Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

Isityalo esingcolisayo se-Pesticide sivaliwe; Jonga amaxwebhu olawulo e-Nebraska ngokubhekisele kwiingxaki ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

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(~ # ~) Hlaziya (~ # ~) -Kwinyanga kaFebruwari, malunga nenyanga emva kokunika ingxelo kutyhile ubungozi besityalo se-AltEn sokusebenzisa imbewu ephathwa ngesibulali zinambuzane, abalawuli belizwe laseNebraska iyalele ukuba kuvalwe isityalo.  

khangela eli bali likaJanuwari 10 kwi-Guardian, eyayiyeyokuqala ukuveza amanqanaba ayingozi ezitshabalalisi zonakalise indawo encinci eNebraska kunye nokungasebenzi ngokuhambelana nabalawuli.

Iinkxalabo zijolise kwi-AltEn, isityalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska umthombo wezikhalazo zasekuhlaleni ngaphezulu kokusetyenziswa kwembewu egalelwe isibulali zinambuzane ukuze isetyenziswe kwimveliso yayo ye-biofuel kunye nemveliso yenkunkuma ebangelwe, ebonakalise ukuba inamanqanaba ezinto ezinobungozi ze-neonicotinoids kunye nezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ezingaphezulu kwamanqanaba ngokubanzi kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo.

Iinkxalabo eMead kodwa ngumzekelo wakutshanje wokukhula koloyiko lwehlabathi malunga neempembelelo ze-neonicotinoids.

Bona apha amanye amaxwebhu olawulo ahambelana nembambano kunye ezinye izinto zangasemva:

Uhlalutyo lweenkozo ze-wetcake distillers

Uhlalutyo lwamanzi amdaka 

Epreli 2018 isikhalazo sabemi

Impendulo kaRhulumente kwizikhalazo zika-Epreli 2018

Ngomhla ka-Meyi 2018 impendulo yelizwe kwizikhalazo

I-AltEn Yeka ukusebenzisa kunye nokuthengisa ileta ngoJuni 2019

Ileta kaRhulumente iyala iimvume kwaye ixoxa ngeengxaki

Uluhlu luka-Meyi 2018 lwamafama apho basasaza khona inkunkuma

NgoJulayi 2018 ingxoxo yenyangi ephathwe ngembewu emanzi

NgoSeptemba 2020 ileta iphinde ichitheke ngeefoto

Ngo-Okthobha u-2020 ileta yokungathobeli

Iifoto zasemoyeni zesayithi ethathwe ngurhulumente

I-Neonicotinoids ingazibulala njani iinyosi

Iindlela ezenzeka kwi-neonicotinoid pesticide residues ekutyeni nakumanzi eUnited States, 1999-2015

Ileta evela kwiingcali zezempilo isilumkiso se-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids

Ileta evela kuMbutho we-Endocrine eya kwi-EPA kwii-neonicotinoids 

I-Neonicotinoid pesticides inokuhlala kwintengiso yase-US, i-EPA ithi

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Ukulahleka kweenyosi: iNzululwazi, ezepolitiko kunye neMpilo yobusi (I-Rutgers University Press, 2017)

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

IMonsanto Roundup kunye neDicamba Trial Tracker

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Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesibhozo ku-Matshi 18: Amajaji afuna ukuva uFrom Ummangali kwakhona

Namhlanje kuphawula ukuqala kweveki yesine yesilingo somhlaza seHardeman V. Monsanto Roundup, kwaye abagwebi bebesaxoxa ngombuzo ekuphela kwawo ekufuneka bewuphendule ukuvala isigaba sokuqala setyala kwaye banokungena kwisigaba sesibini.

Abagwebi abathandathu baxelele iJaji uVince Chhabria ngolwe-Sihlanu ukuba njengokuba bexoxa ngabom bafuna ukuba ubungqina bommangali u-Edwin Hardeman bufundwe kubo. U-Chhabria uthe le nto izakwenzeka kwindawo yokuqala kusasa ngoMvulo.

Ngokwesicelo sikaMonsanto, ityala lahlulwe langamacandelo amabini. Inqanaba lokuqala lijongana nombuzo wokuba ingaba amajoni afumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kukaHardeman kwiRoundup "yinto ebalulekileyo" ekubangeleni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ukuba abagwebi baphendule ngazwi linye nguewe kulo mbuzo ityala liya kwisigaba sesibini apho amagqwetha kaHardeman aya kuthi abeke ubungqina obujolise ekuboniseni ukuba uMonsanto wayesazi umngcipheko womhlaza weRoundup kodwa wasebenza ngenkuthalo ukufihla olo lwazi kubathengi, ngokuyinxenye ingxelo yenzululwazi.

 Ukuba ityala liya kwinqanaba lesibini, ummangali uyakwenza njalo  ukuswela Ingqina elinye eliphambili- uCharles Benbrook - emva ijaji igwebe ukuba uya kubuthintela ngokuqatha ubungqina bukaBenbrook malunga nokuziphatha kukaMonsanto.

 Umcebisi okhokelayo kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff kunye nomcebisi wakhe u-Jennifer Moore baceba ukuchitha usuku kwinkundla yamatyala ngoMvulo njengoko ijaji ithe yaxoxa emva kokuphakamisa umsindo kaJaji Chhabria. U-Chhabria wacaphuka ngolwe-Sihlanu kuba amagqwetha ethathe ixesha elide kunokuba ebelindele ukufika enkundleni yamatyala emva kokuba bexelelwe ukuba onke amaqela kufuneka ahlangane ukujongana nesicelo samajoni sokuva ubungqina bukaHardeman kwakhona.

Chhabria wagstaff uWagstaff kwiveki yokuqala yokuxoxwa kwetyala loko wakubiza ngokuba "zizenzo ezininzi zokuziphatha gwenxa ngexesha lokuvula kwakhe ingxelo." Esinye sezikreqo zakhe, ngokuka-Chhabria, ukuchitha ixesha elininzi exelela abachopheli-mthetho malunga nomthengi wakhe kunye nokufumanisa isifo somhlaza.  

Ngomhla wesihlanu ku-Epreli 15: Iintengiso zikaGoogle ziphakamisa inkxalabo malunga nokuGwetywa

(QAPHELA 3:30 pm ixesha lePasifiki- IJurors zithatha umhlala phantsi usuku emva kokusilela kwakhona ukufikelela kwisigwebo. Ubungqina obuvela kummangali uEdwin Hardeman ukuba bufundwe buye kwijaji kusasa ngoMvulo ngesicelo sabo. Ijaji uChhabria uhlala ecaphuka ngamagqwetha ommangali, ecatshukisiwe bafike enkundleni ngo-Lwesihlanu emva kwemini.)

Amajaji abuyile enkundleni namhlanje aqala iingxoxo emva kosuku lokuphumla ngoLwesine. Mnye kuphela umbuzo ekufuneka bewuphendulile: "Ngaba uMnu Hardeman wabonisa ngokungakhathali kobungqina bokuba ukubonakaliswa kwakhe kwiRoundup yayiyinto ebalulekileyo ekubangeleni i-lymphoma yakhe engeyiyo iHodgkin?"

Ijaji icebise abagwebi ukuba xa bewucinga lo mbuzo ngomhla wabo wokungabikho akufuneki bafune ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lweRoundup okanye bafunde amanqaku eendaba okanye izifundo zesayensi ngalo mbandela. Kuya kufuneka bazivalele ekuqwalaseleni kuphela ubungqina obuzisiweyo etyaleni.

Into enomdla kukuba, izolo kwindawo yaseSan Francisco iintengiso zikaGoogle zazivela kwiifowuni ezikrelekrele kunye neekhompyuter ezikhuthaza ukhuseleko lweRoundup. Indawo enye ngokukodwa - Ukhula ngobulumko - ibingena phezulu kwezinye iisayithi zikaGoogle, inikezela ngezihloko ezinje "Ukoyikwa 'kweekhemikhali' ziziphumo zokungaqondani" kwaye "Jonga inzululwazi, ungoyiki amaqhinga, we-glyphosate herbicide." Nale ke - “Umbulali Wokhula Usilele Ukunqongophala Kwinkxaso Yesayensi.” 

 
Intengiso kaGoogle ivuselele uloyiko ngabathile ukuba iMonsanto kunye neBayer inokuthi ibandakanyeke ekwenzeni i-geofencing, igama elisetyenziselwa ukuchaza iqhinga lokuhambisa imiyalezo ethile kubantu abakwiindawo ezithile zejografi. 
 
Kwinyanga ephelileyo igqwetha likaHardeman uJennifer Moore uxelele iJaji uChhabria ngokoyika okugcinwe liqela lezomthetho likaHardeman lokuba uMonsanto kungenzeka ukuba ubekhe wabandakanyeka ekubanjweni kwegeof ngaphambili kwaye angaphinda enze njalo ukuzama ukuphembelela abagwebi.  UMoore uxelele ijaji babecinga “ukuba ingaba siza kufaka ifayile yokuthintela okwethutyana ukuthintela iMonsanto kulo naluphi na uhlobo lokubiyela i-geofcing okanye i-joror ejolise kumajelo eendaba ezentlalo okanye kwiintengiso zonqakrazo. Kwaye ke ndiza kucela nje ukuba kungenzeki. Asikwenzi oko kwicala lethu, kodwa andifuni nakuphi na ukujongwa kwabagwebi, amajelo abo eendaba okanye iindlela ze-Intanethi. ”
 
U-Chhabria uphendule wathi, "ayisiyiyo, ayithandabuzeki ukuba ayizukufaneleka kwaphela? Ngokucacileyo akukho mntu ngapha nangapha - akukho mntu ungaphakathi kwekhulu leemayile macala omabini onokuzama ukujolisa kuwo nawuphi na umyalezo wejouror okanye umntu oza kuba netyala lakhe ngayo nayiphi na imiyalezo. ”
 
I-geofencing yinkqubo eyaziwayo yentengiso ehambisa umyalezo / umxholo othile kuye nakubani na ngaphakathi kwendawo ethile echongwe yinkampani okanye iqela elihlawulela intengiso. Indawo inokuba ncinci kakhulu, imayile engqonge idilesi ethile, umzekelo. Okanye inokuba nkulu kakhulu. Nabani na okwindawo ekhethiweyo usebenzisa i-app kwifowuni efanelekileyo-enje ngemozulu yesimo sezulu okanye umdlalo-uya kuthi asiwe kwintengiso. 
 
Nokuba uMonsanto wenze okanye akazukusebenzisa iqhinga ukuzama ukuphembelela abagwebi kuya kuba nzima ukubonakalisa. Igqwetha lase Monsanto uBrian Stekloff uphendule kwiinkxalabo eziphakanyiswe kwinyanga ephelileyo kunye nesilumkiso sejaji malunga nokwenza i-geofencing ngelithi “Ndiyaqonda ukuba banokuba nezityholo, kodwa andizamkeli ezo zityholo… .. kunjalo sizakuhlala sizilandela…”  
 
 Ukubekwa kweentengiso zikaGoogle kumagama athile ophando akuthethi ukuba nabani na ebejolise kwijurors nge geofencing. Kwaye kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba ukuthengwa kweentengiso zikaGoogle bekukho- kwaye kuhlala-sisicwangciso esithandwayo esiqeshwe ngamagqwetha abamangali abafuna abathengi abatsha beRoundup. 
 

Ngomhla wamashumi amane aneshumi ku-Matshi 14: Uvavanyo kunye noMhla weJury 

AmaJurors anosuku lokuphumla namhlanje kodwa amagqwetha awanalo. U-Chhabria ubambe indlebe kunye namagqwetha omabini amacala ngo-12: 30 emva kwexesha lePasifiki lokuxoxa ngobubanzi besigaba sesibini, ukuba isigaba sesibini sibanjiwe.

Phakathi kwemiba ekuza kuxoxwa ngayo, amagqwetha ommangali ahlaziya isicelo sabo ukuze bakwazi ukubonisa ubungqina malunga nemizamo kaMonsanto yokuhlazisa isazinzulu saseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini emva kokupapashwa kwiziphumo zophando zakhe zango-2012 malunga neempuku ezondla amanzi athathwe nge-Roundup. Iirekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto zibonisa iinzame ezilungelelanisiweyo zokufumana iphepha laseSeralini lirhoxiswe, kubandakanya lo mtya we-imeyile.

Abasebenzi baseMonsanto kuyacaca ukuba babenebhongo ngoko bakubiza ngokuba "ngumnyhadala wemultimedia owawenzelwe ukuba usasazwe ngokungathandabuzekiyo" ngokuchasene neSeralini kangangokuba bayichonga njenge "mpumelelo" efanele ukwamkelwa.

Ubungqina bubonisa ukuba "ibali laseSéralini lisembindini wokungaphumeleli kukaMonsanto kunye neenzame zokusebenzisa umbono woluntu," utshilo amagqwetha kaEdwin Hardeman. Kananjalo bathi Ukugcwaliswa kwenkundla yabo, "Ubungqina buveza ukuba uMonsanto uphendule kolu phando ngokuzama ukujongela phantsi nokujongela phantsi uGqirha Séralini, obubungqina obuthe kratya" ukuba iMonsanto ayikhathali nokuba imveliso yayo inika abantu umhlaza, "kodwa" [ijolise] endaweni sisebenzisa uluvo loluntu kwaye sijongela phantsi nabani na ophakamisa inkxalabo yokwenene nesemthethweni ngalo mbandela. ” ”  

"Ibali laseSéralini liluncedo kwiinzame zikaMonsanto zokujongela phantsi iiNzululwazi eziphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neGlyphosate," abameli bakaHardeman bathi.

Amagqwetha kaHardeman afuna ingqina lengcali uCharles Benbrook ukuvunyelwa ukungqina ngalo mzekelo wokuziphatha ngokudibeneyo kweMonsanto "emva kokusetyenziswa," intsingiselo yesenzo sikaMonsanto esenzeka emva kokuba uHardeman eyekile ukusebenzisa iRoundup.

Ujaji Chhabria ngaphambili wagweba ukuba ubungqina obumalunga neenzame zokuhlazisa uSeralini babungenakwaziswa ngenxa yokuba ezo nzame zenzekile emva kokusetyenziswa kukaHardeman ngeRoundup kwaye ke ngekhe kumchaphazele. 

NgoLwesithathu, Chhabria ikwalawula Obo bungqina bemizamo kaMonsanto yokujongela phantsi i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza emva kokuba ichaze i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen enokwenzeka ukuba ayizukufakwa kwisigaba sesibini solingo kuba senzekile emva kokusetyenziswa kukaHardeman's Roundup.  

Njengamacala omabini alungiselela inqanaba lesibini, ukungabikho kwesigqibo esikhawulezileyo sejaji akukhombisi kakuhle kuHardeman. Amagqwetha akhe ayenethemba lokuthatha isigqibo ngamxhelo mnye ngabagwebi endaweni yabo. Nasiphi na isigqibo esenziwe yijaji masibe ngazwinye okanye ityala lingabhengezwa njengeliphambene.

Ngomhla wamashumi amathathu anesithathu ku-Matshi 13: Ukuxoxisana ngeJury

(Uhlaziyo lwevidiyo)

(QAPHELA 5:45 pm ixesha lePasifiki-Ijaji ithathe umhlala-phantsi ngokuhlwa kungekho sigwebo. Iingxoxo zokuqhubeka kwakhona ngolwesiHlanu.) 

