Imvelo kanye ne-PLoS Pathogens ihlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bhalisela ku thola izibuyekezo ezivela ku-Blog ye-Biohazards.

NguSainath Suryanarayanan, PhD 

Lapha, sinikeza ama-imeyili ethu ngababhali abaphezulu be- U-Liu et al. futhi UXiao et al., nabahleli be Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature. Siphinde sethule ingxoxo ejulile yemibuzo nokukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe yila ma-imeyili, okubeka ukungabaza ukusebenza kwalezi zifundo ezibalulekile ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 edala i-COVID-19. Bona ukubika kwethu ngalawa ma-imeyili, Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya (11.9.20)


Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili noDkt Jinping Chen, umbhali omkhulu kaLiu et al:


Ama-imeyili kaDkt. Jinping Chen aphakamisa izinkathazo nemibuzo eminingi: 

1– Liu et al. (2020) bahlanganise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome okulandelanayo okususelwa kuma-coronaviruses asampuliwe avela kuma-pangolin amathathu, amasampula amabili eqenjini elishushumbisiwe ngoMashi 2019, kanye nesampula esisodwa esivela kwelinye iqoqo elabanjwa ngoJulayi 2019. Idathabheyisi yeNational Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) , lapho ososayensi kudingeka ukuthi bafake idatha yokulandelana ukuqinisekisa ukuqinisekiswa okuzimele nokukhiqiza kabusha kwemiphumela eshicilelwe, iqukethe imininingwane yokufunda ngokulandelana (SRA) yamasampuli amabili kaMashi 2019 kepha ayikho idatha yesampula kaJulayi 2019. Lapho ebuzwa ngalesi sampula esilahlekile, uDkt Jinping Chen asibiza ngokuthi yi-F9, uDkt. Jinping Chen wathi: “Imininingwane eluhlaza yalezi zampuli ezintathu ingatholakala ngaphansi kwenombolo ye-NCBI ye-PRJNA573298, ne-BioSample ID kwakungu-SAMN12809952, SAMN12809953, kanye I-SAMN12809954, ngaphezu kwalokho, umuntu ngamunye (i-F9) ovela kwi-batch ehlukile nayo yayinhle, idatha eluhlaza ingabonakala ku-NCBI SRA SUB 7661929, ezokhishwa kungekudala ngoba sinenye i-MS (kuyabuyekezwa)”(Ukugcizelela kwethu).

Kumayelana nokuthi uLiu et al. abakashicileli idatha ehambisana nesampula elilodwa lama-pangolins abawasebenzisile ukuhlanganisa ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome. UDkt.Jinping Chen naye akazange abelane ngale datha lapho ebuzwa. Okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwabelana ngemininingwane yonke ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Kwenze kanjani Amagciwane e-PLoS vumela uLiu et al. ugwema ukushicilela idatha eyisampula ebalulekile? Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen engabelani ngemininingwane ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin? Kungani uLiu et al. ufuna ukukhipha imininingwane engashicilelwe ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin njengengxenye yesinye isifundo esithunyelwe kumagazini ohlukile? Okukhathaza lapha ukuthi ososayensi bazosabalalisa kabi isampula ye-pangolin elahlekile evela ku-Liu et al. ocwaningweni oluhlukile, okwenza kube nzima kwabanye ukuthi kamuva balandele imininingwane ebalulekile ngale sampuli ye-pangolin, njengomongo lapho kwaqoqwa khona isampula ye-pangolin.

2– UDkt. Jinping Chen ukuphikile ukuthi uLiu et al. ngibe nobudlelwano noXiao et al.'s (2020) Nature funda. Ubhale wathi: “Sihambise iphepha lethu le-PLOS Pathogens ngoFebhuwari 14, 2020 ngaphambi kwephepha leNature (i-Reference 12 ephepheni lethu le-PLOS pathogens, balithumele ngoFebhuwari 16, 2020 kusukela ngosuku lwabo lokulethwa eMvelweni), iphepha lethu lamagciwane e-PLOS chaza ukuthi i-SARS-Cov-2 ayiveli ku-pangolin coronavirus ngqo futhi ne-pangolin hhayi njengomsingathi ophakathi nendawo. Sasiwazi umsebenzi wabo ngemuva kwesithangami sabo sezindaba ngoFebhuwari 7, 2020, futhi sinemibono eyehlukene nabo, amanye amaphepha amabili (amaGciwane neMvelo) afakwe ohlwini lwephepha le-PLOS Pathogen njengamaphepha ayizethenjwa (inombolo eyinkomba 10 no-12), singamaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo avela kubalobi bephepha leMvelo, futhi abukho ubudlelwano phakathi kwabo, Futhi sithathe amasampula imininingwane yesampula enemininingwane evela esikhungweni sokutakula izilwane zasendle saseGuangdong ngosizo oluvela kuJiejian Zou noFanghui Hou njengababhali bethu futhi asazi ukuthi amasampuli ephepha lezeMvelo avelaphi. ” (ukugcizelelwa kwethu)

