I-FDA Imisa Ukuhlolwa Kwezinsalela zeGlyphosate Ekudleni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Ukuhlolwa kukahulumeni ngezinsalela zemithi yokubulala ukhula exhunyaniswe nomdlavuza kumisiwe, kwanciphisa umzamo wokuqala weFood and Drug Administration ukuzama ukuthola isibambiso ukuthi lingakanani ikhemikhali eliyimpikiswano elingena ekudleni kwaseMelika.

I-FDA, umlawuli omkhulu wezokuphepha kokudla wesizwe, wethule lokho akubiza ngokuthi “isabelo esikhethekile” ekuqaleni konyaka ukuhlaziya ukudla okuthile kwezinsalela zombulali wokhula obizwa nge-glyphosate ngemuva kwe-ejensi wagxekwa  yi-US Government Accountability Office yokwehluleka ukufaka i-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zokuhlola zonyaka ezifuna imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane eminingi engasetshenziswa kakhulu. IGlyphosate umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi uyisithako esiyinhloko kulayini we-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto Co.

IGlyphosate ibhekwe kakhulu manje ngemuva kokuthi ochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation nyakenye bememezele ukuthi leli khemikhali a kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu. Amaqembu amaningana azimele kanye nokungenzi inzuzo bebelokhu bezihlolela ngokwabo, futhi bebelokhu bethola izinsalela ze-glyphosate emazingeni ahlukahlukene kokudla okuhlukahlukene, bekhulisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi ngobukhona bezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kwaseMelika.

Ukuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-FDA ze-glyphosate kwahlanganiswa nohlelo olubanzi lokuhlaziya ukhula i-FDA yaqala ukusebenza ngoFebhuwari walo nyaka. Kepha ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kube yinselelo enkulu kwi-FDA. I-ejensi ekugcineni yaphoqeleka ukuthi imise ingxenye yokuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate phakathi kohlelo lokudideka, ukungavumelani nobunzima ngokusungula indlela esezingeni elizosetshenziswa kuwo wonke ama-laboratories amaningi e-US, ngokusho kwemithombo ye-FDA. Izinkinga zezinto zokusebenza nazo zibe yinkinga, amanye amalebhu ecacisa isidingo sezinsimbi ezibucayi, kusho imithombo engaphakathi kwe-FDA.

Okhulumela i-FDA uMegan McSeveney ukuqinisekisile ukumiswa kokuhlolwa wathi le nhlangano ayinaso isiqiniseko sokuthi izophinda iqale nini.

“Njengoba ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kuzokwanda kufinyelele ezindaweni eziningi, njengamanje sisebenzela ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izindlela ziyaqinisekiswa ukuze zisetshenziswe kula malabhu. Uma nje ukuphothula sekuqediwe, ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate kuzoqala kabusha, ”kusho yena. "Asikwazi ukuqagela ukuthi sizobekwa nini isikhathi njengamanje."

Kanye nokuhlolelwa i-glyphosate, amalabhorethri e-FDA abuye ahlaziye ukudla kwe-2,4-D kanye namanye ama- "acid herbicides," amadokhumende atholwe embukisweni we-FDA. Isigaba semithi yokubulala ukhula i-asidi sifaka izithako ezinhlanu kwezingu-10 ezisebenzayo ezisetshenziswa emakhaya nasezivandeni. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-2,4-D kulindeleke ukuthi kube kathathu ngonyaka ozayo, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Imininingwane yomsebenzi we-FDA idinga ukuhlolwa kwamasampuli okudla angaba ngu-1,340, amaphesenti angama-82 azoba asekhaya kuthi amaphesenti ayi-18 angeniswe kwamanye amazwe. Lokhu kudla kufanele kulandwe ezindaweni zokugcina izimpahla kanye nasezitolo ezidayisa kuphela, futhi kufanele kufake okusanhlamvu okuhlukahlukene okusanhlamvu, imifino nokunganambitheki, ubisi namaqanda aphelele. Imibhalo etholwe kule nhlangano ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information ikhombisa ukuthi le ejensi ibihlola ummbila nobhontshisiukolweni, ibhali, isithombo sebhitrudi, irayisi, kanye namasampula we ama-popcorn aphuzi kanye ne "organic popcorn emhlophe." 

