Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

IBiohazards Blog

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-US Right to Know inwebisa umsebenzi wayo wokuphenya kwezinye izindaba eziphuthumayo zezempilo zomphakathi, kufaka phakathi umsuka wenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-COVID-19. Singa ngifuna izimpendulo zemibuzo eyisisekelo mayelana nokuthi igciwane liqale langena kanjani kubantu, kuphi futhi ngani, kanye nemininingwane ngokuvuza nokunye okwenzekile kumalebhu okuphepha kanye nezingozi zokucwaninga okuzuzisa umsebenzi, okuhlose ukukhulisa ukubulala noma ukutheleleka kwamagciwane angaba ubhubhane. Asazi okwamanje ukuthi lolu phenyo lungavezani, kodwa sikholwa ukuthi lubalulekile ekuvikeleni impilo yomphakathi ukufuna ukwenza izinto obala. Ungaxhasa umsebenzi wethu ngokunikela lapha.

Kule bhulogi sithumela imibhalo nezinye izibuyekezo ezivela kuphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards, oluholwa ngu USainath Suryanarayanan, Ph.D. Bona futhi eyethu uhlu lokufunda ngalesi sihloko.

February 17, 2021

Ososayensi baseChina bafuna ukuguqula igama le-coronavirus ebulalayo ukuze baliqhelelanise neChina

Ezinsukwini zokuqala zesifo esiwumshayabhuqe se-COVID-19, iqembu lososayensi abasebenzisana nohulumeni waseChina bazama ukuqhelisa i-coronavirus neChina ngokuthonya ukuqanjwa kwayo ngokusemthethweni. Ngokuncika ekutheni leli gciwane litholakale okokuqala eWuhan, eChina, ososayensi bathe besaba ukuthi leli gciwane lizokwaziwa ngokuthi yi- "Wuhan coronavirus" noma "Wuhan pneumonia," ama-imeyili atholakele ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know.

Ama-imeyili aveza ukubheka phambili empini yolwazi eqhutshwa uhulumeni waseChina ukubumba ukulandisa ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus.

Ukuqanjwa kwaleli gciwane "bekuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kubantu baseChina" kanye nezinkomba ngegciwane elikhomba ukuthi uWuhan "ubandlulula futhi uthuka" izakhamuzi zaseWuhan, izincwadi ezivela ngoFebhuwari 2020 zithi.

Ngokuqondile ososayensi baseChina baphikisana nokuthi igama elisemthethweni lobuchwepheshe elinikezwe igciwane - "i-acute acute yokuphefumula syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" - kwakungeyona "okunzima ukuyikhumbula noma ukuyibona" ​​kodwa futhi "kwakudukisa ngempela" ngoba kwakuxhuma igciwane elisha lokuqubuka kweSARS-CoV ngo-2003 eladabuka eChina.

Leli gciwane laqanjwa yiCoronavirus Study Group (CSG) ye-International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV).

Usosayensi omkhulu waseWuhan Institute of Virology uZhengli Shi, owayehola ukuqanjwa kabusha umzamo, echazwe nge-imeyili eya ku-University of North Carolina udokotela wezifo ezinamagciwane e-University of North Carolina uRalph Baric, "ingxoxo eshubile phakathi kwama-virologist aseChina" ngegama elithi SARS-CoV-2.

UDeyin Guo, owayengumphathi wesikole i-Wuhan University's School of Biomedical Sciences kanye nombhali ngokubambisana wesiphakamiso sokushintsha igama, wabhala kumalungu e-CSG ukuthi ahlulekile ukubonisana nesinqumo sawo sokuqamba igama "nama-virologists kubandakanya nokutholwa kokuqala [sic] ngegciwane kanye nabahlaziyi bokuqala besifo ”abavela ezweni lase China.

"Akufanelekile ukusebenzisa igama elilodwa legciwane elisuselwa kwizifo (njenge-SARS-CoV) ukuqamba wonke amanye amagciwane emvelo angohlobo olulodwa kodwa anezinto ezihluke kakhulu," wabhala encwadini eyathunyelwa egameni lakhe abanye ososayensi abahlanu baseChina.

Iqembu lihlongoze elinye igama - “Transmissible acute respiratory coronavirus (TARS-CoV). Enye indlela, bathi, kungaba i- “Human acute respiratory coronavirus (HARS-CoV).”

Intambo ye-imeyili echaza ushintsho lwegama oluphakanyisiwe yabhalelwa uSihlalo we-CSG uJohn Ziebuhr.

Izincwadi zikhombisa ukuthi uZiebuhr akavumelani nomqondo weqembu laseChina. Uphendule wathi “igama elithi SARS-CoV-2 lixhumanisa leli gciwane namanye amagciwane (abizwa nge-SARS-CoVs noma ama-SARSr-CoVs) kulezi zinhlobo ezibandakanya igciwane lesinhlobo salolo hlobo kunaleso sifo esake sakhuthaza ukuqanjwa kwalesi sibonelo igciwane cishe eminyakeni engama-20 edlule. Isijobelelo -2 sisetshenziswa njengesikhombi esiyingqayizivele futhi sikhombisa ukuthi i-SARS-Co V-2 iseligciwane LELINYE (kodwa elihlobene kakhulu) kulolu hlobo. ”

Inkampani yabezindaba yaseChina i-CGTN kubika omunye umzamo ngoMashi 2020 ngama-virologists aseChina ukuqamba kabusha i-SARS-CoV-2 njenge-coronavirus yabantu i-2019 (HCoV-19), nayo engazange idlule ku-CSG.

Ukuqamba igama ngegciwane elibangela ubhadane — umthwalo we-World Health Organisation (WHO) - bekuvame ukuba yi- icala lezepolitiki ukuzivocavoca ngezigaba zentela.

Ekuqubukeni kwangaphambilini kwe- Umkhuhlane we-H5N1 igciwane elivela eChina, uhulumeni waseChina wacindezela i-WHO ukuthi yakhe amagama abizwa ngokuthi ama-virus angabopheli amagama abo emlandweni noma ezindaweni abadabuka kuzo.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Ama-imeyili ase-University of North Carolina uProfesa Ralph Baric, atholwa yi-US Right to Know ngokuthola amarekhodi omphakathi, angatholakala lapha: Iqoqo le-imeyili le-Baric # 2: University of North Carolina (Amakhasi we-332)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

February 15, 2021

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ososayensi baxoxa ngokufihla ukubandakanyeka kwabo encwadini ebalulekile yamaphephabhuku ngemvelaphi yeCovid

UMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak, inhloko yenhlangano ebambe iqhaza ocwaningweni olusebenzisa ufuzo ngama-coronavirus, uxoxe ngokufihla iqhaza lakhe isitatimende esishicilelwe ngonyaka owedlule ngo I-Lancet egxeka “imibono yetulo” ikhathaza ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi igciwane le-COVID-19 livele endaweni yokucwaninga, ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know show.

Isitatimende seLancet, esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile abangama-27, sibe nomthelela omkhulu ekuqedeni izinsolo zososayensi abathile zokuthi iCOVID-19 ingaba nobudlelwano neWuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, enocwaningo ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

UDaszak wabhala lesi sitatimende wasisabalalisa nakwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. Kepha i Ama-imeyili kwembula ukuthi uDaszak nabanye ososayensi abasebenzisana ne-EcoHealth babecabanga ukuthi akufanele basayine isitatimende ukuze bafihle ukuzibandakanya kwabo kuso. Ukushiya amagama abo esitatimendeni kungayinika "ibanga elithile kude nathi ngakho-ke ayisebenzi ngendlela ephikisayo," kubhala uDaszak.

UDaszak uqaphele ukuthi "angayithumela nxazonke" kwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. “Sizobe sesikubeka ngendlela engayixhumanisi nokubambisana kwethu ukuze sikhulise izwi elizimele,” wabhala.

