Izicwangciso zikaBill Gates zokuphinda zisebenzise iinkqubo zokutya ziya kuyonakalisa imozulu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

NguStacy Malkan

Kwincwadi yakhe entsha malunga nendlela yokuphepha intlekele yemozulu, uBilionea owaphilisayo uBill Gates uxoxa ngezicwangciso zakhe zoku imifuziselo yeenkqubo zokutya zaseAfrika "Inguquko eluhlaza" yaseIndiya, apho usosayensi wezityalo enyuse isivuno kwaye wasindisa ubomi beebhiliyoni, ngokukaGates. Uthi, umqobo ekuphumezeni ukulungiswa okufanayo e-Afrika kukuba amafama amaninzi kumazwe ahluphekileyo awanayo imali yokuthenga izichumisi.  

"Ukuba singanceda amafama ahluphekileyo anyuse isivuno sabo, bazakufumana imali eninzi kwaye bazokutya okuninzi, kwaye izigidi zabantu kwamanye amazwe ahlwempuzekileyo emhlabeni bazokwazi ukufumana ukutya okuninzi kunye nezondlo abazifunayo," utshilo uGates. uqukumbela. Akathatheli ingqalelo imiba emininzi ebonakalayo yendlala, kanye njengokuba esiba izinto ezibalulekileyo kwingxoxo yemozulu, njengoko uBill McKibben esitsho Uhlaziyo lweNew York Times kwincwadi kaGates Ungayiphepha Njani Intlekele Yemozulu. 

Amasango ayasilela ukukhankanya, umzekelo, ukuba indlala ubukhulu becala ibangelwa indlala nokungalingani, hayi ukunqongophala. Kwaye ubonakala engazi ukuba amashumi eminyaka "uguquko oluhlaza" lutyhala kwezolimo kwimizi-mveliso eIndiya lushiye a Ilifa elibi lokonzakala kuzo zombini i-ikhosistim kunye namafama asakhasayo, athe abakho beqhankqalaza ezitratweni ukusukela kunyaka ophelileyo.   

Uqhankqalazo lwamafama eIndiya lubhala ibali likaGuquko kwiGreen Revolution, "u-Aniket Aga ubhale kwi-Scientific American kwinyanga ephelileyo. Kumashumi eminyaka kwisicwangciso-qhinga sokuguqula imeko eluhlaza, “kuyacaca ukuba iingxaki ezintsha zolimo lwamashishini zongeze kwiingxaki zakudala ze indlala kwaye ukungondleki, ”Ubhala watsho u-Aga. "Akukho sixa sithembisayo kwisiphelo sentengiso esiya kulungisa imodeli yemveliso ejijekileyo nengazinzanga."

Lo mzekelo ethi ihambise amafama kwimisebenzi yokulima ekhula ngakumbi nengafaniyo kangako thembela kwizibulali zinambuzane kunye nokonakaliswa kwemozulu izichumisi zemichiza - yenye yeGates Foundation ebikhuthaza e-Afrika kangangeminyaka eli-15, ngaphezulu kwenkcaso yemibutho yokutya yase-Afrika abathi isiseko sityhala izinto eziphambili ngokubaluleka kwimibutho yezamashishini ezolimo kwilizwe lonke ukuba yonakalise uluntu lwayo.  

Amakhulu amaqela oluntu aqhankqalaza Isiseko seGates Izicwangciso-qhinga zezolimo kunye nefuthe lazo kwiNgqungquthela ye-UN yokutya yeHlabathi. Abangaphakathi bathi obu bunkokheli busoyikisa ukuphazamisa imizamo ebonakalayo yokuguqula inkqubo yokutya, e Umzuzu obalulekileyo xa uninzi lwe-Afrika esemazantsi eSahara Ukuyibuyisela kumothuko oluninzi kunye a ukukhula kwengxaki yendlala ngenxa yobhubhane kunye neemeko zokutshintsha kwemozulu. 

