Ukushesha okulandelayo kwegolide le-neocolonial? Izinhlelo zokudla zase-Afrika 'zinguwoyela omusha,' kusho imibhalo ye-UN

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo yokuhlela iNgqungquthela Yezinhlangano Zokudla Yezizwe Ezihlangene yowezi-2021 ikhanyisa okusha nge-ajenda engemuva kwe- ingqungquthela yokudla eyimpikiswano ukuthi amakhulu amaqembu abalimi nawamalungelo esintu ayaduba. La maqembu athi izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo kanye nezisekelo eziphakeme zibusa inqubo yokuqhubekela phambili ku-ajenda ezosiza ukuxhashazwa kwezinhlelo zokudla zomhlaba wonke, futhi ikakhulukazi i-Afrika. 

Imibhalo, kufaka phakathi i- iphepha elingemuva zilungiselelwe izingxoxo zezingqungquthela futhi uhlaka lomgomo wenqubomgomo yengqungquthela, zilethe ekugxileni "Izinhlelo zokwenziwa kwezimboni zibe ziningi ezinhlelweni zokudla zase-Afrika," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity (ACB), owanikeza i-US Right to Know le mibhalo.

Izinkulumo mpikiswano “ziyizithulu futhi aziziboni izingqinamba eziguqukayo zesistimu esibhekene nazo namuhla, kanye nokucabanga okukhulu okuphuthumayo okudingayo,” Kusho i-ACB esitatimendeni.

Ukushintsha okukhulu

A iphepha elingemuva elungiselelwe yi-UN Economic Commission for Africa, i-African Union Commission, i-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation kanye namaqembu abambisene nawo inkhulumomphendvulwano yesifunda ezinhlelweni zokudla zase-Afrika zinikeza imininingwane ngezinhlelo eziqhubekayo. Umbhalo uphawula ukuthi ukhishwe “ngaphandle kokuhlelwa okuhlelekile nangesiNgisi kuphela ngenxa yokulethwa sekwedlule isikhathi. ”

"Kudingeka ushintsho olukhulu," kusho leli phephandaba, ukuze kugudluzwe i-Afrika “kusuka ezinkingeni zamanje zokungeniswa kokudla okubalulekile okuvela ngaphandle kwase-Afrika.” Leli phepha lilandisa ngesimo esibi nesiya siba sibi e-Afrika lapho abantu abayizigidi ezingama-256 bahlushwa yindlala, kanti ngaphezu kwesigamu sabantu ezingxenyeni zeMpumalanga ye-Afrika abanakho ukudla. Ubhadane lweCovid 19 lubhebhethekisa ukungalingani futhi luveze ukuba sengozini kohlelo lokudla lwase-Afrika.

Le misebenzi yakha isidingo sokuthi ohulumeni base-Afrika bakhe “indawo evumayo ngokusebenzisa izinqubomgomo ezithuthukisiwe kanye nokutshalwa kwezimali kuzimpahla zomphakathi zezolimo, ukukhuphula izixazululo zedijithali zezolimo, nokuthuthukisa izinhlelo ezintsha zokuxhasa ngezimali ngokubambisana komphakathi nezinkampani ezizimele,” kusho leli phepha.  

“Futhi yisikhathi sokubeka izimali lapho zidingeka khona kakhulu; isibonelo, ohulumeni base-Afrika basebenzisa izigidi zamadola ukuxhasa umphakathi ekutshalweni kwezolimo okusebenzelana nesimo sezulu… futhi, nokuqinisa ukusetshenziswa kwedatha enkulu ukushayela izinqumo ezinobuhlakani ezingeni lamapulazi ekuphathweni kwamanzi, ukusetshenziswa kukamanyolo, ukufaka izinhlobo zezitshalo ezingamelana nesomiso kanye nezimakethe zokungena. ” 

Le ajenda ihambisana ngokuphelele nezinhlelo yomkhakha wezolimo, iGates Foundation kanye nohlelo lwayo oluyinhloko lokuthuthukisa ezolimo, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika, ekhuthaza amazwe ase-Afrika ukuthi adlulise izinqubomgomo ezilungele amabhizinisi futhi akhuphule izimakethe zembewu enelungelo lobunikazi, umanyolo osuselwa kumafosili kanye neminye imibono yezimboni abathi iyadingeka ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kokudla. La maqembu athi ubuchwepheshe obusha obenziwayo buthuthukiswa futhi “ukuqiniswa okuqhubekayo” kwezolimo ezimbonini kuyindlela eya phambili.  

