisi phakathi kwe-paraquat ne-Parkinson's, i-paraquat yaziwa nangokuthi iyikhemikhali enobuthi eliyingozi kakhulu elingabulala ngokushesha abantu abadla amanani amancane kakhulu. EYurophu, ukuthengiswa kweparaquat kwavalwa kusukela ngo-2007, kodwa e-United States isibulala-zinambuzane sithengiswa njenge- “Restricted Use Pesticide” ngenxa "Ubuthi obukhulu."

Njengengxenye yokutholwa ecaleni likaParkinson, abameli bathole amarekhodi angaphakathi kwaSyngenta kanye nezinkampani ezandulelayo ezazingaphambi kwawo-1960. Eminingi yale mibhalo ivaliwe, kepha eminye isiqalile ukuvela.

Leyo mibhalo yokuvulwa engavaliwe, efaka amakhophi ezincwadi, amaminithi emihlangano, ukufingqwa kocwaningo, nama-imeyili, ayatholakala kuleli khasi.

Iningi lemibhalo elingavaliwe kuze kube manje likhuluma ngezingxoxo zezinkampani mayelana nokuthi ungawugcina kanjani umuthi wokubulala ukhula emakethe yize ubulala, ngezinyathelo ezenzelwe ukwehlisa ubuthi obenzeka ngengozi. Ngokuqondile, iningi lemibhalo linemininingwane ngomzabalazo wenkampani wangaphakathi ngokwengezwa kwe-emetic, i-ejenti ekhuthaza ukuhlanza, kwimikhiqizo ye-paraquat. Namuhla, yonke imikhiqizo equkethe i-Syngenta paraquat ifaka i-emetic ebizwa nge- "PP796." Amafomula aqukethe uketshezi ophuma ku-Syngenta afaka ne-ejenti enukayo ukukhiqiza iphunga elibi, nodayi oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ukwehlukanisa i-herbicide enombala omnyama etiyeni noma ku-cola noma kwezinye iziphuzo.

Ukubuyekezwa kwe-EPA 

IParaquat njengamanje iqhubeka nenqubo yokubuyekezwa kokubhaliswa kwe-EPA, kwathi ngo-Okthoba 23, 2020, le nhlangano yakhipha Isinqumo sesikhashana (PID) se-paraquat, ophakamisa izinyathelo zokunciphisa ukunciphisa impilo yabantu kanye nezingozi zemvelo ezikhonjwe ohlakeni luka-2019 lwenkampani impilo yomuntu futhi ingozi yemvelo ukuhlolwa.

I-EPA ithe ngokubambisana ne Uhlelo Lukazwelonke Lwe-Toxicology eNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, i-ejensi yaqedela "ukubuyekeza ngokuphelele" imininingwane yesayensi ephathelene ne-paraquat kanye nezifo zika-Parkinson futhi yaphetha ngokuthi isisindo sobufakazi besinganele ukuxhumanisa i-paraquat nesifo sika-Parkinson. I-ejensi ishicilele lokhu “Ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile kwemibhalo yokuhlola ubudlelwane phakathi kweParaquat Dichloride Exposure kanye nezifo zikaParkinson. "

I-USRTK izongeza imibhalo kuleli khasi njengoba izotholakala.