Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uhlobo lwalesi sihloko lushicilelwe okokuqala ngo I-Common Ground Magazine Mashi 2018 (Uhlobo lwe-PDF).

NguStacy Malkan

Wonke umuntu uyayithanda indaba emnandi ngekusasa. Mhlawumbe uzwile lokhu: ukudla kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme okwenziwe isayensi kuzokondla abantu abayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-9 abalindelwe emhlabeni ngo-2050. Ukudla okwenziwe emalabuni nasezitshalweni nasezilwaneni ezenziwe ngofuzo ukuze zikhule ngokushesha nangcono kuzokwenza ukuthi kudle umhlaba ominyene, ngokusho kwezindaba ezijikeleza ngezikhungo zethu zemidiya nezemfundo.

"6th abafundi bebanga bacabanga ngemibono emikhulu ye-biotech ukuze # Feedthe9 ″ ukhiphe i-tweet yakamuva emakwe embonini yamakhemikhali iwebhusayithi yokukhangisa Izimpendulo ze-GMOA. Imibono yabafundi ifaka phakathi "ukuzalela izaqathe ukuze zibe namavithamini amaningi" kanye "nommbila ozokhula ezimweni ezinzima zasebusika."

Konke kuzwakala kuthembisa kakhulu uze ubheke amaqiniso angemuva kwenkulumo.

Okokuqala, ezweni elihola umhlaba ekukhuleni kwezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs), izigidi zilambile. Ukunciphisa imfucuza yokudla, ukubhekana nokungalingani nokushintshela ku ezolimo Izindlela zokulima, hhayi ama-GMO, ziyizikhiye ekuvikelekeni kokudla emhlabeni, ngokusho kochwepheshe beNhlangano Yezizwe. Ukudla okuningi okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo emakethe namuhla akunazinzuzo nakancane kubathengi; enzelwe ukusinda izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi asheshise kakhulu ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezifana glyphosate, dicamba futhi ngokushesha i-2,4D, ukudala lokho amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngokuthi kuyingozi umshini wokubulala izinambuzane.

Yize kunamashumi eminyaka yokuxokozela mayelana nezakhamzimba eziphakeme noma izitshalo ze-GMO ze-heartier, lezo zinzuzo zehlulekile ukwenzeka. I-Vitamin-A ithuthukisiwe Ilayisi Eligolide, isibonelo - “irayisi ebingasindisa izingane eziyisigidi ngonyaka,” kubika Isikhathi umagazini iminyaka 17 edlule - ayikho emakethe yize kunezigidi ezichithwe ekuthuthukisweni. "Uma ilayisi legolide liyindlela yokwelapha enjalo, kungani lichuma kuphela ezihlokweni ezinkulu, kude nezinsimu zepulazi lapho kuhloswe ukuba likhule khona?" kubuza uTom Philpott umama Jones isihloko esithi, I-WTF Yenzekeni Elayisi Legolide?

“Impendulo emfushane ukuthi abatshali bezitshalo abasazakhi izinhlobonhlobo zaso ezisebenza ensimini njengezihlobo zelayisi ezikhona… Uma uhlanganisa into eyodwa ku-genome, njengokunika ilayisi amandla okwenza i-beta-carotene, engozini yokushintsha ezinye izinto, njengejubane lokukhula kwayo. ”

Imvelo iyinkimbinkimbi, ngamanye amazwi, futhi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo kungaveza imiphumela engalindelekile.

Cabanga ngendaba ye-Impossible Burger.

I-burger esekwe ezitshalweni ethi "yopha" yenziwa ukuthi yenzeke ngemvubelo yobunjiniyela ukuze ifane neleghemoglobin, into etholakala ezimpandeni zezitshalo zesoya. I-GMO soy leghemoglobin (SLH) yehla ibe yiprotheyini ebizwa nge- “heme,” enikeza iburger izimfanelo ezifana nenyama - umbala wayo obomvu obomvu wegazi kanye ne-sizzle ku-grill - ngaphandle kwemithelela yezemvelo neyokuziphatha ekukhiqizeni inyama. Kepha i-GMO SLH ibuye yehle iye kwamanye amaprotheni angama-46 angakaze abe ekudleni kwabantu futhi angabeka izingozi zokuphepha.

