IGates Foundation iphinda kabili emkhankasweni wokwaziswa okungelona iqiniso eCornell njengoba abaholi base-Afrika befuna i-agroecology 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation unikeze omunye u- $ 10 million ngesonto eledlule kwiCornell Alliance for Science eyimpikiswano, a umkhankaso wezokuxhumana obuseCornell ukuthi izitimela abafo e-Afrika nakwezinye izindawo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esisha siletha izibonelelo zeBMGF eqenjini zifike ku- $ 22 million.

Utshalomali lwe-PR luza ngesikhathi lapho iGates Foundation isolwa ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika abagxeki abathi zigxilisa izindlela zokulima ezisiza izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Abaholi bezenkolo banxusa iGates Foundation 

NgoSepthemba 10, abaholi bezenkolo e-Afrika bathumela i- incwadi evulekile eya eGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuthi ibuyekeze amasu ayo okwenza izibonelelo e-Afrika. 

“Yize sibonga iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation ngokuzinikela kwayo ekunqobeni ukungabi nokudla, kanye nokwamukela usizo lwezingqalasizinda olunikezwa ohulumeni bezwekazi lethu, sibhala ngokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ukwesekwa yiGates Foundation ekwandiseni ezolimo ezinamandla zezimboni zijulisa inkinga yezenhlalakahle, ”kusho incwadi yokusayinwa eqondiswa yi- Isikhungo Sezemvelo SaseNingizimu Afrika Sokholo (SAFCEI).  

Incwadi ibalula i-Alliance eholwa yiGates Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) ngokusekelwa kwayo "okuyinkinga kakhulu" kwezinhlelo zembewu ezentengiselwano ezilawulwa izinkampani ezinkulu, ukusekelwa kwayo kwemithetho yokuhlwanyela kabusha imbewu ukuvikela imbewu eqinisekisiwe nokwenza ubugebengu imbewu engaqinisekisiwe, kanye ukwesekwa kwabathengisi bezimbewu abanikeza izeluleko ezincanyana mayelana nemikhiqizo yezinkampani ngezinsizakalo zokwandiswa komkhakha womphakathi ezidingeka kakhulu 

Iphephandaba laseUganda eliphuma nsuku zonke libike ngokungaphumeleli kwephrojekthi ye-AGRA

"Sinxusa iGates Foundation ne-AGRA ukuthi bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwepheshe obuhlulekile nezindlela zokuphelelwa yisikhathi futhi baqale ukulalela abalimi abathuthukisa izixazululo ezifanele zezimo zabo," kusho abaholi bezenkolo.

Yize kusetshenziswe izigidigidi zamaRandi neminyaka engu-14 yezethembiso, i-AGRA yehlulekile ukufeza izinhloso zayo zokunciphisa ububha nokukhuphula imali yabalimi abancane, ngokusho NgoJulayi kubika Izithembiso Zamanga. Ucwaningo lwenziwe umfelandawonye wamaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane kanti lubandakanya nemininingwane evela ku- iphepha elimhlophe lakamuva enyatheliswa yiTufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndatshana kodwa yathi nge-imeyili yangaphambilini, "Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi asebenzise izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo."

Ukushabalala kwezithembiso zenguquko eluhlaza 

Yethulwe ngo-2006 yiGates and Rockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA sekuyisikhathi eside ithembise ukuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngo-2020. Kepha iqembu lisuse ngokuthula lezo zinhloso kuwebhusayithi yalo esikhathini esithile ngonyaka odlule. UMphathi Wezabasebenzi we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi leli qembu alisinciphisanga isifiso sakhe kodwa liyalungisa izindlela zalo nokucabanga kwalo ngamamethrikhi. Uthe i-AGRA izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngemiphumela yayo ngonyaka ozayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukuhlinzeka ngemininingwane noma ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekile evela kubaphenyi bombiko Wezithembiso Zamanga, kusho ababhali bayo. Abamele iBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia neHOMEF Nigeria bathumele i- incwadi eya kuCox Septhemba 7 becela impendulo kulokho abakutholile ocwaningweni. I-Cox kuphendule uSepthemba 15 ngalokho omunye umcwaningi akuchaze ngokuthi “ngokuyisisekelo amakhasi amathathu e-PR.” (Bheka ngokugcwele izincwadi lapha kufaka impendulo ye-BIBA ka-Okthoba 7.)

"Abalimi base-Afrika bafanelwe yimpendulo evela ku-AGRA," kusho incwadi eya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima noNgimmo Bassay.  “Kanjalo nabaxhasi bomkhakha kahulumeni be-AGRA, ababonakala sengathi bathola imbuyiselo embi kakhulu kutshalomali lwabo. Ohulumeni base-Afrika nabo kudingeka banikeze ukubalwa kwezimali okucacile ngemithelela yesabelomali sabo esisekela izinhlelo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Ohulumeni base-Afrika basebenzisa cishe u- $ 1 billion ngonyaka kwizibonelelo zokuxhasa imbewu yokuhweba kanye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu kuzuzo lokukhiqiza kwezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamaphesenti angamashumi amathathu phakathi neminyaka ye-AGRA, ngokusho kombiko weFalse Promises.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kweGates Foundation kunomthelela omkhulu ekutheni izinhlelo zokudla zakhiwe kanjani e-Afrika, ngokusho kukaJuni umbiko ovela kwi-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Iqembu libike ukuthi izigidigidi zamaRandi kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ezolimo zezimboni e-Afrika futhi zabuyisa notshalomali ezinhlelweni zokudla ezizinzile, ezilinganayo.  

