Hambisa ukudibanisa isimangalo se-paraquat yase-US njengoko amatyala enyuka ngokuchasene neSyngenta

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Amagqwetha amangalela inkampani yemichiza yaseSwitzerland iSyngenta bacela iphaneli yezomthetho yase-US ukuba idibanise ngaphezulu kweshumi elinesihlanu lezimangalo ezifanayo phantsi kweliso lejaji yomanyano eCalifornia. Eli nyathelo luphawu oluchazayo lokwandiswa kwezimangalo ezibanga ukuba imveliso yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

Ngokutsho kwisindululo, ifayilishwe umhla we-7 ku-Epreli yi-Texas-based Fears Nachawati firm firm kunye ne-US Judicial Panel kwi-Multidistrict Litigation, kungoku nje kukho ubuncinci amatyala ali-14 afakwe ziifemi ezisibhozo zomthetho kwiinkundla zomdibaniso ezahlukeneyo ezintandathu kwilizwe liphela. Amacala onke afakwe egameni labamangali abafunyaniswe benesifo se-neurodegenerative, kwaye batyhola ukubhencwa kwababulali bokhula baseSyngenta abenziwe ngemichiza ebizwa ngokuba yiparaquat yesifo. Amanye amatyala aliqela enza izityholo ezifanayo zilindelwe kwiinkundla zamazwe.

"La matyala ngawona magqwetha alungeleleneyo kwityala elingaphambi kokuthethwa kwetyala kuba avela kwityhefu enye enetyhefu edala isifo esikhubazekayo esibangelwa kukungaziphathi kakuhle kwabamangalelwa abathathu," uloyiko uNachawati ngokufutshane ukuxhasa yokuhamba kwayo ithi. "UMovant ulindele ukuba inani lamatyala afanayo afakwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente kunye nelizwe liphela lizakwanda ngokukhawuleza."

Isindululo sifuna ukugqithiselwa ngokukodwa kwiJaji u-Edward Chen kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

UMajed Nachawati, iqabane lenkampani eyoyikayo iNachawati, uthe inkampani isaphanda ubungakanani nobubanzi besimangalo sisonke kodwa ikholelwa kwelokuba ukumiswa kweparaquat ngokuchasene neSyngenta “kuzakubaluleka kwaye kubaluleke kwindalo…”

"Kungekudala, kuzakubakho isimangalo kwiinkundla zomanyano kwilizwe liphela," utshilo uNachawati.

Amagqwetha abamangali bazakufuna amaxwebhu angaphakathi enkampani kunye nokufakwa kwamagosa eenkampani ahambelana "nokuvavanywa, ukuyilwa, ukufakwa iileyibhile, ukuthengiswa, kunye nokukhuselwa kweeparaquat herbicides," kunye nophando oluhlangeneyo kunye nokuvavanywa kobutyhefu kunye nokukhuseleka kweparaquat yayo. iimveliso.

IMiller Firm yaseVirginia, encedise ukukhokelela kwisimangalo seRoundup ngokuchasene neMonsanto esikhokelele kwisigqibo se- $ 11 lezigidi kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, uphakathi kweefemu zomthetho ezijoyina isimangalo separaquat. Inkampani yaseMiller ixhasa iinzame zokudibanisa iintshukumo zomdibaniso eCarlifonia, apho amawaka amatyala eRoundup adityanisiwe kwenkqubo yamatyala, ngokwegqwetha elikhokelayo lenkampani uMike Miller.

"Siqinisekile ukuba inzululwazi iyaluxhasa ngamandla unxibelelwano phakathi kwe-paraquat kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwesifo sika-Parkinson," utshilo uMiller ngesindululo. "ISithili saseMantla saseCalifornia sinezixhobo ezifanelekileyo zokujongana nala matyala."

Amatyala ngokuchasene neSyngenta ukwabiza i-DRM Phillips Chemical Co njengommangalelwa. I-DRM isasazwa kwaye ithengise iimveliso ze-Gramoxone paraquat e-United States ngokuqala ngesivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe yiparaquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yayinelungelo lokwenza, ukusebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

USyngenta noChevron bayaziphika izityholo.

USyngenta uthi iimveliso zayo zeparaquat zivunyiwe njenge “zikhuselekile kwaye zisebenza” ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kwaye “iya kuzikhusela” ngamandla. ISyngenta yeyabanini beChina National Chemical Corporation, eyaziwa ngokuba yiChemChina.

Izifundo zesayensi

Isifo sikaParkinson sisifo esinganyangekiyo esiqhubela phambili esichaphazela iiseli zemithambo-luvo kwingqondo, sikhokelela kumatyala aphambili kukudodobala komzimba kakhulu kwaye kuhlala kuluphazamiseko engqondweni. Iingcali ezininzi zika-Parkinson zithi esi sifo sinokubangelwa luluhlu lwezinto, kubandakanya ukubhencwa kwizibulali zinambuzane ezinje nge paraquat, kunye nezinye iikhemikhali.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi ziye idityaniswe neparaquat kwiParkinson's, kubandakanya isifundo esikhulu samafama ase-US ngokudibeneyo abekwa esweni ziiarhente zikarhulumente zase-US ezininzi. Oko Uphando ngo-2011 uxele ukuba abantu abasebenzisa i-paraquat baphindwe kabini amathuba okuphuhlisa isifo sika-Parkinson njengabantu abangasisebenzisanga.

"Izifundo ezininzi ze-epidemiological kunye nezilwanyana zidibanise i-paraquat nesifo sika-Parkinson," kusho uDorsey Ray, uprofesa we-neurology kunye nomlawuli we-Centre for Human Experimental Therapeutics kwiYunivesithi yaseRochester eNew York. UDorsey ukwangumbhali we incwadi malunga nokuthintela kunye nokunyanga isifo sikaParkinson.

"Ubungqina obudibanisa iparaquat nesifo sikaParkinson yeyona nto yomeleleyo kuyo nayiphi na into yokubulala izinambuzane esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo," utshilo.