Njengoba i New York Times kubika, isosi eliyimfihlo le-burger “liqokomisa izinselele zobuchwepheshe bokudla.” Indaba yayisekelwe imibhalo etholwe yi-ETC Group nabangane bomhlaba ngaphansi kwesicelo soMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi - imibhalo inkampani okungenzeka yayinethemba lokuthi ayisoze yakubona ukukhanya kosuku. Ngenkathi i-Impossible Foods icela i-Food and Drug Administration ukuthi iqinisekise ukuthi isithako sayo se-GMO "ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile" (GRAS) Times kubika, i-ejensi esikhundleni salokho "iveze ukukhathazeka ngokuthi ayikaze idliwe ngabantu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi iyi-allergen."

Izikhulu ze-FDA wabhala kumanothi echaza ucingo lwango-2015 nenkampani, "i-FDA yathi izimpikiswano ezikhona manje, ngazodwana futhi ngokuhlanganyela, bezinganele ukwenza ukuphepha kwe-SLH ukusetshenziswa." Kepha, njengoba Times Indaba ichaziwe, i-FDA ayishongo ukuthi i-GMO leghemoglobin ayiphephile, futhi inkampani ayidingi ukuvunyelwa yi-FDA ukuthi ithengise i-burger yayo noma kunjalo.

Izimpikiswano ezethulwe azizange zisungule ukuphepha - i-FDA

Ngakho-ke i-Impossible Burger isemakethe ngeziqinisekiso zenkampani zokuphepha futhi abathengi abaningi basebumnyameni ngalokho okukuyo. Ngenkathi inqubo ye-GMO ichazwa kuwebhusayithi ayithengiswa ngaleyo ndlela lapho kuthengiswa khona. Ekuvakasheni kwakamuva endaweni yokudlela yaseBay Area edayisa i-Impossible Burger, ikhasimende libuze ukuthi ngabe i-burger ishintshiwe yini. Utshelwe ngokunganembile, "cha."

Ukuntuleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni, izingozi zezempilo ezingaziwa kanye nabathengi abashiye ebumnyameni - lezi yizindikimba eziphindaphindwayo ekulandiseni okuqhubekayo mayelana neWild West yokuhlolwa kobunjiniyela kwezakhi zofuzo egxambukela esitolo esiseduze nawe.

I-GMO nganoma yiliphi elinye igama…

I-biology yokwenziwa, i-CRISPR, ukuhlelwa kofuzo, ukuthuliswa kofuzo: la magama achaza izinhlobo ezintsha zezitshalo, izilwane kanye nezithako ezakhiwe ngezofuzo izinkampani eziphuthuma ukungena emakethe.

Indlela yakudala yobunjiniyela, ebizwa ngokuthi ama-transgenics, ifaka ukudlulisa izakhi zofuzo zisuka kolunye uhlobo ziye kolunye. Ngezindlela ezintsha zobunjiniyela - lokho amanye amaqembu ezemvelo akubiza ngamaGMOs 2.0 - izinkampani ziphazamisa imvelo ngezindlela ezintsha futhi ezingaba yingozi. Bangasusa izakhi zofuzo, bavule noma bavale izakhi zofuzo, noma bakhe ukulandelana okusha kwe-DNA kukhompyutha. Zonke lezi zinqubo ezintsha zingama-GMO ngendlela abathengi kanye ne-US Patent Office ababheka ngayo - i-DNA ishintshwa kumalebhu ngezindlela ezingeke zenzeke emvelweni, futhi isetshenziselwe ukwenza imikhiqizo enelungelo lobunikazi. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo zama-GMOs 2.0.