"IBMGF ibheka izimbuyiselo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo kutshalo-mali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezihlosiwe," kusho i-IPES.

Abakhiqizi bendawo namaketanga okudla amafushane 

Indlela yokuthuthukisa ezolimo yeGates Foundation yokwakha izimakethe zezitshalo ezinkulu, ezinokufakwa okuphezulu kuyibeka ekuphikisaneni nokucabanga okuvelayo ngokuthi ungabhekana kanjani kangcono nezimo eziguquguqukayo ezibangelwa izingqinamba ezimbili zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nobhadane lweCovid-19.

NgoSepthemba, I-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation ithe kubalulekile ukwakha amasistimu okudla asendaweni aqinile njengoba lolu bhubhane “lubeke izinhlelo zokudla zasendaweni engcupheni yokuphazamiseka kulo lonke uchungechunge lokudla.” Umbiko ubhala izingqinamba ezihlobene nobhubhane nezifundo ezivela ocwaningweni lomhlaba wonke olwenziwe ngo-Ephreli nangoMeyi ezadonsa izimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacile ngukuthi, ukuze sikwazi ukubhekana nokwethuka okufana ne-COVID-19, amadolobha anezimo ezifanele zenhlalo-mnotho nezomnotho kufanele amukele izinqubomgomo nezinhlelo zokunika amandla abakhiqizi bendawo ukuthi batshale ukudla, futhi bakhuthaze amaketanga okudla amafushane ukuze bakwazi ukwenza izakhamizi ezisemadolobheni ukuthola imikhiqizo yokudla, ”kuphetha lo mbiko. "Amadolobha kufanele ahlukanise ukudla kwawo kanye nemithombo yawo yokudla, aqinise imithombo yendawo lapho kungenzeka khona, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ukunikezwa kukazwelonke nasemhlabeni jikelele."

Njengoba ubhadane lusongela imiphakathi yabalimi esivele inenkinga yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, i-Afrika isesiphambanweni, kubhala uMillion Belay, umxhumanisi we-African Food Ubukhosi Alliance, noTimothy Wise, ongumcwaningi oholayo wokuhlaziywa kweTufts kwe-AGRA, ku Septhemba 23 ivuliwe. “Ngabe abantu bayo kanye nohulumeni babo bazoqhubeka nokuzama ukuphindaphinda izindlela zokulima zezimboni ezithuthukiswa amazwe athuthukile? Noma bazongena ngesibindi esikhathini esizayo esingaqinisekile, bamukele ezolimo nemvelo? ”

UBelay noWise bachaze ezinye izindaba ezinhle ezivela ocwaningweni lwakamuva; "Amazwe amabili e-AGRA anciphise isibalo nesabelo sabantu abangondlekile - i-Ethiopia neMali - bakwenze lokhu ngenxa yezinqubomgomo ezisekela ezolimo."

Indaba enkulu kakhulu yempumelelo, iMali, ibone ukuthi indlala yehle isuka ku-14% yaya ku-5% kusukela ngo-2006. Ngokocwaningo lwamacala ku Umbiko wezithembiso ezingamanga, “Inqubekela phambili ayivelanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kepha yingoba uhulumeni nezinhlangano zabalimi bakuphikisile ukusebenza kwayo,” kubhala uBelay noWise, bekhomba imithetho yomhlaba kanye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo abalimi okuzikhethela izilimo zabo kanye nemikhuba yabo yokulima, nezinhlelo zikahulumeni ukuthi gqugquzela hhayi nje ummbila kepha izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezitshalo zokudla.

"Isikhathi sokuthi ohulumeni base-Afrika babuyele emuva ku-Green Revolution ehlulekayo futhi bahlele uhlelo olusha lokudla oluhlonipha amasiko nemiphakathi yasendaweni ngokugqugquzela ezolimo ezingabizi kakhulu, ezinomthelela ophansi kwezolimo," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabili umkhankaso we-PR obuseCornell 

Ngokuphikisana nalokhu okwenzeka ngemuva, iGates Foundation iphinda kabili ekutshalweni kwayo kuCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi owasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates futhi uthembisa "ukudicilela phansi impikiswano" ezungeze ama-GMO. Ngama- $ 10 million amasha, I-CAS ihlela ukukhulisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa nemibono yozungu kanye nemikhankaso yokukhipha imininingwane engavimbeli inqubekela phambili ekuguqukeni kwesimo sezulu, i-synthetic biology, ezolimo." 

Kepha iCornell Alliance for Science isiphenduke amandla okuqhakambisa nomthombo wolwazi okungelona njengoba iqeqesha abafo emhlabeni wonke ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo, iningi labo e-Afrika. 