Ujaji Chhabria uyalele amagqwetha omabini amacala ukuba akulungele ukwenza ingxelo yokuvula kwesigaba sesibini setyala namhlanje ukuba amajoni angabuya ngale ntsasa ngesigwebo. Isigaba sesibini senzeka kuphela, nangona kunjalo, ukuba abachopheli-tyala baqala ngokufumana ngazwi linye kummangali uEdwin Hardeman kwisigaba sokuqala, esasijongana kuphela nombuzo woko.

Umbuzo ekufuneka uphendulwe kwifom yesigwebo sejaji ichanekile ngokuthe ngqo:

Ngaba uMnu.Hardeman wangqina ubungqina bokuba ukubonakaliswa kwakhe kwiRoundup yayiyinto ebalulekileyo ekubangeleni i-lymphoma yakhe engeyiyo iHodgkin?

Kuya kuthatha bonke abagwebi abathandathu ukuba baphendule ewe kulo mbuzo ukuze ityala liqhubeke. Ukuba abagwebi bahlulelene ngendlela abawuphendula ngayo umbuzo, ijaji ithe iyakubhengeza ukungaziphathi kakuhle.

Ijaji ikhokele abagwebi kwindlela yokuwuthathela ingqalelo loo mbuzo kunye nendlela yokuvavanya ubungqina obunikwe bona kwi Uluhlu lwephepha le-17 yemiyalelo.

Amajaji avumelekile ukuba acele ukujonga kwimiboniso ethile kunye neziqwenga zobungqina kodwa abavumelekanga ukuba babone ukubhalwa kweentsuku zangaphambili zobungqina. Ijaji yathi ukuba amajoni afuna ukuphonononga ubungqina bengqina elithile angacela ukuba ubungqina belo ngqina, okanye inxenye yobungqina bengqina, bafundelwe wona kodwa amagqwetha nejaji kuya kufuneka babekhona kuloo nto.

Ukuba abagwebi babuyisa isigwebo esivuna uHardeman ngolwesiThathu emva kwemini, iingxelo zokuvula zesigaba sesibini ziya kwenzeka ngolwesiHlanu. 

U-Chhabria uzibambe ngamandla kwiingxoxo zokuvala ngolwe-Lwesibini, ethintela igqwetha likaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff ekuboniseni ifoto ka-Hardeman kunye nenkosikazi yakhe kwintetho yakhe yokuvala isilayidi. Uxelele uWagstaff ukuba le foto "ayichaphazeleki" kwaye wathi "akafuni kuva."
ukuqhubeka nokuxoxa ngale nto. ” Xa wayecela ingqiqo yakhe, u-Chhabria waphindaphinda inkolelo yakhe yokuba ayifanelekanga.  

IMonsanto yafaka ifayile ye- isindululo sesigwebo esithe ngqo NgoLwesibini, ephikisa ukuba uHardeman unike ubungqina "obaneleyo," kwaye uhlasele ngokuthembekileyo ugqirha wezifo uDennis Weisenburger, elinye lamangqina aziingcali zikaHardeman. UMgwebi Chhabria wasikhaba isindululo. 

Ngokwahlukeneyo, ezayo IPilliod V. Ityala leMonsanto KwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda County e-Oakland yayijonge iqula lamatyala elinabantu abangaphezulu kwama-200. Baceba ukukhetha i-17, enejuri ezili-12 kunye nezinye iindlela ezintlanu. Ityala alinakuqala de kube ngoMatshi 27 okanye ngoMatshi 28 ngenxa yenkqubo ende yokukhetha ijaji. 

Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesibini ku-Matshi 12: Inkxalabo malunga neMiyalelo yeJaji yeJaji

(Umbhalo ovela kwiinkqubo zanamhlanje)

(QAPHELA, nge-3 emva kwemini ixesha lePasifiki-Iingxoxo zokuvala zigqityiwe. Ijaji ifumene imiyalelo yengxoxo.)

Ukuvalwa kweengxoxo kuyaqhubeka ngoLwesibini. Kwisigaba sokuqala sikaHardeman V. Monsanto owamisa ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman amagqwetha akhupha isichaso esomeleleyo kwizicwangciso zikaJaji Vince Chhabria zokuyalela ijaji malunga nendlela yokuwujonga umba we-causation.

Indlela uChhabria ayibeke ngayo imiyalelo yakhe yenza ukuba "akunakwenzeka" ukuba uHardeman aphumelele, igqwetha uJennifer Moore wabhala encwadini kumgwebi. Umthetho waseCalifornia ubeka imiyalelo yokuba ukubangelwa kubangelwa xa into okanye isenzo "sisinto esibalulekileyo" ekubangeleni iziphumo. Kodwa imiyalelo yejaji ifuna abachopheli-tyala ukuba bafumane ukuba i-Roundup yayiyeyona nto yabangela ukuba i-Hardeman's non-Hodgkin lymphoma, u-Moore waphikisa.

Ujaji Chhabria uphendule ngokuthi akakwazi ukunika "umyalelo oqhelekileyo we-causation waseCalifornia" kuba amagqwetha ommangali ahlulekile ukubonisa ubungqina bokuba umhlaza kaHardeman ubangelwe zizinto ezininzi. Uye wathi, nangona kunjalo, angayiguqula kancinane imiyalelo ukuzama ukulungisa iingxaki. Kwi umyalelo wokugqibelaU-Chhabria wongeze amagama athi i-asubstantial factor "akufuneki ibengoyena nobangela womonakalo."

UMonsanto uphikisile ukuba umhlaza kaHardeman awubangelwa kukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kodwa kunokwenzeka ngenxa yesifo se-hepatitis C Hardeman ebineminyaka emininzi.

Esi sisixhobo esincinci esinomdla kwimiyalelo yejaji:

Okwangoku, kolandelayo IPilliod V. Ityala leMonsanto, ukumanyelwa kwesindululo kunye nokuxoxwa kwamabango obunzima kwabo baya kuba lijaji kuqala kwiveki ezayo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda County e-Oakland, hayi kude nedolophu yaseSan Francisco apho ityala likaHardeman lisenokuqhubeka ukuba liya kwinqanaba lesibini.

Iingxelo zokuvula kwityala le-Pilliod zingaqala ngo-Matshi 21 kodwa kunokwenzeka ukuba zenzeke ngo-Matshi 25 okanye kamva kuxhomekeke ekubeni inkqubo yokukhetha ijaji ithatha ixesha elingakanani.

 
Ngomhla ka-11 Matshi 2019: iHepatitis C kunye noHugh Grant?
 
Iqela lezomthetho likaMonsanto ngoMvulo libonise ubungqina bukaGqirha Alexandra Levine, ugqirha wegazi / oncologist kwiSixeko seThemba iZiko loMhlaza eliBanzi, efuna ukukholisa ijaji ukuba ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based yayingengonobangela womhlaza kaHardeman, kwaye I-hepatitis C Hardeman yayineminyaka emininzi. U-Levine wangqina ukuba ukhe wabona “ezininzi, ezininzi, amawaka ezigulana ezine-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” kwaye uthathwa njengengcali kweso sifo.
 
Ujaji Chhabria uthe kwiveki ephelileyo angathanda ukubona inqanaba lokuqala letyala lisongwa kwiveki ephelileyo, ethetha ukuba ityala kufanele ukuba lixoxwe kungekudala. Isigwebo sifuna ukuba bonke abagwebi abathandathu bavumelane ekufumaneni kwabo malunga nokuba ukubonwa kukaHardeman kwiRoundup "bekuyinto ebalulekileyo" ebangela umhlaza wakhe. Ijaji iya kuchazela amajaji ukuba kuthetha ntoni oko. (Jonga ukungena kwangoLwesihlanu ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya.)
 
Ukuba ijaji ayihambisani nesigqibo sokuba nguHardeman okanye uMonsanto ke ityala liya kuba yimpazamo. U-Chhabria ukwathe ukuba oko kuyenzeka ucinga ngokuzama kwakhona ngoMeyi.
 
Ukuba ijaji ifumene i-Hardeman kwi-causation, ityala liza kukhawuleza liye kwiSigaba II lisebenzisa i-jury efanayo. Kwaye kulapho izinto ziya kuqala khona ukuba nomdla. Amagqwetha kaHardeman cwangcisa ukubiza Abaphathi abaninzi beMonsanto kubungqina, kubandakanya owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kunye ne-CEO uHugh Grant. UGrant uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-35 kule nkampani kwaye wabizwa njenge-CEO ngo-2003. Wayekhokela le nkampani de yayokufunyanwa yiBayer AG kwihlobo ephelileyo.
 
Ukongeza, amagqwetha kaHardeman acwangcisa ukubiza uRoger McClellan, umhleli wephepha lezenzululwaziUphengululo oluBalulekileyo kwiToxicology(CRT), epapashe uthotho lwamaphepha ngoSeptemba 2016 owakhalimela ukufunyanwa yi-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) efumanisa ukuba i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu. Amaphepha ekuthiwa abhalwe ngoososayensi abazimeleyo abafumanise ukuba ubunzima bobungqina babonisa ukuba umbulali wokhula wayengenakufane abeke emngciphekweni we-carcinogenic ebantwini.
 
kunjalo, Amaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsantobonisa ukuba amaphepha acacisiwe kwasekuqaleni njengesicwangciso seMonsanto sokuhlazisa i-IARC. Enye yeenzululwazi eziphambili zeMonsanto kungekuphela njeyahlaziya le mibhalo-ngqangikodwa sasinesandla ekuyileni nasekuhleleni, nangona oko kungakhange kuvezwe yiCRT.
 
Amagqwetha kaHardeman ongezelelweyo athi acwangcise ukufowuna UDoreen Manchester, ye-Croplife America, umbutho we-agrochemical's lobbying umbutho. Indima kaManchester kwiCropLife ibisoloko inceda “ukukhokela kumanyano lwamazwe kunye noluntu ukuxhasa imiba yolawulo lwezibulali zinambuzane.”
 
Ngomhla wesihlanu ku-Epreli 8: Isigaba soku-2019 sikufuphi, iiJaji ziyaCinga ngeMiyalelo yeJury
 
Amagqwetha ommangali u-Edwin Hardeman aphumle ityala labo ngolwe-Sihlanu, enika uMonsanto ithuba lokubeka amangqina akhe kwesi sigaba sokuqala setyala.
 
Ujaji Chhabria uxele ukuba angathanda ukubona inqanaba lokuqala letyala lisongwa ekuqaleni kwiveki ezayo, kwaye uyalele amagqwetha omabini amacala ukuba akulungele ukuxoxa nokuxoxa. iiseti ezimbini zemiyalelo ecetywayo ukuze anike ijaji malunga neengxoxo malunga nenkcazo ye "causation."
 
Ityala likaHardeman ukuba livunyelwe ukuba liqhubele phambili kwiSigaba 2 apho kunokunikezelwa ngomonakalo, iqela lamajaji amathandathu kufuneka livume ngokufanayo ekufumaneni ukuba iRoundup ibangele ukuba ingeyo-Hodgkin lymphoma, ke imiyalelo yejaji malunga nendlela ichazwa ngayo into yingongoma ebalulekileyo.
 
Inketho yokuqala yejaji ifundeka ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: “Ukuphumelela kumbandela wonyango, Mnu. Hardeman kufuneka abonakalise ngokungathandabuzeki kobungqina bokuba iRoundup yayiyeyona nto ibalulekileyo ekubangeleni i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Into ebaluleke kakhulu yinto umntu oqiqayo anokuyijonga ukuba negalelo kulonzakalo. Ukuba awugqibi ekubeni uMnu.Hardeman ubonakalisile ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwakhe kwiRoundup yayiyinto ebalulekileyo ekubangeleni i-NHL yakhe, kuya kufuneka ufumane uMnu Hardeman nokuba uyakholelwa.nabanye oothunywashe abasemngciphekweni. ”
Ukhetho lwesibini lwejaji lunemigca emithathu yokuqala njengokhetho lokuqala kodwa ke longeze oku: "Ukuziphatha akuyonto ibalulekileyo ekonzakaleni ukuba ukwenzakala okufanayo ngekwenzekile ngaphandle kwendlela yokuziphatha. "
 
Ukhetho 2 lutshintsha umgca wokugqibela wemiyalelo kuthiwe: “Nangona kunjalo, ukuba ugqiba kwelokuba uMnu. Hardeman uqinisekisile ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwakhe kwi-Roundup kwakwanele ukubangela i-NHL yakhe, kuya kufuneka ke umfumanele uMnu Hardemaneven ukuba uyakholelwa ukuba ezinye izinto ezinobungozi bezanele ukubangela i-NHL yakhe. ”
 
Inxalenye enkulu yokuzikhusela kukaMonsanto yile ukucebisa ukuba ezinye izinto zingangunobangela womhlaza kaHardeman, kubandakanya umzabalazo we-hepatitis C. Iqela likaHardeman lithe waphiliswa ngo-2006 wesifo sokudumba kwesibindi C kodwa iqela likaMonsanto lithi umonakalo weseli kwi-hepatitis wawunokuba negalelo kumhlaza wakhe.
 
Ingqina lengcali yeMonsanto uGqirha Daniel Arber Kwingxelo yakhe yangaphambi kokuvavanywa kwetyala Ubhale ukuba uHardeman unemingcipheko emininzi ye-NHL, wathi: “Akukho nto ibonisa ukuba i-Roundup idlale nayiphi na indima kuphuhliso lwe-NHL yakhe,
kwaye akukho zimpawu zibonisa ukuba unobangela wale lymphoma. ”
 
Ujaji Chhabria ugwebe ukuba u-Arber akanakho ukungqina ukuba i-hepatitis C yabangela i-NHL ka-Hardeman kodwa bulawula ngoLwesineukuba u-Arber unokuchaza ukuba ukubonwa kukaHardeman ixesha elide kwi-hepatitis C kumshiye esemngciphekweni wokuphuhlisa i-NHL nasemva kokuba intsholongwane yakhe inyangwe ngempumelelo.
 
Amaxwebhu amatsha aliqela afayilisiwe ngawo omabini amaqela anxulumene nobungqina kunye nemiyalelo yejaji. Bona kwi Iphepha leMonsanto Amaphepha eHardeman.
 
Ngomhla wesixhenxe ku-Matshi 7: uMgwebi unamagama angqwabalala eMonsanto
 
UJaji Vince Chhabria ikhuphe impendulo ehlabayo Isindululo sikaMonsanto sokugweba ngesishwankathelo ngoLwesine, echaza ngokomyalelo wakhe wokuba kukho ubungqina obuninzi bokuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides- eyile Roundup- inokubangela umhlaza kommangali uEdwin Hardeman.
 
"Ukuthatha nje umzekelo omnye," ijaji yabhala, "iDe Roos (2003) ixhasa isigqibo sokuba iglyphosate iyinto enobungozi kwi-NHL, ukanti iMonsanto iyasilela ukuyikhankanya. IMonsanto ayinakuphumelela kwisindululo sesishwankathelo ngokutyeshela ubungqina obukhulu. ”
 
Uye wathi "bukhona ubungqina obaneleyo" bokuxhasa isohlwayo somonakalo kwiMonsanto ukuba ijaji ifumana uHardeman.
 
"Abamangali bazise ubungqina obuninzi bokuba uMonsanto khange ayithathe iyindlela ethe ngqo, ekhuselekileyo kukhuseleko lwemveliso yayo," utshilo uJaji Chhabria kwisigwebo sakhe.
 