Olunye uphononongo alufumananga unxibelelwano olucacileyo phakathi kweparaquat kunye neParkinson kunye neSyngenta iqinisekisa ukuba olona phando lwamva nje nolunegunya alubonisi nxibelelwano.

Ewe kunjalo, isifundo papashwe kwi2020 ifumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwezinye izitshabalalisi kunye neParkinson's, kodwa abukho ubungqina obomeleleyo obubonisa iparaquat ebangela esi sifo.

Uvavanyo oluzayo

Ityala elinye elifakwe kwinkundla yelizwe licwangciselwe ukuba lixoxwe kwinyanga ezayo. IHoffman V. Syngenta icwangciselwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngoMeyi 10 eSt. Inkomfa yobume icwangciselwe ukuphela kwale nyanga.

Igqwetha laseMissouri uSteve Tillery, omele abamangali kwityala lika-Hoffman kunye nabanye abamangalelwa kwamanye amaphepha-mthetho, uthe nangona uSyngenta eqinisekile, uqokelele ubungqina obuquka iirekhodi zenkampani zangaphakathi ezibonisa ukuba iSyngenta yazi amashumi eminyaka ukuba Imveliso ibangela isifo sikaParkinson.

“Akufanelekanga ukuba bayayithengisa le mveliso, utshilo uTillery. "Le khemikhali kufuneka ingabikho kwimarike."

Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

Reviews

"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

"Intatheli yamagqala ophando uCarey Gillam uxelela ibali likaJohnson kwincwadi yakhe yamva nje," Amaphepha eMonsanto, "ingxelo ekhawulezayo, ebandakanyekayo yendlela iMonsanto kunye neBayer ithamsanqa elitshintshe kakhulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ngaphandle komcimbi oxandileyo - inzululwazi kunye neenkqubo zomthetho- "Amaphepha eMonsanto" kukufundwa okubambekayo okunika inkcazo ekulula ukuyilandela yendlela esi simangalo esenzeka ngayo, indlela abagwebi abasifikelela ngayo isigwebo sabo nokuba kutheni iBayer ibonakala ngathi, , ngoku ndiphakamisa iflegi emhlophe. ” - ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha ityala elikholisayo lokuba iMonsanto yayinomdla wokukhusela igama lenkomo yayo kunokuthobela ubungqina benzululwazi beempawu zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeleni ngemiba entsonkothileyo yabantu abasemthethweni, nto leyo yongeza ubuntununtunu bebali likaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyazisiweyo kombutho ekubonakala ukuba awuyikhathalelanga impilo yoluntu. ” - Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

IGlyphosate kwimbungu yenkukhu esetyenziswa njengesichumiso yonakalisa imveliso yokutya, abaphandi bathi

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Izazinzulu zizise ezinye iindaba ezimbi ngokubhekisele kwi-herbicide glyphosate, eyaziwa ngokuba yiRoundup, kwiphepha elitsha lophando elipapashwe kule nyanga.

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland ityhilwe ephepheni papashwe kwincwadi  Inzululwazi Yendalo Engqongileyo iyonke ukuba umgquba ovela kwiinkuku ezisetyenziswa njengesichumisi unganciphisa isivuno sezityalo xa umgquba uqukethe iintsalela zemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglyphosate, efana neRoundup. Izichumisi zenzelwe ukonyusa imveliso yezityalo, ke ubungqina bokuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuba neziphumo ezichaseneyo zibalulekile.

Inkunkuma yenkukhu, njengoko ibizwa njalo umgquba, ihlala isetyenziswa njengesichumisi, kubandakanywa nezolimo eziphilayo, kuba ithathwa njengezityebile kwizakhamzimba eziyimfuneko. Ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma yenkuku njengesichumisi bekukhula kokubini kwezolimo kunye nokulima kunye nezitiya zasekhaya.

Ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kukhula, “umngcipheko onokubakho onxulunyaniswa nokuqokelelwa kwe-agrochemicals kumgquba weenkukhu usahoywa kakhulu,” balumkisa abaphandi baseFinland.

Amafama e-organic aye akhula exhalabile malunga nomkhondo we-glyphosate kwisichumiso somgquba esivunyelwe kwimveliso yezinto eziphilayo, kodwa uninzi kolu shishino aluthandabuzi ukwazisa lo mbandela.

Amafama atshiza i-glyphosate ngokuthe ngqo kwinani lezityalo ezikhuliswe kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya iimbotyi zesoya, umbona, umqhaphu, i-canola kunye nezinye izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukumelana nonyango lwe-glyphosate. Bahlala betshiza ngokuthe ngqo izityalo ezifana nengqolowa kunye ne-oats, ezingafakwanga ngokwemfuza- kwakamsinya phambi kokuvuna ukomisa izityalo.

Ngenxa yemiyinge yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based esetyenziselwa ukunyanga izityalo ezisetyenziswa ekutyeni kwezilwanyana, kunye nomthamo womgquba osetyenziswayo njengesichumisi, "kufanele ukuba siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lomngcipheko lukhona," utshilo omnye wababhali. yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

Akukho mntu ubonakala enomdla wokuthetha kakhulu malunga nayo. ” Muola uqaphele.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo zokutya kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - ngoku iyunithi yeBayer AG - ukusukela nge1990s, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuxhaphake kangangokuba iintsalela zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni, emanzini nakwiisampulu zomoya.

Kuba kukho iintsalela zeglyphosate kukutya kwabantu nakwizilwanyana, amanqanaba e-glyphosate anokufunyanwa kumchamo womntu nakwimanyolo yezilwanyana.

Ezi ntsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumiso ziyingxaki kubalimi ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, ngokutsho kwabaphandi baseFinland.

