IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) liQela leLobby yeShishini lokuTya

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IZiko lezeNzululwazi ngezoBomi leHlabathi (i-ILSI) ngumbutho ongajonganga nzuzo oxhaswa ngemali liqumrhu eliseWashington DC, elinamahluko ali-17 amanyeneyo kwihlabathi liphela. ILSI zichaza Njengeqela eliqhuba "isayensi ukulungiselela uluntu" kwaye "liphucula impilo yoluntu kunye nokuphila kunye nokukhusela okusingqongileyo." Nangona kunjalo, uphando olwenziwe ngabahlohli, intatheli kunye nabaphandi abanomdla kuluntu babonisa ukuba i-ILSI liqela elikhuselayo elikhusele iimfuno zeshishini lokutya, hayi impilo yoluntu.

Iindaba zamva nje

  • ICoca-Cola iqhawule ubudlelwane bayo obude kunye ne-ILSI. Eli nyathelo "libuhlungu kumbutho wokutya onamandla owaziwa ngophando lwayo kunye neenkqubo zalo zeswekile," IBroomberg yabika ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • I-ILSI incede iNkampani yeCoca-Cola ukuba yenze umgaqo-nkqubo wokutyeba kakhulu e-China, ngokophando lukaSeptemba 2020 kwi Ijenali yezopolitiko, Umgaqo-nkqubo kunye noMthetho nguNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphantsi kwengxelo kawonke-wonke yesayensi engakhethi cala kwaye akukho mgaqo-nkqubo ubeka uluhlu lweenkampani ezifihliweyo ezisetyenziselwa ukuqhubela phambili iimfuno zabo. Ukusebenza ngala majelo, uCoca Cola uphembelele inzululwazi yase-China kunye nokwenziwa komgaqo-nkqubo kuwo onke amabakala enkqubo yomgaqo-nkqubo, ukusuka ekuyileni le miba kuyilo lomgaqo-nkqubo osemthethweni, ”ligqibe eli phepha.

  • Amaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know yongeza obunye ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili kushishino lokutya. Ngomhla we-Meyi 2020 kufunda kwiSondlo seMpilo kaRhulumente ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu kutyhila "ipateni yomsebenzi apho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukuthembeka kwezazinzulu kunye nezifundiswa ukomeleza izikhundla zeshishini kunye nokukhuthaza umxholo osekwe kwimizi-mveliso kwiintlanganiso zawo, ijenali, kunye neminye imisebenzi." Jonga ukogquma kwi-BMJ, Icandelo lokutya kunye nokusela lifuna ukuphembelela oososayensi kunye nabahlohli, ii-imeyile zibonisa  (5.22.20)

  • Uxanduva lweshishini Ingxelo ka-Epreli 2020 Ivavanya indlela amashishini okutya kunye neziselo athe anika ngayo i-ILSI ukungena kwiKomiti yeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US, kunye nenkqubela yokukhubazeka kumgaqo-nkqubo wezondlo kwihlabathi liphela. Jonga ingxelo kwi-BMJ, Ukutya kunye nomzi mveliso wesiselo esinxilisayo kunempembelelo enkulu kwizikhokelo zokutya zaseMelika, ingxelo ithi (4.24.20) 

  • Uphando lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs utyhila ukuba itrasti ye-ILSI exhaswa ngumzi-mveliso icebise urhulumente wase-Indiya ukuba aqhubeke neelebheli zokulumkisa ngokutya okungenampilo. Ixesha ichaze i-ILSI njenge "shishini leqela elinemveliso" kwaye "lelona qela linamandla lokutya ongazange uve ngalo." (9.16.19) AmaXesha akhankanya a Isifundo sikaJuni kuHlabathi lwehlabathi kunye neMpilo ibhalwe ngu-Gary Ruskin wase-US kwiLungelo lokuKwazi ukunika ingxelo yokuba i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokubambela abaxhasi bayo bokutya kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

  • The INew York Times ityhile ubudlelwane obungachazwanga be-ILSI bukaBradley C. Johnston, umbhali-mbhali wezifundo ezintlanu zamva nje ezithi inyama ebomvu neyenziweyo azibeki ngxaki zempilo. UJohnston wasebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo kwisifundo esixhaswa ngemali yi-ILSI ukubanga iswekile ayisiyongxaki. (10.4.19)

  • I-blog yezopolitiko zikaMarion Nestle, I-ILSI: imibala yokwenyani ityhiliwe (10.3.19)