Ijaji iqukumbele ngelithi: “Nangona ubungqina bokuba iRoundup ibangela umhlaza ububulungisa, kukho ubungqina obunamandla apho ijaji inokugqiba kwelokuba iMonsanto ayikhathali nokuba imveliso yayo inika abantu umhlaza, ijolise ekusebenziseni uluvo loluntu kunye nokusingela phantsi nabani na iphakamisa inkxalabo yokwenene engekho semthethweni ngalo mbandela. ”
 

Nge-Matshi 7, 2019: Akukho Tyala Namhlanje, kodwa ibali malunga novavanyo lokugqibela

(QAPHELA-Jonga uTim Litzenburg ikhawuntala yebango kwaye isindululo sokubetha)

Ukuphumelela kwimbali ephelileyo kwihlobo lase-California u-Dewayne "Lee" Johnson ngaphezulu kweMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo omtsha uBayer wenza iindaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye wenza amanye amagqwetha kaJohnson abadumileyo kwizangqa zomthetho, ewawonga amabhaso kunye nodumo lwamanye amazwe.

Kodwa ngasemva kwembonakalo yoloyiso, emva kwetyala lokuqala lokuqala lomhlaza eRoundup kubangele ukuba amagqwetha kaJohnson athabathe idabi elishushu lezomthetho, ngezityholo zokurhweba, ukusebenzisa iziyobisi kunye "nokunganyaniseki nokungaziphathi kakuhle."

Kwityala Kwaye kwafakwa isimangalo kwiNkundla yeSekethe yeOrange County eVirginia, iMiller Law Firm ityhola igqwetha uTim Litzenburg, umntu ozibonakalise njengegqwetha elikhokelayo likaJohnson, lokuba ulwazi lolwazi oluyimfihlo lwabathengi ngenjongo yokuseka inkampani yakhe eyahlukileyo, nanjengoko wayengaphumeleli ukubonisa iintlanganiso zokulungiselela ityala likaJohnson. Isikhalazo sikwabonisa ukuba uLitzenburg uvumile ukusebenzisa iziyobisi ngexesha likaJohnson.

Isikhalazo sathi: "Amalungu aliqela eqela likaMnu. Johnson. “Xa wayevumelekile ukuphikisa isindululo phambi kweNkundla…. ukuhanjiswa kwakhe kwakudidekile kwaye kungahambelani. Amalungu eqela elichopheleyo ayenexhala lokuba uMnu. Litzenburg wayephantsi kwempembelelo yeziyobisi egumbini lenkundla… ”

Ityala ngokwalo laphela liphethwe ngamanye amagqwetha kwaye i-Litzenburg yayingekho xa kuvalwa ityala okanye umhla apho ijaji yabuyisa isigwebo se-289 yezigidi ngokuchasene neMonsanto.

Malunga nenyanga enye kamva, nge-11 kaSeptemba 2018, iMiller Firm yaphelisa ingqesho yaseLitzenburg, kugwetywa.

I-Litzenburg, ngoku enxulumene nefemu ye IKincheloe, iLitzenburg kunye nePendleton, khange aphendule kwisicelo sokubeka izimvo, ngaphandle kokuthi "yayililishwa eliphazamisayo" emsebenzini wakhe kwinkampani yakhe entsha. Kwiingxelo ezidlulileyo uLitzenburg uchaze ukwahlukana kwakhe neMiller Firm ngenxa yokungaqondani noMike Miller, omnye wabaseki benkampani.

Oku kulandelayo zizicatshulwa ezivela kwimbambano:

 I-Litzenburg iqinisekisa ukuba amabango e-Miller Firm nxamnye naye "ayathandeka kwaye aqhelekile ukuba abe yintsomi" kwaye kungenxa yoloyiko lwe-Miller Firm lokuba bazakuphulukana nabathengi be-Roundup kwinkampani entsha ye-Litzenburg. Ubanga ukuba wanikwa i-1 yezigidi zeedola ngumsunguli oqinileyo uMike Miller ukuba ahambe kude nabathengi bakhe beRoundup kodwa wasala isipho. 

Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesithandathu ku-Epreli: kusondele ukuphela kwesigaba sokuqala

(Umbhalo osusela namhlanje inkqubo)

Ingqina lengcali lommangali uGqirha Dennis Weisenburger wayexilongwa ngolwe-Lwesithathu ngamagqwetha aseMonsanto emva kobungqina obuthe ngqo bexhoba lomhlaza uEdwin Hardeman. Amagqwetha kaHardeman athi sele eza kusondela esiphelweni sesigaba sokuqala sokuveza ityala labo.

U-Weisenburger, ugqirha wezifo ogxile ekufundeni oonobangela be-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, wangqina ngolwe-Lwesibini ngaphezulu kweeyure ezine, ehamba ngee-jurors ngobungqina benzululwazi athi ibonisa ukuba i-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto "ingunobangela omkhulu" womhlaza kubantu abatyhilekileyo. Walandela ubungqina bukaHardeman, owayethethe ixesha elingaphantsi kweyure ephantsi kovavanyo oluthe ngqo malunga nokusebenzisa kwakhe iRoundup amashumi eminyaka ngaphambi kokuba afumane isifo somhlaza kwi-2016.

Guardian waphinda ubungqina bukaHardemanapho wathi wafafaza iRoundup kanye ngenyanga kangangeeyure ezintathu ukuya kwezine ngexesha elijikeleze ipropathi yakhe kwaye ngamanye amaxesha wayeziva ngathi kukungqonga kwemichiza kulusu lwakhe.

Amagqwetha ommangali kulindeleke ukuba aphumle ityala labo namhlanje kodwa ubungqina buka Weisenburger bubaleke ixesha elide kangangokuba ngoku baceba ukuliphumula ityala xa inkundla iqhubeka ngolwe-Sihlanu. Akukho nkqubo icwangciselwe uLwesine.

Jonga amaxwebhu aphathelele kubungqina kwi Iphepha leMonsanto Papers.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, amagqwetha ahlanganisene kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda ukuze amamele "uSargon" ngaphambi kokuqala kuka-Matshi 18 UPilliod V. Monsanto. Ityala likaPilliod liza kuba lelesithathu ukuya kwilingo elicela umngeni iMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo omtsha uBayer ngaphezulu kwesityholo se-carcinogenicity yeemveliso zeRoundup. Jonga amaxwebhu ePilliod kule khonkco.

Ngomhla wesihlanu ku-Epreli 5: uHardeman wokuNgqina, iJuror yokuGula okanye hayi

(Umbhalo ovela kwiinkqubo zanamhlanje)

Emva kwekhefu lobungqina ngoMvulo ngenxa yejaji egulayo, ixhoba lomhlaza uEdwin Hardeman kulindeleke ukuba athathe indawo namhlanje kwityala eliqhubekayo lomhlaza eRoundup kwinkundla yomanyano eSan Francisco. Ubungqina bakhe kulindeleke ukuba bube ngaphantsi kweyure.

Ujaji Chhabria ubonise ukuba ityala liza kuqhubeka nanamhlanje ngaphandle kwegqwetha labasetyhini ukuba uyagula. Ngamajaji amathandathu kuphela ekufuneka ityala liqhubele phambili kwaye kungoku nje asixhenxe.

Uvavanyo olungqalileyo lukaHardeman, amagqwetha akhe acwangcise ukuzisa inkundla i-2-gallon, pump-up sprayer ukubonisa indlela ayisebenzisa ngayo i-Roundup kwipropathi yakhe iminyaka; indlela ukubonakaliswa kwakhe okuphindaphindiweyo kwenzeka ngayo. Amagqwetha eMonsanto ngoMvulo aye afuna ukusicwangcisa isicwangciso sokutshiza, esithi “iyakumema ijaji ukuba yenze uqikelelo malunga nokusetyenziswa kwesitshizi kunokuba nefuthe ekuchazekeni…” kodwa uChhabria wema kwicala lamagqwetha kaHardeman, esithi uza kuvumela isishwankathelo umboniso nesitshizi. Ude wenza isiqhulo:

INKUNDLA: Ndiyathetha, isikhokelo esinye esiluncedo endinokusinika sona ngoku kukuba abaMangali abavumelekanga ukukutshiza ngesitshizi.
NKSK. UMATTHEWS (igqwetha leMonsanto): Kulungile.
INKUNDLA: Kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo abavumelekanga ukundilalela ngesitshizi.

Kwelinye inyathelo eliqhwatyelwe izandla liqela lezomthetho likaHardeman, uChhabria uthe ngoMvulo ubungqina malunga "nengxelo kaParry" bunokuziswa kubameli. UMonsanto wakhanyela kodwa ijaji yavumelana nommangali "ukuba kuvulwe umnyango kwingxelo kaParry" yimizamo kaMonsanto yokuphikisa ubungqina bokubulawa kwe-genotoxicity kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. UGqirha James Parry wayengumcebisi oqeshwe yiMonsanto kwii-1990s ukujonga ubunzima bezinto ezinxamnye ne-genotoxicity eziphakanyiswe ngelo xesha ngoososayensi bangaphandle. Ingxelo kaParry yacebisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze izifundo ezongezelelweyo "ukucacisa umsebenzi onokubakho we-genotoxic" weglyphosate.

Jonga le snippet ukusuka Ingxoxo yangoMvulo kwesi sihloko:

INKUNDLA: Kulungile. Ewe, iMonsanto inengxelo evela kugqirha
ukuba iqeshe lonto- iphakamise inkxalabo malunga
genotoxicity of glyphosate.Ngoko kubonakala kum ukuba uyi - sele uthethile into kwijaji-nangaphambi kokuba sifike kwisibini sakho
inqaku, sele uthethile into kwi-jury engaphikiswa kwinqanaba ukuya kuxwebhu lwangaphakathi lweMonsanto. I-Andso kutheni le nto kungafuneki babenakho ukubeka ukungathandabuzeki kwisigqibo sikaMonsanto kwi-jury yokuba i-genotox ayinamsebenzi ngokuseka ukuba uMonsanto uqeshe ugqirha- okanye aqeshe
Ingcali yokujonga umba we-genotoxicity ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yee-90s kwaye ingcali yaphakamisa inkxalabo malunga ne-genotoxicity? … Ndiyathetha, iMonsanto yona iphande nge-genotox -yazisa umntu ukuba aphande nge-genotox, kwaye loo mntu ugqibe loo genotox -kungenzeka ukuba yi-genotoxic.

Emva kobungqina bukaHardeman, emva koko ube yingcali ingqina uDennis Weisenburger, Unjingalwazi weSebe lePathology leZiko lezeMpilo leSixeko sase-Omaha, Nebraska.

Ngomhla wamashumi amane anesithandathu ku-Epreli: ixhoba lomhlaza ukuba lime (hayi.)

(Umbhalo ovela kwiinkqubo zanamhlanje)

Ummangali uEdwin Hardeman wayecwangciselwe ukuthatha indawo namhlanje kunye nengcali ingqina uDennis Weisenburger, Unjingalwazi weSebe lePathology leZiko lezeMpilo leSixeko sase-Omaha, Nebraska.

Kodwa elinye igqwetha kubonakala ngathi ligula kakhulu ukuba linyamezele usuku olude lokuvavanywa kobungqina.

U-Weisenburger, ojolise kakhulu kufundo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), wayelingqina eliphambili kwichibi labamangali kunyaka ophelileyo xa wayenikela ubungqina phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria njengoko ijaji yayilinganisa ngoko okanye hayi ukuvumela ubunzima beRoundup amabango omhlaza aya phambili. I-Weisenburger ipapashe ngaphezulu kwama-50 amaphepha kwiijenali ezijongwe ngoontanga malunga nezizathu zeNHL.

Phambi kweendaba zokulibaziseka kwetyala, abamangali babelindele ukuba bayokulibeka kwakhona ityala labo ngolwe-Lwesibini, amangqina kaMonsanto ayemile ngoLwesithathu. Isigaba sokuqala setyala belilindelwe ukuba sigqitywe ngolwesiHlanu okanye ngoMvulo, utshilo amagqwetha.

Ityala liza kuhamba kwisigaba sesibini ukuba abagwebi baqale bavuma ukuba ukubonakaliswa kukaHardeman kwiRoundup yayingunobangela we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

U-Hardeman wasebenzisa i-Roundup ukusuka ekunyangeni ukhula kunye nokugqithisa kwipropathi ye-acre ezingama-56 yena kunye nenkosikazi yakhe kwi-Sonoma County. Uye waxela ukuba usebenzisa iRoundup kunye / okanye nemveliso ezinxulumene neMonsanto ukusuka ngo-1986 ukuya ku-2012. UHardeman wafunyaniswa ene-B-cell NHL ngoFebruwari ka-2015.

Ngaphandle kwejaji ekhoyo ijaji ijolise kwingxoxo yobungqina obuninzi bamagqwetha kaHardeman afuna ukwazisa kwisigaba sokuqala, esithi uMonsanto "wavula umnyango" wobungqina bokuba kungenjalo akuvumelekanga. Bona i Ingxoxo yommangali yokwazisa ubungqina obunxulumene nesifundo sempuku esinempikiswano esivela kwii-1980s, kunye nobungqina obunxulumene iinkxalabo ze-genotoxicity ephakanyiswe ngumcebisi weMonsanto, ngokuchaseneyo,Isikhundla sikaMonsanto kwisifundo sempuku kunye Umcimbi wobuchwephesha.

Abantu kwihlabathi liphela bayalandela ukuxoxwa kwetyala, kwaye isigqibo sejaji kwiveki ephelileyo sokugweba igqwetha elikhokelayo likaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff kuthiwa libangele ukhukula kwe-imeyile evela kumagqwetha nakwabanye abantu ababonelela ngenkxaso kwaye bavakalise ingqumbo ngesenzo sejaji.

Ngomhla woku-1 kaMatshi 2019: Into yokuhlafuna

(Umbhalo ovela kwiinkqubo zanamhlanje)

Nantsi ingxoxo enomdla yokuhlafuna ngempelaveki. Ngokujonga ukuphathwa ngokungaqhelekanga kukaJaji Vince Chhabria kwityala lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup ukuba lize kwinkundla yomanyano, (jonga ungeniso lwangaphambili lokubhabha kunye neminye imvelaphi) kunye ne-vitriol awayethethe ngayo nommangali u-Edwin Hardeman kwezomthetho, uninzi lwababukeli ubuziwe- yintoni enika? Ukuqhekeka, isigqibo sakhe sokugweba umcebisi okhokelayo, isoyikiso sakhe sokuligxotha ngokupheleleyo eli tyala, kunye nezimvo zakhe eziphindaphindwayo malunga nendlela ubungqina "bentshutshiso" bommangali, ngokucacileyo obubonakala buxhasa ukuzikhusela kukaMonsanto, ubuncinci kumanqanaba okuqala olingo. Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba kubekho unxibelelwano phakathi kweChabria neMonsanto?

I-Chhabria inemvelaphi entle ye-stellar. Uzalelwe wakhulela eCalifornia, wafumana isidanga sakhe somthetho ngo-1998 kwiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eBerkeley School of Law, waphumelela izidanga. Usebenze njengonobhala wezomthetho kwiijaji ezimbini zomdibaniso kunye nakwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yezoBulungisa uStephen Breyer kwaye wasebenza njengendibaniselwano yeefemu ezimbini zomthetho ngaphambi kokujoyina iOfisi yeGqwetha leSan Francisco City apho ebesebenza khona ukusukela ngo-2005 ukuya ku-2013. ibambe ngoku ehlotyeni lowama-2013.

Kodwa okubangela umdla kukuba, enye yeefemu zomthetho apho uChhabria wayesebenza khona iphakamise iinkophe.ICovington kunye neBurling, I-LLP, ngumkhuseli owaziwayo weendlela ezahlukeneyo zomdibaniso, kubandakanya iMonsanto Co Covington Ingxelo yesixhobo ekuncedeni iMonsanto ikhusele ngokuchasene nayo iinkxalabo zeshishini lobisi ngaphezulu kwenkxaso yokwenziwa kweenkomo yokukhulisa i-bovine, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-rBGH (yehomoni ekhulayo yokukhulisa iinkomo) okanye igama lePosilac.