"Sifumanise ukuba umgquba weenkukhu unokuqokelela intsalela ephezulu (ye-glyphosate-based herbicides), unciphise ukukhula kwezityalo kunye nokuzala, kwaye ke kuthintele ukukhula okunyusa ukukhula komgquba xa usetyenziswa njengesichumiso," latsho iphepha. "Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela idlula kwinkqubo yokuhlafunisisa kweentaka, kwaye okona kubaluleke kakhulu, iyaqhubeka isichumiso ixesha elide."

Abaphandi bathi iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuqhubeka kwiinkqubo zendalo, zichaphazela izinto ezininzi ekungajoliswanga kuzo kwiminyaka emininzi.

Iziphumo, bathi, zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusebenza komgquba njengesichumisi; ukungcoliseka kweherbicide esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwimijikelezo yezolimo; Ungcoliseko "olungalawulwayo" lweglyphosate yemimandla engajoliswanga kuyo; ukwanda kwesoyikiso "kwizinto ezisemngciphekweni ekungajoliswanga kuzo," kunye nomngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhathisa okuvela kwi-glyphosate.

Abaphandi bathi kufuneka kwenziwe uphando oluninzi ukuveza ubungakanani bokungcoliseka kwe-glyphosate kwizichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo uzinzo.

Uphando lwaseFinland longeza kubungqina bobungozi bezintsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumisi, ngokweengcali zezolimo.

"Iimpembelelo zentsalela ye-glyphosate ethe yaqokelelwa kwilindle leenkuku yindawo engakhathalelwanga," utshilo isazinzulu somhlaba iRodale Institute, uGqirha Yichao Rui. “Kodwa oluphi uphando olwenziweyo lubonakalisile ukuba ezo ntsalela zinganefuthe elibi kwizityalo, ukuba umgquba weenkukhu wawusetyenziswa njengesichumiso. Intsalela yeGlyphosate kwizichumisi ibonakalisiwe ukuba ineziphumo ezibi kwizityalo, ii-microbiomes zomhlaba, kunye neentsholongwane ezinxulunyaniswa nezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kubandakanya nabantu kwikhonkco lokutya. Xa olu tshintsho lusasazwa ngabom ngesichumiso, lubeka uxinzelelo olukhulu kwimisebenzi nakwiinkonzo zendalo. ”

Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni yeglyphosate Utshiziwe emasimini- ngokwaneleyo ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sephawundi yeRoundup kuwo onke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi amawaka abantu eUnited States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ndimangalele uMonsanto, kwaye kwizilingo ezintathu ezigcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amajaji afumanise ukuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides ibekwasizathu sokubangela umhlaza.

Ukongeza, i Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana kukhutshwa kweli hlobo kubonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeze ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Indoda eswelekileyo icela iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ukuba ibuyisele ibhaso lejaji kwityala leMonsanto Roundup

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Umgcini wesikolo ophumelele ityala lokuqala ngqa kwizityholo zokuba uMonsanto's Roundup ubangela umhlaza ucela iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ukuba ibuyisele i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo wanikezelwa yijaji owaliva ityala lakhe kodwa inkundla yesibheno yaxhwitha i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Ngokuqaphelekayo, isibheno sommangali uDewayne "Lee" Johnson sinefuthe elikhulu kunakwityala lakhe. Igqwetha likaJohnson libongoza inkundla ukuba ijongane nengxaki yomthetho enokuthi ishiye abantu abanjengoJohnson abajamelene nokusweleka kwixesha elikufutshane benomvuzo ophantsi kunabanye kulindeleke ukuba baphile iminyaka emininzi besezintlungwini nasezintlungwini.

“Kudala-dala ukuba iinkundla zaseCalifornia ziqonde, njengokuba ezinye iinkundla zisenza, ubomi buxabisekile kwaye abo baphanga ummangali iminyaka yobomi kufuneka benziwe bahlawulise ummangali kwaye bohlwaywe ngokufanelekileyo,” amagqwetha kaJohnson babhale kwisicelo sabo Ukujongwa ngokutsha kwenkundla ephakamileyo. "Ijaji ichaze ixabiso elinentsingiselo kubomi bukaMnu. Johnson, kwaye ngenxa yoko unombulelo. Ucela le Nkundla ukuba ihloniphe isigqibo sejaji kwaye ibuyise elo xabiso. ”

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukuvezwa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, eyaziwa kakhulu ngegama le-Roundup, yabangela uJohnson ukuba aphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, esathengwa yinkampani yaseJamani iBayer AG kwi-2018, ijaji yetyala yehlisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ukufuna ityala elitsha okanye ibhaso elincitshisiweyo. UJohnson wenza isibheno efuna ukubuyiselwa kumvuzo wakhe opheleleyo.

Inkundla yezibheno kwityala emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno yalinciphisa ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Ityala likaJohnson laligqunywe ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye beka obala kwimizamo kaMonsanto yokusebenzisa irekhodi yesayensi kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup kunye neenzame zayo zokuthula abagxeki kunye nefuthe labalawuli. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Ukuphumelela kwetyala likaJohnson kukhuthaze ukufayiliswa ngamashumi amawaka ezomthetho ezongezelelweyo. IMonsanto yaphulukana nezilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ngaphambi kokuba ivumelane ngoJuni ukuba ihlawule ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawula kufutshane ne-100,000 yamabango anje.

Indawo yokuhlala yile usaqhubeka, Nangona kunjalo, njengoko iBayer ilwa nendlela yokuthintela ukumangala kwixesha elizayo.

Kudliwanondlebe, uJohnson wathi uyazi ukuba umlo osemthethweni noMonsanto ungaqhubeka kangangeminyaka emininzi kodwa wayezimisele ukuzama ukubamba inkampani ukuba iphendule. Uye wakwazi ukugcina ukugula kwakhe kujongiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ngonyango lwe-chemotherapy kunye nonyango lwemitha, kodwa akaqinisekanga ukuba iya kuqhubeka ixesha elingakanani.

"Andicingi ukuba nasiphi na isixa besinokwanela ukohlwaya loo nkampani," utshilo uJohnson.