Ama-GMO we-biology yokwenziwa kufaka phakathi ukuguqula noma ukudala i-DNA ukuze kuhlanganiswe izinto ezihlanganisiwe kunokuzikhipha emithonjeni yemvelo. Izibonelo zifaka imvubelo yobunjiniyela noma ulwelwe ukudala ukunambitheka okufana ne-vanillin, i-stevia ne-citrus; noma amakha afana ne-patchouli, i-rose oil ne-clearwood - konke okungenzeka ukuthi sekuvele kumikhiqizo.

Ezinye izinkampani zithi izithako ezikhuliswa elebhu njengesixazululo sokusimama. Kepha udeveli usemininingwane izinkampani ezizimisele ukudalula. Yini ama-feedstocks? Eminye imikhiqizo yokwenziwa kwebhayoloji incike kushukela ovela kumakhemikhali amaningi asebenzisa amakhemikhali noma ezinye izidlo ezingcolisayo ezifana negesi ethosiwe. Kukhona nokukhathazeka ukuthi ulwelwe olunjiniwe lungabalekela emvelweni lube ngukungcola kokuphila.

Futhi yimuphi umthelela kubalimi abathembele ezitshalweni ezikhuliswe kahle? Abalimi emhlabeni wonke bakhathazekile ngokuthi abantu abangena esikhundleni esikhuliswa ngamalebhu, abathengiswa ngamanga “njengemvelo,” bangabakhipha ebhizinisini. Izizukulwane ngezizukulwane, abalimi baseMexico, eMadagascar, e-Afrika naseParaguay balime i-vanilla yemvelo ne-organic, ibhotela le-shea noma i-stevia. EHaiti, ukulima i-vetiver grass yokusetshenziswa kumakha aphezulu kakhulu kusekela abalimi abancane abangafika ku-60,000, okusiza ekuqiniseni umnotho owonakaliswe ukuzamazama komhlaba neziphepho.

Ngabe kunengqondo ukuhambisa lezi zinjini zezomnotho ziye eSouth San Francisco bese sondla ushukela olinywe efektri ngemvubelo ukuze senze amakha nesinongo eshibhile? Ngubani ozosizakala, futhi ngubani ozolahlekelwa, ekuguqulweni kwezitshalo kobuchwepheshe obuphakeme?

Izinhlanzi nezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo: izinkomo ezinezimpondo, izingulube ezithenwe ngokwemvelo, kanye namaqanda enkukhu aklanyelwe ukuba abe nomenzeli wemithi konke kusembhidlangweni wokuhlolwa kofuzo. Iphrojekthi yabesilisa bonke "terminator izinkomo" - enegama lekhodi "Abafana Kuphela" - ihlose ukudala inkunzi ezozala kuphela abantwana besilisa, ngaleyo ndlela "ibambe amathuba obudoda nokwenza imboni (yenyama) isebenze kangcono," kubika Ukubuyekezwa Kwezobuchwepheshe be-MIT.

Yini engase ihambe kabi?

Isazi sezakhi zofuzo esisebenza ezinkomeni ze-terminator, u-Alison Van Eenennaam wase-University of California, eDavis, ucela ukuthi abakwa-FDA bacubungule kabusha isinqumo sayo sango-2017 sokuphatha izilwane ezihlelwe yi-CRISPR sengathi ziyizidakamizwa ezintsha, ngaleyo ndlela zidinga izifundo zokuphepha; utshele i- Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT lokho “kungabeka umgomo omkhulu wokulawula ekusebenziseni le ndlela yokuhlela izakhi ezilwaneni.” Kepha akumele yini kube khona izidingo zokutadisha impilo, ukuphepha kanye nemithelela yemvelo yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nohlaka lokucabanga ngemithelela yokuziphatha, yokuziphatha neyenhlalo? Izinkampani zilwela kanzima ngaphandle kwezidingo; ngoJanuwari, uMongameli Trump wakhuluma nge-biotechnology okokuqala ngesikhathi esengumongameli futhi wenze isimemezelo esingacacile mayelana "nemithethonqubo yokwenza ngcono izinto."