Amaphuzu alandelayo akhulisa ukungabaza ngezimangalo zikaDkt Chen ngenhla: 

Liu et al. (2020), Xiao et al (2020) noLiu et al. (2019) babelane ngababhali abalandelayo: UPing Liu noJinping Chen babengababhali ku-2019 Amagciwane iphepha kanye ne-2020 Amagciwane e-PLoS iphepha, umbhali omkhulu uWu Chen kuXiao et al. (2020) wayengumbhali-mbhali we-2019 Amagciwane iphepha, kanti uJiejian Zhou noFanghui Hou babengababhali kubo bobabili uXiao et al. noLiu et al. 

b- Yomibili le mibhalo yesandla yafakwa kwiseva yomphakathi yangaphambi kokuprintwa bioRxiv ngosuku olufanayo: Februwari 20, 2020. 

c Xiao et al. “Amasampula e-pangolin aqanjwe kabusha aqala ukushicilelwa ngu-Liu et al. [2019] Amagciwane ngaphandle kokucaphuna isifundo sawo njenge-athikili yokuqala echaze la masampula, futhi asebenzise imininingwane ye-metagenomic evela kulawa masampula ekuhlaziyweni kwawo ”(UChan noZhan). 

d- Liu et al. i-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele i 99.95% kuyefana ezingeni le-nucleotide kuya ku-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele eshicilelwe ngu-Xiao et al. Kungenzeka kanjani uLiu et al. sikhiqize lonke ufuzo olungu-99.95% olufanayo (kuphela umehluko we-15 wama-nucleotides) kuXiao et al. ngaphandle kokwabelana kwedathasethi nokuhlaziya?

Lapho amaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo eza ngokuzimela kumasethi weziphetho ezifanayo ngombuzo onikeziwe wocwaningo, kwandisa kakhulu amathuba eqiniso lezimangalo ezibandakanyekile. Okukhathazayo lapha ukuthi uLiu et al. noXiao et al. azenzelwanga izifundo ezizimele njengoba kushiwo nguDkt Chen. Ngabe kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kukaLiu et al. noXiao et al. maqondana nokuhlaziya nezincwadi zabo? Uma kunjalo, kwakungakanani futhi kwakunjani lokho kuxhumana? 

3– Kungani uLiu et al. ingenzi ukuthi kutholakale esidlangalaleni idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome yabo? Ngaphandle kwale datha eluhlaza, i-pangolin coronavirus genome ehlanganiswe ngu-Liu et al., Abanye abakwazi ukuqinisekisa ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela ka-Liu et al. Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwaba yonke idatha ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Sicele uDkt.Jingping Chen ukuthi abelane ngemininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon kaLiu et al. Uphendule ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokulandelana kwemikhiqizo ka-Liu et al.'s RT-PCR, okungeyona idatha ye-amplicon eluhlaza esetshenziselwe ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome. Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen enqena ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza engavumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kukaLiu et al.

I-4- Liu et al. Amagciwane (2019) yashicilelwa ngo-Okthoba 2019 futhi ababhali bayo babefake i-pangolin coronavirus (ukulandelana kokufunda okugciniwe) idatha ye-SRA ne-NCBI ngoSeptemba 23, i-2019, kodwa walinda kwaze kwaba January 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni. Ososayensi bavame ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-genomic kulwazi olufinyeleleka esidlangalaleni ngokushesha okukhulu ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zabo. Lo mkhuba uqinisekisa ukuthi abanye bangakwazi ukufinyelela ngokuzimela, baqinisekise futhi basebenzise idatha enjalo. Kungani uLiu et al. I-2019 linda izinyanga ze-4 ukwenza idatha yabo ye-SRA ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni? UDkt. Jinping Chen ukhethe ukungawuphenduli ngqo lo mbuzo wethu empendulweni yakhe ngoNovemba 9, 2020.

Siphinde saxhumana noDkt. Stanley Perlman, Amagciwane e-PLoS Umhleli kaLiu et al. futhi nakhu kwakufanele akusho.

