Uhlelo lwe-USDA Drops Lokuhlola Umbulali Wokhula waseMonsanto ekudleni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

UMnyango wezoLimo e-US ulahle phansi buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate, isibulali sokhula esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni nesithako esiyinhloko kumuthi wokubulala ukhula obizwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup weMonsanto Co.

Lesi sikhungo sichithe unyaka owedlule sisebenzisana ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye neFood and Drug Administration (FDA) silungiselela ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula esiraphu sikakolweni ngensalela ye-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 1, ngokusho kwemibhalo yangaphakathi ye-ejensi etholwe ngeNkululeko Yolwazi Izicelo zomthetho. Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi okungenani kusuka ngoJanuwari 2016 kuya kuJanuwari walo nyaka, uhlelo lokuhlola lwe-glyphosate lwaluya phambili. Kepha lapho ebuzwa ngohlelo kuleli sonto, umkhulumeli we-USDA uthe akukho ukuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate okuzokwenziwa yi-USDA kulo nyaka.

Uhlelo lwe-USDA ludinga ukuqoqwa nokuhlolwa kwamasampula angama-315 wesiraphu yommbila evela e-United States kusukela ngo-Ephreli kuya ku-Agasti, ngokusho kwemibhalo. Abaphenyi bekufanele futhi bahlolele i-AMPA metabolite, kusho imibhalo. I-AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid) idalwa njengoba i-glyphosate iphuka. Ukukala izinsalela ezibandakanya lezo ezivela ku-AMPA kubalulekile ngoba i-AMPA akuyona into ekhiqizwayo enobungozi kodwa inezinkinga zayo zokuphepha, ososayensi bakholelwa.

NgoJanuwari 11, u-Diana Haynes wase-USDA wabhalela osebenza nabo ngaphakathi kwe-USDA: “Ngokuya ngezingxoxo zakamuva ne-EPA, sizoqala ukuhlola isiraphu yommbila ye-glyphosate kanye ne-AMPA metabolite yayo ngo-Ephreli 1, 2017 ngokuqoqwa okuphela ngo-Agasti 31, 2017. Lolu hlelo luzoshintsha zidinga ukumenyezelwa Engqungqutheleni Yengqungquthela ka-February PDP. ” UHaynes ungumqondisi we-USDA Agricultural Marketing Service division eqhuba minyaka yonke iPesticide Data Program (PDP), ehlola izinkulungwane zokudla ngamakhulu ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane.

Umkhulumeli we-USDA, ongafunanga ukudalulwa igama lakhe, uvumile ukuthi kube nohlelo lokuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kodwa wathi lokho kusanda kushintsha: “Isinqumo sokugcina sohlelo lwalo nyaka, njengokusebenzisa kahle izinsizakusebenza, ukusampula nokuhlola uju oluhlanganisa izibulala-zinambuzane ezingaphezu kwekhulu. ” Ukuhlolwa kwezinsalela zeGlyphosate kudinga indlela ehlukile futhi ngeke kube yingxenye yalokho kuhlolwa uju, kusho yena.

I-USDA ayihloli njalo i-glyphosate njengoba yenza nakwamanye ama-pesticides asetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni ukudla. Kepha leso simo senze i-USDA kwaba yinto yokugxekwa njengoba impikiswano ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate inyukile eminyakeni yamuva. Izingxoxo zokuhlolwa kulo nyaka ziza njengoba abalawuli baseMelika nabaseYurophu belwa nokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza ngaleli khemikhali, nanjengeMonsanto, eyenze izigidigidi zamaRandi ngemithi yokubulala ukhula yayo esekwe eglyphosate, umangalelwa ngamakhulu abantu abathi ukuvezwa ku-Roundup kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo bahlupheke nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto okutholwe ngabameli babamangali kulezo zimo kukhombisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi iMonsanto isebenzise abalawuli bezocwaningo abathembele ekutholeni ukuhlolwa okuhle kokuphepha, nangesonto eledlule, UCongressman Ted Lieu ushayele uphenyo loMnyango Wezobulungiswa ngezenzo zikaMonsanto.