U-Chhabria wasebenza e-firm phakathi kwe-2002-2004, ixesha apho idabi laseMonsanto elisemthethweni kwi-Posilac lalikwigiyeri ephezulu. Kuxelwe ukuba ubandakanyekile kulo mbandelangokuyinxenye "ngokuthumela iileta kuwo onke amaprosesa obisi e-US, elumkisa ukuba bajongane neziphumo ezinokubakho kwezomthetho ukuba babiza iimveliso zabathengi" njenge-rbGH-Simahla. "

ICovington mhlawumbi yaziwa kakhulu ngomsebenzi wayo kwishishini lecuba. Ijaji eMinnesota ngo-1997 Walawula ukuba ifemu wayeyikhathalele ngabom imiyalelo yenkundla yokuguqula amaxwebhu athile aphathelele kumabango okuba ishishini lecuba lenze iyelenqe leminyaka engama-40 lokulahlekisa uluntu malunga nefuthe lezempilo lokutshaya nokufihla uphando lwezenzululwazi olonakalisayo kuluntu.

Kungekudala ngaphambi kokuba u-Obama akhethe i-Chhabria kwisigwebo sakhe sobumbano, uninzi lwamagqwetha ase-Covington nase-Burling athathe amabala kulawulo, kubandakanya iGqwetha Jikelele u-Eric Holder kunye nosekela-ntloko yabasebenzi UDaniel Suleiman. MnaKuxelwe ukuba abasebenzi beenkampani zomthetho banegalelo elingaphezulu kweedola ezingama-340,000 kwiphulo lika-Obama.

Ukuhlala kukaChhabria eCovington kwakumfutshane, ukuze uqiniseke. Akukho bungqina bubonakalayo I-Chhabria yakha yamela iimfuno zikaMonsanto ngokuthe ngqo. Kodwa akayena mntu ungaziwayo kwilizwe lamandla kunye nefuthe, kwaye indlela amachaphaza adibanisa ngayo kule meko ayikacaci.

NgoFebruwari 28, 2019: Uvavanyo luya kuthatha usuku

NgoLwesine ziintsuku 'ezimnyama' kuvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup, okuthetha ukuba amagqwetha, amagqwetha kunye namangqina banosuku lokubamba umoya kunye nokuzidibanisa. Kwaye emva kokukhawuleza kunye nomsindo kwiintsuku ezintathu zokuqala kwetyala, banokusebenzisa ikhefu.

Emva kokuphulukana nelinye igqwetha ngoLwesithathu ekuseni, laqhubeka ityala ngobungqina bengqina lobuchwephe lengqina kunye nososayensi wangaphambili wase-US uChristopher Portier. Ubungqina babonelelwa ngevidiyo erekhodwe e-Australia kwiveki ephelileyo.

Ngexesha lekhefu emva kwemini kubungqina bukaPortier, uJaji Chhabria uthathe umzuzwana ukuzichaza ngezimvo ezithile azenzileyo kummangali omkhulu u-Aimee Wagstaff ngolwe-Lwesibini phambi emgweba ngento ayithethileyo kukungaziphathi kakuhle kwingxelo yakhe yokuvula kwijaji. (jonga kuqala ukungena kwebhlog ngeenkcukacha.)

Oku kulandelayo yinkcazo emfutshane:

INKUNDLA: Phambi kokuba sizise ijaji, ndifuna njalo
yenza ingxelo ekhawulezayo kuNks. Wagstaff.
Bendibonisa ukuva kwe-OSC phezolo, kwaye mna
Ndifuna ukucacisa into ibenye. Ndinike uluhlu lwezizathu zokuba kutheni
ndicinga ukuba indlela oziphethe ngayo ibiyinjongo, kwaye esinye sezizathu
Ngaba ububonakala ngathi uzilungiselele kwangaphambili -
ungafumana ixesha elinzima lokophula umthetho
izigwebo. Ukuchaza oko, ndisebenzise igama elithi "steely," kwaye mna
Ndifuna ukuyicacisa into ebendithetha ngayo.
Ndisebenzisa ngokuzithemba njengesichazi sokuzi-ayina,
oko kukuthi uzilungiselele into enzima kwaye
engathandekiyo. Inqaku lam yayikukuba andibonanga ndothukile kuwe
inxalenye; nanjengoko amagqwetha esiba ngathi ayothuka xa ekho
ndityholwa ngokwaphula imithetho yamatyala, oko kwakufanelekile kum
kumcimbi wenjongo. Kodwa u "steely" unenye intsingiselo njenge
Kulungile, eyona nto imbi kakhulu. Kwaye ndifuna ukukuqinisekisa
ayisiyiyo intsingiselo ebendiyisebenzisa okanye nam bendingenguye
ukucebisa nantoni na malunga neempawu zakho ngokubanzi.
Ke ndiyazi ukuba uyaqhubeka ukungavumelani nomthetho wam kunye nowam
Iziphumo malunga nenjongo, kodwa bendifuna ukuyenza loo nto
kucace.
NKSK. WAGSTAFF: Enkosi, Mbeko.

NgoFebruwari 27, 2019: Izisongelo zoMthetho kunye neeJokes zeJaji

(QAPHELA-Elinye igqwetha lisandul 'ukugxothwa. Elinye lamatyala asixhenxe abasetyhini lagxothwa kwinkqubo yentsasa. Oko kushiya indoda enye kunye nabasetyhini abathandathu. Kufuneka abagwebi abathandathu kwaye bonke kufuneka babe ngazwinye kwisigwebo sabo.)

Njengomhla wesithathu uvulwa kwityala lokuqala lomdibaniso malunga neemveliso zikaMonsanto zeRoundup zinokubangela umhlaza, iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukwenze kwacaca ukuba akalithandi iqela lezomthetho lika-Edwin Hardeman.

Chhabria ngolwe-Lwesibini ikhuphe isigqibo Esohlwaya igqwetha elikhokelayo likaHardeman uAimee Wagstaff malunga noko ijaji ikubone “njengezinto ezininzi zokuziphatha gwenxa,” wamhlawulisa i-500 yeedola kwaye emyalela ukuba anike uluhlu lwabo bonke abanye kwiqela lakhe abathathe inxaxheba ekuyileni ingxelo yakhe yokuvula ukuze abo baqondisi-mthetho nabo bohlwaywe. .

Emngciphekweni-iintetho ezahlukeneyo ezenziwe nguWagstaff ezithi iJaji uChhabria zigqithile kwizithintelo ezibekiweyo kubungqina obunokuviwa lijaji. I-Chhabria ifuna abagwebi beve kuphela malunga nobungqina besayensi ngaphandle komxholo malunga nokuziphatha kukaMonsanto befuna ukuphembelela irekhodi lesayensi kunye nolwazi lweziphumo ezithile zesayensi. Ukongeza, nangona bekungekho zithintelo kwindawo yokungeniswa kommangali u-Hardeman kwijaji, ijaji yaphikisana nendlela ka-Wagstaff yokwazisa kunye nenkcazo yendlela afunde ngayo ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Kwiinkqubo zangoMvulo Umgwebi wawucacisa umsindo wakhe kuWagstaff, wamphazamisa amaxesha amaninzi njengoko wayethetha nejaji kwaye emyalela ukuba atshintshe intetho yakhe. Uye wayalela ijaji ngaphezulu kwesihlandlo esinye ukuba ingakuqwalaseli oko kuthethwa nguWagstaff njengobungqina.

Kwinkundla ngolwe-Lwesibini, wamohlwaya uWagstaff kwaye wathi uyayazi ukuba isenzo sakhe sijolise ngenjongo zokutyeshela imiyalelo yakhe kuba khange abune phantsi "kokumhlasela kakhulu" enkundleni ngoMvulo ngexesha lokuvula kwakhe.

Apha ngezantsi kukho icandelo labo Inkqubo evela ngoLwesibini(Ukubhekisa ku-Moore kuthetha ukuba uJennifer Moore, ongumcebisi ngokubambisana kwityala likaHardeman.)

INKUNDLA: Zonke iintolo zalatha koku ukuba kukukholelwa okubi, kubandakanya, ngendlela, indlela abasabela ngayo uNks. Wagstaff kwizichaso. Wayecacile ukuba ukulungele oko. Uye wazicacisa kakuhle ukuba ndizokuhla nzima kuye. Kwaye waye-kwityala lakhe mhlawumbi, wayezimisele kakhulu ekuphenduleni kokuza kwam nzima kuye kuba wayesazi ukuba kuyeza kwaye wazilungiselela oko.

NKSK. MOORE: Ewe, ndi-Hlonipha, andicingi ukuba ayilunganga; kwaye oko kusekwe kuqikelelo kwinxalenye yeNkundla.

INKUNDLA: Oko kusekwe kuqwalaselo lwam lomzimba kunye nembonakalo yobuso.

NKSK. WAGSTAFF: Ewe, enyanisweni, Mbeko, ndingathanda ukuthetha malunga naloo mzuzu omnye. Inyani yokuba ndinokuphatha usiza phambi kwejaji mayingasetyenziselwa ngokuchasene nam. Kudala ndiza phambi kwakho ngoku, yintoni, iminyaka emithathu. Ke ndiqhele olu nxibelelwano ukubuyela umva. Kwaye inyani yokuba ndizilungiselele nantoni na oyithethileyo kum-kwaye uphazamise intetho yam yokuvula amaxesha ambalwa elandelelana- akufuneki isetyenziswe ngokuchasene nam. Inyani yokuba ndizolile xa undihlasela, akufuneki isetyenziswe nxamnye nam.

INKUNDLA: Bendingakuhlaseli. Ndinyanzelisa imigaqo, imithetho yangaphambi kokuthethwa kwangaphambili.

NKSK. WAGSTAFF: Utshilo nje into yokuba ndikwazile ukuzenza ubungqina benjongo, kwaye oko akulunganga.

Amagqwetha abamangali kweli tyala akholelwa kwelokuba umyalelo wejaji wokwahlula ityala libe ngamanqanaba amabini kwaye ubuthintele kabukhali ubungqina abanokuthi babunike kwi-jury iyathandeka kakhulu kuMonsanto kwaye ibonakalisa amandla abo wokuhlangabezana nomthwalo wobungqina kwityala. Bakwatsho ukuba isikhokelo sejaji kubuphi ubungqina obunokungena kwaye yintoni engenakudida. Kwaye bachaza ukuba igqwetha likaMonsanto nalo kwizitatimenti zokuvula lazisa ubungqina obabungavunyelwanga ngumgwebi, nangona wayengavunyelwanga.

Apha ngezantsi kukho okungakumbi okusuka Inkqubo yangoLwesibini:

INKUNDLA: Kwaye oko-oko kufanelekile kwinjongo. Oko kuyahambelana nokholo olubi. Into yokuba abaKhalazi bayenze yacaca gca into yokuba banomdla wokufumana olu lwazi kwiSigaba sokuQala bubungqina bokuba yayingeyompazamo nje ukuba kwenzeke ukuba babeke olu lwazi kwiingxelo zabo zokuqala.

NKSK. MOORE: Hlonipha, khange nditsho ukuba besiphelelwe lithemba. Into ebendizama ukuyicacisa kukuba indlela yokumiselwa kwetyala ayiqhelekanga. Kwaye ndiyacinga, Mhloniphekileyo, ukuba uyaqonda ukuba emva kokuphuma komyalelo wokwenza umsebenzi ukuba le yimeko eyahlukileyo apho ulinganisela khona ityala xa sithetha ngemeko enje ngale kwisayensi kuphela kwisigaba sokuqala, kwaye ibangele ukudideka kumacala omabini endlela.

Ngokuqinisekileyo.

Ihlaya lomhla - ndixelelwe ligqwetha elinqwenela ukuhlala lingachazwanga:

Q: "Ngubani elona gqwetha libalaseleyo likaMonsanto?"

A: "UMgwebi Chhabria."

FEyoMdumba 25, 2019: Ukunika ingxelo kwiNkundla(ii-tweets ezibhalwe apha ngokulandelelana kwexesha)

Amaxwebhu avela kuSuku 1 kwityala likaHardeman athunyelwe apha.

Jonga iTranscript yenkqubo.

khangela Ummangali weSilayidi sokuVula iSilayidi kwaye Idesika yeSilayidi yokuVula iMonsanto

3: 30 pm -Ijaji igxothiwe yijaji kodwa amagqwetha kwityala lomhlaza i-Roundup asathetha ngokuba ubungqina bunokusetyenziswa okanye bungenakusetyenziswa njani. Usacaphuka ngenxa yegqwetha lommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff onesibindi sokuthetha malunga ne-1983 @EPA dox ebonisa ukukhathazeka komhlaza nge-glyphosate.

Ujaji utyhola u-Aimee Wagstaff kwakhona esithi ufuna ukumohlwaya i-1,000, XNUMX yeedola kwaye mhlawumbi neqela lezomthetho lommangali. Ukubiza isenzo sakhe "sisidenge ngokumangalisayo."

2: 30emva kwemini Thumela uhlaziyo lwasemini:

  • Njengokuba ityala likaMonsanto Roundup lomhlaza liqala kwakhona, ingqina lommangali u-Beate Ritz uthetha namajaji malunga nomngcipheko, ixesha lokuzithemba kunye nokubaluleka kwezibalo zesayensi yomhlaza. Ichaphazela ixabiso lohlalutyo lweemeta. @Bayer
  • Ugqirha Ritz unika ubungqina malunga nezifundo ezahlukeneyo ezibonisa ukwanda komngcipheko womhlaza kwi-glyphosate exposure.
  • Ummangali uEdwin Hardeman kunye nenkosikazi yakhe babukele ngokuzolileyo, kodwa ngexesha lekhefu bavakalise ukukhathazeka ngenxa yokuba ingakanani iJaji uChhabria enobungqina obulinganiselweyo bokuva kwejaji.
  • Indlela eqinisekileyo yomlilo yokubonisa inkcaso evela @Bayer Monsanto amagqwetha kulingo lomhlaza we-Roundup: khankanya @IARCWHO udidi lwesayensi lwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen enokwenzeka.
  • Usuku lokuqala @Bayer Monsanto Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup uqukunjelwa emva kobungqina obude obuvela kwisazinzulu u-Beate Ritz ohamba ngeejuri ngophando olubonisa umngcipheko we-NHL ekuvezweni kwi-glyphosate herbicides. Ijaji ibulela abagwebi ngokunikela ingqalelo; ibaxelela ukuba bahlale kude namajelo eendaba.

  • Inye kuphela imini kunye novavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ephulukana nejuror. Omnye wala madoda mabini akwi-jury uthi usebenza nzima; akanakho ukulahlekelwa ngumvuzo wakhe. Oko kushiya abafazi abasi-7 kunye nendoda e-1 yokuthatha isigqibo kwityala. Isigwebo kufuneka sibe ngamxhelo-mnye ukuze ummangali aphumelele.

11: 38 amUbungqina bomsindo wejaji xa kuvulwa umjikelo wesilingo somhlaza kumanyano: i-odolo yommangali yommangali ukubonisa isizathu sokuba kutheni engafanelekanga ukuba ahlwaywe ngentsimbi yesi-8 ngokuhlwanje.

