Ukugcina Izimfihlo Kubathengi: Umthetho Wokulebula Ukuwina Kokusebenzisana Kwemboni Nezemfundo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uyizwile imantra kaninginingi - azikho izinkinga zokuphepha ezihambisana nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Lowo mkhuba, umculo wezindlebe zezimboni ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotech, uculwe kaningi ngabenzi bomthetho baseMelika abasanda kuphasisa umthetho kazwelonke ovumela izinkampani ukuthi zigweme ukusho emaphaketheni okudla uma leyo mikhiqizo inezithako ezakhiwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo.

USenen Pat Roberts, oweluse umthetho ngeSenethi, ukuchithile ukukhathazeka kwabathengi kanye nocwaningo oludale ukwesaba mayelana nezingozi zezempilo ezingaba khona ezihlobene nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ekunxenxenxeleni lowo mthethosivivinywa.

"Isayensi ikufakazele kaninginingi ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-biotechnology kwezolimo kuphephile ngamaphesenti ayi-100," URoberts umemezele esiteji seSenethi ngoJulayi 7 ngaphambi kokudluliswa komthethosivivinywa. Indlu yabe isivuma lesi silinganiso ngoJulayi 14 evotini elingu-306-117.

Ngaphansi komthetho omusha, manje osubheke etafuleni likaMengameli u-Obama, imithetho yombuso egunyaza ukufakwa kwe-GMO ayisebenzi, futhi izinkampani zokudla akudingeki zitshele abathengi ngokusobala ukuthi ukudla kuqukethe izithako ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo; esikhundleni salokho bangafaka amakhodi noma amakheli ewebhusayithi kumikhiqizo abathengi okufanele bayifinyelele ukuthola ulwazi lwesithako. Umthetho ngenhloso wenza kube nzima kubathengi ukuthi bathole imininingwane. Abenzi bomthetho abanjengoRoberts bathi kulungile ukufiphaza izingqinamba kubathengi ngoba ama-GMO aphephe kakhulu.

Kepha abathengi abaningi balwele iminyaka ukuthi ukudla kubhalwe ngokuqukethwe kwe-GMO ngokunembile ngoba abazemukeli izimangalo zokuphepha. Ubufakazi bethonya lobumbano kwabaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi ukuphepha kwe-GMO sekwenze kwaba nzima kubathengi ukuthi bazi ukuthi ngubani okumele bathembe nokuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe ngama-GMO.

“'Isayensi' seyiphenduke ipolitiki futhi yagxila ekuthengiseni izimakethe,” kusho uPamm Larry, umqondisi weqembu labathengi leLabelGMOs. "Umkhakha ulawula ukulandisa, okungenani ezingeni lezepolitiki." U-Larry namanye amaqembu asekela ukufaka amalebuli athi kunezifundo eziningi ezibonisa ukuthi ama-GMO angaba nemithelela emibi.

Kuleli sonto, tiphephandaba laseFrance i-Le Monde ungeze isizathu esisha sokungabaza ngezimangalo zokuphepha ze-GMO lapho iveza imininingwane ye-University of Uprofesa waseNebraska uRichard Goodman's sebenzela ukuvikela nokukhuthaza izitshalo ze-GMO ngenkathi uGoodman ethola uxhaso kumqambi wezitshalo weGMO uMonsanto Co kanye nezinye izinkampani zezitshalo nezamakhemikhali. Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili okutholwe ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information kukhombisa ukuthi uGoodman ubonisana noMonsanto njalo ngemizamo yokubuyisa imizamo yokuphoqeleka yokuphawula nge-GMO nokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kokuphepha kwe-GMO njengoba uGoodman enza "ukufinyelela kwezesayensi nokubonisana ngokuphepha kwe-GM" e-United States, e-Asia nase-European Union .

UGoodman ungomunye wososayensi abaningi baseyunivesithi yomphakathi abenza lo msebenzi. Ukusebenzisana okufanayo kudalulwe muva nje okubandakanya ososayensi bomphakathi emanyuvesi amaningana, kufaka phakathi iYunivesithi yaseFlorida neYunivesithi yase-Illinois. Ngokuqoqayo, ubudlelwano bugcizelela ukuthi iMonsanto nabanye abadlali bemboni balisebenzisa kanjani ithonya enkundleni yesayensi yama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ukusunduza amaphuzu avikela inzuzo yabo.