Kanye ne-USDA, i-Food and Drug Administration nayo njalo ngonyaka ihlola izinkulungwane zamasampula okudla ngezinsalela ze-pesticides. Womabili la ma-ejensi akwenze lokhu amashumi eminyaka njengendlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi imikhondo yababulali bokhula, ama-insecticide, ama-fungicides namanye amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kwezolimo aqhubeki emazingeni angaphephile emikhiqizweni yokudla evame ukudliwa yimindeni yaseMelika. Uma bethola izinsalela ezingaphezu kwezinga “eliphezulu lezinsalela” (MRL) elivunyelwe kulowo muthi wokubulala izinambuzane nokuthi ukudla, ama-ejensi kufanele azise i-EPA, futhi kungathathelwa izinyathelo umphakeli. I-EPA ingumlawuli obhekene nokusungula ama-MRL, abizwa nangokuthi “ukubekezelelana,” ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni, futhi i-ejensi ixhumanisa ne-USDA ne-FDA ezinhlelweni zokuhlola izibulala-zinambuzane.

Kepha ngaphandle kokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye kwanda eminyakeni engama-20 edlule eceleni kokumakethwa kwezitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate, bobabili i-USDA ne-FDA benqabile ukuhlola izinsalela ze-glyphosate ngaphandle kwesikhathi esisodwa ngo-2011 lapho i-USDA ivivinya amasampula kabhontshisi angama-300 we-glyphosate futhi Izinsalela ze-AMPA. Ngaleso sikhathi i-ejensi yathola amasampula angama-271 aqukethe i-glyphosate, kepha yathi amazinga angaphansi kwe-MRL - ​​aphansi ngokwanele ukuthi angakhathazi. IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela Kuhulumeni uthathe zombili izinhlangano ukuba zibhekane nomsebenzi ngo-2014 ukwehluleka ukuhlola njalo i-glyphosate.

Europe futhi iCanada ingaphambi kwe-United States uma kukhulunywa ngokuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate ekudleni. Eqinisweni, i-Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) iyalungiselela ukukhipha okutholakele kwayo ekuhlolweni kwakamuva kwe-glyphosate. I-CFIA iphinde yeqa i-glyphosate ekuhlolweni kwamakhemikhali ezinambuzane minyaka yonke iminyaka. Kepha iqale ukuqoqa imininingwane ngonyaka we-2015, ishukumisela ukubhekana nokukhathazeka ngamakhemikhali aqokonyiswa lapho i-World Health Organisation's Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ibeka i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngo-Mashi 2015.

Isishoshovu sokudla saseCanada nomcwaningi UTony Mitra ithole amarekhodi angaphezu kwe-7,000 avela ku-CFIA mayelana nokuhlolwa kwayo kwe-glyphosate ngonyaka odlule, futhi ithi imiphumela iyethusa, ikhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate igcwele ekudleni okuningi. ICFIA ayizukuphendula kwizicelo zokuphawula ngokuhlolwa kwayo kwe-glyphosate.

Enye yezincazelo ze-USDA zokungahloli i-glyphosate eminyakeni edlule kube izindleko - i-ejensi ithe kuyabiza kakhulu futhi akusebenzi ukubheka izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni okubhekiswe ematafuleni aseMelika. Futhi ngoba i-glyphosate ibhekwa njengephephe kakhulu, ukuhlolwa kungaba wukuchitha isikhathi, kusho i-USDA. Leyo mpikiswano ilingisa eyakwaMonsanto - inkampani, enelungelo lobunikazi le-glyphosate ngo-1974 futhi ibingumhlinzeki omkhulu we-glyphosate kusukela lapho, ithi uma i-USDA ifuna ukuhlola izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni kungaba “Ukusetshenziswa kabi kwemithombo eyigugu.”