Isilwane kuphela se-GMO emakethe kuze kube manje yi-AquaAdvantage salmon eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ze-eel ukuze ikhule ngokushesha. Izinhlanzi seziyathengiswa eCanada, kepha inkampani ngeke isho ukuthi ikuphi, futhi ukuthengiswa kwaseMelika kubanjiwe ngenxaizinkinga zokulebula.”Isifiso sokugcina imfihlo sinengqondo ngokubuka kokuthengisa: ama-75% wabaphenduli ku-a 2013 New York Times i-poll bathi ngeke badle izinhlanzi ze-GMO, futhi cishe okubili kokuthathu bathi ngeke bayidle inyama eshintshwe izakhi zofuzo.

Izindlela zokuthulisa i-Gene njengokuphazanyiswa kwe-RNA (RNAi) kungavala izakhi zofuzo ukudala izici ezithile. I-Arctic Apple engeyona nsundu yenziwa nge-RNAi ukwenqaba ukubonakaliswa kofuzo okwenza ama-apula abe nsundu futhi abe mushy. Njengoba inkampani ichaza kwiwebhusayithi yayo, "lapho i-apula lilunywa, lisikiwe, noma lilinyazwe ngenye indlela… alikho i-apula elinsundu elinsundu elisele ngemuva."

Ngabe abathengi empeleni bayasifuna lesi sici? Ukulungele noma cha lapha kuza. I-GMO Arctic Apple yokuqala, iGolden Delicious, yaqala ukubhekela izimakethe zokuhlola eMidwest ngenyanga edlule. Akekho osho ngqo ukuthi ama-apula afika kuphi, kepha ngeke abhalwe ukuthi i-GMO. Bheka uhlobo lwe- “Arctic Apples” uma ufuna ukwazi ukuthi ngabe udla i-apula elenziwe ngofuzo.

"Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi sizobona izitshalo eziningi ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziwela ngaphandle kwegunya lomthetho." 

Amasu wokuhlela we-Gene njenge-CRISPR, TALEN noma i-zinc finger nucleases isetshenziselwa ukusika i-DNA ukuze kwenziwe izinguquko zofuzo noma ukufaka izinto zofuzo. Lezi zindlela ziyashesha futhi zenziwe zinembe kakhulu kunezindlela zakudala ze-transgenic. Kodwa ukungabi bikho kokuqapha kukahulumeni kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka. "Kusengaba nemiphumela engahlosiwe kanye nemiphumela engahlosiwe," kuchaza uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union. “Uma ushintsha ufuzo lwezinto eziphilayo azihlali ziziphatha ngendlela olindele ngayo. Yingakho kubalulekile ukutadisha kahle imithelela yezempilo nezemvelo, kepha lezi zifundo azidingeki. ”

Ikhowe le-CRISPR elingenayo browning yeqe umthetho wase-US, njengoba Nature kubika ngo-2016. Uwoyela omusha we-CRISPR we-canola, owenzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, usezitolo manje futhi ungabizwa ngokuthi “okungeyona eye-GMO,” ngokuvumelana ne Bloomberg, njengoba uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US “usudlulile” ekulawuleni izitshalo ze-CRISPR. Le ndaba yaphawula ukuthi iMonsanto, iDuPont neDow Chemical "badlule esikhaleni sokulawula" futhi bashaya amadili okuthola ilayisense yokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokuhlela izakhi zofuzo.