11: 10 am IMonsanto / iBayer isongele ukuvulwa kwayo kwaye ngoku ilungiselela ubungqina bokuqala, isazinzulu sommangali uBeate Ritz. Olunye uhlaziyo kwisiteyitimenti sokuvula:

  • Igqwetha lommangali lifuna ibarbar esecaleni njengoko ezo ngxelo zazithintelwe yimiyalelo yaphambi kwetyala kodwa ijaji yamoyisa.
  • Ngoku igqwetha laseMonsanto libonisa itshathi ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuye kwanda ngaphezu kwamashumi eminyaka, amaxabiso eNHL akakhange enze njalo. Uthi emva koko @IARCWHO kudweliso njenge-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen enokwenzeka @EPA kunye nabalawuli bamanye amazwe abavumelani.
  • Igqwetha lezokhuselo leMonsanto @Bayer kuluhlu; Ukuxelela amajoni konke malunga neSifundo seMpilo yezoLimo, esingakhange sibonakalise manyano phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Igqwetha lenza ukuba iMonsanto ayinanto yakwenza nesifundo.
10: 45 amNgoku ngu @Bayer Ithuba likaMonsanto lokuvula iingxelo- igqwetha uBrian Stekloff uxelela ijaji "I-Roundup ayikhange ibangele ukuba uMnu Hardeman's non-Hodgkin lymphoma."
 
  • Ijaji iyalela nje enye iMonsanto @Bayer isilayidi sisusiwe, siphazamisa isitetimenti sokuvula igqwetha lezokhuselo. Ukudlala ibhola ekhatywayo ngamacala omabini.
  • Igqwetha lommangali liyaphikisa kwelinye lamagqwetha eMonsanto; Ijaji iyavuma kwaye isilayidi siyasuswa. Ityala elenza igqwetha kwimbali kaHardeman ye-Hepatitis C enokubekek 'ityala nge-NHL yakhe.
  • Uxelela ama-jurors i-NHL luhlobo oluqhelekileyo lomhlaza kwaye uninzi lwamaxhoba eNHL ayingabo abasebenzisi beRoundup; akukho vavanyo ugqirha anokuluqhuba axelele isigulana ukuba isifo sakhe okanye asibangelwa yiRoundup.

10: 15 Uhlaziyo kumazwi okuvula egqwetha lommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff:

  • Ngoku ijaji isongela isohlwayo segqwetha lommangali kunye nokucinga ukuba ingavumi na ukuvumela ijaji ukuba ibone izilayidi zommangali. Ugqwetha ka @Bayer Monsanto uthi ewe. U-Aimee ucela ukulungisa ingxaki yakhe; Ijaji iyamsika.
  • Ijaji ngoku iyayigxotha i-jury ngekhefu kwaye i-RIP igqwetha lommangali-ithi "iwele umda" kwaye "ayilunganga kwaphela" kwingxelo yayo yokuvula. Uthi esi "sisilumkiso sakhe sokugqibela". Ungaze umzuzu otyhafileyo kwi @BayerUvavanyo lomhlaza weMonsanto Roundup.
  • Ujaji ukwamxelela ukuba "aqhubeke" xa ezama ukucacisa ukuba @EPAkuvavanya kuphela i-glyphosate kwaye ayiyiyo yonke imveliso.
  • Uvumelekile ukukhankanywa ngokufutshane kwe @IARCWHOUdidi lwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yomntu enokwenzeka kodwa ijaji iyamsika ngaphambi kokuba athethe kakhulu.
  • Kwingxelo yokuvula ka @BayerIgqwetha lommangali wommangalelwa iMonsanto Roundup likhomba kuhlalutyo lweemeta ezintsha ezibonisa ubudlelwane obunyanzelekileyo bomhlaza (jonga Ibali lomgcini).
  • Kwingxelo yokuvula yegqwetha lommangali lommangalelwa ojikelezayo ufunda ukusuka kwi1980s-era @EPAimemo "i-glyphosate ikrokrelwa" kwaye ihamba nebali lendlela iMonsanto eyenze ngayo inguquko yokuxhalaba kwe-EPA. Amajaji ajonge ukudideka yiyo yonke le nto yesayensi.

9: 35 am Ngoku igqwetha lommangali libalisa ibali lesifundo sempuku sowe-1983 esibangele @EPAscientists ukufumana umhlaza we-glyphosate obangela… phambi kokuba uMonsanto abaqinisekise ukuba bangakwenzi. yhu. Ujaji uyamsika kwakhona. Ibar esecaleni. @BayerMonsanto kufuneka ikuthande oku. Ngakumbi kuphononongo lwempuku luka-1983, jonga inqaku lika-2017, "Yeempuku, iMonsanto kunye neThumba eliMangalisayo."

9: 30 am Umxholo ophambili ngale ntsasa kukuba ijaji ayiniki ndlela igqwetha lommangali, nge @careygillam:

8: 49 am UMgwebi uChhabria ubonakalisa ukuqina kwangoko kolu vavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup. Wayeka igqwetha lommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff kwimizuzu nje embalwa evulelwe ibar esecaleni. UWagstaff wavula ngokwazisa umfazi wommangali, waqala ukubalisa ibali lobomi babo kwaye uHardeman wafumana iqhuma entanyeni yakhe. Ijaji yaphazamisa ukuxelela uWagstaff ukuba abambelele kwizimvo ezijongana nengxaki kuphela.

8: 10 am "Inkundla ngoku iseshoni". Igumbi lenkundla lipakishwe ngenxa yeengxelo zokuvula kwilingo lomhlaza we-Roundup. Kwangoko kwilulwane, iMonsanto Bayer, kunye negqwetha lommangali sele zingquzulwano ngobungqina obuza kuziswa.

8: 00 am Kwaye sihambile. Kwiinyanga ezintandathu emva kwejaji yaseCalifornia yagqiba kwelokuba ababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto kubangele umhlaza womgcini wendawo,Elinye ijaji laseCalifornia lilungiselela ukuva iimpikiswano ezifanayo nxamnye neMonsanto.

Ngeli xesha kwimeko iyaxoxwa kwinkundla yomanyano, hayi inkundla yelizwe. Ngokubalulekileyo, ijaji ivumile ngesicelo esivela eMonsanto sokuba ityala lixoxwe kwizigaba ezibini ezinobungqina bokungakhathali kunye nokuziphatha okukhohlisayo okwenziwe nguMonsanto ngexesha lesigaba sokuqala ukuvumela ijaji ukuba ijolise kuphela kubungqina obunxulumene nombuzo wokuba ingaba okanye hayi iimveliso zenkampani zazibekek 'ityala ngomhlaza wommangali.

Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman unesifo i-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, eyafunyanwa ngoFebruwari 2015, kwinyanga enye phambi kokuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) ichaze i-glyphosate, eyona nto iphambili kwi-Roundup yaseMonsanto nakwezinye iintlobo zeherbicide. Umhlaza womntu onokwenzeka.

UHardeman wasebenzisa iimveliso zeRoundup rhoqo ukunyanga ukhula kunye nokugqitha kwephecana elinamahektare angama-56 awayenayo eSonoma County. Amaxwebhu afakwe kwinkundla yomdibaniso malunga nokuvavanywa kukaHardeman kunokuba njalo fu maneka apha.

Abasetyhini abasixhenxe kunye namadoda amabini bakhethwe njengamajoni ukumamela ityala likaHardeman. Ijaji ithe eli tyala kufuneka liqhubeke ukuphela kuka-Matshi. Izolo uJaji Chhabria usikhanyele uMonsanto isindululo sesishwankathelo.

NgoFebruwari 20, 2019: IJaji ikhethwe

Amagqwetha akachithanga xesha ngoLwesithathu ekukhetheni ijaji yokuqalisa kwetyala kwiveki ezayo. Ijaji lenziwe ngabafazi abasi-7 kunye namadoda amabini. Ukuze ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman aphumelele ityala lakhe, isigwebo sejaji kufuneka sivumelane.

Ityala liyaxoxwa kwizigaba ezibini. Ukuba iijaji azifumani kummangali kwisigaba sokuqala akusayi kubakho sigaba sesibini. Jonga ngezantsi, nge-10 kaJanuwari, iposti ye-2019, ukufumana inkcazo ethe kratya ngomahluko kwizigaba ezibini.

Phambi kwamatyala amagqwetha omabini amacala afake uluhlu oluhlangeneyo lwemiboniso abaceba ukuyazisa, okanye "abanokungenisa", njengobungqina ngexesha lenkqubo. Uluhlu luqhuba amaphepha angama-463 kwaye lubandakanya iirekhodi ezisusela kumashumi eminyaka ye-EPA memos kunye nokutshintshiselana nge-imeyile neMonsanto ukuya kwizifundo zesayensi zamva nje.

NgoFebruwari 19, 2019: I-Minute yokugqibela

Ngaphantsi nje kweveki ukuba ihambe ngaphambi kokuvula ingxelo ngoFebruwari 25 kwityala laseburhulumenteni malunga nezityholo zokuba ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto base-glyphosate babangela umhlaza, amagqwetha omabini amacala ayelungiselela ukhetho lwejaji oluqala ngoLwesithathu.

Kwinkqubo yaphambi kokumanyelwa kwetyala ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman kunye neqela lezomthetho elimele iMonsanto, ngoku eyiyunithi ye-Bayer AG, sele bephikisana ngokukhethwa kwe-jury ngokusekwe kuphela kwiimpendulo ezibhaliweyo ezinikezwe ngabachopheli-tyala, kwaye uninzi sele lubethwe siSithili sase-US UMgwebi uVince Chhabria ngesizathu.

NgoLwesithathu, amagqwetha aya kubabuza buqu abaza kuba lijaji. Amagqwetha kaMonsanto axhalabile ngakumbi malunga nabameli abanokubakho abaziyo malunga nemeko yokuba iMonsanto ilahlekile ngehlobo elidlulileyo. Kwelo tyala, ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson uphumelele isigwebo sejaji kumabango afana nekaHardeman - ukuba ukubulawa kweentsholongwane zikaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba ingeyo-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye uMonsanto wasilela ukulumkisa ngomngcipheko. UJohnson wanikwa iirandi ezingama-289 ezigidi ngamajoni, kodwa ijaji kwelo tyala yasinciphisa isigwebo saya kwi-78 yezigidi.

Izibonda kule meko ziphezulu. Ukulahleka kokuqala kwabetha iBayer nzima; Ixabiso lesabelo lalo liphantsi phantse ngama-30 eepesenti okoko isigwebo kunye nabatyali zimali behleli bengabalulekanga. Enye ilahleko enkundleni inokubonelela ngesinye isibetho kwimali yentengiso yenkampani, ngakumbi kuba kukho malunga ne9,000 yabanye abamangali abalinde usuku lwabo enkundleni.

Ukulungiselela ukuvulwa kwetyala ngoMvulo kusasa, Ujaji Chhabria uthengoFebruwari 15 ukuva ukuba uyakwahlula bonke abagqatswa bejaji kwiluhlu lweMonsanto abathi bavile ngecala likaJohnson lokubuza imibuzo ethile malunga nolwazi lwabo lwelo tyala.

Phakathi kwabo sele behluthiwe echibini lejaji ngokusekwe kwimibuzo yabo ebhaliweyo yayiliqela labantu ababonisa ukuba baneembono ezimbi malunga neMonsanto. Ngelixa umgwebi evumelana nesicelo sikaMonsanto sokususa abo bantu echibini lejaji, wasikhaba isicelo samagqwetha ommangali sokuba ahlasele umntu oza kuba lijaji owathi ngokuchaseneyo - igqwetha labhala livakalelwa kukuba "bona (iMonsanto) banyanisekile kwaye iluncedo eluntwini, ”watsho ekholelwa ukuba i-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto ikhuselekile.

Ujaji Chhabria uthe “Khange ndicinge ukuba ukhona umntu kwi-Bay Area oziva ngale ndlela….”

Kwelinye inyathelo laphambi kokumanyelwa kwetyala, amagqwetha macala omabini ayese-Australia elungiselela ubungqina obuvela kwingqina lommangali uChristopher Portier. IPortier ibonelela ngobungqina oburekhodiweyo bevidiyo kwangaphambili ngokubuza ngokuthe ngqo nangokubuza imibuzo. Wayecwangciselwe ukuba abekhona enkundleni buqu kwityala kodwa wahlaselwa sisifo sentliziyo ngoJanuwari kwaye waye wacetyiswa ngokuchasene nohambo olude lomoya oluya kufuneka ukuba luvele buqu.

UPortier lelinye lamangqina eenkwenkwezi zommangali. Wayesakuba ngumlawuli weZiko leSizwe lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo kunye ne-Arhente yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRegistry yeZifo kunye nososayensi wangaphambili kwiZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi yezeMpilo.

Kwelinye inyathelo eliphambi kwetyala, iJaji uChhabria uthathe isigqibo ngoMvulo ngezindululo ezivela kubo bobabini ababandakanyekayo bobuphi ubungqina obuza kuvunyelwa bangene kunye nokungazukubandakanywa. U-Chhabria ugwebe ukuba kuyakubakho isigaba sokuqala setyala apho ubungqina buya kuncitshiswa kwisizathu. Ukuba ijaji ifumanisa ukuba iimveliso zikaMonsanto zabangela umhlaza kaHardeman kuyakubakho isigaba sesibini apho ubungqina bunokwaziswa ngokunxulumene nezityholo ngamagqwetha ommangali ukuba uMonsanto ubandakanyeke ekufihleni umngcipheko weemveliso zawo.

phakathi Izigwebo zikaChhabria zobungqina:

Ubungqina begqwetha lommangali lithetha ukuba uMonsanto ubandakanyeka ekubhaleni ngomphefumlo uncwadi lwenzululwazi alufakwanga kwisigaba sokuqala setyala.

  • Ubungqina okanye izinto zentengiso zikaMonsanto azifakwanga kuzo zombini izigaba.
  • Thelekisa phakathi kweMonsanto kunye nomzi mveliso wecuba ngaphandle.
  • I-imeyile evela kuMonsanto exoxa ngomsebenzi kunye neBhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi nezeMpilo ayifakwanga kwisigaba sokuqala.
  • Iingxoxo zokuba i-glyphosate iyafuneka "ukondla umhlaba" ayifakwanga kuzo zombini izigaba.
  • Amaxwebhu athile e-EPA akafakwanga.
  • Uhlalutyo olwenziwe yi-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando malunga noMhlaza ohlela i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yomntu enokwenzeka "ithintelwe."

Inqaku elinye lamagqwetha ommanqali aceba ukwazisa luhlalutyo lweemeta olubanzi uhlalutyo olutsha lwezesayensi Izinto ezinokubangela umhlaza kwi-glyphosate herbicides. Uphononongo lufumanise ukuba abantu abanokuchazwa okuphezulu kwi-herbicides banomngcipheko we-41% wokwanda kwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Ababhali bokufunda, oososayensi abaphezulu abaye basebenzisa iArhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo njengabacebisi, utshilo ubungqina"Ixhasa ikhonkco elinyanzelekileyo" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kunye nokwanda komngcipheko we-NHL.

NgoFebruwari 8, 2019: Ubungqina kunye neMicimbi- Ngezikhundla eziphezulu, ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza kwi-Roundup olusondela ngokukhawuleza ngoFebruwari 25, amagqwetha eMonsanto- kunye nomnini wayo uBayer AG - babeke uluhlu olude lobungqina kunye nemibaabafuni ukwaziswa xa kuxoxwa ityala.

