Ukulandela Umzila We-imeyili: Indlela uProfesa Wenyuvesi Yomphakathi Ahlanganyele Ngayo Emkhankasweni Wenkampani PR

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Owayenguprofesa wesayensi yokudla wase-University of Illinois uBruce Chassy waziwa ngama-gravitas akhe ezifundo. Manje esethathe umhlalaphansi cishe iminyaka emine, uChassy usabhala futhi ukhuluma kaningi ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla, ezikhomba ngesisindo esigcwele seminyaka engamashumi eminyaka yamava atholwe eyunivesithi yomphakathi nanjengomcwaningi kumaNational Institutes of Health. UChassy utshela izethameli ukuthi ngaphambi kokuthatha umhlalaphansi ngo-2012, wayesebenza “ngokugcwele” enza ucwaningo nokufundisa.

Lokho uChassy angakhulumi kakhulu ngakho ngomunye umsebenzi awenza ngenkathi ese-University of Illinois - ethuthukisa izintshisekelo zeMonsanto Co., ebilokhu izama ukunqoba ukukhathazeka komphakathi okwandayo ngezitshalo namakhemikhali afakwa enkampanini inkampani ethengisa. Akakhulumi kakhulu ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamadola uMonsanto anikelwe eyunivesithi njengoba uChassy esiza ukukhuthaza ama-GMO, noma indima eyimfihlo kaMonsanto ekusizeni iChassy ukuthi isungule iqembu elingenzi nzuzo kanye newebhusayithi ukugxeka abantu nezinhlangano eziphakamisa imibuzo ngama-GMO .

Kepha ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information Act akhombisa ukuthi uChassy wayeyilungu elikhuthele leqembu lezifundiswa zase-US abesebenzisana ngokuthula neMonsanto kumasu ahlose ukungagqugquzeli nje kuphela imikhiqizo yezitshalo ze-biotech, kodwa futhi nokubuyisela emuva ukulawulwa kwale mikhiqizo nokubaleka Abagxeki bemboni. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi imali ingena enyuvesi isuka eMonsanto njengoba uChassy esebenzisana namaphrojekthi amaningi neMonsanto ukulwa nokukhathazeka komphakathi mayelana nezitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs) - konke lokhu ngenkathi ezimele njengesifundiswa esizimele sesikhungo sikahulumeni.

Umbhalo weNew York Times ka-Eric Lipton eshicilelwe ngoSepthemba owedlule yadalula umkhankaso owenziwe nguMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni ukusebenzisa ukwethembeka kwezifundiswa ezivelele ukucindezela i-ajenda yezombusazwe embonini. Leyo ndatshana ye-Times ibigxile kakhulu esifundweni saseYunivesithi yaseFlorida uKevin Folta, usihlalo woMnyango Wezolimo Wezolimo waseyunivesithi, nomsebenzi kaFolta egameni leMonsanto. Kepha ukuhlolwa kokushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okusanda kukhishwa phakathi kweMonsanto neChassy kukhombisa ukujula okusha emizamweni yomkhakha.

Ukusebenzisana kuza ngesikhathi esibucayi e-United States maqondana nenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-GMO. Ukulebula okuyimpoqo kwe-GMO kusethelwe ukusebenza eVermont ngoJulayi 1; ICongress ilwa nomthetho ophathelene nokulebula kwama-GMO; nezinye izifundazwe eziningi zifuna izimpendulo zazo ekukhuphukeni kwesidingo sabathengi sokubonakala ngalesi sihloko.

Amaqembu amaningi abathengi nabezemvelo bafuna ukubona imikhawulo eminingi kanye nomthethonqubo ezitshalweni ze-GMO kanye ne-glyphosate herbicide abaningi abayazi njenge-Roundup, esetshenziswa kuma-GMO. Kepha izinkampani ezithengisa izitshalo namakhemikhali zithi imikhiqizo yazo iphephile futhi kufanele kube nomthethonqubo omncane, hhayi ngaphezulu. Imali ecishe ibe ngu- $ 15 billion yemali engena eMonsanto ivela cishe kuphela kubuchwepheshe bezitshalo ze-GMO nakumakhemikhali ahlobene.

Phakathi kwalolu daba, izambulo ngokusebenzisana kwezinkampani nososayensi bamanyuvesi omphakathi ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kudale impikiswano entsha mayelana nokungabi bikho kokubonakala ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwezifundiswa nemboni.

UChassy uthe akenzanga lutho olungelona olokuziphatha noma olungafanele emsebenzini wakhe osekela iMonsanto nemboni yezitshalo ze-biotech. "Njengososayensi ocwaninga emkhakheni womphakathi, bekulindelekile… ukuthi ngisebenzisane futhi ngicele ukubandakanyeka kwalabo abasebenza emkhakheni wami wobungoti," Chassy usho.