Konke oku kuye kwaqatshelwa yimithombo yeendaba ephambili ekhupha ikhaphethi ebomvu kwincwadi kaGates. Nazi ezinye zezizathu zokuba abagxeki bathi Inkqubo yophuhliso lwezolimo yeGates Foundation ayilunganga kwimozulu. Isiseko asiphendulanga kwizicelo ezininzi zokubeka izimvo. 

Idilesi ehambelana nayo: Kutheni silanda izicwangciso zeBill Gates zokuphinda zisebenzise inkqubo yokutya 

Ukulungelelanisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi eluhlaza

Amasango akanazintloni malunga nomnqweno wakhe wesichumiso esenziwe njengaye icacisa kule bhlog ngotyelelo lwakhe kwi Indawo yokuhambisa isichumiso yaseYara eDar es Salaam, eTanzania. Isityalo esitsha sesona sikhulu salo hlobo eMpuma Afrika. Isichumisi “sisixhobo somlingo esinokunceda ukuphakamisa izigidi zabantu kwindlala,” ubhala watsho uGates. "Ukubukela abasebenzi kugcwalisa iibhegi ngeepellets ezincinci ezimhlophe eziqukethe initrogen, iphosphorus, kunye nezinye izondlo zezityalo yayisisikhumbuzo esinamandla sendlela nganye yesichumiso enokubutshintsha ngayo ubomi eAfrika."

ICop Watch ichaza uYara njengo “isichumisi esikhulu esibangela intlekele yemozulu. ” U-Yara ngoyena mthengi mkhulu waseYurophu kumashishini erhasi yendalo, ulbbies ngokusebenzayo, kwaye ungumvelisi ophezulu wezichumisi zokwenziwa zizazinzulu. bathi banoxanduva kuba ukukhathazeka kuyanda ukukhutshwa kwe-nitrous oxide. Inkqubo ye- igesi yendlu eluhlaza Amaxesha angama-300 anamandla ngakumbi kune-carbon dioxide ekufudumaleni umhlaba. Ngokutsho iphepha leNdalo lakutshanje, Ukukhutshwa kwe-nitrous oxide eqhutywa ubukhulu becala kwezolimo kuyanda ngokwanda kwengxelo enika impendulo Eyona meko imbi yokutshintsha kwemozulu.

Amasango ayavuma ukuba izichumisi zokwenziwa ziyayonakalisa imozulu. Njengesisombululo, uGates unethemba lokuyilwa kwetekhnoloji elundini phaya, kubandakanya neprojekthi yokulinga iinjineli zemfuza ukulungisa initrogen emhlabeni. "Ukuba ezi ndlela ziyasebenza," u-Gates ubhala, "bayakunciphisa ngokumangalisayo isidingo sesichumiso kunye nazo zonke izinto ezikhutshwayo." 

Okwangoku, eyona nto kugxilwe kuyo kwiinzame zeGates zenguqu eluhlaza e-Afrika kukhulisa ukusetyenziswa kwesichumisi esenziwe ngenjongo yokunyusa isivuno, nangona kukho abukho ubungqina bokubonisa Iminyaka eli-14 yale mizamo incede amafama amancinci okanye amahlwempu, okanye ivelise isivuno esikhulu.

Ukwandisa monocultures eyonakalisa imozulu 

IGates Foundation ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 5 yezigidigidi ukusukela ngo-2006 ukuba "ukunceda ukuqhuba inguqu kwezolimo”EAfrika. Ubuninzi be Inkxaso mali iya uphando lobuchwephesha kunye neenzame zokutshintsha amafama aseAfrika kwiindlela zolimo zolimo kunye nokwandisa ukufikelela kwabo kwimbewu yorhwebo, isichumiso kunye nezinye izinto. Abaxhasi bathi le migudu nika abalimi ukhetho abaludingayo ukonyusa imveliso kunye bazikhuphe kwindlala. Abagxeki bathi "uguquko oluhlaza" lukaGates amacebo ayonakalisa iAfrika ngokwenza Iinkqubo zendalo zibuthathaka ngakumbi, ukufaka amafama ematyaleni, yaye Ukuphambukisa oovimba boluntu ku utshintsho olunzulu lwenkqubo kufuneka ijongane nemozulu kunye nendlala. 

