Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Kusukela ukuqubuka kwe-COVID-19 edolobheni laseChina i-Wuhan ngoDisemba 2019, ososayensi bathungathe imikhondo mayelana nokuthi yini eholele ekuveleni komenzeli wayo oyimbangela, inoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Ukuthola umthombo weSARS-CoV-2 kungabaluleka ekuvikeleni ukuqubuka okuzayo.

Uchungechunge lwe ezine high Iphrofayili izifundo okushicilelwe ekuqaleni kwalonyaka kwanikeza ukukholelwa kwesayensi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yaqala ngamalulwane yabe seqa iya kubantu ngohlobo lwe-anteater ebizwa nge-pangolin - phakathi kwezilwane zasendle ezishushumbiswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngenkathi lokho inkolelo ethile ezibandakanya pangolins bekulokhu ikakhulukazi ehlisiwe, izifundo ezine ezaziwa ngokuthi "amaphepha epangolin" ziyaqhubeka nokuhlinzeka ukusekela umbono wokuthi ama-coronaviruses ahlobene kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 zungeza endle, okusho ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 edale i-COVID-19 mhlawumbe ivela emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle. 

Ukugxila emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle, inkolelo ethi "zoonotic", sekuyinto ebucayi ezingxoxweni zomhlaba mayelana negciwane, kuqondisa ukunaka komphakathi kude kungenzeka ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane laqala ngaphakathi kwelabhorethri kahulumeni waseChina - the Isikhungo seWuhan seVirology.

I-US Right to Know (USRTK) ifundile, nokho, ukuthi amaphepha amabili kwamane akha isisekelo sombono we-zoonotic abukeka enamaphutha, nokuthi abahleli bamaphephabhuku lapho amaphepha ashicilelwa khona - Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature - baphenya idatha eyinhloko ngemuva kwezifundo nokuthi idatha yahlaziywa kanjani. Abanye ababili ngokufanayo bavela ku- ubhekane namaphutha.

Izinkinga zamaphepha ocwaningo ziphakamisa "imibuzo ebucayi nokukhathazeka" mayelana nokusebenza kwe-the zoonotic theory jikelele, ngokusho UDkt Sainath Suryanarayanan, isazi sezinto eziphilayo kanye nesazi sezenhlalo sesayensi, kanye nososayensi wabasebenzi be-USRTK.  Izifundo azinayo imininingwane ethembeke ngokwanele, amasethi wedatha angaqinisekiswa ngokuzimela kanye nokubuyekezwa kontanga okusobala nenqubo yokuhlela, ngokusho kukaDkt. Suryanarayanan. 

Bona ama-imeyili akhe nababhali abaphezulu bamaphepha nabahleli bezincwadi, kanye nokuhlaziywa: Imvelo nama-PLoS Pathogens ahlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2.

Iziphathimandla zikahulumeni waseChina uqale waphakamisa umqondo ukuthi umthombo we-causal agent we-COVID-19 kubantu uvela esilwaneni sasendle ngoDisemba. Ososayensi abasekelwa uhulumeni waseChina bese beyisekela leyo mbono ezifundweni ezine ezihlukene ezithunyelwe kumaphephandaba phakathi kukaFebhuwari 7 no-18.

Ithimba le-World Health Organisation le-China Joint Mission Team eliphenya ngokuvela nokusabalala kwe-COVID-19 eChina kusho uFebhuwari

Ukugxila okwenziwe amaShayina emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle kwasiza ukuphola izingcingo uphenyo nge Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology, lapho kade kugcinwa khona ama-coronaviruses ezilwane futhi kwasetshenziswa izakhi zofuzo. Esikhundleni salokho, izinsizakusebenza nemizamo yomphakathi wamazwe omhlaba wesayensi nokwenziwa kwenqubomgomo kube kudwetshwe ekuqondeni izinto ezakha ukuxhumana phakathi kwabantu nezilwane zasendle. 

Amaphepha amane okukhulunywa ngawo yilawa U-Liu et al., UXiao et al. , ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. Ababili abasaphenywa njengamanje ngabahleli bephephabhuku nguLiu et al noXiao et al. Kwezokuxhumana nababhali nabahleli bamaphephabhuku ala maphepha amabili, i-USRTK ifunde ngezinkinga ezinkulu ngokushicilelwa kwalezo zifundo, kubandakanya okulandelayo:    

  • Liu et al. ayizange ishicilele noma yabelane (lapho kubuzwa) idatha eluhlaza kanye / noma elahlekile ezovumela ochwepheshe ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kwabo kofuzo.
  • Abahleli kukho kokubili Nature futhi Amagciwane e-PLoS, kanye noProfesa Stanley Perlman, umhleli weLiu et al., bavumile kwezokuxhumana nge-imeyili ukuthi bayazi izingqinamba ezibucayi ngala maphepha nokuthi amaphephandaba ayawaphenya. Kodwa-ke, abakudalulanga esidlangalaleni ngezinkinga ezingaba khona ngamaphepha.  

Ukuthula kwala maphephabhuku ngokuphathelene nophenyo lwawo oluqhubekayo kusho ukuthi imiphakathi ebanzi yososayensi, abenzi bezinqubomgomo kanye nomphakathi othintwe yi-COVID-19 abazi ngezinkinga ezihambisana namaphepha ocwaningo, kusho uDkt Suryanarayanan. 

"Sikholwa wukuthi lezi zinkinga zibalulekile, ngoba zingabumba ukuthi izikhungo zisabela kanjani kubhadane oluyinhlekelele oluthinte kakhulu izimpilo zabantu emhlabeni wonke," esho.

Izixhumanisi zala ma-imeyili zingatholakala lapha: 

Ngo-July 2020, I-US Right to Know iqale ukuhambisa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngokulandela idatha ezivela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

NgoNovemba 5, I-US Right to Know yafaka icala ngokumelene neNational Institutes of Health (NIH) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-Freedom of Information Act. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eWashington, DC, lifuna ukuxhumana nezinhlangano ezifana ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi yaxhasa iWuhan Institute of I-Virology.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwezempilo yomphakathi. Ungakwazi sekela ucwaningo lwethu nokubika ngokunikela lapha.