Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Abalawuli baseMelika baxhomekeke kwiminyaka kwidatha yesiphene yokubulala izinambuzane ebonelelwe yiDow Chemical

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iminyaka, abalawuli base-US baxhomekeke kwidatha ecekethekileyo ebonelelwe yi-Dow Chemical ukuvumela amanqanaba angakhuselekanga eekhemikhali ze-chlorpyrifos kumakhaya aseMelika, ngokwe Uhlalutyo olutsha Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Uhlalutyo luphinda luphonononge umsebenzi ukusuka kwiminyaka ye-1970 exhaswa yi-Dow kwaye ingeniswe kwi-Arhente yoKhuselo lokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhokela iarhente ekumiseleni oko izazinzulu zibhekisa kuzo njenge- "akukho -qwalaselwe-inqanaba lesiphumo esibi" okanye i-NOAEL. Le mibundu isetyenziselwa ukumisela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwaye kwinqanaba apho ukuvezwa kweekhemikhali kunokuvunyelwa kwaye kungathathwa ngokuba kukhuselekile.

Ngokutsho kohlalutyo olutsha, olupapashwe kwi-Intanethi ngoJulayi 3 kwiphephancwadi Imo yendalo esingqongileyo, Iziphumo ezingachanekanga zaba ziziphumo zophononongo lweedosi olwenziwe ngumphandi uFrederick Coulston kunye noogxa kwiAlbany Medical College kwii-1970s zokuqala zeDow.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baphinde bavavanya ukuba umsebenzi wangaphambili nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske weSebe lezeNdalo nezeMpilo kwiNzululwazi yezeMpilo, kwiSikolo seMpilo kaRhulumente kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington.

Ngelixa isifundo sasibhalwa liqela laseCoulston, uhlalutyo lwagqitywa ngumbalo weDow kwaye kwagqitywa kwelokuba i-0.03 mg / kg-day yayililungu elingapheliyo le-NOAEL ye-chlorpyrifos ebantwini. Kodwa uhlalutyo olutsha olwenziwe ngabaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington bafumanise ukuba bagqithile kumda wokhuseleko. Ukuba idatha ibihlalutyiwe ngokufanelekileyo i-NOAEL engezantsi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ngeyifunyenwe, batsho.

Uphononongo lwaseCoulston aluzange luvavanywe ngoontanga kodwa lwalusetyenziswa yi-EPA kuvavanyo lomngcipheko kuyo yonke i-1980's kunye ne-1990's, abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington baxela.

Abaphandi baqukumbele: “Ngelo xesha, i-EPA yavumela ii-chlorpyrifos ukuba zibhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi zokuhlala ezaye zarhoxiswa kamva ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kubantwana nakwiintsana. Ukuba uhlalutyo olufanelekileyo belusetyenzisiwe kuvavanyo lolu phononongo, kunokwenzeka ukuba uninzi lwezo zinto zibhalisiweyo zisebenzisa i-chlorpyrifos ngekhe zigunyaziswe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukuba ukuthembela kubalawuli bezibulali zinambuzane kwiziphumo zophando ezingakhange zivavanywe kakuhle ngoontanga kungabeka umngcipheko kuluntu ngokungeyomfuneko. ”

Kusetyenziswa kakhulu

Eyaziwa njengesixhobo esisebenzayo kwigama lophawu lweLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos inambuzane yaziswa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 kwaye isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kuseto lwezolimo. Eyona ntengiso inkulu yezolimo yechlorpyrifos ngumbona kodwa iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi likwasetyenziswa ngamafama alima iimbotyi zesoya, iziqhamo kunye nemithi yamandongomane, amahlumelo aseBrussels, iicranberry kunye nekholifulawa, kunye nezinye izityalo ezilandelelana. Iintsalela zekhemikhali zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni. Ukusetyenziswa okungekho kwezolimo kubandakanya iikhosi zegalufa, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza kunye nezixhobo.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ekhuthazwe yi-Dow, uphando oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi lubonakalisile ubungqina obandayo bobungozi be-chlorpyrifos, ngakumbi abantwana abancinci. Izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kokubeleka kokubeleka kwi-chlorpyrifos kunxulunyaniswa nobunzima bokuzalwa obusezantsi, ukunciphisa i-IQ, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kwengqwalaselo, kunye nokulibaziseka kophuhliso lweemoto.

IAmerican Academy for Pediatrics, emele ngaphezulu kwama-66,000 oogqirha babantwana noogqirha babantwana, ilumkise ngelithi ukuqhubeka nokusetyenziswa kwale khemikhali kubeka emngciphekweni ukukhula iimveku, iintsana, abantwana kunye nabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba iGunya loKhuseleko loKutya laseYurophu lathi kukho akukho nqanaba lokukhuseleka ngokukhuselekileyo.

I-EPA yafikelela kwisivumelwano neDow ngo-2000 yokuphelisa yonke indawo yokuhlala ekusetyenzisweni kwayo ngenxa yophando olubonisa ukuba le khemikhali iyingozi kwiingqondo ezisakhulayo zabantwana kunye nabantwana abancinci. Ngo-2012, ii-chlorpyrifos zazingavumelekanga ukuba zisetyenziswe kwizikolo zonke.

NgoFebruwari 2020, emva koxinzelelo lwabathengi, ezonyango, amaqela ezenzululwazi kunye nokujongana nokukhula kweefowuni zokupheliswa kwehlabathi, uCorteva AgriScience, iqumrhu eliza kungena ngokudibana kweDow kunye neDuPont, yatsho. iza kuphuma ukuveliswa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Imichiza, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isemthethweni kwezinye iinkampani ukuba ziyenze kwaye zithengise.

Izifundo zabantu

Isifundo esingumbandela wephepha elitsha labaphandi beYunivesithi yaseWashington sabekwa esweni ngo-1971 yiAlbany Medical College's Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology. Olu phononongo lubandakanya amabanjwa angamadoda angama-16 asempilweni aphuma echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, intolongo yezokhuseleko e-Dannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ayekhethwe ngokulandelelana kumaqela amane ovavanyo, kubandakanya elinye iqela lolawulo, amalungu alo afumana indawo ye-placebo yemihla ngemihla. Amalungu amanye amaqela amathathu afumana unyango lwe-chlorpyrifos mihla le ngeedosi ezintathu ezahlukeneyo. Isifundo senziwe ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-63.

Uhlalutyo olutsha lufumene iingxaki ezininzi kufundo, kubandakanya nokushiywa kwamanqanaba asisiseko asibhozo kwelinye lala maqela onyango.

"Ukushiyeka okunje kwedatha esebenzayo ngaphandle kokuthethelelwa yindlela yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eyaphula yonke imigaqo esemgangathweni yophando yokuziphatha kwaye ichazwe njengokuziphatha gwenxa kophando," bagqibe ngelithi abaphandi beYunivesithi yase Washington.

Abaphandi bathi ichlorpyrifos "yadlula kwinkqubo yolawulo ngaphandle kwengxoxo enkulu," nangona "ubungqina obukhulayo bokuba inokuba yingozi kwezempilo kwiindawo zokuhlala."

"Uphononongo lwaseCoulston lulahlekise abalawuli ngokushiya idatha efanelekileyo," kwaye "inokuba nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yoluntu" iminyaka eliqela, liphetha iphepha laseYunivesithi yaseWashington.