"IGates Foundation ikhuthaza umzekelo wokulima izilwanyana zodwa kunye nokulungiswa kokutya okungabondli abantu bethu," iqela leenkokheli zokholo ezivela e-Afrika ubhale kwi Ileta eya kwisiseko, ukuphakamisa inkxalabo yokuba isiseko "senkxaso yokwandiswa kwezolimo olunzulu kwimizi-mveliso senza nzulu ingxaki yoluntu." 

Isiseko, bathi, "Ikhuthaza abalimi baseAfrika ukuba basebenzise igalelo eliphezulu-indlela yokuvelisa ephezulu esekwe kwimodeli yeshishini ephuhliswe kwindawo yaseNtshona" kwaye "ibeka uxinzelelo kumafama ukuba akhule isityalo esinye okanye ezimbalwa ezisekwe kwintengiso ephezulu okanye ehlengahlengisiweyo yemfuza ( GM) iimbewu. ”

Inkqubo yezolimo yeGates, uManyano lweNguquko kwiGreen e-Afrika (i-AGRA), ikhokhelela abalimi kumbona nakwezinye izityalo eziyintloko ngenjongo yokunyusa isivuno. Ngokwe-AGRA's Isicwangciso sokusebenza kweUganda (ugxininiso lwabo):

  • Inguqu kwezolimo ichazwa njenge Inkqubo apho amafama atshintshela kwimveliso eyahluka-hlukeneyo, ejolise ekulungiseleleni ukutya aye kwimveliso ekhethekileyo ejolise kwimarike okanye ezinye iinkqubo zotshintshiselwano, kubandakanya ukuthembela okukhulu kwiinkqubo zokunikezelwa kunye neziphumo kunye nokwanda komdibaniso wezolimo namanye amacandelo oqoqosho lwasekhaya nolwamanye amazwe.

Eyona njongo iphambili ye-AGRA ziinkqubo zoku ukwandisa ukufikelela kwamafama kwimbewu yorhwebo kunye nezichumisi zokukhulisa umbona kunye nezinye izityalo ezimbalwa. Le phakheji yeteknoloji "yokuguqula okuluhlaza" ixhaswa ngakumbi yi- $ 1 yezigidigidi ngonyaka kwinkxaso-mali evela koorhulumente base-Afrika, ngokuka Uphando olupapashwe kulo nyaka uphelileyo nge ITufts yoPhuhliso lweHlabathi kunye neZiko lezeNdalo kwaye ingxelo ngu Amaqela aseAfrika nawaseJamani

Abaphandi abafumananga phawu lwentsebenzo yemveliso; Idatha ibonisa ukuzuza okulinganiselweyo kwe-18% kwizityalo ezisisiseko kumazwe ekujoliswe kuwo yi-AGRA, ngelixa ingeniso imile kwaye ukhuseleko lokutya luye lubi, ngenani labantu abalambileyo nabangondlekanga lifikelela kuma-30%. I-AGRA uphikisana nophando kodwa khange anike ngxelo ineenkcukacha ngeziphumo zayo kwisithuba seminyaka eli-15. Isithethi se-AGRA sixelele ukuba ingxelo izakuvela ngo-Epreli.

Abaphandi abazimeleyo nabo uxele ukwehla kwezityalo zesintu, njengamazimba, leyo ikwazi ukumelana nemozulu kwaye kwakhona Umthombo obalulekileyo wee-micronutrients kwizigidi zabantu.