Izitshudeni eziningi, amaqembu okudla kanye nochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo bamemeze iqembu imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo. Amaqembu omphakathi asebenzela ukulawula ama-pesticides kanye ne-biosafety asole i-CAS ngokuthi usebenzisa amaqhinga okuhlukumeza eHawaii futhi ukuxhaphaza abalimi e-Afrika emikhankasweni yalo yokuphromotha neyokungenisa izivakashi.  

A Isihloko se-July 30 nguMark Lynas, umuntu ovakashele eCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano mayelana nemiyalezo yeqembu. Icaphuna okwakamuva ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezolimo lokongiwa kwemvelo, kusho uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu futhi yenze kube nokulingana ngokobulili e-Afrika." Ukuhlaziywa kwakhe kwakukhathalelwe kabanzi ngochwepheshe kulo mkhakha.

UMarc Corbeels, isazi sezolimo nomhlaba owabhala ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta, uthe lo mbhalo wenza "ukwenziwa okwandile. ” Ezinye izifundiswa zichaze udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “inamaphutha ngempela, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""demagogic futhi okungezona ezesayensi, ”Ukungqubuzana okuyiphutha okugxumela ku“iziphetho zasendle, ”Kanye no “Okuyihlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi. ”

Lesi sihloko kufanele ihoxiswe, kusho uMarci Branski, owayenguchwepheshe kwezokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu e-USDA futhi UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezombangazwe eQueen's University.

Impikiswano mayelana i-agroecology uyafudumala

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kuleli sonto nge-webinar CAS ibamba NgoLwesine uMfumfu 1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucaphuna ukukhathazeka ukuthi iqembu elizinze eCornell "alizimisele ngokwanele ukuthi lingabamba iqhaza engxoxweni evulekile, engachemile", ochwepheshe ababili bohlelo lokudla bahoxile kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto.

Ososayensi ababili bathi bavumile ukubamba iqhaza kwi-webinar ngemuva kokubona amagama abo phakathi kwama-panelists; "Lokho kwanele ukuthi sobabili sithembe nenhlangano eyenze lo mcimbi," kubhala UPablo Tittonell, PhD, Principal Research Scientist eMkhandlwini Kazwelonke Wezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe e-Argentina (CONICET) kanye USieglinde Snapp, I-PhD, uProfesa Wezomhlaba kanye Nezinqubo Zokutshalwa Kwezitshalo eMichigan State University, ukuze abe ngumongameli wephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli we-CAS. 

“Kepha ngifunda amanye ama-blogs nemibono ekhishwe yi-Alliance, okushicilelwe ngamanye ama-panelists, ngifunda ngezinsolo zokuchema nezingazi ngokumelene ne-agroecology, i-push-ideated technologies yezobuchwepheshe obuthile, njll. safika esiphethweni sokuthi le ndawo ayifanele ngokwanele ukuba ihlanganyele engxoxweni evulekile, engakhethi, eyakhayo futhi, okubaluleke kakhulu, ingxoxo yesayensi enolwazi, ”uTittonell noSnapp babhalela IConrow.

"Ngakho-ke siyazihoxisa kule mpikiswano." UConrow akaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono.

 I-webinar izoqhubeka phambili ne- Nassib Mugwanya, ongumfundi ofunda nobudokotela emhlabeni wonke we-CAS ka-2015 eNorth Carolina State University, naye osolwa ngokuhlasela ngokungafanele i-agroecology. Kwi Isihloko se-2019 we-Breakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "imikhuba yendabuko yezolimo ayikwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika." 

Lo mbhalo ukhombisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile yomkhakha we-biotech: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla “se-pro-science” ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge- 'anti-science,' engenasisekelo futhi eyingozi,” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

“Okuphawuleka kakhulu esihlokweni,” kusho leli qembu, “ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezifenqo (isib. I-agroecology ifaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokungalungi okuningana okuyiqiniso.”

Njengoba uTittonell noSnapp besusiwe ohlwini lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzojoyina uPamela Ronald, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, eDavis, izibopho embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu angaphambili, Futhi UFrédéric Baudron, usosayensi omkhulu e-International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), iGates Iqembu elixhaswe yisisekelo. 

Ukucela 'ukulwa okulungile'

UMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Center for Biodiversity, ubheka imikhankaso ye-PR eshubile "njengobufakazi bokuphelelwa yithemba" lokuthi "abakwazi ukuyithola kahle ezwenikazi." 

Iqembu lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Imizamo yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, neziphetho zayo kuzoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa inzuzo yabantu abaningi baseNyakatho yamazwe ngamazwe. ”

ICornell Alliance for Science kumele ibuse, kusho uMayet ku-webinar ka-Agasti mayelana negalelo leGates Foundation e-Afrika, “ngenxa yolwazi olungelona iqiniso (nangendlela) abangahloniphi ngokweqile futhi abangenalo iqiniso.” Wabuza, “Kungani ungalwi nathi?”

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqembu labacwaningi elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ezindabeni zezempilo zomphakathi. Ungumbhali wencwadi yango-2007 ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.” Mlandele ku-Twitter @StacyMalkan