Phakathi kwezinto inkampani engafuni ukuba zivezwe ematyaleni zezi zilandelayo: Ukukhankanywa kolunye ulwaphulo-mthetho oluchasene neMonsanto; ubungqina malunga nemisebenzi yenkampani yoluntu; uthelekiso nomzi mveliso wecuba; ulwazi malunga nokudibana kwenkampani kunye "neemveliso ezinempikiswano" ezinje ngeAgent Orange kunye neePCB; ulwazi malunga "nobutyebi" bukaMonsanto; kunye nolwazi malunga "nendima kaBayer kwiMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi."

Akukho bungqina uMonsanto afuna ukukhutshelwa ngaphandle kwetyala linento yokwenza nokuba ngaba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi libangele ukuba ummangali anga-Hodgkin lymphoma, amagqwetha enkampani axelele ijaji.

Amagqwetha abamangali anoluhlu lwabo lwezinto abanokukhetha ukungazinikwa kwijaji. Phakathi kwabo: Ulwazi malunga nentengiso yegqwetha labamangali kwityala leRoundup; "imbali yezonyango engahambelaniyo" yommangali uEdwin Hardeman; kunye nobungqina malunga nezigqibo zolawulo lwangaphandle.

Ngeli xesha, ngoFebruwari 6 omabini la maqela afake "uluhlu lokubonisa ulingo ngokudibeneyo" oluchaza ubungqina kunye nobungqina abaceba ukububeka-okanye banokubonisa-kwijaji. Uluhlu luqhuba amaphepha e-314 kwaye lubandakanya uxwebhu lwangaphakathi lweMonsanto kunye namaxwebhu olawulo, izifundo zesayensi, kunye neengxelo ngamangqina eengcali ezahlukeneyo.

UBayer wongeze elinye ilungu kwiqela lezokhuselo leMonsanto Roundup. Ngomhla kaFebruwari 8, u-Shook Hardy kunye nommeli we-Bacon uJames Shepherd wafaka isaziso sakhe sokuvela kwi-Roundup Products Liability Litigation kwinkundla yomanyano. UMelusi ukhusele iBayer ngokuchasene namatyala ohlukeneyo, kubandakanya amabango atyhola ukwenzakala okuboshwe kwiyeza likaBayer lokunciphisa amayeza, kunye nezityholo zokonzakala kwesixhobo se-intrauterine (IUD).

Ngokunjalo, omabini la macala kutshanje afake uluhlu oludibeneyo lwemiboniso yesicwangciso ngasinye sokuziswa kwityala, kubandakanya ukufakwa, iifoto, ii-imeyile, amaxwebhu olawulo, izifundo zesayensi kunye nokunye. Uluhlu lunamaphepha angama-320.

Ujaji Vince Chhabria ubonakalisile kwityala likaFebruwari 4 ukuba xa ijaji ifumana ummangali kwisigaba sokuqala setyala elihlukeneyo, okuthetha ukuba ijaji igqiba kwelokuba ukubulawa kweyeza kukaMonsanto kungunobangela womhlaza kaEdwin Hardeman, isigaba sesibini setyala qalisa ngosuku olulandelayo. Inqanaba lesibini liza kugxila kwindlela aziphatha ngayo uMonsanto kunye nakowuphi na umonakalo.

Onke amaxwebhu ahambelana noko anokufumaneka kuthi Iphepha leMonsanto Papers.

January 29, 2019 -Singaphantsi kwenyanga kude ukuqala kwe Ityala lokuqala lomdibanisoKwimveliso ye-Roundup ityala, kwaye omabini amacala alayisha iifayile zenkundla ngamanqaku okubongoza kunye nemiboniso. Okubandakanyiweyo kwiifilitha zamva nje ngamaxwebhu athile angaphakathi eMonsanto. Zimbalwa zigqanyisiwe apha ngezantsi. Ukuthunyelwa okupheleleyo kwamaxwebhu enkundla kunokufumaneka kwi-USRTK ephambili Iphepha leMonsanto Papers.

  • Sukuma kwaye ukhwaze iglyphosate:Iimeyile zangaphakathi zeMonsanto kubhalwe ngo-1999 iinkcukacha zenkampani “zokufikelela kubunzululwazi” kunye neenzame zokuphuhlisa uthungelwano lwehlabathi “lweengcali zenzululwazi zangaphandle ezinempembelelo ekuqhubeni inzululwazi, abalawuli, uluvo loluntu, njl. Isicwangciso sifuna ukuba abantu "ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo / emva kwezigcawu" basebenze egameni leMonsanto. Inkampani yayifuna "abantu ukuba baphakame bakhwaze iGlyphosate ayiyityhefu," ngokwentambo ye-imeyile. Kwisicwangciso sokusebenza “kungafuneka baqhawule umtshato noMonsanto ngokunxulumana ngqo nengcali okanye siza kumosha i- $ 1,000 / ngosuku aba bantu bahlawulisayo.”
  • Le ntambo ye-imeyile inomdla ukusuka kuJanuwari 2015 uxoxa ngomsebenzi wezityalo wase Monsanto othathe umhlala-phantsi oxele kwinkampani ukuba ufumene ukuba une-leukemia yeseli esineenwele, uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ubhale ukuba "unegazi elingaqhelekanga" ngaphambi kokuba athathe umhlala-phantsi, kwaye wayezibuza ukuba ingaba ukuxilongwa kwakhe "kunxulumene nokusebenza kuyo yonke imichiza" kumzi-mveliso wale nkampani. Iqela lempembelelo "elibi" lajonga imeko yakhe kwaye uMonsanto "umongikazi wezempilo" wamxelela ukuba abafumananga unxibelelwano phakathi "kwemeko yakhe yonyango" kunye neekhemikhali kwisityalo awayesebenza kuso. Bakwabonisa ngentambo ye-imeyile ukuba akukho sidingo sokwazisa i-EPA. I-imeyile enye yomhla wama-21 ku-Novemba ngo-2014 ibhalwe ngokubanzi isiya kubasebenzi "beMonsanto" kwiqela elineziphumo ezibi lenza ukuba abasebenzi bazi ukuba nangona i-EPA ifuna ukuba kunikwe ingxelo malunga neziphumo ezibi zemveliso yezibulali zinambuzane ezinjengokwenzakala okanye iingxaki zempilo, abasebenzi akufuneki bazise i-EPA ngokwabo ukuba bayazazi naziphi na iingxaki ezinjalo. Abasebenzi kufuneka "bagqithisele kwangoko" ulwazi kwicandelo leziphumo ezibi zenkampani endaweni yoko.
  • Ngaba iMonsanto isebenzisane kwiSifundo se-AHS? UMonsanto kunye nomnini omtsha uBayer baphindaphinde ukufuna ukuphikisa amanqaku kwizifundo ezibonisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-glyphosate herbicides kunye nomhlaza ngokujonga isifundo esinye-uhlaziyo kwi-United States exhaswa ngurhulumente wezeMpilo kwezolimo (AHS) engafumananga manyano phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma . I-AHS yinxalenye yesiseko sokhuselo lwenkampani kwityala leemveliso zeRoundup. Kodwa bekukho imibuzo emininzi malunga nexesha lohlaziyo lwe-AHS, olubaleke ngokujonga oontanga ngokukhawuleza kakhulu kunesiqhelo kumaphepha kwiijenali ezijongwe ngoontanga. Uhlaziyo ikhutshwe eluntwini kusasa nge-9 ka-Novemba ngo-2017-ngemini enye nenkundla yamatyala ebalulekileyo kumlo wesimangalo i-Roundup. Ibiyi icatshulwe nguMonsanto kuloo ngxoxo "njengophuhliso olubalulekileyo" kunye nesizathu sokulibazisa iinkqubo. Ngomhla we-11 kuMeyi 2015 yangaphakathi iMonsanto “Isindululo seeProjekthi zeNzululwazi ze-Post-IARCIxoxa ngokubakho kwe "AHS Intsebenziswano." UMonsanto wabiza isindululo esithi "sesona sinomtsalane" njengoko kubonakala ngathi iMonsanto "ibithe qelele" kolu phando.
  • Ngaphandle kwentetho eninzi malunga "nezifundo ezingama-800”Kubonisa ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate Monsanto evunyiweyo kwifayile emfutshaneukuba "ayichonganga nayiphi na iinyanga ezili-12 okanye izifundo ezingapheliyo zetyhefu eziye zenziwa kwi-glyphosate equlethe iifom ezazifumaneka ukuthengiswa e-United States ngoJuni 29, 2017."

Iindaba ezahlukileyo zenqaku -Ingqina lezenzululwazi labangqina uGqirha uChristopher Portier akazokuza eSan Francisco ukuzokungqina kwityala njengoko bekucetyiwe. UPortier wahlaselwa sisifo sentliziyo ngelixa wayehamba e-Australia ekuqaleni kukaJanuwari kwaye usaphila.

Kwintshukumo eyamkelweyo ngamagqwetha amangali, iJaji yaseMelika uVincent Chhabria ngoMvulo uthe yena inokuvumela ubungqina malunga nesiporho sokubhala kukaMonsanto kwizifundo zesayensi kwisigaba sokuqala solingo oluzayo ngaphandle kwemizamo kaMonsanto yokugcina ubungqina kude kube ngaphandle kokuba isigaba sesibini setyala senzekile. Ubungqina bemizamo kaMonsanto yokuphembelela abalawuli kunye nososayensi banokuthi bavunyelwe kwisigaba sokuqala, utshilo uChhabria. U-Chhabria uyalele ukuba ityala lihlukaniswe, oko kuthetha ukuba inqanaba lokuqala liza kujongana nesityholo sokubangelwa. Ukuba ijaji ifumanisa ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangele ukuba umhlaza wommangali u-Edwin Hardeman, isigaba sesibini siza kubanjelwa ukuphonononga indlela yokuziphatha kukaMonsanto.

NgoJanuwari 18, 2019 -Ixesha libaleka xa kusondela ityala elikhulu.U-Jaji wase-US uVince Chhabria usete ubungqina bokumanyelwa kwe-28 kaJanuwari nge-9 kusasa ngexesha lendawo kwinkundla yomanyano eSan Francisco ukuba ilandelwe yindibano ka-"Daubert" ngalo mhla nge-2 emva kwemini. Ukuqwalaselwa kobungqina kunye neengcali eziza kuba yinto ephambili kwilingo lokuqala lokuthathwa kwamanyathelo athatha ukuba iMonsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides inokubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto iwugubungele umngcipheko. Ukurekhodwa kwevidiyo kweenkqubo kuyavunyelwa.

I-Chhabria ithathe inyathelo elingaqhelekanga lokuvumelana nesicelo esivela kumagqwetha amele iMonsanto kunye nomnini wayo u-Bayer AG wokulichophela ityala. Isigaba sokuqala, ngesicelo sikaMonsanto, siya kujongana kuphela nobungqina bokubangela okukuko- ukuba ngaba iimveliso zayo zibangele ukuba umhlaza uhlaselwe ngummangali uEdwin Hardeman. Ubungqina bemizamo yeMonsanto yokulawula abalawuli kunye noncwadi lwenzululwazi kunye "nokubhala kwesiporho" amanqaku ahlukeneyo anokuboniswa kuphela kwisigaba sesibini setyala ukuba abagwebi kwisigaba sokuqala bafumanisa ukuba iyeza lokubulala ukhula lalinokubangela umhlaza kaHardeman.

Amaqela akavumelani malunga nobuphi ubungqina ekufuneka buvunyelwe kwinqanaba lesizathu.

IMonsanto icele ngokukodwa ijaji ukuba ingabandakanyi kubungqina:

  • I-imeyile ka-2001 echaza iingxoxo zangaphakathi ngokubhekisele kuphononongo oluzimeleyo lwezifo olupapashwe ngaloo nyaka.
  • I-imeyile yangaphakathi ka-2015 ngokubhekisele kubudlelane benkampani kunye nenkxaso mali kwiBhunga laseMelika lezeNzululwazi kunye neMpilo, iqela elizimeleyo ukuba lizimele kwimizi-mveliso njengoko likhuthaza umyalezo wokhuseleko malunga neemveliso zeglyphosate.
  • Ikhonkco le-imeyile le-2015 kubandakanya nengcaciso yangaphakathi yesazinzulu seMonsanto uBill Heydens malunga nendima yokudlalwa ngamagosa asebenza kwimveliso ye-glyphosate.

Kwinqaku loku-1, amagqwetha kaHardeman athe azizimiselanga kuzisa ubungqina "ngaphandle kokuba umnyango uvulwe nguMonsanto."

Kwinqaku 2, bathi kananjalo abazimisele ukwazisa imbalelwano ye-ACSH “ngaphandle kokuba iMonsanto nangayiphi na indlela ithembele kwizikhundla zenzululwazi ye-ACSH ngokubhekisele kwi-carcinogenicity” ye-glyphosate-based formulations “okanye ukuhlaselwa kuhlelo lwe-IARC lwe-glyphosate.”

Ngokubhekisele kwityathanga le-imeyile lika-Heydens ka-2015, igqwetha likaHardeman lithi imbalelwano iyakhanyisa kumbuzo osisizathu. I-imeyile ka-Heydens ibhekisa kwiziphumo zophononongo luka-2010 ekubhekiswa kulo njengoGeorge et al., Efumene ukwanda ngokwamanani amathumba kulusu lweempuku emva kokuvezwa kwimveliso yeRoundup eyenziweyo. Olu phononongo luxhomekeke kwiingcali zommangalelwa ngokubanzi.

Ileta emfutshane ibeka izikhundla ngamaqela aphikisayo ulapha.

Kwimicimbi eyahlukileyo-ukuvalwa umlomo kukarhulumente okuqhubekayo kunokuba nefuthe kumhla wokuvavanywa kwetyala likaHardeman. Ujaji Chhabria uthe akazimiselanga ukucela abagwebi ukuba bahlale kwilingo bengakhange bahlawulwe.

NgoJanuwari 16, 2019-(Ehlaziyiweyo ngoFebruwari 9, 2019) Amaxwebhu amatsha afakwe kwinkundla yomanyano asoyikisa ngokuveza intatheli yeendaba yeReuters uKate Kelland ngokusebenza njengopopi kaMonsanto ekuqhubeni ingxelo engeyonyani malunga nososayensi womhlaza u-Aaron Blair kunye ne-Arhente yeHlabathi yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) echaza i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen enokwenzeka.

Ngo-2017, uKelland wabhala ibali elinempikiswano kuxelwe "kumaxwebhu enkundla," oko kubonakala ngathi wondliwe ngumphathi weMonsanto owanikezela ngoncedo amanqaku aphambili inkampani eyayifuna ukuyenza. Amaxwebhu uKelland akhankanyiweyo awazange afakwe enkundleni, kwaye ayengafumaneki esidlangalaleni ngexesha ebhala ibali lakhe kodwa ukubhala ukuba ibali lakhe lisekwe kumaxwebhu enkundla amvumela ukuba aphephe ukuveza indima kaMonsanto ekuqhubeni ibali.

Xa ibali laphuma, labonisa isazinzulu somhlaza u-Aaron Blair efihla "ulwazi olubalulekileyo" olungafumani makhonkco phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza kwi-IARC. UKelland wabhala ukuba uBlair "uthe idatha yayiza kutshintsha uhlalutyo lwe-IARC" nangona ukuhlaziywa kokufakwa ngokupheleleyo kubonisa ukuba uBlair akazange athethe oko.

U-Kelland akabonisanga khonkco kula maxwebhu awakhankanyileyo, isenza ukuba abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ngokwabo ukuba uziva kude kangakanani ngokuchaneka.

Ibali lathathwa ngamajelo osasazo kwihlabathi liphela, kwaye lakhuthazwa yiMonsanto kunye neekhemikhali zamanye amahlakani. Iintengiso zikaGoogle zaze zathengwa zikhuthaza ibali.

