Idatha entsha yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni iphakamisa imibuzo yokuphepha

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba abaseMelika beqoqa imindeni yabo ukuthi babelane ngesidlo se-Thanksgiving kuleli sonto, idatha entsha kahulumeni inikeza ukuhlolwa okungenakuphikisa kokuphakelwa kokudla kwase-US: Izinsalela zezinhlobo eziningi zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ama-fungicides kanye namakhemikhali okubulala ukhula zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-85 ezinkulungwane zokudla ihlolwe.

Imininingwane ekhishwe ngesonto eledlule nguMnyango Wezolimo wase-United States ikhombisa amazinga ahlukahlukene ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kukho konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumazambane kanye namagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Isampula elilodwa lama-strawberry laliqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engama-20, ngokusho kwe- “Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezinambuzane” (PDP) ukhishwe kule nyanga yi-USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service. Lo mbiko ungowama-25 wonyaka wokuhlanganiswa kwemininingwane yezinsalela ze-ejensi, futhi wahlanganisa izibonelo zalokho okwenziwa yi-USDA ngonyaka ka-2015

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi le nhlangano ithe amaphesenti ayi-15 kuphela amasampuli ayi-10,187 ahlolwe ayengenazo izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Lowo umehluko ophawulekayo kusukela kowezi-2014, lapho i-USDA yathola ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-41 amasampula “ayehlanzekile” noma engabonisanga izinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholakalayo. Iminyaka engaphambilini ibuye ikhombise cishe amaphesenti ama-40-50 wamasampula njengamahhala ezinsalela ezitholakalayo, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. I-USDA ithe "akuvumelekile ngokwezibalo" ukuqhathanisa unyaka owodwa neminye, kepha, ngoba ukuxubana kwesampuli yokudla kuyashintsha unyaka nonyaka. Noma kunjalo idatha ikhombisa ukuthi u-2015 wayefana neminyaka eyedlule kulezo zithelo nemifino esanda kucutshungulwa neyacutshungulwa yakha inqwaba yokudla okuhloliwe.

Yize kungazwakala kunganambitheki, izinsalela ze-pesticides aziyona into abantu abangakhathazeka ngayo, ngokusho kwe-USDA. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezitholakale emikhiqizweni yezolimo ezisampuliwe zisezingeni elingazibeki engcupheni impilo yabathengi futhi ziphephile…"

Kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Abalawuli abanalo ucwaningo olwanele oluphelele mayelana nokuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo, okuphindaphindwayo kwezinsalela zezinhlobo eziningi zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kuyithinta kanjani impilo yomuntu esikhathini eside, futhi nokuqinisekisa kukahulumeni ukuphepha kumane kungamanga, kusho abanye ososayensi.

“Asazi ukuthi uma udla i-apula elinezinsalela eziningi nsuku zonke uzoba yini umphumela eminyakeni engu-20 usendleleni,” kusho uChensheng Lu, onguprofesa ohlotshaniswa nesayensi yokuchayeka kwemvelo eHarvard School of Public Health. “Bafuna ukuqinisekisa wonke umuntu ukuthi lokhu kuphephile kodwa isayensi ayanele. Udaba olukhulu lolu. ”

I-USDA ibike embikweni wayo wakamuva ukuthi amasampula angama-441 atholakele abhekwe njengabakhathazayo “njengokwephula ukubekezelela okucatshangelwayo,” ngoba izinsalela ezitholakele zingaphezulu kwalokho okulondwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) noma zitholakale ekudleni akulindelekile ukuthi ziqukathe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane nhlobo futhi ezingekho ezingeni lokubekezelelana ngokomthetho. Lawo masampuli aqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlukene engama-496, kusho i-USDA.

Isipinashi, ama-strawberry, amagilebhisi, ubhontshisi obuluhlaza, utamatisi, ukhukhamba kanye nekhabe kwakuphakathi kokudla okutholakala namazinga ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engekho emthethweni. Ngisho nezinsalela zamakhemikhali osekuyisikhathi eside zivinjelwe e-United States zitholakele, kufaka phakathi izinsalela ze-DDT noma ama-metabolites ayo atholakala kusipinashi namazambane. I-DDT yavalwa ngo-1972 ngenxa yezinkinga zezempilo nezemvelo mayelana nesibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukungabikho kwedatha ye-USDA bekukhona noma yiluphi ulwazi ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate, noma ngabe i-glyphosate kade yaba umuthi osetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi uvame ukufuthwa ngqo ezitshalweni eziningi, kufaka phakathi ummbila, isoya, ukolweni, ne-oats. Kuyisithako esiyisihluthulelo somuthi obizwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto Co., futhi kwamenyezelwa i-carcinogen yabantu ngonyaka odlule yiqembu lososayensi bomdlavuza bamazwe omhlaba abasebenza neWorld Health Organisation. Kepha iMonsanto ithe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni ziphephile. Inkampani icele i-EPA ukuthi khuphula amazinga okubekezelelana i-glyphosate ekudleni okuningana ngo-2013 futhi i-EPA yenze njalo.

Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa nakho njalo ngonyaka kusampula ukudla kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. Imibhalo emisha etholwe kwi-FDA ikhombisa amazinga angekho emthethweni ezinhlobo ezimbili zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane - i-propargite, esetshenziselwa ukubulala izibungu, ne-flonicamid, evame ukuhloselwa ukubulala ama-aphid nezimpukane ezimhlophe - zisanda kutholakala kuju. Imibhalo kaHulumeni ikhombisa nokuthi i-DEET, into ejwayelekile yokuxosha izinambuzane, isanda kutholwa ngabalawuli kuju, kwathi i-herbicide acetochlor yatholakala kumakhowe.

Ososayensi be-FDA baphinde babika amazinga aphezulu ngokungemthetho we-neonicotinoid thiamethoxam atholakala elayisi, ngokusho kwemininingwane evela ku-ejensi. Syngenta ubuzile Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ukuvumela izinsalela eziphakeme ze-thiamethoxam ezivunyelwe ezitshalweni eziningi ngoba inkampani ifuna ukuthi isetshenziswe kakhulu njengesifutho seqabunga. Lesi sicelo ne-EPA sisalindile, ngokusho kokhulumela i-ejensi.

The umbiko wakamuva wezinsalela zomphakathi ekhishwe yi-FDA ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga okwephula izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane abelokhu ekhuphuka eminyakeni yamuva. Ukwephulwa kwezinsalela kumasampula okudla kwasekhaya kufinyelele kumaphesenti angama-2.8 ngonyaka wezi-2013; kuphindwe kabili isilinganiso esibonwe ngonyaka ka-2009. Ukwephula umthetho kufinyelele kumaphesenti ayi-12.6 kokudla okuthengwa kwamanye amazwe ngo-2013, kusuka kumaphesenti ama-4 ngo-2009.

Njenge-USDA, i-FDA yeqe i-glyphosate emashumini eminyaka yokuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-pesticide. Kepha le nhlangano yethule uhlelo lwe- “Isabelo esikhethekile” kulo nyaka ukunquma ukuthi yimaphi amazinga we-glyphosate angahle abonakale eqenjini elincane lokudla. Usokhemisi we-FDA ubike ngokuthola izinsalela ze-glyphosate uju futhi imikhiqizo eminingi ye-oatmeal, kufaka phakathi ukudla kwezingane.

Private idatha yokuhlola okukhishwe kule nyanga kubike nokuba khona kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kuma-cheerios cereal, amakhukhi e-Oreo nokunye ukudla okuthandwa kakhulu okuhlanganisiwe.

IMIBUZO NGEMIPHUMELA EQUBUKA

Ukuthi abathengi kufanele bakhathazeke noma cha ngokudla okuqukethe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kuyindaba yengxabano eqhubekayo. Abathathu bezinhlangano zikahulumeni ezibandakanyeka ezindabeni zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zonke zikhomba kulokho ezikubiza ngokuthi "imikhawulo yezinsalela ephezulu" (MRLs), noma "ukubekezelelana," njengezimpawu zokuphepha. I-EPA isebenzisa imininingwane enikelwe imboni yezolimo ukusiza ukuthola ukuthi ama-MRL kufanele asethelwe kuphi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ngamunye nesitshalo ngasinye okulindeleke ukuthi kusetshenziswe kuso izibulala-zinambuzane.

Uma nje ukudla okuningi okusampuli kubonisa izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni okungezansi kwama-MRL, asikho isizathu sokukhathazeka, i-USDA igcina kanjalo. "Ukubikwa kwezinsalela ezikhona emazingeni angaphansi kokubekezelelwa okukhona kusebenza ukuqinisekisa nokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kokutholakala kokudla kwaboHlanga," kusho umbiko wezinsalela zango-2015. Imboni yezolimo inikezela ngeziqinisekiso ezibanzi, ithi akukho lutho olwesabayo ngokusebenzisa izinsalela zamakhemikhali ewathengisela abalimi ukuthi bawasebenzise ekukhiqizweni kokudla, noma ngabe kudlula ukubekezelelana okusemthethweni.

Kepha ososayensi abaningi bathi ukubekezelelana kuklanyelwe ukuvikela abasebenzisi bezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphezu kwabathengi. Ukubekezelelana kuyahlukahluka kakhulu kuye ngokuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kanye nesitshalo. Ukubekezelela isibulala-zinambuzane i-chlorpyrifos e-apula, ngokwesibonelo, kwehluke kakhulu kunenani lama-chlorpyrifos avunyelwe kwizithelo ezisawolintshi, noma kubhanana noma obisini, ngokuya ngemininingwane yokubekezelelana kukahulumeni.

Endabeni yama-chlorpyrifos, i-EPA empeleni ithe ifuna ukuhoxisa konke ukubekezelela ukudla ngoba izifundo zixhumanise ikhemikhali ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Yize i-ejensi isikhathi eside ibheka izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos ziphephile, manje i-ejensi ithi, kungenzeka ukuthi akunjalo.