Ososayensi ababili uDaszak ababhalela ngesidingo sokwenza leli phepha libonakale lizimele nge-EcoHealth, bangongoti be-coronavirus uRalph Baric noLinfa Wang.

Kuma-imeyili, uBaric uvumelane nesiphakamiso sikaDaszak sokuthi angasayini I-Lancet isitatimende, sibhala ukuthi "Ngaphandle kwalokho kubukeka kuzenzela wena, futhi silahlekelwa umthelela."

UDaszak ekugcineni wasisayina ngokwakhe lesi sitatimende, kepha akazange akhonjwe njengombhali noma umxhumanisi womzamo.

Ama-imeyili ayingxenye yemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ekhombisa ukuthi uDaszak ubesebenza okungenani ekuqaleni konyaka odlule ukubukela phansi umbono ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka iputshukile kusuka ku- Isikhungo seWuhan.

Ukuqubuka kokuqala kwe-COVID-19 okubikiwe bekuse-Wuhan.

I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngaphambili ubike ukuthi uDaszak ubhale lesi sitatimende ukuze I-Lancet, futhi uyihlelele i- "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”.

I-EcoHealth Alliance iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo eseNew York esethole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela baseMelika ukuze basebenzise izakhi zofuzo, kubandakanya nososayensi baseWuhan Institute.

Ngokuphawulekile, uDaszak uvele njengomuntu ophakathi nophenyo olusemthethweni ngemvelaphi kaSARS-CoV-2. Uyilungu le- i-World Health OrganizationIthimba lochwepheshe elicwaninga ngemvelaphi yenoveli ye-coronavirus, futhi I-Lancet COVID 19 Ikhomishini.

Bona ukubika kwethu kwangaphambilini ngalesi sihloko: 

Bhalisela i-newsletter yethu yamahhala ukuthola izibuyekezo ezijwayelekile kuphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. 

January 21, 2021

Imibhalo yaseColorado State University ocwaningweni lwe-bat pathogen

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kuchaza imibhalo yoSolwazi baseColorado State University (CSU) uRebekah Kading noTony Schountz, i-US Right to Know eyithole esicelweni samarekhodi omphakathi. UKading noSchountz bangama-virologists abacwaninga amagciwane ahlobene nelulwane ezindaweni ezishisayo emhlabeni jikelele. Basebenzisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance, uMnyango Wezokuvikela wase-US (DoD) kanye ne-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), uphiko lwezocwaningo nentuthuko yamasosha aseMelika.

Imibhalo inikeza amazwibela kufayela le- inkimbinkimbi yezempi-yezifundo zososayensi abafunda ukuthi bangavimbela kanjani ukugeleza kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane avela kumalulwane. Imibhalo iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nezingozi ezithathelanayo, ngokwesibonelo, zokuthunyelwa kwamalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi. Futhi aqukethe ezinye izinto eziphawuleka, kufaka phakathi:

  1. NgoFebhuwari 2017, abaxhumanisi beDoD boHlelo Lokusebenzisana Lokuzibandakanya Kwezinto Ezisongela Ezokuvikela kumemezela umfelandawonye omusha wamalulwane omhlaba wonke “ukwakha nokusimamisa amakhono ezwe nawesifunda ukukhiqiza ukuqonda okuthuthukile kwamalulwane nemvelo yawo ngaphansi kwesimo sezinto ezibangela ukuphepha.” Okuhambisana nalokhu, ama-imeyili show ukusebenzisana phakathi kwe-CSU, i-EcoHealth Alliance kanye ne-National Institutes of Health's Rocky Mountain Laboratories ukwakha indawo yokucwaninga amalulwane e-CSU ukukhulisa izifundo zokutheleleka ngamalulwane.
  2. Umfelandawonye wamalulwane womhlaba wonke waba yiqembu elibizwa ngeBat One Health Research Network (I-BOHRN). Ngo-2018, ososayensi abakhulu be-BOHRN babesebenza ne-DARPA kuphrojekthi ebizwa nge-PREEMPT. Amarekhodi e-CSU ku-PREEMPT kukhombisa ukuthi iRocky Mountain Laboratories, i-CSU kanye neMontana State University bakha imishanguzo "ehlukanisiwe" yokugoma ukusabalalisa kubantu bamalulwane "ukuvimbela ukuvela nokugeleza" kwamagciwane angaba ubhadane avela kumalulwane aye kubantu babantu. Inhloso yabo ukuthuthukisa “imishanguzo yokuzisabalalisa ” - okusakazeka ngokutheleleka phakathi kwamalulwane - ngethemba lokuqeda ama-pathogen ezinqolobaneni zabo zezilwane ngaphambi kokuphonswa kwabantu. Lolu cwaningo luyaphakama ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela engahlosiwe yokukhiphela obala izinhlangano ezizisakazele zofuzo, kanye nezingozi zemvelo zokuvela kwazo okungaziwa, ubudlova nokusabalala.
  3. Ukuthumela amalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi kudala amandla e-spillover engahlosiwe kubantu. UTony Schountz wabhala ku-EcoHealth Alliance VP uJonathan Epstein ngoMashi 30, 2020: “I-RML [Rocky Mountain Labs] ingenise inqolobane yegciwane le-Lassa ngokuthi izalelwe ekuthunjweni e-Afrika, bese kuthi inzalo ingeniswe ngqo ku-RML. Angazi noma amalulwane amahhashi angazalelwa yini ekuthunjweni, kodwa lokho kungaba yindlela yokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kwe-CDC. ” Igciwane le-Lassa isakazwa ngamagundane atholakala entshonalanga ye-Afrika. Kubanga ukugula okunamandla okubizwa nge-Lassa fever ebantwini, okuholela ekufeni okulinganiselwa ku-5,000 1 njalo ngonyaka (izinga lokufa elingu-XNUMX%).
  4. NgoFebhuwari 10, 2020, uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak uthumele i-imeyili ukucela abasayinela uhlaka lwe- The I-Lancet isitatimende "Ukugxeka kakhulu imibono yetulo ethi i-2019-nCoV ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo." Kule imeyili, uDaszak wabhala: “UDkt. ULinda Saif, uJim Hughes, uRita Colwell, uWilliam Karesh noHume Field babhale isitatimende esilula sokweseka ososayensi, ezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabasebenzi bezokwelapha baseChina abalwa nalokhu kuqubuka (okunamathiselwe), futhi siyakumema ukuba uhlanganyele nathi njengabasayini bokuqala. ” Akazange akhulume ngokubandakanyeka kwakhe ekubhaleni isitatimende.  Ukubika kwethu kwangaphambili wabonisa lokho I-Daszak wabhala isitatimende esashicilelwa ku- I-Lancet.
  5. UTony Schountz ushintshisane ngama-imeyili nososayensi abalulekile beWuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) uPeng Zhou, uZhengli Shi noBen Hu. Ku- i-imeyili yango-Okthoba 30, 2018, USchountz uphakamise uZhengli Shi ukuthi abe “yinhlangano engahambisani nhlobo” phakathi kwe-CSU's Arthropod-borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory ne-WIV, okubandakanya “ukusebenzisana kumaphrojekthi afanele (isib. Ama-arboviruses namagciwane athwalwa ngamalulwane) nokuqeqeshwa kwabafundi.” UZhengli Shi waphendula kahle kusiphakamiso sikaSchountz. Amarekhodi awasikiseli ukuthi noma yikuphi ukusebenzisana okunjalo kwaqalwa.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lemibhalo yaseColorado State University singatholakala lapha: Amarekhodi e-CSU

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Kuphephe kangakanani ama-biolabs eColorado State?

uhlaka isiphakamiso sezimali fnoma ukwakhiwa kwe-biolab entsha eColorado State University iphakamisa imibuzo ngokuphepha nokuvikeleka kuma-biolabs ayo akhona eFort Collins, eColorado.