UMcSeveney uthe izinsalela ze-glyphosate zazicubungulwa kuphela kumasoya, ummbila, ubisi namaqanda namasampula e-popcorn, kanti okunye ukudla kuhlolwe izinsalela zeminye imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula.

Ngasekuqaleni konyaka, omunye wamakhemikhali aphezulu walesi sikhungo uphinde wahlaziya izinsalela ze-glyphosate uju futhi oatmeal futhi wabika imiphumela yakhe kwi-ejensi. Amanye amasampula ezinyosi aqukethe amazinga ezinsalela ngaphezu komkhawulo kuvunyelwe e-European Union. I-United States ayinakho ukubekezelela ngokomthetho i-glyphosate eluju, noma ngabe i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ithe muva nje ingasetha eyodwa ngenxa yokutholwe yi-FDA. Imiphumela yoju ne-oatmeal ayithathwa njengengxenye yesabelo esisemthethweni, kepha, ngokusho kukaMcSeveney.

Ngokuhlolwa kumisiwe, akucaci ukuthi i-ejensi ingaba nini nemiphumela yokugcina ekuhlaziyweni kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate. UMcSeveney uthe imiphumela yokuqala ayikhombisanga ukwephulwa kwamazinga okubekezelelana ngokomthetho avunyelwe i-glyphosate ekudleni okuhloliwe. Akazange anikeze imininingwane ngokuthi yini, uma ikhona, amazinga ensalela atholakele. Amazinga okubekezelelana abekwa yi-EPA ngezinhlobonhlobo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane okulindeleke ukuthi itholakale ekudleni. Lapho amazinga ezinsalela etholwa ngaphezu kwamazinga okubekezelelana, kungathathelwa izinyathelo zokuqinisa umthetho kulowo okhiqiza ukudla.

UMonsanto uthe ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka ukuthi akukho datha eyake yabonisa amazinga ezinsalela angaphezu kwengxenyana yamazinga avumelekile, futhi kuyathenjwa ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwe-FDA kuzoqinisekisa ukuphepha kwe-herbicide.

Yize i-FDA ivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwasekhaya nokungenisiwe kwezinsalela zamanye ama-pesticides, ayikaze ihlolwe i-glyphosate phambilini. Akuvivinywanga njalo i-2,4-D noma, iqiniso futhi eligxekwa yi-GAO. Ukuhlolwa kwe-FDA kwezinsalela ze-2,4-D kuza njengoba ukusetshenziswa kwe-2,4-D nezitshalo zokudla kulindeleke ukuthi kuqale ukukhuphuka ngenxa yokuthengiswa kwemikhiqizo emisha eyenziwe ngohlobo lwe-herbicide ehlanganisa i-glyphosate ne-2,4-D. Imibuzo yezokuphepha bakhulisiwe mayelana nenhlanganisela. Kepha i-EPA yanikeza ukukhanya okuluhlaza ngoNovemba 1 kumuthi wokubulala ukhula weDow AgroSciences inhlanganisela ye-glyphosate ne-2,4-D. Imikhiqizo emisha yenzelwe ukunqanda ukumelana nokhula okusakazekile ku-glyphosate, futhi isetshenziswe nezinhlobo ezintsha zezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ezibunjwe ngofuzo.

Imboni yezolimo iqinisekisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate, i-2,4-D kanye nolunye uhla lwamanye amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kwezolimo zosuku lwanamuhla aziyona ingozi empilweni yabantu, kepha ukungabi nokuhlolwa kokunquma amazinga wangempela ezinsalela amakhemikhali asetshenzisiwe, njenge-glyphosate ne-2,4-D, bekukhathaza amaqembu amaningi abathengi.

Ukuthola imininingwane eqinile ngokutholakala kwe-glyphosate ekudleni kwaseMelika kubaluleke kakhulu kunakuqala manje njengoba i-EPA iphothula ukuhlolwa kobungozi be-glyphosate futhi izama ukuthola ukuthi ngabe kunemingcele okufanele isetshenziswe ekusetshenzisweni kwe-herbicide esikhathini esizayo. Umsebenzi we-FDA uhlanganisa ukudla okumbalwa kuphela, kepha yisinyathelo sokuqala esidingeka isikhathi eside, esihle. Abathengi bangathemba nje ukuthi ukuhlolwa kuzoqala kabusha maduze.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe okokuqala kufayela le- Huffington Post