Ngoku, ulwazi olutsha ityhilwe kwiifayile zenkundla ibonisa ukuba besinzima kangakanani isandla sikaMonsanto ekutyhaleni ingxelo. Kwifayile yenkundla kaJanuwari 15, amagqwetha ommangali akhankanya imbalelwano yangaphakathi yeMonsanto Umhla we-27 ka-Epreli ka-2017 bathi babonisa ukuba isigqeba seMonsanto uSam Murphey wathumela ingxelo efunekayo kuKelland kunye indawo yesilayidi yeendawo zokuthetha kunye nenxalenye yokufakwa kweBlair engafakwanga enkundleni. Amagqwetha athi imbalelwano ibonisa isigqeba seMonsanto simcela ukuba apapashe inqaku elityhola uGqirha Blair ngokukhohlisa i-IARC.

Amagqwetha kaMonsanto kunye neBayer azamile ukugcina imbalelwano noKelland etywiniwe kuluntu, kwaye ezinye ii-imeyile phakathi kwentatheli yeReuters neMonsanto azikakhululwa.

Amagqwetha ommangali nawo abhala kwileta yabo emfutshane ukuba amaxwebhu angaphakathi kaMonsanto abonisa ukuba uKelland ubonwa njengonxibelelwano oluphambili kwimithombo yeendaba kwimizamo yabo yokuhlazisa i-IARC.

Akukho nto iphosakeleyo ngokwendalo ekufumaneni iingcebiso zebali ezixhamla iinkampani ezivela kwiinkampani ngokwazo. Kwenzeka lonke ixesha. Kodwa oonondaba kufuneka bakhuthale ekuboniseni iinyani, hayi kubuxoki benkampani.

Eli bali lalisetyenziswa yiMonsanto ukuhlasela i-IARC kwimida emininzi, kubandakanya umzamo weMonsanto ukufumana iCongress ukuba ihluthe imali ukusuka IARC.

Okona kuncinci, uKelland wayefanele ukuba anyaniseke kubafundi kwaye avume ukuba iMonsanto yayingumthombo wakhe. I-Reuters ityala umhlaba-kunye ne-IARC-uxolo.Ngemvelaphi engaphezulu kwesi sihloko, jonga eli nqaku.

NgoJanuwari 10, 2019 -Kulabo bafuna iinkcukacha ezithe kratya malunga nokuqiqa kunye nokulungiswa kwesigqibo sejaji yenkundla yomdibaniso yokunciphisa ubuninzi bobungqina obunxulumene nokunxibelelana kwangaphakathi kukaMonsanto kunye nokuziphatha kwityala lokuqala lomdibaniso, oku kubhaliweyoUkuxoxwa kwetyala ngoJan. 4 ngalo mbandela kuyafundisa.

Nalu ke utshintsho phakathi kwegqwetha lommangali u-Brent Wisner kunye ne-jaji u-Vince Chhabria ebonisa ukukhathazeka kunye noloyiko lwamagqwetha ommangali angaphaya komda wobungqina babo ekuqondiseni ukungqinisisa, ubungqina obuninzi obujongana nokuziphatha kuka-Monsanto kunye nonxibelelwano lwangaphakathi oluthintelweyo. Ijaji ithe ubungqina buza kungena kuphela kwisigaba sesibini setyala ukuba abagwebi kwisigaba sokuqala bafumanisa ukuba iimveliso zeMonsanto's Roundup zinegalelo ngqo kumhlaza wommangali.

  1. ISILUMKISO: Nanku umzekelo omkhulu: Ingcali yezobisi eyintloko kaMonsanto,

UDonna Farmer, ubhala kwi-imeyile: Asinakutsho ukuba nguRoundup

ayibangeli umhlaza. Khange silwenze uvavanyo oluyimfuneko

kwimveliso equlunqweyo.

INKUNDLA: Ayizukungena-impendulo yam esiswini

kukuba ayizukungena kwisigaba sokuqala.

  1. ISILUMKISO: Ke yiyo inkosi kaMonsanto

Isichazi magqirha - umntu onolwazi ngakumbi ngeRoundup

kunaye nabani na ehlabathini - esithi -

INKUNDLA: Umbuzo ngowokuba ingaba ubanga umhlaza,

hayi nokuba-hayi uluvo loMfama malunga nento enokuthethwa nguMonsanto okanye

ayitsho. Imalunga nento eboniswa sisayensi.

  1. ISILUMKO: Ngokuqinisekileyo. Uthetha ngokoqobo malunga

inzululwazi abangakhange bayenze.

INKUNDLA: Amathumbu am kukuba ngenene a

umbuzo olula, kunye nempendulo kuloo ilula

Umbuzo ngowokuba lo nto ayingeni kwisigaba sokuqala. ”

Hla umamele….

NgoJanuwari 9, 2019 - Isilingo sokuqala somdibaniso kwi-Roundup yeLungelo lokuTyala ngeTyala sisenokuba ngaphezulu kwenyanga kude, kodwa ikhalenda ixakekile ngamagqwetha kumacala omabini. Jonga apha ngezantsi ishedyuli ebekwe yijaji kumyalelo ofakwe izolo:

ISIQINISEKISO SE-PREDRIAL ORDER NO. I-63: OKUZA KWIIMPAWU ZOKUQHUBA KWI-BELLWETHER TRIAL.

  • Ukumanywa kobungqina be-1/28/2019/09: 00: 04 eSan Francisco, kwigumbi lenkundla 17, kuMgangatho we-XNUMX phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.
  • Gqirha Shustov's UDaubert Iseti yokumamela i-1/28/2019/02: 00 PM eSan Francisco, kwigumbi lenkundla 04, kuMgangatho we-17 phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.
  • Ukukhethwa kweJury ukugcwalisa iphepha lemibuzo elongezelelweyo kwiofisi yejaji (engekho kwirekhodi okanye kwinkundla) ebekelwe 2/13/2019 08:30 AM eSan Francisco.
  • Ukukhethwa kweJury (ubunzima kunye nomceli mngeni kubangelwa ukuva ngegqwetha nakwiNkundla) ebekelwe umhla we-2/15/2019 ngo-10: 30 ekuseni eSan Francisco, kwigumbi lenkundla 04, kuMgangatho we-17 phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.

NgoJanuwari 7, 2019 - Unyaka omtsha uqale kwisiqalo esomeleleyo seMonsanto njengoko iyunithi yeBayer isiya kuvavanyo lwayo lwesibini malunga nezityholo zokuba iRoundup yayo kunye nezinye izinto zokubulala ukhula ezisisiseko se-glyphosate zibangela umhlaza. KwiNgoJanuwari 3 ulawulaUMgwebi weSithili sase-US u-Vince Chhabria uzikhabile iingxoxo ngamagqwetha amele amaxhoba omhlaza kwaye axhasa iMonsanto ekuthatheni isigqibo sokuthintela abagwebi ekuveni ubungqina obuninzi bokuba abamangali bathi babonisa iinzame zeMonsanto zokukhohlisa nokuphembelela abalawuli kwisigaba sokuqala setyala. Ukuthatha isigqibo sokulichophela ityala, u-Chhabria uthe abachopheli-tyala baya kuva ubungqina obunjalo ukuba bayavuma kuqala ukuba umbulali wokhula waseMonsanto wenze igalelo elibalulekileyo ekubangeleni ummangali engekho-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

“Inxalenye ebalulekileyo yecala labamangali ibandakanya uhlaselo eMonsanto lokuzama ukuphembelela iiarhente zolawulo kunye nokusebenzisa uluvo loluntu malunga neglyphosate. Le micimbi ifanelekile kumonakalo owohlwayayo kunye neminye imibuzo yoxanduva. Kodwa xa kuziwa ekubeni i-glyphosate ibangele i-NHL yommangali, le micimbi iphazamisa kakhulu, kwaye ibalulekile kuloo nto, ”utshilo umyalelo wejaji.

Ubonelele nge-caveat, ebhala, "ukuba abamangali banobungqina bokuba uMonsanto wenze impembelelo kwizifundo zesayensi, ngokuchaseneyo nezigqibo ze-arhente okanye uluvo loluntu malunga nezi zifundo, obo bungqina bunokwamkeleka kwinqanaba lesizathu."

Ukukhethwa kweJury kulindeleke ukuba kuqale ngoFebruwari 20 kunye neseti yovavanyo eza kuqhubeka ngoFebruwari 25 eSan Francisco. Ityala linjalo UEdwin Hardeman v. Monsanto.

Ngeli xesha, ummangali u-Lee Johnson, Ngubani owaba lixhoba lokuqala lomhlaza ukuthatha iMonsanto ematyaleni, ngokuphumelela isigwebo samatyala ngokuchasene nenkampani ngo-Agasti, naye uphumelele isicelo sakhe kwiNkundla yesiBheno ye-1 yeziBheno ngokuphathwa ngokukhawuleza kwesibheno sikaMonsanto kwelo bhaso lejaji. UMonsanto wasiphikisa isicelo sikaJohnson sokuba "kukhethwe ikhalenda," kodwa inkundla yasamkela isicelo ngoDisemba 27, inika iMonsanto iintsuku ezingama-60 ukuba ifayilishe imfutshane yayo yokuvula.

UDisemba 20, 2018 - UMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria uthe ngoLwesine akazukuphumeza isigwebo de kube nguJanuwari kumcimbi ophikisanayo wokuchotshelwa kwetyala lokuqala, neliza kuqhubeka ngoFebruwari. Amagqwetha abamangali nawaseMonsanto ziyalelwe ukufaka zonke iingxelo zabo zeengcali ngolwesiHlanu, nge-21 kaDisemba ukunceda uChabria kwisigqibo sakhe.

UDisemba 18, 2018 -Abameli beMonsanto / Bayer baphendule ngolwesiHlanu kwizicelo zokuchongwa malunga namakhulu aliqela eerekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto, befuna ukugcina uninzi lwabo lutywinwe ngokuchasene nezicelo ezivela kumagqwetha abamangali. Amagqwetha enkampani avumile ukukhutshwa kwamaxwebhu angaphakathi, anokwaziswa esidlangalaleni kule veki.

Okwangoku omabini amacala alindele isigwebo esivela kwiJaji yeNkundla yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria nge-a isindululo esenziwe ngamagqwetha eMonsanto ukubuyisela umva ibifurcate kwinkundla yokuqala yenkundla kwityala lokulwa nomhlaza kwiRoundup. Elo tyala limiselwe ukuba liqale ngoFebruwari 25 kwaye lithathwa njengentsimbi eya kuthi ibeke inqanaba lendlela kwaye ukuba amanye amatyala ayaqhubeka kwaye / okanye asonjululwe.

UMonsanto angathanda ukuba inkundla yomanyano izilingo zenziwe ngezigaba ezibini- isigaba sokuqala esigxile kwisizathu sonyango- ngaba iyeza lokubulala ukhula lenkampani labangela umhlaza wommangali othile- kunye nesigaba sesibini sokujongana noxanduva kuphela xa abamangali boyisile kwisigaba sokuqala.

Imiba yesizathu kunye nomonakalo wembuyekezo "yahlukile kwaye yahlukile kwisityholo sokungakhathali kukaMonsanto kunye nokuziphatha kwenkampani kwaye bekuya kubandakanya ubungqina obuvela kumangqina ahlukeneyo," yatsho inkampani. Ukubhabha phakathi kuya kuthintela "ukulibaziseka okungafanelekanga ekusombululeni eli tyala…"

Igqwetha labamangali Inxamnye nokuhluthwa Ukuthi olu luvo "aluvakali" kwizimangalo zamanje zesithili (MDL), yiyo le nto uChabria ejongene nayo. Ngaphezulu kwamatyala e-600 asalindelwe kwinkundla yakhe ethetha ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangele umhlaza wabamangali, kwaye iMonsanto yahluleka ukulumkisa abathengi ngeengozi zeemveliso zayo.

"Ayikaze yenziwe, kwaye ngesizathu esihle," amagqwetha axoxa kwinkundla ye-13 kaDisemba. “Injongo yetyala le-bellwether kukuvumela icala ngalinye ukuba livavanye iingcinga zabo kunye nobungqina ngokuchasene nejaji yokwenyani yelizwe kwaye, ngethemba, bafunde ulwazi olubalulekileyo malunga namandla kunye nobuthathaka beli tyala ukwazisa isisombululo esidibeneyo. Ukunyanzelisa umqobo kwicala elinye-lenkqubo-eya kuba ngumthengisi we-facto kumatyala ayi-10,000 4 aqhubeka kwilizwe liphela-ayiyifezekisi loo njongo. Inika nasiphi na isigwebo kule MDL, nokuba leliphi icala eliphumelelayo, alincedisi. ” Ukumanyelwa kwetyala elilandelayo kulungiselelwe uJan. XNUMX.

Nge-14 kaDisemba ngo-2018-Ummangali ufuna ukuPhathwa ngokuKhawulezayo kwesiBheno seMonsanto njengoko impilo yakhe isiba mandundu

UDewayne “Lee” Johnson, ummangali wokuqala ukuthatha uMonsanto ayokumangalela etyhola inkcenkceshela ngokubulala iintsholongwane ezibangela umhlaza, kucwangciselwe ukuba kwenziwe utyando namhlanje ukususa ukukhula komhlaza kwenye yeengalo zakhe.

Impilo kaJohnson iye yawohloka okoko kwagqitywa ityala ngo-Agasti kunye nokuphazamiseka kunyango ngenxa yokuphelelwa lixeshana kwi-inshurensi. Akafumananga nayiphi na imali evela kwisimangalo ngenxa yesibheno iMonsanto eyanyanzeliswa emva kokuphumelela kwenkundla kaJohnson. UMonsanto ubhenela kwisigwebo se- $ 78 yezigidi, esancitshiswa yijaji yetyala elivela kwi-jury's award of $ 289 yezigidi.

UJohnson wafaka inkundla ngo-Okthobha ukuba uyakwamkela ukuncitshiswa. Kodwa ngenxa yokuba uMonsanto ubhenile, amagqwetha kaJohnson nawo afake isibheno, efuna ukubuyisela ibhaso lejaji.

Inkundla yeziBheno yaseCalifornia. 1st Isibheno, inombolo yetyala A155940. Amagqwetha kaJohnson afuna ukusingathwa okukhawulezileyo kwesibheno kwaye banethemba lokuba bazokwaziswa kungekudala ngo-Epreli. “Kukho… amathuba okuba uMnu Johnson uzakufa ngo-2019,” the Isindululo sommangali sithi. UJohnson, oceba ukuqala kwakhona i-immunotherapy emva kotyando, ayimfuneko kwisivumelwano.

“Andikuthandi ukucinga ngokufa,” utshilo ku dliwano ndlebe epapashwe kwiTime Magazine. “Naxa ndiziva ngathi ndiyafa, ndiye ndizenzele ukudlula ngaphaya kwayo. Ndivakalelwa ngathi awunakukunikezela, ukuxilongwa, isifo, kuba emva koko ufile. Andizidibanisi nelifu lokufa, iingcinga ezimnyama, uloyiko. Ndiceba ubomi obumnandi. ”

Nge-13 kaDisemba 2018 -Izihlangu ezingaphezulu zeMonsanto (amaXwebhu) Cwangcisa ukuDrop

Ifemu yezomthetho yeBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, eyadibana ne-The Miller Firm ekubhaleni uloyiso lwembali lommangali u-Dewayne Lee Johnson ngaphezulu kwe-Monsanto ngo-Agasti, ifuna ukutyunjwa kwamaphepha angamakhulu aliqela eerekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezafunyanwa ngokufumanisa kodwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kugqityiwe ukutywinwa.