Izifundo ezitsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa inkxalabo kwimpilo yokuzala

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Njengoko iBayer AG ifuna ukuphungula inkxalabo yokuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides ibangela umhlaza, izifundo ezininzi ezitsha ziphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho lwekhemikhali kwimpilo yokuzala.

Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ezikhutshiweyo ehlotyeni zibonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeza ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Kwi iphepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo in I-Endocrinology yeMelecular and Cellular, Abaphandi abane baseArgentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) yokuba i-glyphosate ikhuselekile.

Uphando olutsha luza njengoko iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezulu kwamabango e-100,000 aziswe e-United States ngabantu abathi batyhileka kwi-Roundup yeMonsanto kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-glyphosate-based based herbicide ezibangele ukuba bakhulise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

I-Bayer izuze njengelifa ityala le-Roundup xa wathenga iMonsanto Ngo-2018, kungekudala phambi kokuphumelela kwamatyala amathathu kwabamangali.

Izifundo ziye zeza njengamaqela abathengi esebenzela ukuqonda ngcono indlela yokunciphisa ukubonakaliswa kwabo kwi-glyphosate ngokutya. Isifundo ipapashwe nge-11 ka-Agasti ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokusika amanqanaba e-glyphosate afunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwepesenti ze-70. Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya.

IGlyphosate, eyona nto isebenzayo kwiRoundup, sesona sibulali sokhula sisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. IMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinyamezelayo nge-glyphosate kwii-1990s ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba afafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuwo onke amasimi ezityalo, abulale ukhula kodwa hayi izityalo eziguqulweyo. Ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngamafama kunye nabanini bamakhaya, izixhobo kunye nezinto zikarhulumente, kuye kwatsala inkxalabo ekhulayo kule minyaka ngenxa yokuxhaphaka kwayo kunye noloyiko malunga nokuba inokwenza ntoni na kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokusingqongileyo. Imichiza ngoku ifunyanwa ngokutya nakumanzi kunye nomchamo womntu.

Ngokwenzululwazi yaseArgentina, ezinye zeempembelelo zeglyphosate ezibonwe kwizifundo ezitsha zezilwanyana zibangelwa kukuvezwa kweedosi eziphezulu; kodwa kukho ubungqina obutsha obubonisa ukuba nokuba sesichengeni sokweedosi esezantsi kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwendlela yokuzala kwabasetyhini, neziphumo ekuchumeni. Xa izilwanyana zichanekile kwi-glyphosate ngaphambi kokufikisa, utshintsho lubonakala kuphuhliso kunye nokwahlulahlula ii-ovari follicles kunye nesibeleko, zitsho izazinzulu. Ukongeza, ukubonakaliswa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe ngeglyphosate ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokutshintsha ukukhula kwembewu. Konke kudibanisa ukubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ziziphazamiso ze-endocrine, baphetha abaphandi.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osuka kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue, uthe uphando olutsha lwandisa ulwazi malunga nobungakanani bomonakalo onxulunyaniswa ne-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides kwaye inikezela "ukuqonda okungcono kobuzaza bokubhengeza okuxhaphakileyo inkcubeko ngoku. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka ukuba iMonsanto's Roundup inokuba negalelo kwiingxaki zokuzala kwimfuyo.

inye isifundo esibalulekileyo yapapashwa kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi kwiphephancwadi Ukutya kunye neTyxicology, ezimisele ukuba i-glyphosate okanye i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "i-hormonal ebalulekileyo kunye neethagethi zesibeleko seemolekyuli" kwiigundane ezikhulelweyo.

Isifundo esahlukileyo kutshanje papashwe kwincwadi I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yase-Iowa State bajonge ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kwiimpuku. Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba ukubonakaliswa okungapheliyo kwinqanaba eliphantsi kwi-glyphosate "kuguqula iproteome ye-ovari" (iseti yeeprotein ezivakalisiweyo kuhlobo oluthile lweseli okanye komzimba) kwaye "inokuba nefuthe ekusebenzeni kwe-ovari. Kwiphepha elinxulumene nelaba baphandi babini baseIowa State kunye nombhali omnye owongezelelweyo, papashwa ngo Inzala yetyhefu, Abaphandi bathi abafumananga ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine kwiimpuku ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo.  

Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseGeorgia kuchazwe kwiphephancwadi Inzululwazi yezilwanyana kunye neNzululwazi yezilwanyana Ukusetyenziswa kwemfuyo yengqolowa edityaniswe nentsalela ye-glyphosate kubonakala ngathi inokwenzakalisa izilwanyana, ngokujonga izifundo kwesihloko. Ngokusekwe kuphononongo loncwadi, i-glyphosate-based herbicides ibonakala ngathi "yityhefu yokuzala, ineziphumo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkqubo zokuzala zamadoda nabasetyhini," utshilo umphandi.

Iziphumo ezothusayo zazikhona ikwabonwa nasezimvini. Uphando lupapashwe kwiphephancwadi Ungcoliseko lwendalo kujonge iimpembelelo zokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuphuhliso lwesibeleko kwiimvana zabasetyhini. Bafumene utshintsho abathi lunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kwabasetyhini yeegusha kwaye babonise i-glyphosate-based herbicides esebenza njengophazamisayo kwi-endocrine.

Ikwapapashwe kwakhona kwi Ungcoliseko lwendalo, izazinzulu ezivela eFinland naseSpain zithe kwi iphepha elitsha Ukuba benze uvavanyo lokuqala lwexesha elide lweziphumo ze- "sub-toxic" glyphosate exposure kwiinkukhu. Bazama ukuvavanya izagwityi zabasetyhini nezamadoda kwii-glyphosate-based herbicides ukusuka kwiintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwiiveki ezingama-52.

Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate herbicides "inokuguqula iindlela eziphambili zomzimba, inqanaba le-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kunye ne-microbiome" kodwa khange bafumane ziphumo zokuzala. Bathe iimpembelelo zeglyphosate azinakuhlala zibonwa “ngokwesiko, ngakumbi ixesha elifutshane, uvavanyo lwetyhefu, kwaye olo vavanyo alunakho ukububeka ngokupheleleyo ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate kunye neNeonicotinoids

Enye ye ezona zifundo zintsha Ukujonga iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwimpilo kwapapashwa kule nyanga kwi Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando lwezeNdalo kunye neMpilo yoLuntu.  Abaphandi bagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate kunye ne-insectides ye-thiacloprid kunye ne-imidacloprid, zazinokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine.

Amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ayinxalenye yekhemikhali ye-neonicotinoid kwaye aphakathi kwezona zisetyenziselwa ukubulala izinambuzane ehlabathini.

Abaphandi bathi babeke iliso kwimpembelelo ye-glyphosate kunye neonicotinoids ezimbini kwiithagethi ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo ye-endocrine: I-Aromatase, i-enzyme ejongene ne-estrogen biosynthesis, kunye ne-estrogen receptor alpha, eyona proteni iphambili ekhuthaza umqondiso we-estrogen.

Iziphumo zabo zaxutywa. Abaphandi bathi ngokubhekisele kwi-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uthintele umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa isithintelo "besingabalulekanga kwaye sibuthathaka." Ngokubalulekileyo abaphandi bathi i-glyphosate ayikhange ibangele misebenzi ye-estrogenic. Iziphumo "bezingqinelani" nenkqubo yovavanyo eqhutywa yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo e-US, egqibe kwelokuba "abukho ubungqina obukholisayo bokunxibelelana okunokubakho kwindlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate," batsho.

Abaphandi bawubonile umsebenzi we-estrogenic kunye ne-imidacloprid kunye ne-thiacloprid, kodwa kugxininiso oluphezulu kunamanqanaba okubulala izitshabalalisi alinganiswe kwiisampulu zebhayiloji yomntu. Abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba “amayeza aphantsi ezi zinambuzane akufuneki athathwe njengangenabungozi,” kodwa, kuba ezi zinambuzane, kunye nezinye ezonakalisa imichiza ye-endocrine, “zinokubangela iziphumo ze-estrogenic.”

Iziphumo ezahluka-hlukeneyo ziza njengoko amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kuvavanya ukuba okanye akunciphisi okanye kuthintelwe ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

Uphononongo lwase-US lubonisa ukutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kunokukhawuleza kucace ukubulala izitshabalalisi kwimizimba yethu

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Isifundo esitsha epapashwe ngoLwesibini ifumanise ukuba emva kokutshintshela kukutya okune-organic kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa, abantu banokuwanciphisa amanqanaba esibulali-zinambuzane esihambelana nomhlaza ofunyenwe kumchamo wabo ngaphezulu kwama-70 epesenti.

Abaphandi baqokelela iisampulu zomchamo ezili-158 eziphuma kwiintsapho ezine –abadala abasixhenxe nabantwana abasithoba - kwaye bavavanya iisampulu zobukho bokubulala ukhula glyphosate, nesisithako esisebenzayo kwiRoundup kunye neminye imichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula ethandwayo. Abathathi-nxaxheba bachitha iintsuku ezintlanu kukutya okungekho organic ngokupheleleyo kunye neentsuku ezintlanu kukutya okune-organic ngokupheleleyo.

"Olu phononongo lubonisa ukuba ukutshintshela kwindlela yokutya eyi-organic yindlela efanelekileyo yokunciphisa umthwalo we-glyphosate… Olu phando longeza kumzimba okhulayo woncwadi obonisa ukuba ukutya okunezinto eziphilayo kunokunciphisa ukubekeka kwizibulali zinambuzane kubantwana nakubantu abadala," utshilo. isifundo, esapapashwa kwijenali UPhando lwezeNdalo.

Ngokukodwa, abaphandi bafumanise ukuba abantwana abakwisifundo banamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo kunabantu abadala. Bobabini abantu abadala kunye nabantwana babone amathontsi amakhulu phambi kwesiyobisi sokubulala izitshabalalisi kulandela ukutshintsha kokutya. Amanqanaba okuchama e-urinary glyphosate kuzo zonke izifundo ehle ngepesenti ye-70.93.

Ngaphandle kobukhulu bayo obuncinci, olu phononongo lubalulekile kuba lubonisa ukuba abantu banokunciphisa ukubhengeza kwabo ukubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni nangaphandle komthetho, utshilo uBruce Lanphear, uNjingalwazi weSayensi yezeMpilo kwiYunivesithi yaseSimon Fraser.

U-Lanphear uqaphele ukuba isifundo sibonisa ukuba abantwana babonakala bevezwe kakhulu kunabantu abadala, nangona isizathu singacacanga. "Ukuba ukutya kungcoliswe zizibulali zinambuzane, baya kuba nomthwalo ophezulu emzimbeni," utshilo uLanphear.

I-Roundup kunye nezinye i-glyphosate herbicides zihlala zitshizwa ngqo ngaphezulu kwamasimi okulima umbona, iimbotyi zesoya, isweet beet, icanola, ingqolowa, ihabile kunye nezinye izityalo ezininzi ezisetyenziselwa ukwenza ukutya, kushiya umkhondo kwimveliso yokutya egqityiweyo etyiwe ngabantu nezilwanyana.

Ulawulo lokutya kunye neziyobisi lufumene i-glyphosate nkqu kwi-oatmeal  kwaye sithandwa, phakathi kwezinye iimveliso. Kwaye amaqela abathengi anamaxwebhu ashiyekileyo e-glyphosate kuluhlu lwamashwamshwam kunye nokutya okuziinkozo.

Kodwa i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides enje ngeRoundup inxulunyaniswe nomhlaza kunye nokunye ukugula kunye nezifo kwizifundo ezininzi kule minyaka kunye nokwanda kolwazi lophando kukhokelele ekukhuleni koloyiko malunga nokuchazwa kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi ngokutya.