Izibophelelo ze-ILSI kwiCoca-Cola 

I-ILSI yasekwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayesakuba ngusekela Mongameli kwiCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke ukusukela ngo-1969-2001. ICoca-Cola igcine ubudlelwane obusondeleyo ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-Voca yeCoca-Cola yemicimbi yezenzululwazi kunye nemicimbi yezolawulo ukusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI ukusukela ngo-2009-2011. In 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI yayinguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlala-phantsi emsebenzini wakhe njengegosa eliyintloko lezempilo kunye nesayensi likaCoca-Cola (kwaye ukusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 emva ENew York Times kwaye I-Press Associated uxele ukuba uCoke uxhase ngemali i-Global Energy Balance Network ukunceda ukutshintsha ityala lokutyeba kakhulu kude neziselo ezineswekile.  

Inkxaso mali yeziko 

ILSI ixhaswe ngemali yiyo amalungu eenkampani kunye nabaxhasi beenkampani, kubandakanya ukutya okukhokelayo kunye neenkampani zamachiza. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuba ifumana inkxaso-mali kumzi mveliso kodwa ayichazi esidlangalaleni ukuba ngubani onikelayo okanye unegalelo elingakanani. Uphando lwethu lutyhila:

  • Imirhumo yequmrhu kwi-ILSI Global efikelela kwi-2.4 yezigidi zeerandi ngo-2012. Oku kubandakanya i- $ 528,500 evela kwi-CropLife International, igalelo lama- $ 500,000 elivela eMonsanto nase- $ 163,500 lisuka eCoca-Cola.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-ILSI yowama-2013 ibonisa ukuba i-ILSI ifumene i- $ 337,000 evela kwiCoca-Cola nangaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 nganye eMonsanto, eSyngenta, eDow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience kunye ne-BASF.
  • A Uyilo lwerhafu ye-2016 ILSI eMntla Melika ibonisa igalelo le- $ 317,827 elivela kwaPepsiCo, igalelo elingaphezulu kweedola ezingama-200,000 ukusuka eMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, kunye negalelo elingaphezulu kwe- $ 100,000 kwiGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Uniliver kunye neCampbell Soup.  

I-imeyile ibonisa indlela i-ILSI efuna ukuphembelela ngayo umgaqo-nkqubo ukukhuthaza izimvo zeshishini 

A Ngomhla we-Meyi ka-2020 kwizifundo zeMpilo kaRhulumente wongeza ubungqina bokuba i-ILSI liqela eliphambili lokutya. Uphononongo, ngokusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ngokusebenzisa iirekhodi zikarhulumente izicelo, ityhila indlela i-ILSI ekhuthaza ngayo umdla wokutya kunye nemizi-mveliso yezolimo, kubandakanya nendima ye-ILSI ekukhuseleni izithako zokutya ezinempikiswano kunye nokucinezela izimvo ezingathandekiyo kushishino; ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeCoca-Cola zinokuthi zibeke igalelo kwi-ILSI kwiinkqubo ezithile; kwaye, indlela i-ILSI ebasebenzisa ngayo abafundi kwiziphathamandla zabo kodwa ivumela ishishini elifihliweyo kwimpapasho yabo.

Olu phononongo lukwaveza iinkcukacha ezintsha malunga nokuba zeziphi iinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI kunye namasebe ayo, kunye namakhulu amawaka eedola kwimirhumo ebhaliweyo evela ekukhokeleni ukutya okungenampilo, isoda kunye neenkampani zamachiza.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 kwi-Globalization kunye neMpilo ibonelela ngemizekelo eliqela yendlela i-ILSI eqhubela phambili ngayo kwimidla yeshishini lokutya, ngakumbi ngokukhuthaza isayensi enobungcali kumzi-mveliso kunye neengxoxo kubenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo. Olu phononongo lusekwe kumaxwebhu afunyenwe lilungelo lase-US lokwazi ngemithetho yeerekhodi zikarhulumente.  