U-Baum Hedlund kunyaka ophelileyo wakhupha amakhulu ezinye iirekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto ezibandakanya ii-imeyile, ii-memos, imiyalezo ebhaliweyo kunye nolunye unxibelelwano olunempembelelo kwisigwebo samacala afanayo sokufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yasebenza "ngolunya" ngokungalumkisi abathengi malunga neenkxalabo zesayensi malunga ne-glyphosate-based herbicides . Imithombo yeJury ithi ezo rekhodi zangaphakathi zazinefuthe kakhulu kwimbasa yabo yokulimala ngezigidigidi ezingama-250 zeedola ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathi ijaji kwimeko yanciphisa yaya kuthi ga kwi-39 yezigidi zeedola kwiibhiliyoni ezingama-78 zeedola.

Amagqwetha abamangali kwizilingo ezimbini ezizayo athi iirekhodi zeMonsanto ezingakhange zibonwe esidlangalaleni ngaphambili ziya kuba yinxalenye yobungqina obutsha abaceba ukubazisa kwizilingo.

Namhlanje ikwangumhla wokugqibela wabamangali wokuphendula kwisindululo sikaMonsanto sokuba "sibuyise umva" ityala likaFebruwari 25 elimiselwe iNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. (jonga u-Disemba 11 ukungena ngezantsi ngeenkcukacha)

Nge-12 kaDisemba ka-2018-iJaji eNtsha yonyulwa kwityala likaPilliod

Umgwebi weNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda County u-Ioana Petrou, ochithe ngaphezulu konyaka ebandakanyeka kwityala lomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye ehleli kwiintsuku ezininzi zokuboniswa kobungqina besayensi ngabamangali kunye neengcali zokhuselo kwinkundla yomanyano eva ngo-Matshi 2017, alikho ityala . Umphathi waseCalifornia uJerry Brown ubhengeze nge-21 kaNovemba ukuba uPetrou wonyulwe njengomthetho wobulungisa, iCandelo lesiThathu leNkundla yokuQala yeziBheno.

Ujaji Winifred Smith utyunjwe ukuba athathe indawo kaPetrou ukuba ajonge ityala lika-Pilliod V. Monsanto, nelicwangciselwe ukuba lixoxwe ngomhla wesibhozo kweyoKwindla e-Oakland, California. USmith wonyulwa yiRhuluneli uGrey Davis ngo-Novemba ka-8, kwaye phambi kokuqeshwa kwakhe, wasebenza njengosekela-gqwetha jikelele wesebe lezoBulungisa eSan Francisco.

Ityala likaPilliod liya kuba lelesithathu ukuya kuthethwa enkundleni kwityala lokutshutshisa iRoundup. U-Alva Pilliod kunye nenkosikazi yakhe u-Alberta Pilliod, bobabini abakwiminyaka yama-70 kunye nabatshatileyo iminyaka engama-48, batyhola ukuba umhlaza wabo - iifom ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma- zibangelwa kukuvezwa kwabo ixesha elide kwiRoundup. Ubudala babo obuphambili kunye nokuxilongwa komhlaza kugunyazisa ityala elikhawulezayo, ngokwefayile yenkundla ngamagqwetha abo. UMonsanto wasichasa isicelo sabo somhla wokuvavanywa okhawulezileyo kodwa uPetrou wafumanisa ukuba izigulo zabo kunye neminyaka yabo ziyathandwa. U-Alberta unomhlaza wobuchopho ngelixa u-Alva enesifo somhlaza esihlasele i-pelvis kunye nomqolo. U-Alva wafunyaniswa ngo-2011 ngelixa i-Alberta yafunyaniswa ngo-2015. Basebenzisa i-Roundup ukusuka phakathi kwiminyaka yoo-1970 ukuya kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo.

Isimangalo sikaPilliod siphinda abanye bathi "iMonsanto ikhokele umkhankaso othathe ixesha elide wolwazi olungelulo ukuqinisekisa iarhente zikarhulumente, amafama kunye noluntu ngokubanzi ukuba iRoundup ikhuselekile."

Nge-11 kaDisemba ngo-2018-Amagqwetha aShukuma phambi kovavanyo olulandelayo

Ngolingo olulandelayo kwisityholo sobunzima besifo somhlaza se-Roundup esibekelwe uFebruwari 25 eSan Francisco, amagqwetha eMonsanto kunye nabamangali bayangxama ukuthatha ngaphezulu kweshumi elinambini lokufakwa kwiiveki eziphelileyo zikaDisemba nangoJanuwari nanjengoko bexoxa ngendlela ityala elifanele zilungelelaniswe.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto nge-10 ka-Disemba afake isikhalazo "sokuguqula bifurcate" ityala elilandelayo, Edwin Hardeman V. Monsanto (3: 16-cv-00525). IMonsanto ifuna ijaji kuphela ukuva ubungqina obujolise kwisizathu esithile sonyango kuqala - ngaba iyeza lokubulala ukhula lwayo labangela umhlaza kommangali - ngenqanaba lesibini eliza kujongana noxanduva lukaMonsanto kunye nomonakalo kuphela xa ijaji ifunyenwe kummangali kwisigaba sokuqala. Yabona Ingxoxo kaMonsanto apha. Ujaji Chhabria unikezele ngesicelo esivela kumagqwetha ommangali ukuba avunyelwe de kube nguLwesine ukuba afake impendulo.

U-Edwin Hardeman kunye nenkosikazi yakhe bachitha iminyaka emininzi behlala kwihektare ezingama-56, indawo eyayibalekela izilwanyana eSonoma County, eCalifornia apho uHardeman wayehlala esebenzisa iimveliso zeRoundup ukunyanga ingca kunye nokhula ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1980. Wafunyaniswa ukuba une-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngoFebruwari 2015, kwinyanga nje ngaphambi kokuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ibhengeze ukuba i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ityala likaHardeman lakhethwa njengelokuqala ukuxoxwa kwinkundla yomanyano eSan Francisco (kwisiThili saseMantla saseCalifornia) phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria. Igqwetha u-Aimee Wagstaff waseDenver, eColorado, ukhokele igqwetha lommangali kweli tyala. Igqwetha uBrent Wisner wenkampani yezomthetho iBaum Hedlund eLos Angeles, kunye negqwetha elikhokele uloyiso kwimbali ka-Agasti ka-Dewayne Lee Johnson yokuphumelela iMonsanto, bekulindeleke ukuba bancede ukuzama eli tyala kodwa ngoku elinye ityala liza kuqala ngoMatshi. Elo tyala nguPilliod, et al V. Monsanto kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-Alameda. Bona amaxwebhu ahambelana nawo Amaphepha eMonsanto iphepha eliphambili.

Umnini omtsha kaMonsanto uBayer AG akonelisekanga kukuxhomekeka kwiqela letyala likaMonsanto elaphulukana netyala likaJohnson kwaye lizisa iqela lalo lezomthetho. Iqela leBayer, elincede inkampani yaseJamani ukuba iphumelele kumlo weXarelto ngegazi, ngoku kubandakanya uPamela Yates kunye noAndrew Solow weArnold & Porter Kaye Scholer noBrian Stekloff kaWilkinson Walsh Eskovitz.

Ukuchotshelwa kwemicimbi ethile yokuzibophelela kusetelwe kwityala likaHardeman ngoFebruwari 4, 6, 11, kunye no-13 ngokukhethwa kwejaji okucwangciselwe uFebruwari 20. Iingxoxo ezivulekileyo ziya kuthi emva koko ziqale ngoFebruwari 25, ngokweshedyuli yangoku.

UDisemba 6, 2018-Imihla yokuLingwa kweMonsanto ezayo

2/25/2019-Inkundla yomanyano-uHardeman

I-3/18/2019-CA JCCP-I-Pilliod (abamangali aba-2)

4/1/2019 - Inkundla yesiXeko iSt

4/22/2019-Inkundla yaseSt. Louis County-Gordon

Nge-5/25/2019-Inkundla yaseSweden-uStevick okanye uGebeyehou

9/9/2019-Inkundla yaseSt. Louis yeNkundla-abamangali aba-4

1/21/2020 - Inkundla yesiXeko iSt

3/23/2020 - Inkundla yesiXeko iSt

Nge-21 kaNovemba ka-2018-udliwanondlebe kaLee Johnson

UDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayengumntu wokuqala ukuthatha uMonsanto enkundleni esithi ukuvezwa kweyeza leRoundup kwabangela ukuba aphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye le nkampani yagquma ubungozi. Ngo-Agasti u-2018, ijaji e-San Francisco ngazwi linye yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yehlulekile ukulumkisa malunga neengozi ze-carcinogenic ye-Roundup herbicide kunye neemveliso ezinxulumene nayo, kwaye banika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola. Ijaji kamva lanciphisa eso sixa saya kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola. UCarey Gillam uthethe noJohnson malunga nemva kwetyala lakhe kudliwanondlebe neMagazini yeXESHA:Ndiphumelele ityala laseMbali kodwa ngeNgekhe ndigcine iMali

 

Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

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Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

Isifundo esitsha sivavanya ifuthe le-Roundup herbicide kwiinyosi zobusi

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Iqela labaphandi baseTshayina lifumene ubungqina bokuba iimveliso zeherbicide ezisekwe kwintengiso ye-glyphosate ziyingozi kwiinyosi zobusi okanye ngaphantsi kwezingqinisiso ezicetyiswayo.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwi Ijenali ye-intanethi Iingxelo zeSayensi, Abaphandi abazimanya ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kunye ne-Chinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathi bafumene uluhlu lweempembelelo ezingalunganga kwiinyosi zobusi xa beveza iinyosi kwi-Roundup - a glyphosateImveliso esekwe kuthengiswa ngumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Inkumbulo yeenyosi zeenyosi "yayonakele kakhulu emva kokuvezwa yiRoundup" iphakamisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kweenyosi kumachiza okubulala ukhula "kunokuba nefuthe elibi ekufuneni nasekuqokeleleni izixhobo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwemisebenzi yokutya" ziinyosi, abaphandi bathi .

Kananjalo, "amandla okunyuka kweenyosi zeenyosi anciphile kakhulu emva konyango kunye noxinzelelo lweRoundup," bafumanisa abaphandi.

Abaphandi bathi sikhona isidingo “senkqubo yokutshiza isilumkiso sokutshabalalisa ukhula kwangethuba” kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni e-China kuba abagcini nyosi kulezo ndawo “bahlala bengaziswanga phambi kokuba kutshizwe iherbicides” kwaye “neziganeko zetyhefu rhoqo yeenyosi zobusi” zenzeka.

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo ezininzi ezibalulekileyo zokutya kuxhomekeke kwiinyosi zobusi kunye neenyosi zasendle ukuze kufuduswe umungu, kwaye kuphawulwe ukwehla kubemi beenyosi baphakamise iinkxalabo kwihlabathi liphela malunga nokhuseleko lokutya.

Iphepha eliphuma kwiYunivesithi yaseRutgers ipapashwe kwihlobo elidlulileyo ilumkise ngelithi "isivuno sama-apile, iitsheri kunye namaqunube kulo lonke elaseMelika sincitshiswa kukuswela kwezidlulisi."

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

I-Neonicotinoids: inkxalabo ekhulayo

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NgoJanuwari 10, i-Guardian yapapasha eli bali malunga noluntu oluncinci lwasemaphandleni lwaseNebraska olunobunzima kangangeminyaka emibini ubuncinci nongcoliseko oluboshwe kwimbewu yombona egalelwe i-neonicotinoid. Umthombo yindawo yezityalo ye-ethanol eye yazithengisa ngokwayo njengesimahla "Ukwenza ntsha kwakhona" indawo yeenkampani zembewu ezinje ngeBayer, iSyngenta kunye nabanye abafuna indawo yokulahla ukugqithisa kwezi zinto zigcinwayo zembewu yezinambuzane. Isiphumo, abantu basezidolophini bathi, yimbonakalo yomhlaba enamazinga aphezulu ngokumangalisayo eentsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula ebantwini nasezilwanyaneni. Bayayoyika ilizwe labo namanzi ngoku angcoliswe ngendlela engenakulungiseka.

Amagosa ombuso kwezendalo abhale amanqanaba e-neonicotinoids kwi Amanani angama-427,000 ngeebhiliyoni (ppb) kuvavanywa enye yeenduli ezinkulu zenkunkuma kwindawo yepropathi yesityalo seethanol. Oko kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo yokulinganisa ethi amanqanaba kufuneka abe phantsi kwe-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengakhuselekileyo.

khangela eli phepha ngeenkcukacha ezithe kratya kunye namaxwebhu.

Ibali lokurhafiswa koluntu eMead, e-Nebraska, luphawu lwamva nje lokuba urhulumente kunye nolawulo olulawulayo lolawulo lwe-neonicotinoids kufuneka luqiniswe, ngokwegqwetha lezendalo kunye nabaphandi abavela kwiiyunivesithi ezininzi zase-US.

Impikiswano malunga nodidi lwezinambuzane ezaziwa ngokuba yi-neonicotinoids, okanye ii-neonics, ibikhula kule minyaka idlulileyo kwaye iye yaba kukungqubana kwehlabathi phakathi kweebhehemoth ezidibeneyo ezithengisa ii-neonics kunye namaqela ezendalo kunye nabathengi abathi ii-insectides zinoxanduva lokungqonge indawo kunye nempilo yabantu. ukwenzakalisa.

Ukusukela oko yaziswa kwiminyaka ye-1990s, ii-neonicotinoids ziye zaba lelona qela lehlabathi lisetyenziswa kakhulu ekubulaleni izinambuzane, zithengiswa kumazwe ayi-120 ubuncinci ukunceda ukulawula izinambuzane ezonakalisayo kunye nokukhusela imveliso yezolimo. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane akafafazwa kwizityalo kuphela kodwa agqunywe kwimbewu. I-Neonicotinoids isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo, kubandakanya irayisi, ikotoni, umbona, iitapile kunye neembotyi zesoya. Ukusukela ngo-2014, ii-neonicotinoids zimelwe ngaphezulu kwe- Iipesenti ezingama-25 zesibulali zinambuzane Ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, i-clothianidin kunye ne-imidacloprid zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokwephepha le-2019 elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi. LeMpilo yeNdalo.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yakhupha Izindululo zexeshana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kunye thiamethoxam, ii-insecticide ezithile ngaphakathi kwiklasi ye-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe yayisebenza ukunciphisa isixa esisetyenzisiweyo kwizityalo ezinxulunyaniswa "nobungozi bendalo obunokubakho," kuthintela ixesha apho iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi linokusetyenziswa kwizityalo ezikhulayo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobungqina besayensi ubonakalisa ukuba ii-neonicotinoids zizinto ezixhaphakileyo Ikholoni yokuwa kwengxaki yeenyosi, ezizezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokwenza impova kwimveliso yokutya. Zikwabonwa ubuncinci njengenxalenye yokusola Inambuzane. Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane nawo abotshelelwe kwiziphene ezinzulu kwinyama enomsila omhlophe, nzulu inkxalabo malunga namandla ekhemikhali okonzakalisa izilwanyana ezinkulu, kubandakanya nabantu.

I-European Union iyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid kunye ne-thiamethoxam kwi-2018, kunye IZizwe eziManyeneyo zithi Neonics ziyingozi kangangokuba kufuneka zithintelwe "ngokuqatha". Kodwa eUnited States, ii-neonics zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

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