Amaqela amaninzi abhale ubukho be-glyphosate kumchamo womntu kule minyaka idlulileyo. Kodwa bekukho izifundo ezimbalwa ngokuthelekisa amanqanaba e-glyphosate kubantu abatya ukutya okuqhelekileyo xa kuthelekiswa nokutya okwenziwe kuphela kukutya okulinywe ngokwendalo, ngaphandle kokusebenzisa izitshabalalisi ezifana ne-glyphosate.

"Iziphumo zolu phando ziqinisekisa uphando lwangaphambili apho izidlo eziphilayo zinokunciphisa ukungena kwe-agrochemicals, njenge-glyphosate," utshilo uChensheng Lu, unjingalwazi odibeneyo weSikolo seYunivesithi yaseWashington seMpilo kaRhulumente kunye noprofesa wokuhlonipha, kwiYunivesithi yase Mzantsi-ntshona, eChongqing China .

Ngokoluvo lwam, umyalezo osisiseko weli phepha kukukhuthaza ukuvelisa ukutya okuninzi okungafunekiyo kwabantu abafuna ukuzikhusela ekuvezweni ziiagrochemicals. Eli phepha liyingqinile kwakhona le ndlela ichanekileyo yokuthintela kunye nokukhusela, ”utshilo uLu.

Isifundo yabhalwa nguJohn Fagan noLarry Bohlen, bobabini iZiko loPhando ngezeMpilo e-Iowa, kunye no-Sharyle Patton, umlawuli we-Commonweal Biomonitoring Resource Centre eCalifornia no-Kendra Klein, isazinzulu sabasebenzi kwi-Friends of the Earth, iqela elikhuthaza abathengi.

The Iintsapho ezithatha inxaxheba Kwisifundo bahlala e-Oakland, California, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Baltimore, Maryland nase-Atlanta, Georgia.

Isifundo sesibini seprojekthi enamacandelo amabini ophando. Eyokuqala, amanqanaba e-14 yezibulali zinambuzane ezahlukileyo alinganiswa kumchamo wabathathi-nxaxheba.

IGlyphosate yeyona nto ixhalabisayo kuba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kwaye sitshizwa kwizityalo ezininzi zokutya. I-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza, eyinxalenye ye-World Health Organisation, ithe ngo-2015 olo phando lubonakalise i-glyphosate to unokuba ngumhlaza womntu onokwenzeka.

Amashumi amawaka abantu baye bamangalela iMonsanto besithi ukuboniswa kwi-Roundup kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye amazwe amaninzi kunye neendawo kwihlabathi liphela kutshanje ziye zathintela okanye zathintela i-glyphosate herbicides okanye bacinga ukwenza njalo.

I-Bayer, eyathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, yiyo ukuzama ukuhlala ngaphezu kwama-100,000 amabango anjalo aziswa eMelika. Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo.

Inkundla yezibheno yaseCalifornia Ulawule kwinyanga ephelileyo ukuba bekukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwiimveliso zeRoundup, zabangela umhlaza.

Abanye babamangali baseMelika basilele ekusayineni isivumelwano sokuhlala eBayer; I-160,000 yeedola zokuhlawula

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Abamangali kwi-US Roundup litigation baqala ukufunda iinkcukacha zento Bayer AG's $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawulwa kwamabango omhlaza okunene kuthetha kubo ngokwahlukeneyo, kwaye abanye abayithandi into abayibonayo.

Bayer yatsho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni Kuthethathethwane ngokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zabammangali kwisivumelwano esiza kuvala ngokufanelekileyo isambuku semali engaphezulu kwe-100,000 esalindelwe ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngo-2018. Ukuvezwa kukaMonsanto's Roundup kunye namanye amayeza okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate, kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko.

Ngelixa isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengeendaba ezimnandi kubamangali-abanye abanengxaki yokunyanga umhlaza kunye nabanye abammangalela abatshatileyo abaswelekileyo- uninzi lufumanisa ukuba lunokuphela lungenamali, kuxhomekeke kuluhlu izinto. Iifemu zamagqwetha, nangona kunjalo, zinokufaka ipokotho kumakhulu ezigidi zeedola.

“Yimpumelelo kumashishini ezomthetho kunye nempama ebusweni babantu abonzakeleyo” utshilo omnye ummangali, ongafunanga kuchazwa ngegama.

Abamangali baxelelwa ukuba kufuneka bathathe isigqibo kwezi veki zimbalwa zizayo ukuba bazokwamkela indawo yokuhlala, nangona bengazi ukuba bazakuhlawulwa malini kude kube kamva. Zonke iintengiselwano zentengiselwano ziyalela abamangali ukuba bangathethi esidlangalaleni malunga neenkcukacha, bebasongela ngesohlwayo ukuba baxoxa ngokuhlala kunye nabani na ngaphandle "kwamalungu osapho asondeleyo" okanye umcebisi wezezimali.

Oku kubacaphukisile abanye abathi bacinga ukwala iindawo zokuhlala ngenjongo yokufuna ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ukuba zijongane namabango abo. Le ntatheli iwajongisisile amaxwebhu athunyelwe kubamangali abaninzi.

Kwabo bavumayo, iintlawulo zinokwenziwa kwangoko ngoFebruwari, nangona inkqubo yokuhlawula bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuba yolule unyaka okanye nangaphezulu. Ezonxibelelwano ezithunyelwe zivela kumafemu ezomthetho ziye kubathengi bazo beRoundup zizo zombini inkqubo yomntu ngamnye ohlaselwe ngumhlaza kuya kufuneka ehambile ukuze afumane intlawulo yemali kunye nokuba ezo ntlawulo zinokufikelela phi. Imigaqo yeentengiselwano iyahluka kumzi-mveliso wamagqwetha, oko kuthetha ukuba abamangali abemi ngokufanayo banokuphelela kwiindawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala ngathi sisinye ekuxoxiswene ngaso Ifemi yeMiller, Kwaye ke kuyadanisa abanye babaxhasi benkampani. Ekunxibelelaneni nabathengi, inkampani yathi ikwazile ukuxoxa malunga ne-849 yezigidi zeedola ukusuka eBayer ukugubungela amabango abathengi abangaphezulu kwe-5,000 Roundup. Ifemi iqikelela ixabiso lokuhlawula umtyali ngamnye kumyinge wama- $ 160,000. Elo xabiso lipheleleyo liya kuncitshiswa ngokuncitshiswa kweefizi zamagqwetha kunye neendleko.