Isiphakamiso sohlaka sifuna izimali ezivela ezikhungweni zikazwelonke zezempilo ukuze zithathe indawo yengqalasizinda “yokuguga” ngaphakathi kwama-CSU Isikhungo Sezifo Ezithathelwanayo Ezithwalwa Vector, phambilini ebibizwa ngeLarthropod-borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory (AIDL). Lesi sikhungo sikhulisa amakoloni ezinambuzane namalulwane ekuhlolweni kwezifo ezithathelwanayo ngamagciwane ayingozi njenge-SARS, Zika, Nipah kanye ne-Hendra virus. Ukuhlolwa kwe-Live-pathogen lapho kwenziwa ngokwengxenye ku- BSL-3 izikhungo, okungama-laboratories avalwe ngumoya anobuchwepheshe obukhethekile ukuvimbela abacwaningi ekutholeni izifo nokusabalalisa izifo.

Ababhali besiphakamiso (uTony Schountz noGreg Ebel abavela ku-CSU noJonathan Epstein, iphini likamongameli e-EcoHealth Alliance) babhala ukuthi, “izakhiwo zethu eziningi sezidlulile empilweni yazo yokusebenziseka.” Bafaka izithombe zesikhunta nesikhutha esiqongelelayo njengobufakazi bezindawo “ezilulaza ngokushesha” “ezivuzayo lapho lina.”

Lesi siphakamiso sichaza nokuthi umklamo okhona kulelebhu udinga amasampula amaseli amalulwane nezinambuzane ezinegciwane "ukuhanjiswa ezakhiweni ezahlukene ngaphambi kokusetshenziswa." Ithi ama-autoclaves akhona, abulala izinto eziyingozi, "ahlala engasebenzi kahle futhi kunokukhathazeka okufanelekile ukuthi bazoqhubeka nokwenza njalo."

Kungenzeka izinkathazo zeqiswe ngoba basekela isicelo soxhaso. Nayi ingcaphuno evela kusiphakamiso sezimali ngezithombe.

Isiphakamiso siphakamisa imibuzo eminingana: Ngabe izimpilo zabantu zisengozini kusuka kwimishini nengqalasizinda engalungile ye-AIDL? Ingabe lokhu kwehla kwamandla kwandisa amathuba okuvuza ngengozi kwamagciwane ayingozi? Ngabe zikhona ezinye izikhungo ezihambisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance emhlabeni wonke ezehliswe ngendlela efanayo futhi ezingaphephile? Ngabe izimo zazingaphephile ngendlela efanayo, ngokwesibonelo, i-Wuhan Institute of Virology exhaswa yi-EcoHealth Alliance? Leso sikhungo ikhonjwe njengomthombo ongaba khona we-SARS-CoV-2, igciwane elibangela i-Covid-19.

Amarekhodi ekomidi lezokuphepha le-CSU (IBC), etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi, kubonakala ngathi kuqinisa ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwama-biolabs e-CSU. Isibonelo, imizuzu yomhlangano kusuka ngoMeyi 2020 kukhombisa ukuthi umcwaningi we-CSU uthole ukutheleleka ngegciwane le-Zika kanye nezimpawu ngemuva kokusebenzisa omiyane abatheleleke ngokuzama. I-IBC yaphawula: "Cishe lokhu bekungukulunywa omiyane abangazange babonakale ngesikhathi sesiyaluyalu ngenxa yokuvalwa kwezinguquko ze-COVID-19."

Okuxakayo ukuthi ukwanda kocwaningo lwezifo ezithathelwanayo kwaSARS-CoV-2 kungahle kwandise ingozi yokuphelelwa yisikhathi kanye nokulimala e-CSU. Imizuzu ye-IBC zwakalisa ukusekela i- "Ukukhathazeka okuphakanyisiwe mayelana nenani elikhulu lamaphrojekthi ocwaningo abandakanya i-SARS-CoV-2 ebeke izingqinamba kuzinsizakusebenza ezinjenge-PPE, indawo yezelebhu, kanye nabasebenzi."

Uma ungathanda ukuthola izibuyekezo ezijwayelekile mayelana nophenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards, unga bhalisela iphephandaba lethu lamasonto onke lapha

January 8, 2021

I-USRTK icela i-ODNI ukuthi ichaze imibhalo ngezingozi ezenzeka emalabhulini agcina amagciwane ayingozi

Ilungelo Lokwazi I-US (USRTK) ubuzile Ihhovisi likaMqondisi Wezobunhloli Kazwelonke (i-ODNI) lokudalula imibhalo emithathu ephathelene nokushiyeka kokuvikela okwenzeka emalabhoratri agcina amagciwane ayingozi.

Isicelo esiphoqelekile sokubuyekezwa kokunciphisa (MDR) siphendula kuma-ODNI isinqumo ukugodla imibhalo emithathu ehlukanisiwe ephendula kufakwe isicelo se-Freedom of Information Act ngo-Agasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubuhlakani obuqediwe obukhiqizwe kusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 mayelana nokukhishwa ngengozi noma ngamabomu kwama-biological agents, ukwehluleka kokutholakala ezingeni le-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4, kanye nezinye izehlakalo zokukhathazeka ezihlobene ukusetshenziswa okubili kokucwaninga nge-biosafety ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-BSL-2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4 eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, emazweni angaphambilini eSoviet Union, South Africa , ETaiwan, e-United Kingdom naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ithole amadokhumende amathathu, futhi yanquma ukuthi lawa "kumele agodliwe ngokuphelele ngokukhishwa kwe-FOIA" maqondana nokuvikelwa kwezinto ezihlukanisiwe eziphathelene nezindlela zezobunhloli kanye nemithombo yokubaluleka kwezokuphepha kuzwelonke. I-ODNI ayichazanga noma ichaze uhlobo lwemibhalo emithathu noma okuqukethwe kwayo, ngaphandle kokuthi bebephendula isicelo se-FOIA.

Ngokwesicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuthi i-ODNI ikhiphe zonke izingxenye ezingabekiwe ezihlukanisiwe zemibhalo emithathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekutheni umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi imininingwane ekhona ngezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye okwenzekile emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe amagciwane angaba khona ubhubhane, nokuthi ngabe kukhona yini ukuvuza okunjalo okubandakanyekile kumsuka we-COVID-19, odale ukuthi ukufa kwabantu baseMelika abangaphezu kwama-360,000.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

December 29, 2020

Amasethi wedatha aguquliwe aphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngokuthembeka kwezifundo ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus

Ukubuyekezwa kwedathasethi yama-genomic ehlotshaniswa nezifundo ezine ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus engeza eminye imibuzo ngokuthembeka kwalezi zifundo, ezinikeza ukusekelwa okuyisisekelo kwe-hypothesis ukuthi uSARS-CoV-2 uqhamuke ezilwaneni zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., ULam et al., Futhi UXiao et al., ithole ama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahhashi nama-pangolin aseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelana kwe-DNA ebizwa ukulandelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa izakhi zofuzo ze-bat- ne-pangolin-coronavirus, e-National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ukulandelana funda ingobo yomlando (SRA). I-NCBI isungule i-database yomphakathi ukusiza ukuqinisekisa okuzimele kokuhlaziywa kwe-genomic ngokususelwa kubuchwepheshe bokulandelana okuphezulu.

I-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo ngamarekhodi womphakathi icela lokho khombisa izibuyekezo kulezi zifundo zedatha ye-SRA ngemuva kwezinyanga zishicilelwe. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuyinqaba ngoba kwenzeke ngemuva kokushicilelwa, futhi ngaphandle kwesizathu, incazelo noma ukuqinisekiswa.