Izinhlelo ezihlongozwayo kule mibhalo "zingukuphinda kusetshenziswe kabusha" kwezixazululo ezifanayo zamanga… nezinzuzo ezifanayo ezincane ezinqunyelwe isibalo sabalingisi abambalwa, "kusho i-ACB esitatimendeni sayo. 

"Izinhloso azibhekiseli ekuguqulweni kobudlelwano bomhlaba nenhlalakahle yabantu base-Afrika kanye nezinhlelo zethu zezemvelo esikhungweni, kodwa kunalokho ukugxilisa i-Afrika ngokuqinile ebudlelwaneni bomhlaba wonke kanye nezinkambiso zentuthuko ezichazwe ngokoloniyalizimali kanye nokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kwezombusazwe."

'Uwoyela Omusha'

Izingxenye zephepha elingemuva le-UN zifundeka njengendawo yokuthengisa yabatshalizimali nemikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo, kepha ngaphandle kokunikeza ukudalulwa okugcwele kwezinkinga ezivezwa yile mikhiqizo kwesinye isikhathi. 

“Ezomnotho eziphumelele eminyakeni engamashumi amane edlule e-Afrika zenze njalo ngokusetshenziswa komnotho wamaminerali, ikakhulukazi uwoyela negesi endaweni ebizwa ngokuthi 'igolide elimnyama,'” kuchaza leli phepha. “Manje, leli zwekazi lihamba nomkhakha wezolimo nowezimboni oshintsha ngokushesha odala isasasa kanye nokugxila kubatshalizimali nokubekwa phambili kokutshalwa kwezimali ukushintshela ku-'oyili omusha 'obekelwe ukushayela leli zwekazi bese unikela nge- US $ 1 trillion ngo-2030. ” 

Ingxenye enesihloko esithi "isithembiso sedigital kanye ne-biotechnologies kanye noguquko lwezinhlelo zokudla," ikhuluma "ngamathuba amakhulu okubamba izinzuzo ezinkulu kwezomnotho, kwezenhlalo nakwezemvelo ekusetshenzisweni kwemikhiqizo ye-biotechnology… ngokwesibonelo, eNtshonalanga Afrika, abalimi bangazuza kakhulu kusukela ekwamukelweni kukakotini we-Bt. ” 

Leli phepha alikhulumi ngokuhlolwa kokotini we-Bt ohlulekile eBurkina Faso, okuyizwe lokuqala e-Afrika ukwamukela isivuno esikhulu esenziwe ngofuzo kubalimi abancane. Ukotini lukaMonsanto's Bt lwamelana nezinambuzane futhi lwaletha isivuno esihle, kepha alukwazanga ukuletha ikhwalithi ephezulu efanayo nezinhlobo zomdabu, kanye nezwe ishiye isivuno se-GM.  

Indaba yaseBurkina Faso ibonisa “ukuxakeka okungaziwa kakhulu okubhekene nokwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo, ” I-Reuters ibike. “Kubalimi bakakotini baseBurkina Faso, i-GM igcine isisetshenziswana phakathi kwenani nekhwalithi. KwabakwaMonsanto, imali yabo engenayo engamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-13.5 ngonyaka ka-2016 yayingaphezulu kweGDP yaseBurkina Faso, kwabonakala kungabi nomnotho ukwenza lo mkhiqizo ubhekane nezimakethe. ”

ukubuyekezwa kweminyaka engu-20 yedatha kukotini we-Bt eNdiya owashicilelwa ngonyaka owedlule wathola ukuthi ukotini wawuyinkomba engemihle yezithelo zokuvunwa futhi yize ekuqaleni kwehlisa isidingo semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, "abalimi manje basebenzisa imali ethe xaxa kwimithi yokubulala izinambuzane namuhla kunangaphambi kokwethulwa kweBt."