"Imodeli ye-AGRA eyanyanzeliswa kulimo lwaseRwanda olwahlukileyo ngaphambili ngokuqinisekileyo yayisingela phantsi iindlela zokulima zemveli ezinesondlo nezinzileyo, ”utshilo uJomo Kwame Sundaram, owayesakuba ngusekela Nobhala Jikelele woPhuhliso lwezoqoqosho, Ubhale kwinqaku elichaza uphando.  Iphakheji ye-AGRA, uyaphawula, 'wamiselwa Isandla esinzima ”eRwanda, urhulumente esithi akavumeli ukulinywa kwezinye izityalo ezixhaphakileyo kwezinye iindawo.  

Ukuhambisa izibonelelo kwi-agroecology 

"Ukuba iinkqubo zokutya zehlabathi zizakugcinwa, izityalo ezingena nzulu kwizityalo kunye nendawo zokutya kufuneka ziphelelwe lixesha," iinkokheli zonqulo zaseAfrika zibhale isibheno kwiGates Foundation.

Ewe, zininzi iingcali zithi a Ukutshintsha kweparadigm kubalulekile, kude ne iyunifomu, iinkqubo zokutyala izilwanyana zodwa kwiindlela ezohlukeneyo, ezolimo nezichasayo inokujongana neengxaki kunye nokusikelwa umda kwezolimo kwimizi-mveliso kubandakanya ukungalingani, ukwanda kwendlala, ukungondleki kunye nokuthotywa kwendalo.

The Ingxelo yowama-2019 yeQela loorhulumente kuTshintsho lweMozulu (IPCC) ilumkisa ngokuchasene neziphumo zokuxhamla monocropping, kwaye iphakamise ukubaluleka kwe-agroecology, ethe iphaneli ithi ingaphucula “uzinzo kunye nokomelela kweenkqubo zezolimo ngokunqanda imeko ezibi zemozulu, ukunciphisa ukuthotywa kwemihlaba, nokubuyisela umva ekusetyenzisweni kwezixhobo; kwaye ngenxa yoko sandise isivuno ngaphandle kokonakalisa iintlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. ”

URupa Marya, MD, unjingalwazi onxulumene namayeza e-UCSF, uxoxa nge-agroecology kwinkomfa ye-EcoFarm yowama-2021.

Umbutho wezokutya nezolimo weUN Ingxelo yephaneli yengcali kwi-agroecology icacisa gca ukuba kufuneke kususwe umfuziselo "wolimo oluhlaza" kumfuziselo wezolimo kwimizi-mveliso nakwindlela yezolimo ebonakalise ukwandisa ukwahluka kwezityalo zokutya, ukunciphisa iindleko kunye nokwakha ukomelela kwemozulu. 

Kodwa iinkqubo zokunyusa i-agroecology zilambele inkxaso-mali njengoko iibhiliyoni zoncedo kunye neenkxaso-mali ziya kuxhasa imifuziselo yezolimo. Izithintelo eziphambili ekubambeni utyalo-mali kwi-agroecology zibandakanya dukhetho olukhethekileyo lwenzuzo, ukungahambi kakuhle kunye neziphumo zexesha elifutshane, Ngokwengxelo yowama-2020 Ukusuka kwiPhaneli lamaZwe ngamaZwe kwiiNkqubo zokutya eziZinzileyo (IPES-Ukutya).

Iipesenti ezingama-85 zeGates Foundation ezixhaswe ngemali ziiprojekthi zophando lwezolimo e-Afrika kule minyaka idlulileyo bezinqunyelwe "ekuxhaseni ezolimo kwimizi-mveliso kunye / okanye ekonyuseni ukusebenza kwayo ngeendlela ekujoliswe kuzo njengokuphuculwa kwendlela yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iyeza lokugonya imfuyo okanye ukunciphisa iilahleko zasemva kokuvuna, ”Yatsho ingxelo. Kuphela yi-3% yeeprojekthi ezibandakanya imiba yoyilo ngokutsha lwe-agroecological.