Ngokwesibonelo, UPeng Zhou et al. futhi ULam et al. bavuselele idatha yabo ye-SRA ngezinsuku ezimbili ezifanayo. Imibhalo ayichazi ukuthi kungani beguqule idatha yabo, kuphela ukuthi kwenziwa izinguquko ezithile. UXiao et al. wenze izinguquko eziningi emininingwaneni yabo ye-SRA, kufaka phakathi ukususwa kwedathasethi ezimbili ngo-Mashi 10, ukwengezwa kwedathasethi entsha ngoJuni 19, ukufakwa esikhundleni kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kukhishwe okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 30, nokunye ukuguqulwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 13 - ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili Nature ungeze “inothi lokukhathazeka” loMhleli mayelana nesifundo. Hong Zhou et al. kusamele sabelane ngedathasethi ephelele ye-SRA ezonika amandla ukuqinisekisa okuzimele. Ngenkathi omagazini bethanda Nature kudinga ababhali ukuthi benze yonke imininingwane “itholakale ngokushesha”Ngesikhathi sokushicilelwa, imininingwane ye-SRA ingakhishwa ngemuva ukushicilelwa; kodwa akujwayelekile ukwenza ushintsho olunjalo ezinyangeni ezithile ngemuva kokushicilelwa.

Lezi zinguquko ezingavamile zemininingwane ye-SRA azenzi ngokuzenzakalela ukuthi lezi zifundo ezine namasethi wedatha ahlobene nazo angathembeki. Kodwa-ke, ukubambezeleka, izikhala kanye nezinguquko kwimininingwane ye-SRA kuphazamise ukuhlangana okuzimele nokuqinisekisa yokulandelana kwe-genome okushicilelwe, bese ufaka ku imibuzo futhi ukukhathazeka mayelana the ukufaneleka kwezifundo ezine, njenge:

  1. Yikuphi ukubuyekezwa okuqondile ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Kungani zenziwa? Zikuthinte kanjani ukuhlaziywa okuhambisanayo kwe-genomic nemiphumela?
  2. Ngabe lokhu kubuyekezwa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimela? Uma kunjalo, kanjani? I- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela indinganiso yokushicilela i-SRA BioProject– ngale kwemininingwane eyisisekelo efana "negama lomzimba" - ukuthi ngeke ibe yimpinda.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

The Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Semininingwane Yebhayoloji (i-NCBI) imibhalo ingatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili we-NCBI (Amakhasi we-63)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

December 18, 2020

Akukho ukubuyekezwa kontanga kwesengezo esifundweni esivelele semvelaphi ye-coronavirus?

Ijenali Nature akuzange kuhlolisise ukuthembeka kwezimangalo ezibalulekile ezenziwe ngoNovemba 17 isithasiselo kuya ku cwaningo ngemvelaphi yelulwane le-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuxhumana ne Nature abasebenzi basikisela.

NgoFebhuwari 3, 2020, ososayensi baseWuhan Institute of Virology babika ukuthi bathola isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-SARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa nge-RaTG13. I-RaTG13 isibe maphakathi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.

Amakheli esengezo engaphendulwa imibuzo mayelana nokuvela kweRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisile ukuthi bathole iRaTG13 ngo-2012-2013 "endaweni encane eshiyiwe eMojiang County, esifundazweni saseYunnan," lapho abavukuzi abayisithupha bahlupheka khona isifo sokuphefumula okunamandla ngemuva kokuchayeka endleni yelulwane, Futhi abathathu bashona. Uphenyo lwe- izimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. babike ukuthi abatholanga ama-coronavirus ahlobene no-SARS kumasampula agcinwe abagibeli abagulayo, kodwa abazisekelanga izimangalo zabo ngemininingwane nangezindlela mayelana nokuhlolwa kwabo kanye nezilawuli zokuhlola.

Ukungabi khona kwemininingwane esemqoka kwisengezo kunakho kwaphakamisa eminye imibuzo ngokwethembeka kweZhou et al. funda. NgoNovemba 27, i-US Right to Know yabuza Nature imibuzo mayelana nezicelo zesengezo, futhi wakucela lokho Nature shicilela yonke imininingwane esekelayo uZhou et al. kungenzeka unikeze.

NgoDisemba 2, Nature INhloko Yezokuxhumana uBex Walton Waphendula ukuthi uZhou wokuqala et al. isifundo “besinembile kepha kungacaci,” nokuthi isengezo besifanelekile ipulatifomu yokushicilelwa ngemuva kokushicilelwa ukuthola ukucaciselwa. Ubuye wathi: “Mayelana nemibuzo yakho, singakuqondisa ukuthi uye kubabhali bephepha ukuthola izimpendulo, njengoba le mibuzo ayithinti ucwaningo esilushicilele kodwa kolunye ucwaningo olwenziwe ngababhali, esingakwazi ukuphawula ngalo ”(kugcizelelwa okwethu). Njengoba imibuzo yethu ihlobene nocwaningo oluchazwe kusengezo, i Nature Isitatimende sabamele sikhombisa ukuthi isengezo sikaZhou et al asizange sihlolwe njengocwaningo.

Sabuza umbuzo olandelayo ngoDisemba 2: “ngabe lesi sengezo sakhonjelwa ekubuyekezweni kontanga kanye / noma ekuqondisweni kokuhlelwa ngu Nature? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena Waphendula: “Ngokuvamile, abahleli bethu bazohlola ukuphawula noma ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe nathi ekuqaleni, babonisane nababhali, futhi bafune izeluleko kubabuyekezi boontanga nakwabanye ochwepheshe bangaphandle uma sikubona kunesidingo. Inqubomgomo yethu yobumfihlo isho ukuthi asikwazi ukuphawula ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamacala ngamanye. ”

Kusukela Nature ubheka isengezo njenge- a post-isibuyekezo sokushicilelwa, futhi ayikubeki lokho kungezwa kokushicilelwa kokushicilelwa kumazinga afanayo okubukeza ontanga njengezincwadi zokuqala, kubonakala sengathi iZhou et al. isengezo asizange sibuyekezwe ngontanga.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu mayelana yabo Nature Eyongeziwe.

December 14, 2020

Ama-imeyili amasha akhombisa izingxoxo zososayensi zokuxoxa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 

Ama-imeyili asanda kuthola anikela amazwibela okuthi ukulandisa kokuqiniseka kuthuthuke kanjani ngemvelaphi yemvelo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngenkathi kusala imibuzo ebalulekile yesayensi. Izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi yososayensi zikhombisa ochwepheshe bexoxa ngezikhala zolwazi nemibuzo engaphenduliwe ngemvelaphi yelabhu, njengoba abanye bebefuna ukucindezela imibono “engemuva” yokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Ososayensi abanethonya nezindawo eziningi zezindaba bachaze ubufakazi ngokuthi “nzima”Ukuthi leli gciwane lavela ezilwaneni zasendle, hhayi ebhodini. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka amacala okuqala abikiwe we-SARS-CoV-2 edolobheni laseChina iWuhan, kuncane okwaziwayo kanjani noma kuphi kwavela igciwane. Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2, obangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabaluleka ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo.

Ama-imeyili ochwepheshe be-coronavirus USolwazi Ralph Baric - etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi omphakathi yi-US Right to Know - khombisa izingxoxo phakathi kwabamele iNational Academy of Sciences (NAS), kanye nochwepheshe bokungavikeleki kwezifo ezithathelwanayo emanyuvesi ase-US nase Umanyano we-EcoHealth.

NgoFebhuwari 3, i-White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) kubuziwe iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) ukuze “ibize umhlangano wochwepheshe… ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi iyiphi idatha, ulwazi namasampula adingekayo ukubhekana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-2019-nCoV, futhi iphendule ngempumelelo kokubili ukugqashuka kwanoma yikuphi ukwaziswa okungaqondile okuba umphumela. ”

I-Baric nezinye izazi zezifo ezithathelwanayo zazibandakanyeka ekubhaleni impendulo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi zochwepheshe kanye ne okusalungiswa kusenesikhathi yangomhla kaFebhuwari 4.