'Izwi elilodwa lase-Afrika' 

"Ukwakhiwa kabusha kwezinhlelo zokudla emhlabeni kuzoba ... kunemibandela yokusatshalaliswa kabanzi kobuchwepheshe obufanele nezinto ezintsha," ngokusho kwe uhlaka lomgomo wenqubomgomo yenzelwe ingqungquthela. Lo mbhalo uchaza ama-webinars amabili kanye nengxoxo eku-inthanethi ehlose ukwakha i- "One Africa Voice" ibheke engqungqutheleni yokudla "yezinguquko ezibalulekile zemidlalo edingekayo ukuqinisa ucwaningo nentuthuko yase-Afrika kwezolimo."   

Le nqubo yabizwa ngokuzimela kule ngqungquthela yiForamu Yezocwaningo Lwezolimo e-Afrika, ne-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, National Agricultural Research Systems kanye namanye amaqembu ocwaningo kanye nezinqubomgomo. Ukunyakaza kokudla kwase-Afrika akubandakanyekanga kule ngxoxo, kusho uMayet. 

Izindlela zokuguqula uhlelo lokudla, ngokusho kwenqubomgomo, zibandakanya ukudala "ukufunwa okusebenzayo kwesayensi, ezobuchwepheshe kanye nokwenziwa kwezinto ezintsha" kubalimi abasafufusa, nokukhuthaza ohulumeni base-Afrika ukuthi batshale izinsizakusebenza eziningi ocwaningweni lwezolimo "nasemikhiqizweni yalo okungukuthi ezobuchwepheshe nezinto ezintsha." 

Lo mbhalo uphawula ukuthi “kunesidingo sokunaka kakhulu ukuqoqwa kwedatha kanye nokwakhiwa kwamakhono okuhlaziya abonisa ukubuya” ocwaningweni lwezolimo ukuze kuthuthukiswe kanye “nasekwakhiweni kwenqubomgomo nokulingana, okusho ukuthi, izinqubomgomo zokuphoqelela amalungelo empahla, kubandakanya nempahla enobuhlakani bengqondo amalungelo, ukuklomelisa abalimi ngezinsizakalo zemvelo, ukuqinisekisa ukudla okuphephile nokunempilo ngamanani akhokhelekayo. ”

Le nkhulumomphendvulwano “ibonakala imele enye indawo esemthethweni yokwakhiwa kwesivumelwano sabantu abasezingeni eliphezulu ezizokwethulwa engqungqutheleni ye-UN Food Systems Summit 'njengezwi lase-Afrika'. Nokho, lelo zwi lizoba kude nelomuntu ojwayelekile wase-Afrika, ”Kusho i-ACB. "Esikhundleni salokho, kukhombisa izinto eziseqhulwini zochwepheshe bezentuthuko ezihambisana nemibono yesimanjemanje, eqhutshwa ubuchwepheshe kwezinguquko noguquko, izinkampani ze-biotechnology, ezolimo, kanye ne-neoliberal, i-ajenda yentuthuko yomhlaba."

"I-Afrika kumele ibuze izincazelo zokukhiqiza, kanye nobudlelwano kwezenhlalo lapho abalimi abasakhasayo bengathola khona umkhiqizo omkhulu ngokuqondene nenhlalonhle yezomnotho kanye nobulungiswa kwezenhlalo nakwezemvelo."

I-CGIAR eyodwa

Izimpi zenqubomgomo ezihlangana engqungqutheleni i-2021 Food Systems Summit zisongela “ukuphoqa uhlelo lokudla lwezimboni olwehlulekile emkhakheni womphakathi nakwezolimo zomhlaba, kubophezela ohulumeni ohlelweni lwezinkampani olubeka eceleni abalimi, izinhlangano zomphakathi, izinhlangano zomphakathi kanye ne-agroecology,” ngokusho kwe a Februwari 2020 umbiko ovela ETC Group lokho kuchaze amandla okudlala eduzane nengqungquthela. 