Noma kunjalo, okutholayo lapho ufunda ngamaketanga e-imeyili uhlelo olwavumela abadlali bemboni ukuthi bavale imiyalezo ye-pro-GMO ngaphakathi kweveli elizimele ubuchwepheshe, nokuncane, uma kukhona, ukudalulwa esidlangalaleni kokuxhuma okwenzeka ngemuva kwezigcawu.

UKUHLANGANISA OKUBALULEKILE

  • Ku-imeyili kaNovemba 2010, Umphathi Wezindaba Zesayensi Emhlabeni Wonke waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs utshela uChassy ukuthi iMonsanto isanda kuthumela “isipho semali engu- $ 10,000” eyunivesithi “ngakho-ke izimali kufanele zibe khona.” Ube esetshela uChassy ukuthi usebenzela uhlelo lweMonsanto nabanye abasembonini yezolimo ukuze basekele iwebhusayithi "yokubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa" iChassy engayisebenzisa ukulwa nokukhathazeka nezinsolo eziphakanyiswe ngabagxeki bamaGMO. "Ngokombono wami inkinga ingeyokubandakanya ochwepheshe futhi lokho kungaxazululwa ngokukhokhela ochwepheshe ukuze banikeze izimpendulo," kubhala uSachs. "Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi."
  • Ngokushintshana okwehlukile ngo-2010, uJay Byrne, umongameli wenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi i-v-Fluence futhi owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini eMonsanto, utshela uChassy ukuthi uzama ukuqhubekisela phambili iphrojekthi ye-Academics Review. Usikisela ukuthi "sisebenzela imali (yethu sonke)." U-Byrne uthi unohlu lwabagxeki be-GMO lwe-Academics Review abazolubhekisa. Utshela uChassy ukuthi izihloko ziyanda “Kusho imali yezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene ezinesithende.”
  • Kuma-imeyili asuka ku-2012, UChach noMonsanto bakaSachs noMonsanto bakaJohn Swarthout, ohola le nkampani “ukufinyelela kwezesayensi nokuphathwa kwezinkinga,” baxoxa ngesethulo esizayo uCassy alungiselela ukusenza eChina. Baxoxa ngokubuyekezwa kukaMonsanto, nezinguquko kuye, isethulo. AmaSachs kaMonsanto ayalela abakwaSwarthout ukuba bathumele ama-slide decks kuChassy njengezinto zokwethulwa kwakhe.
  • Ngo-Ephreli 2012, usosayensi wezobuthi weMonsanto uBruce Hammond ubuza nge-imeyili ukuthi kungakhiwa amavidiyo amafushane mayelana "nokuphepha kwezitshalo ze-GM." UChassy uthi ufake isicelo soxhaso eMnyangweni Wezwe futhi "ufuna neminye imithombo yokwesekwa" futhi angasebenzisa imishini yaseyunivesithi ukwenza la mavidiyo. UChassy ucela iHammond kaMonsanto uhlu lwamavidiyo “ucabanga ukuthi kungasiza. ” UChassy utshela uHammond ukuthi iqembu likaByrne i-V-fluence lisizile ukudala nokuhlela izimo zevidiyo.

Ama-imeyili MAYELANA NEMALI 

Ama-imeyili abuye axoxe ngemali.

  • Nge-imeyili ka-Okthoba 2010, uChassy utshela ozakwabo kule nyuvesi ukuthi uMonsanto umtshele ukuthi uzokwenza i- “Umnikelo omkhulu” ku-akhawunti yakhe ye-biotech eyunivesithi.
  • Engxoxweni ka-Okthoba 2011, uChassy ubuze abakwaSachs ngomnikelo wesikhwama se-biotech foundation. Isikhulu seMonsanto siphendule ngokuthi yena 'angenza isipho esisekelweni khona lapho' ukube ibingakenziwa. UChassy uyalela uMonsanto ukuthi athumele isheke enhlokweni yomnyango wezesayensi yokudla neyunivesithi futhi afake incwadi ethi isheke leli “yisibonelelo esingavinjelwe… ukuxhasa imisebenzi ye-biotechnology yokufinyelela nemisebenzi yezemfundo kaSolwazi Bruce M. Chassy.”
  • Futhi ngoMeyi 2012, iMonsanto yenziwa isibonelelo esingu- $ 250,000 eyunivesithi ukusiza ukusetha usihlalo onikezwe ezokuxhumana kwezolimo. Lowo mnikelo wawumane nje udonsela ebhakedeni leminikelo evela eMonsanto - okungenani ama- $ 1.9 wezigidi eminyakeni emihlanu edlule, ngokusho kweyunivesithi, - yamaphrojekthi ahlobene nezolimo.