Umbhalo wokuqala wachaza "imibono yokuqala yochwepheshe" ukuthi "imininingwane etholakalayo ye-genomic iyahambisana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuthi okwamanje abukho ubufakazi bokuthi igciwane lenzelwe ukusabalala ngokushesha okukhulu phakathi kwabantu." Lo musho osalungiswa waphakamisa umbuzo, kubakaki: “[cela ochwepheshe ukuthi bangeze imininingwane ethile yamasayithi okubopha?]” Iphinde yafaka umbhalo waphansi kubakaki: ukuvela kwama-coronaviruses ahlobene]. ”

In i-imeyili eyodwa, yangomhla kaFebruwari 4, uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo uTrevor Bedford waphawula: “Ngeke ngikhulume ngezindawo zokubopha lapha. Uma uqala ukukala ubufakazi kuningi okufanele ucabange ngakho kuzo zombili lezi zimo. ” Ngazo “zombili lezi zimo,” kubonakala sengathi iBedford ibhekisa kuzimo zelebhu kanye nemvelaphi yemvelo.

Umbuzo wezindawo ezibophezelayo ubalulekile engxoxweni mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Izindawo ezihlukanisayo ezibophayo ku-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer “Okuseduze” ukubopha nokungena kwegciwane emangqamuzaneni omuntu, nokwenza i-SARS-CoV-2 itheleleke kakhulu kune-SARS-CoV. Ososayensi baphikise ngokuthi izingosi ezihlukile zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka ukuthi zivele ngenxa ye- zemvelo spillover endle noma ngamabomu I-laboratory ukulungisa kabusha kokhokho wemvelo ongakadalulwa okwamanje we-SARS-CoV-2.

The incwadi yokugcina eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 6 ayizange isho izingosi ezibophezelayo noma ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ivela kulabhorethri. Kuyacaca ukuthi kuneminye imininingwane edingekayo yokuthola umsuka weSARS-CoV-2. Incwadi ithi, “Ochwepheshe basazise ukuthi imininingwane eyengeziwe yokulandelana kwe-genomic evela kumasampula egciwane ngokwendawo - nangokwesikhashana - ayadingeka ukunquma umsuka nokuvela kwegciwane. Amasampula aqoqwe kusenesikhathi ekuqhamukeni kweWuhan namasampula avela ezilwaneni zasendle abaluleke kakhulu. ”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa abanye ochwepheshe bexoxa ngesidingo solimi olucacile ukuphikisana nalokho okuchazwe ngokuthi yi "crackpot theories" yemvelaphi yelabhu. UKristian Andersen, umbhali oholayo we iphepha elinomthelela leMvelo Medicine egomela imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, uthe okusalungiswa kwasekuqaleni “kwakukukhulu, kodwa ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe sidinga yini ukuqina kakhulu embuzweni wobunjiniyela.” Uqhube wathi, “Uma enye yezinhloso zalo mbhalo kungukuphikisana nalezi zinkolelo-mbono, ngicabanga ukuthi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi sikwenze lokho ngokuqinile nangolimi olucacile…”

In impendulo yakhe, IBaric ihlose ukudlulisa isisekelo sesayensi ngemvelaphi yemvelo yakwaSARS-CoV-2. “Ngicabanga ukuthi sidinga ukusho ukuthi isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu naleli gciwane (96%) satholwa kumalulwane azungeza emhumeni waseYunnan, eChina. Lokhu kwenza isitatimende esiqinile ngemvelaphi yezilwane. ”

Okokugcina Incwadi kusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi hlangothi ngemvelaphi yegciwane. Ithi, “Ucwaningo lwezocwaningo ukuqonda kangcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV nokuthi ihlobana kanjani namagciwane atholakala kumalulwane nakwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eseziqalile. Isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus ekhonjwe kumasampula athathwe ngamalulwane aqoqwe eChina. ” Incwadi ibhekisiwe ezimbili izifundo lokho kwenziwa yi-EcoHealth Alliance neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombili ziveza imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Emasontweni ambalwa kamuva, incwadi kaMongameli yeNASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomuntu onethonya Isitatimende sabososayensi esishicilelwe ku I-Lancet lokho kudlulise isiqiniseko esithe xaxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ibike ngaphambilini ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala la mazwi, aqinisekisa ukuthi "ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi… baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle." Lesi sikhundla, kusho isitatimende, "sisekelwa futhi yincwadi evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqokwa okwalandela kukaPeter Daszak nabanye ababambisene ne-EcoHealth Alliance ukuze Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 noDaszak kuye Uphenyo lweWorld Health Organisation Imvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2 kusho ukuthi ukwethembeka kwale mizamo kucekelwa phansi ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, nangokubukeka sengathi sebevele behlulele ngaphambi kwalolu daba.

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“Izingqinamba okufanele sizigweme”

Ama-imeyili eBaric akhombisa nomele i-NAS ukuphakamisa kososayensi base-US kufanele “mhlawumbe bagweme” imibuzo emayelana nemvelaphi yakwa-SARS-CoV-2 emihlanganweni yamazwe womabili ababeyihlela nochwepheshe be-Chinese COVID-19. Ama-imeyili ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 axoxa ngezinhlelo zemihlangano. Ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseMelika, iningi labo elingamalungu e-NAS Ikomidi Elimi Ngezifo Ezithathelwanayo Eziqhamukayo Nezinsongo Zempilo Zekhulu Lama-21, kubalwa uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, noPeiyong Shi.

The ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseChina kufaka phakathi uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao unguMqondisi we-China CDC. UZhengli Shi uhola ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kanti uZhiming Yuan unguMqondisi weWIV.

In i-imeyili kubahlanganyeli baseMelika mayelana neseshini yokuhlela, Isikhulu Sezinhlelo Eziphezulu se-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze inhloso yomhlangano: “ukukugcwalisa ngemvelaphi yengxoxo, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uhlu kuhlu lwesimemo sakho nokunamathiselwe) nezinkinga okufanele gwema (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ipolitiki)…

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Xhumanisa nama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric wase-University of North Carolina angatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (Amakhasi we-83,416)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo evela kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi ze uphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili kaRalph Baric we-coronavirus 

Leli khasi libala imibhalo kuma-imeyili kaProfessor Ralph Baric, atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. UDkt Baric isazi se-coronavirus e-University of North Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Unakho kuthuthukiswe izindlela zofuzo kuya ukuthuthukisa amandla obhadane lwama-bat coronaviruses akhona in ukusebenzisana noDkt Zhengli Shi eWuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi ebalulekile yososayensi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, futhi sakhanyisela ubudlelwano phakathi kongoti baseMelika nabaseChina kwizifo ezithathelwanayo nezifo ezithathelwanayo, kanye nezindima zezinhlangano ezifana ne-EcoHealth Alliance neNational Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Sicela uthumele i-imeyili noma yini oyithandayo okungenzeka ukuthi siyiphuthele sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sikwazi ukuwafaka ngezansi.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili e-Baric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uSolwazi wePathology eWestern University of Health Sciences ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala ngoMashi 25, 2020: “I-Federal govt isebenzise imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ukuxhasa i-Global Health Security Agenda ukusiza amazwe asathuthuka ukuthi akhe amandla okuthola / okubika / okuphendula ezinsongweni eziwubhadane. Kusetshenziswe enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 1 kwiphrojekthi ye-PREDICT nge-USAID ifuna amagciwane aqhamukayo kumalulwane, amagundane nezinkawu phesheya kwezilwandle. Futhi manje iGlobal Virome Project ifuna amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 200 ukugijima emhlabeni wonke izingela lonke igciwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Cishe bazoluthola uxhaso. Kodwa azikho kulezi zinhlelo ezenze abakhokhi bentela baphephe kakhudlwana khona lapha ekhaya. ” (kugcizelelwa koqobo)
  2. UDkt. Jonathan Epstein, Iphini Likamongameli Wezesayensi Nokufinyelela ku-EcoHealth Alliance, wafuna umhlahlandlela wesicelo esivela ku-US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (i-DARPA) mayelana nokuxhumana "ngemininingwane yokusebenzisa i-dual-use" (Mashi 2018).
  3. Umanyano we-EcoHealth zikhokhwe UDkt Baric isamba esingadalulwanga njenge-honarium (Januwari 2018).
  4. Isimemo kuya e-US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) kanye ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) I-US China Dialogue kanye neWorkshop mayelana Nezinselelo Zokutheleleka Okuqhamukayo, Ukuphepha Kwelebhu, Ukuphepha Kwezempilo Emhlabeni Wonke Nokuziphatha Okufanelekile Ekusetshenzisweni Kokuhlelwa Kofuzo Ekucwaningweni Kwezifo Ezithathelwanayo, Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela Ama-imeyili futhi imemorandamu yezokuvakasha khombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS emhlanganweni wochwepheshe baseMelika nabaseChina abasebenza ukulwa nezifo ezithathelwanayo nokwenza ngcono impilo yomhlaba (Novemba 2017). Umhlangano ububizwe yi-NAS kanye neGalveston National Laboratory. Kwenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A imemorandamu yezokuvakasha ikhombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika. Okulandelayo Ama-imeyili khombisa ukuthi uDkt Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona emhlanganweni.
  6. NgoFebhuwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Njengamanje imvelaphi enkulu ngamalulwane, futhi ngiyabona ukuthi kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi kudingeka umuntu ongumninikhaya ophakathi nendawo."
  7. NgoMashi 5, 2020, iBaric wabhala, “Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi leli gciwane lenzelwe izinto eziphilayo.”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi sama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (~ Ama-83,416 amakhasi)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka ku- uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