Impi eyodwa ebalulekile iphathelene nekusasa le-CGIAR, inhlanganisela yezikhungo zocwaningo lwezolimo eziyi-15 ezinabantu abangaphezu kuka-10,000 XNUMX ososayensi nabachwepheshe emkhakheni wabo wokuhola kanye nezinhlobo zezitshalo ezingaba ngu-800,000 emabhange ayo angu-11. Omele iGates Foundation futhi owayengumholi weSyngenta Foundation babheka a uhlelo oluhlongozwayo lokuhlela kabusha ukuhlanganisa inethiwekhi ibe yi- “One CGIAR” nebhodi elilodwa elinamandla amasha wokusetha i-ajenda.

Ukwakhiwa kabusha okuhlongozwayo, ngokusho kwencwadi kaJulayi kusuka ku-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, belungafica "Sinciphise ukuzimela kwama-ajenda ocwaningo lwesifunda futhi siqinise ukubamba kwabaxhasi abanamandla amakhulu - iningi labo elinqikayo ukuphambuka endleleni ye-Green Revolution." 

The inqubos, IPES ithe, “kubonakala kuqhutshekelwa phambili ngendlela ephoqelelayo, ngokuthengwa okuncane kulabo okucatshangwa ukuthi bazozuza eNingizimu Yomhlaba wonke, ngokungafani okwanele phakathi kwesiyingi sangaphakathi sabashisekeli bezinguquko, futhi ngaphandle kokubheka okufanele ukushintsha kwezinqubo zokudla. ”

Ochwepheshe abaningi bathi a Ukushintshwa kwepharadigm kuyadingeka kude ne ezolimo zezimboni nasezindleleni ezahlukahlukene, zezolimo engakwazi ukubhekana nezinkinga kanye nemikhawulo yemodeli yamanje yezimboni, kufaka phakathi ukungalingani, ukwanda kobuphofu, ukungondleki kanye nokucekelwa phansi kwemvelo. 

Ku-2019, a iphaneli esezingeni eliphakeme lochwepheshe kwezokuphepha kokudla nokondleka i-UN incoma ukushintshela ezinhlelweni ezahlukahlukene zokudla, ukubhekana nokungalingani kwamandla kuzinhlelo zokudla, kanye nokutshala imali ezinhlelweni zocwaningo ezisekela i-agroecology njengendlela eya phambili. 

Imibhalo 

Ingxoxo Yesifunda: Iseshini Yesikhombisa Yezinhlelo Zokudla zase-Afrika Zesigcawu Sesifunda sase-Afrika Sentuthuko Ezinzile 4 Mashi 2021, eBrazzaville, eCongo Paper Paper, ECA, AUC, FAO, AUDA-NEPAD, WEP, UNICEF, IFAD, AfDB, Akademiya2063, RUFORUM (2021)  

Ingxoxo Yesifunda: Izinhlelo Zokudla zase-Afrika (i-ajenda 9), NgoLwesine Mashi 4, i-UN Economic and Social Council

Inqubomgomo emfushane, Ukuqinisa Ucwaningo Lwezolimo Nentuthuko yase-Afrika Kubhekelwe Uhlelo Oluthuthukisiwe Lwe-Afrika Lokudla, "One Africa Voice" ebheke engqungqutheleni ka-2021 ye-UN Food Systems Summit, i-FARA, i-Sub Regional Research Organisations, i-NARS, i-AFAAS, i-AGRA, ne-FANRPAN

Ukuphendula kwe-ACB Engxoxweni Yesifunda Yezinhlelo Zokudla zase-Afrika, ebibanjelwe eSeshini yesiKhombisa yeForamu yesiFunda ye-Afrika yokuThuthukiswa okuZinzile, mhlana ama-4 kuNtaka we-2021