Abaphandi Qaphela, "i-agroecology ayi azilungelanga iindlela ezikhoyo zotyalo-mali. Njengabaninzi abanikela ngezipho, i-BMGF [iBill kunye neMelinda Gates Foundation] ijonge imbuyekezo ekhawulezileyo, ebonakalayo kutyalo-mali, kwaye ngenxa yoko ithanda izisombululo ekujoliswe kuzo. ” 

Olu khetho lunobunzima kwizigqibo malunga nokuba uphando lukhula njani kwiinkqubo zokutya zehlabathi. Oyena mntu wamkelayo Inkxaso-mali yezolimo yeGates Foundation yi-CGIAR, umanyano lwamaziko ophando ali-15 aqeshe amawaka ezenzululwazi kwaye alawula i-11 yeebhanki zemfuza ezibaluleke kakhulu. Amaziko ngokwembali ayejolise ekuphuhliseni iseti emxinwa yezityalo ezinokuthi ziveliswe ngobuninzi ngoncedo lokufakwa kweekhemikhali. 

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, amanye amaziko e-CGIAR athathe amanyathelo ngokubhekisele kwinkqubo yenkqubo kunye namalungelo, kodwa isicwangciso esicetywayo sokuhlengahlengisa ukudala "i-CGIAR enye" ​​ngebhodi enye kunye namandla amatsha okuseta i-ajenda iphakamisa iinkxalabo. Ngokokutya kwe-IPESIsindululo sohlengahlengiso isoyikisa "ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwee-ajenda zophando zengingqi kunye nokuqinisa ukubanjwa kwabona banikeli banamandla," njengeGates Foundation, "abathandabuzayo ukuphambuka kwindlela ye-Green Revolution."

The inkqubo yohlengahlengiso ekhokelwa ngummeli weGates Foundation kunye nenkokheli yangaphambili yeSyngenta Foundation, "AIippears kufuneka ziqhutyelwe phambili ngendlela yokunyanzelwa, "yatsho i-IPES," kukuthenga okuncinci kubantu ekucingelwa ukuba bangabaxhamli kuMazantsi ehlabathi, ngokungafaniyo okwaneleyo phakathi kwesangqa sabahlaziyi, nangaphandle kokuqwalaselwa kweparadigm efuneka ngokungxamisekileyo utshintsho kwindlela yokutya. ”

Ngeli xesha, iGates Foundation inayo ukukhaba kwenye i-310 yezigidi zeedola kwi-CGIAR “ukunceda amafama asakhasayo azizigidi ezingama-300 ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho lwemozulu.” 

Ukungenisa ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwezivuno ze-GMO

Umyalezo wokuthatha weGates incwadi entsha yile inkqubela kwezobuchwephesha Ungalondla ihlabathi kwaye ulungise imozulu, ukuba nje sinako tyala imali eyaneleyo Ngokubhekisele kwezi zinto zintsha. Ezona zinambuzane zibulala zinambuzane / imbewu zikhuthaza umxholo ofanayo, Ukuziphindaphinda kwabo baphikayo kwimozulu ukuya kusombulula iingxaki: Inkqubela phambili kwezolimo lwedijithali, ezolimo ezichanekileyo kunye nobunjineli bemfuza kuzonciphisa imeko yezolimo kunye "nokuxhobisa amafama asakhasayo ayi-100 yezigidi" ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho lwemozulu, “konke ngonyaka ka-2030,” ngokwe Isityalo seBayer.

IGates Foundation kunye nomzi mveliso weekhemikhali “Ukuthengisa elidlulileyo njengotshintsho eAfrika, ”Uxoxa atsho uTimothy Wise, ophanda naye kwi-Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, kwi iphepha elitsha leTufts GDAE. U-Wise uthe: "Eyona nto intsha yokwenziwa kwezinto, iyenzeka kumafama njengoko besebenza nezazinzulu ukwandisa imveliso yezityalo ezahlukeneyo, ukunciphisa iindleko, kunye nokwakha ukomelela kwemozulu ngokwamkela inkqubo yezolimo." 