Ngokuphawulekayo, uDkt Perlman uvumile ukuthi:

  • "I-PLoS Pathogens iphenya kabanzi leli phepha" 
  • "Akazange aqinisekise ubuqiniso besampula kaJulayi 2019 ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga ngaphambi kokushicilela"
  • “[C] ukukhathazeka ngokufana phakathi kwezifundo ezimbili [Liu et al. noXiao et al.] kwavela kuphela ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zombili. ”
  • Akazange "abone imininingwane ye-amplicon ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga. Ababhali banikeze inombolo yokungena ku-genome ehlanganisiwe… yize ngemuva kokushicilelwa kuvele ukuthi inombolo yokufakwa ohlwini efakwe kusitatimende sokutholakala kwedatha ye-athikili ayilungile. Leli phutha nemibuzo emayelana nemininingwane eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-contig okwamanje kuyakhulunywa ngayo njengengxenye yecala langemva kokushicilelwa. ”

Lapho sixhumana Amagciwane e-PLoS ngokukhathazeka kwethu ngoLiu et al. sithole okulandelayo impendulo evela kuMhleli Omkhulu wethimba le-PLoS Publication Ethics:

Ama-imeyili avela kuXiao et al.

Ngo-Okthoba 28, i- Umphathi Omkhulu Wezesayensi Yezinto ze Nature uphendule (ngezansi) ngegama eliyisihluthulelo elithi "sizithatha ngokungathi sína lezi zinkinga futhi sizolubheka kahle udaba oluphakamisa ngezansi." 

Ngo-Okthoba 30, uXiao et al. ekugcineni ikhishwe esidlangalaleni idatha yabo yokulandelana ye-amplicon eluhlaza. Kodwa-ke, njengokushicilelwa kwalesi siqephu, imininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ethunyelwe nguXiao et al. ishoda ngamafayela wedatha eluhlaza angavumela abanye ukuthi bahlangane futhi baqinisekise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome.

Kusele imibuzo ebalulekile edinga ukubhekisiswa: 

  1. Ngabe ama-pangolin coronaviruses angempela? Isihloko esithi Umdwebo 1e kuXiao et al. ithi: “Izinhlayiya ezibangelwa amagciwane zibonakala kuma-vesicles anezingqimba ezimbili esithombeni sokudlulisela i-electron microscopy esithathwe kusiko le-Vero E6 elifakwe umusi ongaphezu kowodwa wezicubu zamaphaphu ezisuselwe ku-pangolin eyodwa, ne-morphology ekhombisa i-coronavirus.” Uma uXiao et al. ihlukanise i-pangolin coronavirus, ngabe bazokwabelana ngesampula elingalodwa legciwane nabaphenyi abangaphandle kweChina? Lokhu kungahamba ibanga elide ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi leli gciwane likhona ngempela futhi livela ezicutshini zepangolin.
  2. Kwasekuqaleni kuka-2020, noma ngisho naku-2019 U-Liu et al., UXiao et al., ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. uyazi ukuthi bazoshicilela imiphumela ngokususelwa kudathasethi efanayo?
    a. Ngabe kwakukhona ukusebenzisana kubhekwa ukuthi eyodwa yanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 18 kwathi ezintathu zanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 20?
    b. Kungani uLiu et al. (2019) abenzi ukulandelana kwabo kufundwe idatha yomlando ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni ngosuku abayifake ku-database ye-NCBI? Kungani balinda kwaze kwaba nguJanuwari 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha yokulandelana kwe-pangolin coronavirus ibe sesidlangalaleni.
    c. Ngaphambi kukaLiu et al. 2019 Amagciwane idatha ikhishwe ku-NCBI ngoJanuwari 22, 2020, ngabe le datha yayifinyeleleka kwabanye abacwaningi baseChina? Uma kunjalo, i-pangolin coronavirus yokulandelela idatha yayigcinwe kubani, ngubani owayekwazi ukufinyelela, futhi idatha yafakwa nini futhi yenziwa ifinyeleleke nini?
  3. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukulandelela umthombo wamasampuli e-pangolin ukubona ukuthi amanye amagciwane afana ne-SARS-CoV-2-like angatholakala yini ngoMashi kuya kuJulayi 2019 amaqoqo ezilwane ezishushumbisiwe — ezingaba ngamasampuli afriziwe noma usaphila eGuangdong Wildlife Rescue Center?
  4. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukubona ukuthi abashushumbisi (ngabe baboshwa yini? Noma bahlawuliswa badedelwa?) Banama-antibodies egciwane lakwaSARS avela ekutholakaleni njalo kula magciwane?