November 24, 2020

Usosayensi onokushayisana kwezintshisekelo ezihola iLancet COVID-19 i-task force emsukeni wegciwane

Evikini eledlule, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi isitatimende esinomthelela ku-The Lancet esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 sihlelwe ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela base-US lokusebenzisa ama-coronaviruses ngokwezakhi zofuzo nososayensi e-Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). 

The Isitatimende sikaFebhuwari 18 wagxeka "imibono yetulo" ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ebhodini, futhi wathi ososayensi "baphetha ngokumangazayo" leli gciwane livela ezilwaneni zasendle. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK uveze ukuthi uMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wayibhala le ncwadi wayihlelela ukuthi "kugwemeke ukuvela kwesitatimende sezombusazwe." 

ILancet yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi abanye abasayine lesi sitatimende banezikhundla ne-EcoHealth Alliance, enesandla kwezezimali ekuphambukiseni imibuzo kude nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Manje, iLancet ihambisa ithonya elingaphezulu eqenjini elinokushayisana kwezintshisakalo embuzweni obalulekile wezempilo yomphakathi ngemvelaphi yobhadane. NgoNovemba 23, iThe Lancet yaqamba igama elithi a iphaneli entsha yamalungu ayi-12 kuKhomishini yeLancet COVID 19. Usihlalo wethimba elisha lokuphenya i- “Origins, Early Spread of the Pandemic, kanye ne-One Health Solutions to Future Pandemic Usongo” akekho omunye ngaphandle kukaPeter Daszak we-EcoHealth Alliance. 

Ingxenye yamalungu eqembu - kubalwa iDaszak, Hume Field, Gerald Keusch, Sai Kit Lam, Stanley Perlman noLinda Saif - nabo bangabasayina esitatimendeni sikaFebhuwari 18 abathi bazi umsuka waleli gciwane cishe ngemuva kwesonto ngemuva kweWorld Health. Inhlangano imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-coronavirus yenoveli sizobizwa nge-COVID-19. 

Ngamanye amagama, okungenani isigamu seKhomishini ye-Lancet ye-COVID Commission ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 kubonakala sengathi seyihlulele lo mphumela ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale uphenyo. Lokhu kwehlisa ukwethembeka negunya leqembu.

Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 yile kuseyimfihlakalo futhi uphenyo olunzulu noluthembekile kungenzeka lubaluleke kakhulu ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo. Umphakathi ufanele uphenyo olungangcoliswanga yizingxabano zentshisekelo ezinjalo.

Ukuvuselelwa (Novemba 25, 2020): UPeter Daszak naye uqokelwe esikhundleni se- Ithimba labantu abayishumi le-World Health Organisation ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

November 18, 2020

I-EcoHealth Alliance yahlela isitatimende sososayensi abalulekile "ngemvelaphi yemvelo" ye-SARS-CoV-2

Vuselela i-2.15.21 - I-imeyili entsha ye-Daszak: “Akunasidingo sokuthi usayine 'iSitatimende' uRalph !!

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi a isitatimende ku I-Lancet ebhalwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 begxeka "imibono yetulo ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi yemvelo" yahlelwa ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo Ama-coronavirus nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala lo mbhalo I-Lancet isitatimende, nokuthi wayehlose ukukwenza "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”. UDaszak ubhale ukuthi ufuna "ukugwema ukuvela kwesitatimende sezepolitiki".

Incwadi yososayensi yavela ku I-Lancet ngoFebhuwari 18, kusasele isonto elilodwa nje ukuthi i-World Health Organisation imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-novel coronavirus sizobizwa nge-COVID-19.

Ababhali abangama-27 “bayigxeka ngokuqinile imibono yetulo yokuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo,” futhi babika ukuthi ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi “baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.” Le ncwadi ibingafaki izinkomba zesayensi zokuphikisa imfundiso-mbumbulu yegciwane. Usosayensi oyedwa, uLinda Saif, ubuze nge-imeyili ukuthi kungasiza yini “Ukufaka isitatimende esisodwa noma ezi-2 ukuxhasa ukuthi kungani i-nCOV kungelona igciwane elenziwa elebhu futhi kuvele ngokwemvelo? Kubonakala kubalulekile ekuphikiseni lokho kushiwo! ” UDaszak uphendule wathi, “Ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele sinamathele esitatimendeni esibanzi. "

Izingcingo ezikhulayo ukuphenya iWuhan Institute of Virology njengomthombo ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 kuholele kulokhu ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe we-EcoHealth Alliance. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi amalungu e-EcoHealth Alliance adlale kanjani indima yokuqala ekubunjweni kwemibuzo mayelana nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingavela kanjani njengemibono “edabukisayo edinga ukulungiswa,” njenge UDaszak utshele The Guardian.

Yize ibinzana elithi "EcoHealth Alliance" livele kanye kuphela I-Lancet isitatimende, ngokuhlangana nombhali-mbhali uDaszak, abanye ababhali ababambisene nabo banobudlelwano ngqo neqembu elingadalulwanga njengokushayisana kwezintshisekelo. URita Colwell noJames Hughes banjalo amalungu weBhodi labaQondisi be-EcoHealth Alliance, UWilliam Karesh uyiPhini Likamongameli Ophethe weqembu lezeMpilo neNqubomgomo, futhi Inkambu yeHume ungumeluleki weSayensi neNqubomgomo.

Ababhali besitatimende baphinde bathi "ukwabiwa okusheshayo, okuvulelekile, nokusobala kwemininingwane ngalokhu kuqubuka manje sekusongelwa amahemuhemu nolwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemvelaphi yalo." Namuhla, noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nophenyo ngemvelaphi yayo ngo- i-World Health Organization futhi I-Lancet Ikhomishini ye-COVID-19 ziye zaba kusitshekelwe ekusithekeni futhi ngicindezelwe ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo.