Futhi lokho kuphakamisa elinye ifulegi elibomvu ngokulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO amasha azonikeza izinzuzo zabathengi izindlela zakudala ze-transgenic ezingazange zikwenze. "Ukuthi amasu ahlukile akusho ukuthi izici zizoba," kusho uDkt. Hansen. “Indlela yakudala yokwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo yayisetshenziswa kakhulu ukwenza izitshalo zimelane nokubulala ukhula nokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula. Izindlela ezintsha zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo cishe zizosetshenziswa ngendlela efanayo, kodwa kukhona ukusonteka okusha. ”

Ukuhaha Kwebhizinisi Kuqhathaniswa Nezidingo Zabathengi

Ingqungquthela "yokuguqula ukudla" yase-Atlantic ixhaswe yiDowDuPont. Bona okwethu ukubika ngaleyo ndaba.

Izinkampani ezinkulu kunazo zonke zezolimo emhlabeni ziphethe iningi lembewu kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi zihlanganisa amandla ezandleni zezinhlangano ezintathu kuphela zamazwe ngamazwe. IBayer neMonsanto basondela ekuhlanganeni, futhi ukuhlanganiswa kweChemChina / Syngenta neDowDuPont kuqediwe. IDowDuPont isanda kumemezela ukuthi uphiko lwayo lwebhizinisi lezolimo luzosebenza ngaphansi kwe- igama elisha uCorteva Agriscience, inhlanganisela yamagama asho “inhliziyo” “nendalo.”

Kungakhathaleki ukuthi yimaphi amaqhinga wokuphinda abeke uphawu lokuzama ukufaka uphawu, lezi zinhlangano zinemvelo esivele siyazi: zonke babe nemilando emide lokungazinaki izexwayiso zesayensi, ukumboza izingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo eyingozi nokushiya ngemuva ubucayi obunobuthi - Bhopal, dioxin, PCBs, napalm, Agent Orange, teflon, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, dicamba, ukubala nje amahlazo ambalwa.

Ukulandisa okugxila esikhathini esizayo kufihle lokho okwadlula kudala kanye neqiniso lamanje lokuthi lezi zinkampani zisebenzisa kanjani ubuchwepheshe bezobunjiniyela namuhla, ikakhulu njenge ithuluzi lezitshalo ukusinda izifutho zamakhemikhali. Ukuze uqonde ukuthi lolu hlelo ludlala kanjani emhlabathini ekuholeni izindawo ezisebenzisa imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ze-GMO, funda imibiko mayelana nayo ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa eHawaii, amaqoqo omdlavuza e-Argentina, izindlela zamanzi ezingcolile e-Iowa futhi indawo yokulima eyonakele ngaphesheya kweMidwest.

Ikusasa lokudla ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwebhizinisi elikhulu lezolimo kanye nezinkampani zamakhemikhali akunzima ukuqagela - okuningi kwalokho asebevele bezama ukusithengisa: Izitshalo ze-GMO ezandisa ukuthengiswa kwamakhemikhali nezilwane zokudla ezenzelwe ukukhula ngokushesha futhi zilingane kangcono epulazini lefektri izimo, nemithi yokusiza. Umbono omuhle ngekusasa lenzuzo yezinkampani nokugxila kwengcebo namandla, kepha akukuhle kangako kubalimi, ezempilo yomphakathi, imvelo noma abathengi abafuna ikusasa elihlukile lokudla.

Izinombolo ezikhulayo zabathengi ziyafuna okwangempela, ukudla kwemvelo nemikhiqizo. Bafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwabo, ukuthi yakhiqizwa kanjani nokuthi yavelaphi. Kulabo abafuna ukwazi ngalokho abakudlayo, kusenendlela eqinisekile yomlilo yokugwema ama-GMO amadala namasha: thenga okuphilayo. Ukuqinisekiswa okuqinisekisiwe kwephrojekthi ye-Non-GMO kuphinda kuqinisekise ukuthi imikhiqizo ayenziwa ngobunjiniyela noma yenziwe nge-biology yokwenziwa.

Kuzobaluleka ukuthi imboni yokudla yemvelo ibambe umugqa ekuthembekeni kwalezi zitifiketi uma kuqhathaniswa nokuxokozela kwasendle kwama-GMO amasha.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi be-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”