Nangona iifizi zamagqwetha zinokwahluka ngokuqina kunye nommangali, uninzi kwityala leRoundup lihlawulisa iipesenti ezingama-30-40 kwimirhumo engxamisekileyo.

Ukuze bakulungele ukuhlala, abamangali kufuneka babe neerekhodi zonyango ezixhasa ukuxilongwa kweentlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye bakwazi ukubonisa ukuba bavezwa ubuncinci unyaka ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isifo.

I-Firm yaseMiller ibiphambili kwityala leRoundup ukusukela ekuqaleni, ifumana uninzi lwamaxwebhu agwenxa angaphakathi eMonsanto ancede aphumelela kuzo zontathu izilingo zeRoundup ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezo zilingo, isizisa amagqwetha avela kwinkampani yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman ukunceda kwityala  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson emva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu kwingozi kanye phambi kwetyala. Ezi femu zimbini zisebenze kunye ekuphumeleleni ityala labamangali bendoda nomfazi, Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso.

Kwangoko kulenyanga, inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isigwebo sikaJohnson, elawula ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba iimveliso zeRoundup zibangele umhlaza kaJohnson kodwa zinciphisa ibhaso likaJohnson ukuya kwizigidi ezingama- $ 20.5. Izibheno zisalindelwe kwezinye izigwebo ezibini ezichasene neMonsanto.

Ukufumana amanqaku kwabamangali

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngakanani na ummangali ngamnye afumana ukusuka ekuhlaleni kunye neBayer, umlawuli weqela lesithathu uya kunika amanqaku umntu ngamnye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kummangali ngamnye ophuhlileyo; ubudala bommangali ekuchongeni isifo; ubuzaza bomhlaza womntu kunye nobungakanani bonyango abalunyamezeleyo; ezinye izinto ezinobungozi; kunye nenani lokuvezwa kwabo kwiMonsanto herbicides.

Inye into yokuhlaliswa kwabantu ebambe uninzi lwabamangali bengafundanga yayikukufunda ukuba abo ekugqibeleni bafumana imali eBayer kuya kufuneka basebenzise imali yabo ukubuyisa inxenye yeendleko zonyango lwabo lomhlaza olwalugutyungelwe yiMedicare okanye i-inshurensi yabucala. Ngonyango oluthile lomhlaza oluya kumakhulu amawaka kunye nakwizigidi zeedola, oko kunokucima ngokukhawuleza intlawulo yommangali. Iifemu zomthetho zidwelise iikontraka zomntu wesithathu eziza kuthetha-thethana nabanikezeli ngeinshurensi ukuba bafune imbuyekezo ngezaphulelo, baxelelwa. Ngokwesiqhelo kolu hlobo lokumangalelwa ngobuninzi, loo malungelo onyango angancitshiswa kakhulu, utshilo iifemu zomthetho.

Kwicala elinye lesivumelwano esamkelweyo ngummangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziya kwakhiwa ukunqanda uxanduva lwerhafu, ngokolwazi olunikwe ababamangali.

Umngcipheko wokungahlali

Iifemu zamagqwetha kufuneka zifumane uninzi lwabamangali ukuba bavumelane nemimiselo yeendawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwengcaciso enikezelwe kubamangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa ngoku ngenxa yenani lomngcipheko onxulumene nokuqhubeka nokulandela izilingo ezongezelelweyo. Phakathi kwemingcipheko echongiweyo:

  • I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile njengongenamali, kwaye ukuba inkampani iyithathile loo ndlela, ukusombulula amabango e-Roundup kuya kuthatha ixesha elide kwaye ekugqibeleni kungakhokelela kwimali encinci yabamangali.
  • I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) wakhupha incwadi ku-Agasti ophelileyo uxelele uMonsanto ukuba iarhente ayizukuvumela isilumkiso somhlaza kwiRoundup. Oko kunceda ikamva likaMonsanto lokuphumelela enkundleni.
  • Ulibaziseko lwenkundla enxulumene no-Covid kuthetha ukuba izilingo ezongezelelweyo ze-Roundup akunakulindeleka ukuba zonyaka okanye nangaphezulu.

Ayisiyonto ingaqhelekanga ukuba abamangali abachophele amatyala amakhulu bahambe bedanile nangona bezibonakala ngathi zinkulu iindawo ekuxoxiswene ngazo kumatyala abo. Incwadi ye2019 "IiNtsebenzo zoThutho oluNinzi: Ukuxoxisana kwigumbi elingasemva kwi-Multidistrict Litigation”NguElizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo wezoMthetho u-Fuller E. Callaway kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorgia, wenza imeko yokuba ukunqongophala kweetsheki kunye nemali ezilinganayo kwizityholo zolwaphulo-mthetho zinika phantse wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ucaphula njengomzekelo wokumangalela i-asidi-reflux yeyeza iPropulsid, wathi ufumanise ukuba kwabamangali abangama-6,012 abangena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula, ngama-37 kuphela afumana imali. Abanye abafumani ntlawulo kodwa sele bevumile ukuwachasa amatyala abo njengemeko yokungena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula. Abamangali abangama-37 ngokudibeneyo bafumene ngaphezulu kweedola eziyi-6.5 yezigidi (phantse i-175,000 yeedola nganye kwi-avareji), ngelixa iifemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo zabamangali zifumene i-27 yezigidi zeedola, ngokweBurch,

Ukubeka bucala ukuba ngawaphi na abamangali abanokuthi okanye abangayi kuhamba nawo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho kufutshane nesimangalo seRoundup bathi kulunge ngakumbi ukufezekiswa kokungalunganga komanyano nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Amazwe aliqela kwihlabathi liphela, kunye noorhulumente basekhaya kunye nezithili zesikolo, baye bafudukela ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kunye / okanye ezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ngenxa yokutyhilwa kwetyala leRoundup.