Abaphandi baqukumbele ngelithi: “ILSI ifuna ukuphembelela abantu, izikhundla, kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe aphesheya, kunye namalungu ayo asebenza njengesixhobo sokukhuthaza umdla wabo kwihlabathi liphela. Uhlalutyo lwethu lwe-ILSI lusebenza njengesilumkiso kwabo bathatha inxaxheba kulawulo lwempilo lwehlabathi ukuba balumke ngamaqela ophando azimeleyo, nokuzilolonga phambi kokuthembela kwizifundo zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kunye / okanye ukuzibandakanya kubudlelwane nala maqela. ”   

I-ILSI ijongele phantsi umlo wokutyeba e-China

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabini ngo UNjingalwazi waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh ityhile impembelelo enamandla ye-ILSI kurhulumente wase-China kwimicimbi enxulumene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola kunye neminye imibutho esebenza ngayo kwisebe lase China le-ILSI ukuphembelela amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yaseTshayina kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya ezinje ngohlobo lweswekile 2 kunye noxinzelelo lwegazi. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kakuhle e-China kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwiziko likarhulumente loLawulo lweZifo noThintelo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaNjingalwazi Geenhalgh abonisa indlela iCoca-Cola nezinye izigebenga zaseNtshona zokutya neziselo “zanceda ekubumbeni amashumi eminyaka yesayensi yase-China kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo woluntu malunga nokutyeba kakhulu kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokutya” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukutyala amagosa aphambili eTshayina "kumzamo wokuthintela intshukumo ekhulayo yokulawulwa kokutya kunye neerhafu zesoda ebezitshayela entshona, ”ingxelo yeNew York Times.  

Uphando olongezelelweyo kwezemfundo oluvela e-US Right to Know malunga ne-ILSI 

Ugcino lwamaxwebhu oShishino lwecuba lwe-UCSF luphelile Amaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI.  

Isifundo seswekile ye-ILSI “kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba”

Iingcali zempilo yoluntu zigxeka inkxaso-mali ye-ILSI isifundo seswekile epapashwe kwiphephancwadi lezonyango elidumileyo ngo-2016 oko "kwakuyingozi yokuhlaselwa kweengcebiso zezempilo zehlabathi zokutya iswekile encinci," uxele uAnahad O'Connor kwiThe New York Times. Isifundo esixhaswe ngemali yi-ILSI sathi izilumkiso zokusika iswekile zisekwe kubungqina obubuthathaka kwaye azinakuthenjwa.  

Ibali leThe Times licaphule uMarion Nestle, uprofesa kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York ofunda ukungqubana komdla kuphando lwezondlo, kwisifundo se-ILSI: "Oku kuphuma kanye kwincwadi yokudlala yecuba: yenza intandabuzo kwisayensi," utshilo uNestle. “Lo ngumzekelo weklasikhi wendlela inkxaso-mali yemizi-mveliso ekhetha ngayo izimvo. Iintloni. ” 

Iinkampani zecuba zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuthintela umgaqo-nkqubo 

Ingxelo kaJulayi 2000 yekomiti ezimeleyo yeWorld Health Organisation ichaze iindlela ezininzi apho ishishini lecuba lizame ukujongela phantsi iinzame zolawulo lwecuba ze-WHO, kubandakanya nokusebenzisa amaqela ezenzululwazi ukuphembelela ukwenziwa kwezigqibo ze-WHO kunye nokusebenzisa ingxoxo yenzululwazi malunga nemiphumela yezempilo. yecuba. I-ILSI idlale indima ephambili kwezi nzame, ngokokufunda kwimeko ye-ILSI ehamba nengxelo. "Iziphumo zibonisa ukuba i-ILSI yayisetyenziswa ziinkampani ezithile zecuba ukuthintela imigaqo-nkqubo yokulawula icuba. Abaphathi beofisi abaphezulu kwi-ILSI babandakanyeka ngokuthe ngqo kwezi zenzo, ”ngokophando lwetyala. Bona: 

Uvimba wamaXwebhu oShishino lweCuba lwe-UCSF une ngaphezulu kwamaxwebhu angama-6,800 aphathelele kwi-ILSI

Iinkokeli ze-ILSI zincedile ukukhusela i-glyphosate njengezitulo zepaneli ephambili 

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2016, i-ILSI yaqwalaselwa emva kokutyhilwa ukuba usekela-mongameli we-ILSI Yurophu, uNjingalwazi Alan Boobis, wayekwangusihlalo wepaneli ye-UN eyafumana ikhemikhali kaMonsanto glyphosate Kwakungenakwenzeka ukuba ubeke umngcipheko womhlaza ngokutya. Usihlalo we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uNjingalwazi u-Angelo Moretto, wayelilungu lebhodi ye-ILSI ye-Health and Environment Services Institute. Akukho nasinye kwizitulo ze-JMPR ezichaze indima yabo yobunkokeli kwi-ILSI njengengxabano yomdla, ngaphandle kwe igalelo lemali elibalulekileyo elifunyenwe yi-ILSI ukusuka eMonsanto kunye neqela lezorhwebo ngezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwane obuluqilima be-ILSI kumaziko ase-US kuLawulo lweZifo noThintelo  