Ekuhlolweni kwayo kwalezo zinto ezikhathazayo, i-athikili yeLe Monde kukhanya kanjani ukuthi uGoodman, obesebenza eMonsanto iminyaka eyisikhombisa ngaphambi kokuthuthela eyunivesithi yomphakathi e2004, waqokwa njengomhleli ohambisanayo wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukudla neKhemikhali Toxicology (FCT) ukwengamela imibiko yocwaningo ehlobene ne-GMO. Ukuqamba kukaGoodman ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT kwenzeka ngemuva nje kokuba iphephabhuku lithukuthelise uMonsanto ngokushicilelwa kowezi-2012 kocwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini othole ukuthi ama-GMO kanye ne-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicide angadala izicubu eziyingozi kumagundane. Ngemuva kokuthi uGoodman ejoyine ibhodi lokuhlela le-FCT lo magazini wahoxisa isifundo ngo-2013. (Kwakungu waphinde washicilelwa kumagazini ohlukile.) Abagxeki ngaleso sikhathi kusolwa ukuhoxiswa uboshwe ekuqokweni kukaGoodman ebhodini lokuhlela iphephabhuku. UGoodman ukuphikile noma yikuphi ukubandakanyeka ekuhoxisweni, futhi wesula kwi-FCT ngoJanuwari 2015.

Umbiko weLe Monde kubalulwe ukuxhumana kwe-imeyili okutholwe yiqembu lase-US lokukhuthaza abathengi i-US Right to Know (engikusebenzela). Ama-imeyili atholwe yile nhlangano akhombisa uGoodman exhumana noMonsanto ngokuthi angalugxeka kanjani lolu cwaningo lwaseSéralini ngemuva nje kokuthi lukhishwe "ngaphambi kokuphrinta" ngoSepthemba 2012. Ku-imeyili kaSepthemba 19, 2012, UGoodman wabhalela isazi sezobuthi saseMonsanto uBruce Hammond: “Uma nina bafana ninamaphuzu okukhuluma, noma ukuhlaziywa kwenhlamvu, ngingajabula.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokuthi umhleli we-FCT kuChief Wallace Hayes uthe uGoodman uqale ukusebenza njengomhleli ohambisanayo we-FCT ngoNovemba 2, 2012, kuyo leyo nyanga isifundo seSéralini sanyatheliswa, yize uGoodman wacashunwa kamuva ethi akazange abuzwe ukuthi angajoyina i-FCT kuze kube nguJanuwari 2013. Kuleyo imeyili, UHayes ucele iHammond kaMonsanto ukuba isebenze njengombuyekezi wemibhalo ethile yesandla ethunyelwe kulo magazini. UHayes uthe isicelo sosizo lukaHammond "senziwe nangoSolwazi uGoodman."

Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili kukhombisa ukuxhumana okuningi phakathi kwezikhulu zeMonsanto noGoodman njengoba uGoodman esebenzela ukuphikisa ukugxeka okuhlukahlukene kwamaGMO. Ama-imeyili ahlanganisa izihloko ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi isicelo sikaGoodman sokufaka kukaMonsanto esifundweni saseSri Lankan esithunyelwe ku-FCT; ukuphikisana kwakhe nolunye ucwaningo olwathola imithelela eyingozi emmbileni weMonsanto GMO; nokuxhaswa kwephrojekthi kusuka eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani zezitshalo ze-biotech ezakha cishe uhhafu womholo kaGoodman.

Ngempela, ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili ngo-Okthoba 2012 kukhombisa ukuthi ngesikhathi uGoodman esayinela iphephabhuku le-FCT futhi egxeka ucwaningo lwaseSeralini, uGoodman wayebuye azwakalise ukukhathazeka kubaxhasi bezimboni zakhe ngokuvikela imali ayitholayo njengo “profesa onemali.”

Ku-imeyili ka-Okthoba 6, 2014, UGoodman ubhalele uMholi Wezindaba Zesayensi Yezokuphepha Kokudla eMonsanto uJohn Vicini ukusho ukuthi ubebuyekeza “iphepha elimelene nephepha” futhi unethemba lokuthola ukuholwa okuthile. Iphepha okukhulunywa ngalo licaphune umbiko wango-2014 ovela eSri Lanka mayelana "nokuchayeka / ukuhlangana okungenzeka kanye nendlela ehlongozwayo yobuthi be-glyphosate ehlobene nesifo sezinso." IGlyphosate iyisithako esiyisihluthulelo semithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto's Roundup futhi isetshenziswa kuzilimo ezakhiwe ngofuzo zeRoundup Ready. I-World Health Organisation ngo-2015 yathi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu ngemuva kocwaningo oluningi lwesayensi oluxhume nomdlavuza. Kepha iMonsanto igcina i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ku-imeyili eya kuVicini, uGoodman uthe wayengenabo ubuchwepheshe obudingekayo futhi wacela iMonsanto ukuthi inikeze "izimpikiswano ezizwakalayo zesayensi zokuthi kungani lokhu kungenangqondo noma kungenangqondo."