IYAQHUBEKA IZIVIVINYO ZOKUVALA

Ubudlelwano obusondelene phakathi kukaMonsanto noChassy buqhubekile nokudlula kokuthatha umhlalaphansi kukaChassy ngoJuni 2012 enyuvesi. Ngo-2013 nango-2014 uChassy wayevela njalo "njengochwepheshe ozimele" ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-GMO Izimpendulo, isiza se-pro-GMO esixhaswe ngabakwaMonsanto kanye nezinye iziqhwaga zebhizinisi lezolimo. Kuleyo ndima, uphendule imibuzo nokukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

UChassy naye uqhubekile nokusebenza Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, kushicilelwa izindatshana ezibucayi ezimayelana nabantu nezinhlangano, kufaka phakathi i- Ongoti bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation, lowo mbiko ubika imininingwane engathandeki embonini yezitshalo ze-GMO. (Ngangibhekene nokuhlaselwa okungenani kabili okunje ngo-2014. UChassy waphikisana nokwethulwa kwami ​​kwezinhlangothi zombili zenkulumompikiswano yokuphepha kwe-GMO isihloko esisodwa seReuters futhi waphikisa tuya i-athikili yesibili yeReuters lokho kuchaze kabanzi okutholakele kombiko we-USDA othole zombili izinzuzo kepha futhi nokukhathazeka okuhambisana nama-GMO.)

Lapho ebuzwa ngokusebenzisana kwayo neChassy, ​​iMonsanto ithe akukho okungahambi kahle “nokuzibandakanya” kwayo “nezazi zomkhakha womphakathi,” nokuthi lokho kusebenzisana kusiza ukufundisa umphakathi ngezihloko ezibalulekile. Inyuvesi nayo ithe ayiboni lutho olubi ngobudlelwano. Okhulumela inyuvesi uthe uChassy "unokwethenjelwa okukhulu kwezesayensi." Uphinde wathi uMonsanto unikeze inyuvesi okungenani u- $ 1.9 million kule minyaka emihlanu edlule.

Kepha abanye abazi ngalezi zinkinga bathi ukungabi bikho kokusobala kuyinkinga.

"Lezi zambulo maqondana nokuxhumana zibaluleke kakhulu," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, ummeli omkhulu weCentre for Food Safety, okuyiqembu elingenzi nzuzo labathengi. "Ukudalulwa okuyisisekelo kokuthi ezinye izifundiswa kanye nabanye abahlaziyi 'abangathathi hlangothi' emkhakheni womphakathi empeleni bangama-opharetha akhokhelwayo / abasebenza ngqo nemboni yamakhemikhali kusabisa umphakathi, njengoba bedukiswa."

Izambulo ezifana nalezi ezibandakanya ukuxhumana kukaProfesa Kevin Folta waseNyuvesi yaseFlorida neMonsanto kwaqubula umphakathi emuva kokuthi ama-imeyili akhombisile ukuthi uFolta uthole imali engavinjelwe engu- $ 25,000 futhi watshela uMonsanto ukuthibhala noma yini oyithandayo. ” Kusho uFolta kubhulogi kaJan. 18 ukuthi akasasebenzi neMonsanto ngenxa yokubuyela emuva okushisayo.

Bobabili uChassy noFolta abhale kaninginingi noma acashunwa ezindabeni zezindaba ezehlulekile ukudalula ukuxhumana kwabo neMonsanto kanye nemboni ye-GMO. Esibonelweni sakamuva, uChassy ubhalise ngokubambisana i- uchungechunge of izihloko eziphikisa ukuthi ukufakwa ilebuli ye-GMO “inhlekelele yokulinda, ”Futhi ngaphandle kokudalulwa kokusebenzisana kwakhe nomqambi we-GMO uMonsanto. Umbhali-mbhali wakhe nguJon Entine, umsunguli wenkampani ye-PR ESG MediaMetrics, obani amaklayenti afake iMonsanto, uxhumano lwe-Entine alufaki ku-athikili.

Ukudalulwa kuma-imeyili mayelana neChassy, ​​Folta kanye nezinye izifundiswa ezihlanganisiwe, kushiya imibuzo eminingi mayelana nokuthi ngubani okumele umethembe, nokuthi ungathemba kanjani, imininingwane ebaluleke kakhulu ekuqondeni uhlelo lwethu lokudla oluguqukayo. Ngezinkinga zokulebula ukudla phambili kwempikiswano, sekuyisikhathi sokubonisa obala ngokwengeziwe.

UCarey Gillam usebenze njengentatheli, umcwaningi nombhali ogxile embonini yezokudla nezolimo cishe iminyaka engama-20 futhi ubhekwe njengenye yezintatheli ezihamba phambili ngokudla nezolimo e-United States, ngokuwina imiklomelo eminingana ngokwazisa kwakhe ngalo mkhakha. Muva nje ushiye umsebenzi wokuba ngumlobi omkhulu wezindaba zezwe iReuters ukuba abe nguMqondisi Wezocwaningo e I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, iqembu lezintshisekelo zomphakathi elingenzi nzuzo elisebenza ku yazisa umphakathi ngemboni yokudla yase-US kanye nendima yayo evame ukufihlwa kunqubomgomo yomphakathi.