NgoJuni 2016, Ilungelo laseMelika lokwazi ingxelo ukuba uGqirha Barbara Bowman, umlawuli wecandelo le-CDC eligwetyelwe ukuthintela isifo sentliziyo kunye ne-stroke, wazama ukunceda umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nefuthe kumagosa oMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi ukurhoxa kwimigaqo-nkqubo yokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweswekile. U-Bowman ucebise abantu kunye namaqela eMalaspina ukuba athethe nawo, kwaye wacela izimvo zakhe kwizishwankathelo zeengxelo ze-CDC, ii-imeyile zibonisa. (UBowman wehla emva kokuba inqaku lethu lokuqala lipapashiwe linika ingxelo ngezi zibophelelo.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 Isifundo kwikota yeMilbank ichaza ii-imeyile eziphambili zeMalaspina ngokudibanisa noGqirha Bowman. Ukufumana ingxelo engaphezulu ngesi sihloko, bona: 

Impembelelo ye-ILSI kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo zokuTya eMelika

Ingxelo yeqela elingenzi nzuzo Ukuphendula ngoxanduva uxwebhu lokuba i-ILSI inefuthe elinjani kwizikhokelo zokutya zase-US ngokungena kwayo kwiKomiti yeeNgcebiso ngeZikhokelo Zezokutya e-US. Ingxelo ivavanya ukuphazamiseka kwezopolitiko okuxhaphakileyo kokutya kunye neziselo ezinje ngeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, kunye nePepsiCo, kunye nendlela le mibutho eyenze ngayo i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inkqubela phambili kumgaqo-nkqubo wesondlo kwihlabathi liphela.

Impembelelo ye-ILSI eIndiya 

I-New York Times inike ingxelo ngempembelelo ye-ILSI e-India kwinqaku layo elinesihloko esithi, “IQela leShishini eliLuhlaza lenza iMilo yomgaqo-nkqubo wokutya kwihlabathi liphela. "

I-ILSI inonxibelelwano olusondeleyo namanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni eIndiya kwaye, njengase China, i-nonprofit ityhale imiyalezo efanayo kunye nezindululo zomgaqo-nkqubo njenge-Coca-Cola -ukudlala indima yeswekile kunye nokutya njengesizathu sokutyeba kakhulu, kunye nokukhuthaza ukwanda kwemisebenzi yomzimba njengesisombululo , ngokweZiko leZibonelelo zaseIndiya. 

Amalungu ebhodi ye-ILSI yase-India ibandakanya umphathi we-Coca-Cola wase-India kwimicimbi yezolawulo kunye nabameli abavela eNestlé nase-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyongeza ukutya, kunye namagosa aseburhulumenteni asebenza kwiiphaneli zesayensi ezinikwe uxanduva lokuthatha isigqibo malunga nemicimbi yokhuseleko lokutya.  

Ukuxhalaba okude malunga ne-ILSI 

I-ILSI inyanzelisa ukuba ayilo qela lokungenelela kushishino, kodwa inkxalabo kunye nezikhalazo zihlala ixesha elide malunga neqela elixhasa ushishino kunye nokungqubana komdla phakathi kweenkokheli zombutho. Jonga, umzekelo:

Ukuphelisa iimpembelelo zeshishini lokutya, Amayeza endalo (2019)

Iarhente yokutya iyalikhaba ibango lembambano. Kodwa izityholo zeshishini lokuthengisa zinokungcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophuIndalo (2010)

Ukutya Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Umlo wokugqibela woMnqamlezo, Gcina ukuLungela iMilo, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukutya okwenene xa kuvavanywa, NguGqirha Tim Noakes kunye noMarika Sboros (uColumbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukutshutshiswa nokutshutshiswa okungazange kubonwe nguNjingalwazi uTim Noakes, isazinzulu esaziwayo nogqirha, kwityala leerandi elingaphaya kweminyaka emine. Yonke itweet enye inika uluvo malunga nesondlo. ”