(Ibali laqala ukuvela Iindaba zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo.)

Inkundla yezibheno ixhasa izizathu zovavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ophumelele iMonsanto

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Ngenye ilahleko yenkundla kumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkundla yezibheno yala umzamo wenkampani wokubhukuqa uloyiso lwetyala olungafakwanga ngumgcini wesikolo saseCalifornia otyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane eMonsanto yabangela ukuba abe nomhlaza, nangona inkundla yathi umonakalo kufuneka ube yinqumle kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Inkundla yeziBheno yesiThili sokuqala seZibheno eCalifornia utshilo uMvulo ukuba iimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacacanga kwaye uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqokelela i-10.25 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye nezinye i-10.25 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayo. Oko kuhla kwisimbuku se-78 yezigidi zeedola ijaji yetyala ivumelekile.

"Ngokokubona kwethu, uJohnson wabonisa ubungqina obuninzi-kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo bukhulu- bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza wakhe," yatsho inkundla. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa."

Inkundla iphinde yaqaphela ukuba "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson wabandezeleka, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Inkundla yathi impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuba iziphumo zesayensi malunga nokunxibelelana kwe-glyphosate nomhlaza zenza "umbono omncinci" awuxhaswanga.

Ngokukodwa, inkundla yezibheno yongeze ukuba isohlwayo somonakalo sasikhona ngenxa yokuba kwakukhona ubungqina obaneleyo bokuba uMonsanto wenza "ngabom nangokungakhathaleli ukhuseleko lwabanye."

UMike Miller, ogama lakhe laseVirginia lalimela uJohnson etyaleni kunye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles, wathi wayevuyiswa kukuqinisekiswa kwenkundla ukuba uJohnson uhlaselwe ngumhlaza ekusebenziseni kwakhe iRoundup kwaye inkundla iqinisekisile imbasa yesohlwayo. umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha gwenxa ngabom kukaMonsanto.”

“Umnumzana Johnson usaqhubekeka nokugula. Siyazingca ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungisa, ”utshilo uMiller.

IMonsanto ityala inzala yonyaka kwinqanaba leepesenti ezili-10 ukusuka ngo-Epreli we-2018 de ihlawule isigwebo sokugqibela.

Ukuncitshiswa komonakalo kubotshelelwe kwinxalenye yokuba oogqirha baxelele uJohnson ukuba umhlaza wakhe awupheli kwaye akalindelwe ukuba aphile ixesha elide. Inkundla ivumile noMonsanto ukuba ngenxa yomonakalo owenzelwayo wenzelwe ukubuyekeza iintlungu ezizayo, ukubandezeleka ngokwasengqondweni, ukuphulukana nokonwaba kobomi, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njlnjl .. Ixesha elifutshane lokuphila kukaJohnson ngokusemthethweni lithetha ngomonakalo "ongekho kwezoqoqosho" wexesha elizayo owanikwa yinkundla yamatyala. kufuneka icuthwe.

U-Brent Wisner, elinye lamagqwetha kaJohnson, wathi ukwehliswa komonakalo sisiphumo "sesona siphoso sinzulu somthetho waseCalifornia."

"Ngokusisiseko, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuba afumane ithuba elifutshane lokuphila," utshilo uWisner. “Oku kuvuza ngokufanelekileyo ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, ngokuchasene nokwenzakala nje kwakhe. Yimpambano. ”

Ukujongwa kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyinyanga nje ezimbini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, ukuba ijaji enye wanika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola, kubandakanya i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, ukufumanisa ukuba ayenzanga kuphela imichiza yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ibangele ukuba uJohnson avelise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa ukuba inkampani iyayazi ingozi yomhlaza kwaye yasilela ukulumkisa uJohnson. Ityala elalibandakanya iMonsanto glyphosate ezimbini zeemveliso zokutshabalalisa ukhula - iRoundup kunye neRanger Pro.

Ijaji yetyala lasithoba isigwebo esiyi- $ 78 yezigidi kodwa uMonsanto wabhenela kwisixa esincitshisiweyo. Umnqamlezo uJohnson ubhenele ekubuyiseleni isigwebo se-289 yezigidi.

Ityala likaJohnson lagutyungelwa ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka ukuqaqanjelwa kokuziphatha okungathandabuzekiyo kweMonsanto. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amaxwebhu angaphakathi akwabonisa ukuba iMonsanto ilindele ukuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ihlukanise i-glyphosate njengento enokwenzeka okanye enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu ngo-Matshi ka-2015. bakhupha udidi lwabo.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi ifikelele kwi-  isivumelwano sokuhlala kunye namagqwetha amele iipesenti ezingama-75 ze-125,000 ezifakiweyo kwaye ziseza kufakwa amabango aqalwe ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. U-Bayer uthe uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo. Kodwa amagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwe-20,000 XNUMX yabamangali abathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesigwebo senkundla, uBayer uthe umi ngasemva kukhuseleko lweRoundup: Isigqibo senkundla yesibheno sokunciphisa umonakalo kunye nezohlwayo linyathelo eliya kwicala elilungileyo, kodwa siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ekubeni isigwebo sejaji kunye nomonakalo Amabhaso awuhambelani nobungqina ekuxoxweni kwetyala nasemthethweni. IMonsanto iza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwayo lwezomthetho, kubandakanya nokufaka isibheno kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia. ”