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ezinye izibonelo zokuhlonipha kukaGoodman kuMonsanto. Njengoba i-Le Monde iveza, NgoMeyi 2012, ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwamazwana athile nguGoodman kudaba olukuwebhusayithi esebenzisana nosaziwayo u-Oprah Winfrey, uGoodman ibhekene nesikhulu seMonsanto "ngokushiya umfundi ecabanga ukuthi empeleni asazi ngokwanele ngale mikhiqizo ukusho uma 'ephephile.'” UGoodman wabe esebhalela abantu eMonsanto, eDuPont, eSyngenta, eBASF naseDow naseBayer futhi uxolise "kuwe nakuzo zonke izinkampani zakho," sayingukuthi wayecashunwe kabi futhi engaqondakali.

Kamuva nge-imeyili eyodwa kaJulayi 30, 2012, UGoodman wazise izikhulu zaseMonsanto, eBayer, eDuPont, eSyngenta naseBASF ukuthi uceliwe ukuthi enze inhlolokhono neNational Public Radio mayelana nokuthi bukhona yini ubudlelwano phakathi kwezitshalo zeGMO nokwanda kokungezwani komzimba nokudla. Ekuphenduleni ngo-Aug 1, 2012, isikhulu eBayer samnikeza “ukuqeqeshwa kwabezindaba” mahhala ngaphambi kwengxoxo yakhe.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa nokusebenza ngokubambisana kukaGoodman neMonsanto ukuzama ukunqoba imizamo yokulebula ye-GMO. Nge-imeyili eyodwa ka-Okthoba 25, 2014 kumphathi wezindaba zesayensi yomhlaba wonke waseMonsanto u-Eric Sachs noVicini, uGoodman usikisela “imiqondo nemibono” ethile yezikhangiso ezingafundisa “abathengi / abavoti.” Ubhale ukuthi kubalulekile ukudlulisa "ubunzima bokunikezela kwethu kokudla" nokuthi ukuphoqelelwa okuphoqelekile kungangeza kanjani ezindlekweni uma izinkampani ziphendula ngokuthola izinto ezingezona eze-GMO. Wabhala ngokubaluleka kokudlulisa leyo mibono kwiSenate naseNdlu, kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi "imikhankaso yokufaka amalebuli iyehluleka."

Ama-imeyili futhi enza kucace ukuthi uGoodman uncike kakhulu ekusekelweni kwezezimali okuvela eMonsanto ezinze eSt. Louis nakwezinye izinkampani zezolimo ze-biotech ezihlinzeka ngemali "I-Allergen Database" yenganyelwe nguGoodman bese idabula uHlelo Lokudla Kokungezwani Nomzimba kanye Nezinsiza eNyuvesi yaseNebraska. Ukubheka isivumelwano soxhaso i-database ye-allergen yango-2013 ikhombise ukuthi ngayinye yezinkampani eziyisithupha ezixhasayo bekufanele zikhokhe cishe ama- $ 51,000 ngesabelomali esiphelele sama- $ 308,154 alowo nyaka. Umxhasi ngamunye lapho-ke “anganikela ngolwazi lwabo kule nqubo ebalulekile,” kusho isivumelwano. Kusuka ngo-2004-2015, kanye neMonsanto, izinkampani ezixhasayo zazihlanganisa iDow AgroSciences, iSyngenta, iDuPont's Pioneer Hi-Bred International, iBayer CropScience neBASF. Invoyisi eyodwa ka-2012 eya eMonsanto kwiDatabase Allergen Database icele ukukhokhelwa kwe- $ 38,666.50.

Inhloso yalolu lwazi kuhloswe ngayo "ukuhlola ukuphepha kwamaprotheni angafakwa ekudleni ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma ngezindlela zokucubungula ukudla." Amandla okungezwani okungahlosiwe kokunye ukudla okunezakhi zofuzo kungenye yokwesaba okuvamile okuvezwa ngamaqembu abathengi kanye nabanye ochwepheshe bezempilo nabezokwelapha.

Kumazwana esitezi seNdlu, UJim McGovern (D-Mass.) Uthe amakhodi e-QR ayeyisipho embonini yokudla efuna ukufihla imininingwane kubathengi. Umthetho "akuyona into enentshisekelo kumthengi waseMelika, kodwa ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezimbalwa ezikhethekile ezifunwayo," esho. "Wonke umuntu waseMelika unelungelo eliyisisekelo lokwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni abakudlayo."

UGoodman, uMonsanto nabanye abasemkhakheni we-biotech ag bangabungaza ukunqoba kwabo kwiCongress kodwa umthetho omusha wokulebula kungenzeka ukhiqize kuphela ukungabaza kwabathengi ngama-GMO uma kunikezwa iqiniso lokuthi kuphikisana nohlobo lokuveza obala abathengi abafuna - amagama ambalwa alula uma umkhiqizo “wenziwa ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo.”

Ukufihla ngemuva kwekhodi ye-QR akunikezi ukuzethemba.