Njengengxelo yokuphumelela kwezobuchwephesha okuzayo, uGates walatha kwincwadi yakhe kwi-Impossible Burger. Kwisahluko esinesihloko esithi "Sizikhulisa njani izinto," uGates uchaza ukoneliseka kwakhe yile veggie burger yophayo (kwi eyona nto ayityala imali enkulu) kunye nethemba lakhe lokuba i-burger esekwe kwizityalo kunye nenyama esekwe kwiseli ziya kuba zizisombululo eziphambili zotshintsho lwemozulu. 

Unyanisile, ewe, ukuba ukushenxa kwimveliso yefama yefama kubalulekile kwimozulu. Kodwa ngaba i-Impossible Burger isisombululo esigcinekileyo, okanye yindlela nje yokuthengisa yokuguqula izityalo eziveliswe kwimizi-mveliso iimveliso zokutya ezinelungelo elilodwa lomenziNjengoAnna Lappe Ichaza, Ukutya okungenakwenzeka "Kungena konke kwi-GMO soy," hayi kuphela njengeyona nto iphambili ye-burger kodwa ikwangumxholo we uphawu lokuzinziswa kwenkampani.  

Kwiminyaka engama-30, imboni yamachiza ithembise ukuba izityalo ze-GMO ziya kukhulisa isivuno, zinciphise i-pesticides kwaye zondle umhlaba ngokuzinzileyo, kodwa khange kwenzeke njalo. Njengoko uDanny Hakim uxele kwiNew York Times, Izityalo zeGMO azivelisanga sivuno sibhetele. Izityalo zeGMO nazo yaqhuba ukusetyenziswa kwemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula, ngakumbi i-glyphosate, enxulunyaniswa nomhlaza phakathi kwezinye impilo neengxaki zokusingqongileyo. Njengokuba ukhula lwalunganyangeki, ishishini lenza imbewu ngokunyamezelana kwemichiza. I-Bayer, umzekelo, iqhubela phambili ngezityalo ze-GMO zenzelwe ukuba zisinde ezintlanu.

UMexico usandula ukubhengeza Izicwangciso zokunqanda ukungeniswa kombona we-GMO, besithi izityalo 'azithandeki' kwaye 'azifuneki.'

EMzantsi Afrika, elinye lamazwe ambalwa ase-Afrika avumela ukulinywa kwezolimo kwezityalo ze-GMO, ngaphezulu kwe- I-85% yombona kunye nesoy ngoku yenziwe, kwaye uninzi lutshizwa nge-glyphosate. amafama, amaqela oluntu, iinkokheli zopolitiko kwaye oogqirha baphakamisa iinkxalabo malunga nokunyuka kwamazinga omhlaza. Kwaye fukungazithembi nge-ood iyenyuka, nayo.  Amava oMzantsi Afrika kwii-GMO abe “Iminyaka engama-23 yokusilela, ilahleko yendalo kunye nokwanda kwendlala, ”Ngokutsho kwe-African Centre for Biodiversity.

Utshintsho olwenziweyo e-Afrika, utshilo umseki weli qela uMariam Mayet, "isiphelo" esikhokelela "ekunciphiseni impilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwendalo yezolimo, ukuphulukana nolawulo lwabalimi, kunye nokutshixwa kwamafama aseAfrika kwinkqubo engayenzelwanga Uncedo lwabo, kodwa inzuzo yabo yinkampani yamazwe amaninzi eMntla. ” 

Iziko lase-Afrika lezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo lithi, "Kubalulekile ukuba ngoku, kweli xesha libalulekileyo embalini," ukuba siguqule indlela, siphelise ulimo lwamashishini kunye notshintsho lwenkqubo yezolimo kunye nokutya okufanelekileyo. "  

UStacy Malkan ulawula umhleli kunye nomseki-mbumba wase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, iqela lophando elijolise ekukhuthazeni ukungafihli kwempilo yoluntu. Bhalisela iphepha leLungelo lokwazi uhlaziyo rhoqo.

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