“I-EPA, ngalesi sikhathi, ayikwazi ukunquma ukuthi ukuvezwa okuhlanganisiwe kwezinsalela zama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi konke ukuvezwa okulindelekile kokudla kanye nakho konke okunye ukuvezwa okungekho emsebenzini okunemininingwane ethembekile, kuphephile,” i-EPA kusho ngonyaka odlule. IDow AgroSciences, eyakha ama-chlorpyrifos ngawo-1960, uyabhikisha imizamo ye-EPA, iphikisana nokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos "iyithuluzi elibucayi" kubalimi. Embikweni wezinsalela zakamuva ze-USDA, i-chlorpyrifos itholakale kumapentshisi, ama-apula, isipinashi, ama-strawberry, ama-nectarine nokunye ukudla, yize kungenjalo emazingeni athathwa njengokwephula ukubekezelelana.

I-EPA ivikela umsebenzi wayo ngokubekezelelana, futhi ithi ibilokhu ihambisana noMthetho Wokuvikelwa Kwekhwalithi Yezokudla odinga ukuthi i-EPA ibheke imiphumela yokuqoqeka kwezinsalela zezinto “ezinendlela efanayo yobuthi.” Isikhungo sithi ukusetha ukubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane, kubheka izifundo ezilethwe izinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane ukuthola imiphumela engaba yingozi ikhemikhali elingaba nayo kubantu, inani lekhemikhali elingahlala ekudleni noma ekudleni nokunye okungavezwa kulo lelo khemikhali.

Kepha abagxeki bathi lokho akwenele ngokwanele - ukuhlolwa kufanele kubhekwe izimo ezingokoqobo ezibhekela imithelela ebanzi yokuqoqwa kwezinhlobo eziningi zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ukuthola ukuthi kuphephe kangakanani ukudla imixube ebonwa ekudleni kwansuku zonke, bathi. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane eziningi ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ekukhiqizweni kokudla zixhunyaniswe nezifo, ukwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka kokukhula, kanye nokushoda kokunaka / ukukhubazeka ezinganeni, kunesidingo esiphuthumayo sokuhlaziywa okujulile kwale mithelela yokuqoqeka, ngokusho kososayensi abaningi. Bakhomba iNational Research Council's isimemezelo Eminyakeni edlule lokho “ukudla okudliwayo kumelela umthombo omkhulu wokuchayeka kwezinsana nezingane ezinganeni, futhi ukutholakala kokudla kungabangela ukwanda kwezingozi zezempilo ezinganeni uma kuqhathaniswa nabantu abadala.”

"Ngokuchayeka kuyo yonke indawo imixube yamakhemikhali, iziqinisekiso zokuphepha ezincike ezinhlwini zemingcele enobuthi zingadukisa impela," kusho uLorrin Pang, isazi sezendalo eMnyangweni Wezempilo waseHawaii futhi owayengumeluleki we-World Health Organization.

UTracey Woodruff, owayengusosayensi ophakeme we-EPA futhi engumeluleki wezinqubomgomo ogxile kakhulu ekungcoliseni imvelo nasempilweni yezingane, uthe kunesidingo esicacile sokuthi kwenziwe olunye ucwaningo. UWoodruff uqondisa uHlelo Lwezempilo Yokuzala kanye Nezemvelo eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia San Francisco School of Medicine.

“Akuyona into encane le,” kusho yena. “Umqondo wonke wokubheka ukutholakala kokuqoqeka uyisihloko esishisayo kososayensi. Ukuhlola ukubekezelelana komuntu ngamunye sengathi kwenzeka ngasodwana akuyona inkomba enembile yalokho esikwaziyo - abantu bavezwa amakhemikhali amaningi ngasikhathi sinye futhi izindlela ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje azikwenzi lokho ngokwesayensi. ”

Abagxeki bathi ukuhlolisiswa kokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane kungenzeka kunciphise isinqumo sikaMongameli-okhethwe uDonald Trump sokuqamba igama UMyron Ebell ukwengamela imizamo yezinguquko e-EPA. U-Ebell, umqondisi we-Centre for Energy and Environment e-Competitive Enterprise Institute, ungummeli oqinile wezibulala-zinambuzane nokuphepha kwazo.

“Amazinga ezibulala-zinambuzane kuyaqabukela, uma kwenzeka, esondela emazingeni angaphephile. Noma izishoshovu zikhala impisi ngoba izinsalela zidlula umkhawulo kahulumeni lokho akusho ukuthi imikhiqizo ayiphephile, ”kusho i SAFEChemicalPolicy.org Iqembu lika-Ebell ligijima. "Empeleni, izinsalela zingaba ngaphezu kwamakhulu emikhawulo yokulawula izikhathi eziphindwe kayikhulu kodwa zihlale ziphephile."

Imiyalezo exubile yenza kube nzima ukuthi abathengi bazi ukuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe ngokuphepha kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, kusho uTherese Bonanni, ingcweti kwezokudla e-Jersey Shore University Medical Center.

"Yize umphumela wokuqoqwa kokudla la ma-toxin isikhathi eside ungaziwa, imininingwane yesikhashana ikhombisa ukuthi kunesizathu sokuqapha," esho. "Umyalezo oya kubathengi udideka kakhulu."

(I-Article ivele okokuqala ku- I-Huffington Post)