UPeter Daszak, uRita Colwell, no I-Lancet Umhleli uRichard Horton akazange anikeze imibono ephendula izicelo zethu zale ndaba.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance: University of Maryland (Amakhasi we-466)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene

November 12, 2020

Iphephabhuku i-Nature lenezela “Inothi lomhleli” liqhakambisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthembeka kwesifundo esixhumanisa ama-pangolin coronaviruses nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

NgoNovemba 9, 2020, i-US Right to Know ikhishwe ama-imeyili nababhali abaphezulu be- U-Liu et al. futhi UXiao et al, nabasebenzi nabahleli ku Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature amajenali. Lezi zifundo zinikeze ukwethembeka kwesayensi ku-zoonotic hypothesis yokuthi ama-coronaviruses ahlobene kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 ajikeleza endle, nokuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 inomthombo wezilwane zasendle. NgoNovemba 11, 2020, Nature wengeze inothi elilandelayo ephepheni likaXiao et al. “Inothi Lomhleli: Abafundi bayaziswa ukuthi kukhona ukukhathazeka okuvelile mayelana nokuthi ungubani amasampula epangolini abikwe kuleli phepha kanye nobudlelwano bawo namasampula epangolin ashicilelwe ngaphambilini. Izinyathelo ezifanele zokuhlela zizothathwa uma lolu daba seluxazululwe. ”

Inothi liyabonakala lapha: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2313-x

November 9, 2020

Imvelo kanye ne-PLoS Pathogens ihlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2

Bhalisela ku thola izibuyekezo ezivela ku-Blog ye-Biohazards.

NguSainath Suryanarayanan, PhD 

Lapha, sinikeza ama-imeyili ethu ngababhali abaphezulu be- U-Liu et al. futhi UXiao et al., nabahleli be Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature. Siphinde sethule ingxoxo ejulile yemibuzo nokukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe yila ma-imeyili, okubeka ukungabaza ukusebenza kwalezi zifundo ezibalulekile ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 edala i-COVID-19. Bona ukubika kwethu ngalawa ma-imeyili, Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya (11.9.20)


Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili noDkt Jinping Chen, umbhali omkhulu kaLiu et al:


Ama-imeyili kaDkt. Jinping Chen aphakamisa izinkathazo nemibuzo eminingi: 

1– Liu et al. (2020) bahlanganise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome okulandelanayo okususelwa kuma-coronaviruses asampuliwe avela kuma-pangolin amathathu, amasampula amabili eqenjini elishushumbisiwe ngoMashi 2019, kanye nesampula esisodwa esivela kwelinye iqoqo elabanjwa ngoJulayi 2019. Idathabheyisi yeNational Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) , lapho ososayensi kudingeka ukuthi bafake idatha yokulandelana ukuqinisekisa ukuqinisekiswa okuzimele nokukhiqiza kabusha kwemiphumela eshicilelwe, iqukethe imininingwane yokufunda ngokulandelana (SRA) yamasampuli amabili kaMashi 2019 kepha ayikho idatha yesampula kaJulayi 2019. Lapho ebuzwa ngalesi sampula esilahlekile, uDkt Jinping Chen asibiza ngokuthi yi-F9, uDkt. Jinping Chen wathi: “Imininingwane eluhlaza yalezi zampuli ezintathu ingatholakala ngaphansi kwenombolo ye-NCBI ye-PRJNA573298, ne-BioSample ID kwakungu-SAMN12809952, SAMN12809953, kanye I-SAMN12809954, ngaphezu kwalokho, umuntu ngamunye (i-F9) ovela kwi-batch ehlukile nayo yayinhle, idatha eluhlaza ingabonakala ku-NCBI SRA SUB 7661929, ezokhishwa kungekudala ngoba sinenye i-MS (kuyabuyekezwa)”(Ukugcizelela kwethu).

Kumayelana nokuthi uLiu et al. abakashicileli idatha ehambisana nesampula elilodwa lama-pangolins abawasebenzisile ukuhlanganisa ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome. UDkt.Jinping Chen naye akazange abelane ngale datha lapho ebuzwa. Okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwabelana ngemininingwane yonke ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Kwenze kanjani Amagciwane e-PLoS vumela uLiu et al. ugwema ukushicilela idatha eyisampula ebalulekile? Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen engabelani ngemininingwane ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin? Kungani uLiu et al. ufuna ukukhipha imininingwane engashicilelwe ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin njengengxenye yesinye isifundo esithunyelwe kumagazini ohlukile? Okukhathaza lapha ukuthi ososayensi bazosabalalisa kabi isampula ye-pangolin elahlekile evela ku-Liu et al. ocwaningweni oluhlukile, okwenza kube nzima kwabanye ukuthi kamuva balandele imininingwane ebalulekile ngale sampuli ye-pangolin, njengomongo lapho kwaqoqwa khona isampula ye-pangolin.

2– UDkt. Jinping Chen ukuphikile ukuthi uLiu et al. ngibe nobudlelwano noXiao et al.'s (2020) Nature funda. Ubhale wathi: “Sihambise iphepha lethu le-PLOS Pathogens ngoFebhuwari 14, 2020 ngaphambi kwephepha leNature (i-Reference 12 ephepheni lethu le-PLOS pathogens, balithumele ngoFebhuwari 16, 2020 kusukela ngosuku lwabo lokulethwa eMvelweni), iphepha lethu lamagciwane e-PLOS chaza ukuthi i-SARS-Cov-2 ayiveli ku-pangolin coronavirus ngqo futhi ne-pangolin hhayi njengomsingathi ophakathi nendawo. Sasiwazi umsebenzi wabo ngemuva kwesithangami sabo sezindaba ngoFebhuwari 7, 2020, futhi sinemibono eyehlukene nabo, amanye amaphepha amabili (amaGciwane neMvelo) afakwe ohlwini lwephepha le-PLOS Pathogen njengamaphepha ayizethenjwa (inombolo eyinkomba 10 no-12), singamaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo avela kubalobi bephepha leMvelo, futhi abukho ubudlelwano phakathi kwabo, Futhi sithathe amasampula imininingwane yesampula enemininingwane evela esikhungweni sokutakula izilwane zasendle saseGuangdong ngosizo oluvela kuJiejian Zou noFanghui Hou njengababhali bethu futhi asazi ukuthi amasampuli ephepha lezeMvelo avelaphi. ” (ukugcizelelwa kwethu)

Amaphuzu alandelayo akhulisa ukungabaza ngezimangalo zikaDkt Chen ngenhla: 

Liu et al. (2020), Xiao et al (2020) noLiu et al. (2019) babelane ngababhali abalandelayo: UPing Liu noJinping Chen babengababhali ku-2019 Amagciwane iphepha kanye ne-2020 Amagciwane e-PLoS iphepha, umbhali omkhulu uWu Chen kuXiao et al. (2020) wayengumbhali-mbhali we-2019 Amagciwane iphepha, kanti uJiejian Zhou noFanghui Hou babengababhali kubo bobabili uXiao et al. noLiu et al. 

b- Yomibili le mibhalo yesandla yafakwa kwiseva yomphakathi yangaphambi kokuprintwa bioRxiv ngosuku olufanayo: Februwari 20, 2020. 

c Xiao et al. “Amasampula e-pangolin aqanjwe kabusha aqala ukushicilelwa ngu-Liu et al. [2019] Amagciwane ngaphandle kokucaphuna isifundo sawo njenge-athikili yokuqala echaze la masampula, futhi asebenzise imininingwane ye-metagenomic evela kulawa masampula ekuhlaziyweni kwawo ”(UChan noZhan). 

d- Liu et al. i-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele i 99.95% kuyefana ezingeni le-nucleotide kuya ku-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele eshicilelwe ngu-Xiao et al. Kungenzeka kanjani uLiu et al. sikhiqize lonke ufuzo olungu-99.95% olufanayo (kuphela umehluko we-15 wama-nucleotides) kuXiao et al. ngaphandle kokwabelana kwedathasethi nokuhlaziya?

Lapho amaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo eza ngokuzimela kumasethi weziphetho ezifanayo ngombuzo onikeziwe wocwaningo, kwandisa kakhulu amathuba eqiniso lezimangalo ezibandakanyekile. Okukhathazayo lapha ukuthi uLiu et al. noXiao et al. azenzelwanga izifundo ezizimele njengoba kushiwo nguDkt Chen. Ngabe kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kukaLiu et al. noXiao et al. maqondana nokuhlaziya nezincwadi zabo? Uma kunjalo, kwakungakanani futhi kwakunjani lokho kuxhumana? 