IZIVIVINYO ZE-FDA ZIHLALE E-LIMBO

I-FDA yaqala uhlelo lwayo olunqunyelwe lokuhlola izinsalela ze-glyphosate - lokho eyakubiza ngokuthi "isabelo esikhethekile" - ngonyaka odlule. Kepha umzamo ubugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi nohlelo wamiswa ukuwa kokugcina. Ngaphambi kokumiswa, isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa ithole amazinga asabekayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avumelekile enzelwe uju yi-EPA. Lokho kudalulwa kwabangela i-angst embonini yokufuya izinyosi futhi okungenani inkampani eyodwa enkulu yezinyosi yamangalelwa yizinhlangano zabathengi ngenxa yokungcola kwe-glyphosate. Usokhemisi ofanayo naye wathola amazinga e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi we i-oatmeal, kufaka phakathi okusanhlamvu kwe-oat. I-FDA ayizange imemezele lokho okutholakele, kepha ivezwe kumarekhodi angaphakathi atholakala ngesicelo se-FOIA.

Ngokusemthethweni, i-FDA ibifuna kuphela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni, kwisoya, emaqanda nasobisini esabelweni sokuhlolwa sanyakenye, yize amarekhodi angaphakathi axoxa ngokuhlolwa kukashukela beet, ama-popcorn, ukolweni nokunye ukudla noma okusanhlamvu. Imibhalo esanda kutholakala ye-FDA ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi isibambe iqhaza manje "ekubambisaneni kwe-glyphosate" eyenzelwe ukuqinisekisa indlela yokuhlola ezosetshenziswa amalabhorethri amaningi we-FDA.

"Lapho isigaba sokuqala salokhu kubambisana sesiqediwe futhi samukelwa ngababuyekezi bokulawulwa kwekhwalithi, isabelo esikhethekile singaqala kabusha," kusho okhulumela i-FDA uMegan McSeveney.

CropLife Melika, inhlangano yezimboni emele izintshisekelo zeMonsanto nezinye izinkampani zezolimo, igcina iso elibukhali ekuhlolweni kwezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane zikahulumeni. Ngonyaka odlule le nhlangano yafuna ukusabalalisa izinkinga zezomthetho ezingaba khona ezihlobene ne-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides kuju ngokucela i-EPA ukuthi ibeke ukubekezelelana ngengubo okungahlanganisa ukungcoliswa koju okungaziwa yimithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Amarekhodi akhombisa abalawuli bathole ama-pesticides ahlukene angama-26 kumasampuli ezinyosi ezivivinyweni ezedlule.

I-CropLife iphinde yakhononda ku-USDA ngokuthi idatha evela kuhlelo lwayo lokuhlola isetshenziswa ngabaxhasi bezolimo eziphilayo ukukhuthaza okungokwemvelo ngokudla okuvamile. Iqembu ligcine unyaka uthumele i-USDA uchungechunge lwemibuzo mayelana nokuhlolwa kwayo, futhi yabuza i-USDA: “Yini esingayenza ukukusiza ekulweni nalezi zindlela zokwesaba?”

Ama-USDA umbiko osanda kushicilelwa kuzinsalela ze-pesticide ekudleni kutholakale ukuthi ekuhlolweni kuka-2015 amaphesenti ayi-15 kuphela kwabangu-10,187 XNUMX amasampuli ahlolwe abengenazo izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Lowo umehluko ophawulekayo kusukela kowezi-2014, lapho i-USDA yathola ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-41 amasampula “ayehlanzekile” noma engabonisanga izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Kodwa le nhlangano ithe iphuzu elibalulekile ukuthi iningi lamasampuli, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-99, lalinensalela engaphansi kwe-EPA ebekiwe futhi isemazingeni “angabeki engcupheni impilo yabathengi futhi aphephile.”

Ososayensi abaningi baphikisana nokusebenzisa ama-MRL njengezinga elihlotshaniswa nokuphepha, bethi asuselwa kwimininingwane yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane futhi bathembele ekuhlaziyweni okuyiphutha. Ucwaningo oluningi luyadingeka ukuqonda umthelela empilweni yomuntu wokuchayeka okungapheli ekudleni emithini yokubulala izinambuzane, abaningi bathi.

(Kuqale kwavela ku- I-Huffington Post.)