3– Kungani uLiu et al. ingenzi ukuthi kutholakale esidlangalaleni idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome yabo? Ngaphandle kwale datha eluhlaza, i-pangolin coronavirus genome ehlanganiswe ngu-Liu et al., Abanye abakwazi ukuqinisekisa ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela ka-Liu et al. Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwaba yonke idatha ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Sicele uDkt.Jingping Chen ukuthi abelane ngemininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon kaLiu et al. Uphendule ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokulandelana kwemikhiqizo ka-Liu et al.'s RT-PCR, okungeyona idatha ye-amplicon eluhlaza esetshenziselwe ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome. Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen enqena ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza engavumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kukaLiu et al.

I-4- Liu et al. Amagciwane (2019) yashicilelwa ngo-Okthoba 2019 futhi ababhali bayo babefake i-pangolin coronavirus (ukulandelana kokufunda okugciniwe) idatha ye-SRA ne-NCBI ngoSeptemba 23, i-2019, kodwa walinda kwaze kwaba January 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni. Ososayensi bavame ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-genomic kulwazi olufinyeleleka esidlangalaleni ngokushesha okukhulu ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zabo. Lo mkhuba uqinisekisa ukuthi abanye bangakwazi ukufinyelela ngokuzimela, baqinisekise futhi basebenzise idatha enjalo. Kungani uLiu et al. I-2019 linda izinyanga ze-4 ukwenza idatha yabo ye-SRA ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni? UDkt. Jinping Chen ukhethe ukungawuphenduli ngqo lo mbuzo wethu empendulweni yakhe ngoNovemba 9, 2020.

Siphinde saxhumana noDkt. Stanley Perlman, Amagciwane e-PLoS Umhleli kaLiu et al. futhi nakhu kwakufanele akusho.

Ngokuphawulekayo, uDkt Perlman uvumile ukuthi:

  • "I-PLoS Pathogens iphenya kabanzi leli phepha" 
  • "Akazange aqinisekise ubuqiniso besampula kaJulayi 2019 ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga ngaphambi kokushicilela"
  • “[C] ukukhathazeka ngokufana phakathi kwezifundo ezimbili [Liu et al. noXiao et al.] kwavela kuphela ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zombili. ”
  • Akazange "abone imininingwane ye-amplicon ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga. Ababhali banikeze inombolo yokungena ku-genome ehlanganisiwe… yize ngemuva kokushicilelwa kuvele ukuthi inombolo yokufakwa ohlwini efakwe kusitatimende sokutholakala kwedatha ye-athikili ayilungile. Leli phutha nemibuzo emayelana nemininingwane eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-contig okwamanje kuyakhulunywa ngayo njengengxenye yecala langemva kokushicilelwa. ”

Lapho sixhumana Amagciwane e-PLoS ngokukhathazeka kwethu ngoLiu et al. sithole okulandelayo impendulo evela kuMhleli Omkhulu wethimba le-PLoS Publication Ethics:

Ama-imeyili avela kuXiao et al.

Ngo-Okthoba 28, i- Umphathi Omkhulu Wezesayensi Yezinto ze Nature uphendule (ngezansi) ngegama eliyisihluthulelo elithi "sizithatha ngokungathi sína lezi zinkinga futhi sizolubheka kahle udaba oluphakamisa ngezansi." 

Ngo-Okthoba 30, uXiao et al. ekugcineni ikhishwe esidlangalaleni idatha yabo yokulandelana ye-amplicon eluhlaza. Kodwa-ke, njengokushicilelwa kwalesi siqephu, imininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ethunyelwe nguXiao et al. ishoda ngamafayela wedatha eluhlaza angavumela abanye ukuthi bahlangane futhi baqinisekise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome.

Kusele imibuzo ebalulekile edinga ukubhekisiswa: 

  1. Ngabe ama-pangolin coronaviruses angempela? Isihloko esithi Umdwebo 1e kuXiao et al. ithi: “Izinhlayiya ezibangelwa amagciwane zibonakala kuma-vesicles anezingqimba ezimbili esithombeni sokudlulisela i-electron microscopy esithathwe kusiko le-Vero E6 elifakwe umusi ongaphezu kowodwa wezicubu zamaphaphu ezisuselwe ku-pangolin eyodwa, ne-morphology ekhombisa i-coronavirus.” Uma uXiao et al. ihlukanise i-pangolin coronavirus, ngabe bazokwabelana ngesampula elingalodwa legciwane nabaphenyi abangaphandle kweChina? Lokhu kungahamba ibanga elide ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi leli gciwane likhona ngempela futhi livela ezicutshini zepangolin.
  2. Kwasekuqaleni kuka-2020, noma ngisho naku-2019 U-Liu et al., UXiao et al., ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. uyazi ukuthi bazoshicilela imiphumela ngokususelwa kudathasethi efanayo?
    a. Ngabe kwakukhona ukusebenzisana kubhekwa ukuthi eyodwa yanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 18 kwathi ezintathu zanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 20?
    b. Kungani uLiu et al. (2019) abenzi ukulandelana kwabo kufundwe idatha yomlando ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni ngosuku abayifake ku-database ye-NCBI? Kungani balinda kwaze kwaba nguJanuwari 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha yokulandelana kwe-pangolin coronavirus ibe sesidlangalaleni.
    c. Ngaphambi kukaLiu et al. 2019 Amagciwane idatha ikhishwe ku-NCBI ngoJanuwari 22, 2020, ngabe le datha yayifinyeleleka kwabanye abacwaningi baseChina? Uma kunjalo, i-pangolin coronavirus yokulandelela idatha yayigcinwe kubani, ngubani owayekwazi ukufinyelela, futhi idatha yafakwa nini futhi yenziwa ifinyeleleke nini?
  3. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukulandelela umthombo wamasampuli e-pangolin ukubona ukuthi amanye amagciwane afana ne-SARS-CoV-2-like angatholakala yini ngoMashi kuya kuJulayi 2019 amaqoqo ezilwane ezishushumbisiwe — ezingaba ngamasampuli afriziwe noma usaphila eGuangdong Wildlife Rescue Center?
  4. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukubona ukuthi abashushumbisi (ngabe baboshwa yini? Noma bahlawuliswa badedelwa?) Banama-antibodies egciwane lakwaSARS avela ekutholakaleni njalo kula magciwane?

November 5, 2020

Uyemukelwa ku-Blog ye-Biohazards

NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukuhambisa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngenhloso yokuthola imininingwane evela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala isifo iCovid-19. Siphenya nezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye ukwenzeka emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe izifo ezinamandla eziwubhadane, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), olubandakanya ukuhlolwa kwalawo magciwane ukukhulisa ibanga lawo lokusingathwa, ukudluliswa noma ukubulala.

Kule bhulogi, sizothumela izibuyekezo kumadokhumenti esiwatholayo nokunye okwenziwayo kuphenyo lwethu.

I-US Right to Know iyi- iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenyayo kugxile ekukhuthazeni ukusebenzela obala kwezempilo yomphakathi. Sisebenza emhlabeni wonke ukuveza ububi bezinkampani kanye nokwehluleka kukahulumeni okusongela ubuqotho bohlelo lwethu lokudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yethu. Kusukela ngo-2015, thina bathole, kuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi futhi ibike ngezinkulungwane zemibhalo yezimboni kanye nohulumeni, kufaka phakathi eminingi etholwe ngokusebenzisa umthetho ophikisiwe wokugcinwa kwemithetho yamarekhodi avulekile.

Ucwaningo lwethu ngama-biohazard luholwa nguSainath Suryanarayanan, Ph.D. Ikheli lakhe le-imeyili ngu sainath@usrtk.org.

Ngeminye imininingwane ngocwaningo lwethu lwe-biohazards, sicela ubone:

Bhalisela incwadi yethu yezindaba. Thola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke ebhokisini lakho lokungenayo.