Ukubuyela umva kwe-Thailand kwithintelo le-glyphosate kweza emva kongenelelo lwe-Bayer olubhaliweyo e-US, amaxwebhu abonisa

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Kunyaka odlulileyo eThailand yayimiselwe ukuvalwa ukhula olusetyenziswa ngokubanzi lokubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate, intshukumo eqhwatyelwa izandla ngabameli bempilo yoluntu ngenxa yobungqina bokuba imichiza ibangela umhlaza, kunye nokunye ukwenzakala kwabantu nokusingqongileyo.

Kodwa phantsi koxinzelelo olunzima oluvela kumagosa ase-US, urhulumente wase-Thailand wasirhoxisa isibhengezo se-glyphosate ngo-Novemba ophelileyo kwaye walibazisa ukubekwa kwezinye izilwanyana ezibulala izitshabalalisi zezolimo nangona iKomiti kaZwelonke yeZinto ezinobungozi ithi ukuvalwa kuyimfuneko ukukhusela abathengi.

Ukuthintelwa, ngakumbi kwi-glyphosate, kuya "kuchaphazela kakubi" ukungeniswa kweThai kwembotyi zesoya, ingqolowa kunye nezinye izinto zolimo, iSebe lezoLimo laseMelika u-Ted McKinney ulumkise iNkulumbuso yase-Thailand u-Prayuth Chan-Ocha ekunyanzeleni ukubuyela umva. Ukungenisa ngaphakathi kunokuba nefuthe kuba ezo zinto zithengiswayo, kunye nezinye ezininzi, zihlala zibotshwe ngentsalela yeglyphosate.

Ngoku, ii-imeyile ezintsha phakathi kwamagosa aseburhulumenteni kunye nomzali waseMonsanto uBayer AG abonisa ukuba isenzo sikaMcKinney, kunye neso sithathwe ngamanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni e-US ukweyisela iThailand ukuba ingavumeli i-glyphosate, ubukhulu becala babhalwa kwaye batyhalwa yiBayer.

Iimeyile zafunyanwa ngesicelo soMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi liZiko leZinto ezohlukeneyo zezebhayoloji, umbutho wolondolozo ongenzi nzuzo. Inkqubo ye- iqela lamangalela iSebe lezoLimo laseMelika (USDA) kunye neSebe lezoRhwebo laseMelika ngoLwesithathu lifuna ezinye iirekhodi zoluntu malunga nezenzo zamasebe orhwebo nezolimo ekucinezeleni iThailand kumcimbi we-glyphosate. Kukho amaxwebhu amaninzi urhulumente okwangoku anqabile ukukhupha malunga nokunxibelelana neBayer kunye nezinye iinkampani, utshilo umbutho.

UNathan Donley, isazinzulu esiphakamileyo kwiZiko leZinto ezoNgeyantlukwano uthe, "Kubi kakhulu ukuba abaphathi abayihoyanga inzululwazi ezimeleyo ukuxhasa ngokungakhathali ukuzithemba kukaBayer kukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate." "Kodwa ukusebenza njenge-arhente yeBayer ukunyanzela amanye amazwe ukuba amkele esi sikhundla kuyinto embi."

IGlyphosate yile isithako esisebenzayo Kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye nezinye iimveliso eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto, ezixabisa iibhiliyoni zeedola kwintengiso yonyaka. I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kwaye ibisokola ukusukela oko ukucinezela ukwanda kweenkxalabo malunga nophando lwenzululwazi olubonisa ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokubangela umhlaza wegazi obizwa ngokuba yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Inkampani nayo ukulwa amatyala ukubandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali abathi bakhulisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yabangelwa kukuvezwa kwe-Roundup kunye nezinye i-Monsanto glyphosate-based herbicides.

Ababulali bokhula lweGlyphosate zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi jikelele, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuba iMonsanto iphuhlise izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezikunyamezelayo ukufafazwa ngqo ngemichiza. Nangona iluncedo kumafama ukugcina amasimi engenalo ukhula, isenzo sokutshiza i-herbicide ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo sishiya amanqanaba ahlukeneyo e-pesticide kukutya okuziinkozo okuluhlaza kunye nokutya okugqityiweyo. Abalawuli beMonsanto kunye ne-US bagcina amanqanaba e-pesticide ekutyeni nakwimfuyo yokutya ayinabungozi ebantwini okanye kwimfuyo, kodwa uninzi lwezazinzulu aluvumelani kwaye zithi nokulandela izixa kunokuba yingozi.

Amazwe ahlukeneyo abeka amanqanaba ohlukeneyo omthetho kwinto abaya kugqiba ekubeni ibe ziimali ezikhuselekileyo zombulali wokhula ekutyeni nakwimveliso eluhlaza. Lawo “manqanaba ashiyekileyo aphezulu” abizwa ngokuba zii-MRLs. I-US ivumela ii-MRL eziphezulu ze-glyphosate ekutyeni xa kuthelekiswa namanye amazwe.

Ukuba iThailand iyayinqanda i-glyphosate, inqanaba elivunyelweyo le-glyphosate ekutyeni kunokwenzeka ukuba ibe lilize, uBayer walumkisa amagosa ase-US.

Uncedo oluphezulu

Ii-imeyile zibonisa ukuba ngo-Septemba ngo-2019 kwaye kwakhona ekuqaleni kuka-Okthobha ka-2019 u-James Travis, umlawuli omkhulu we-Bayer kwimicimbi yamazwe aphesheya kwezorhwebo kunye nezorhwebo, wafuna uncedo ekubuyiseni ukuvalwa kwe-glyphosate kumagosa amanqanaba aphezulu aphuma kwi-USDA nakwi-Ofisi yase-United States. Ummeli wezoRhwebo (USTR).

Phakathi kwabo Bayer bafuna uncedo kuZhulieta Willbrand, owayengumphathi wabasebenzi ngelo xesha kwimicimbi yezolimo nakwisebe lezolimo laseMelika. Emva kwesigqibo seThailand sokurhoxisa ukuvalwa kwe-glyphosate, uWillbrand waqeshwa ukuba asebenze ngqo neBayer kwimicimbi yezorhwebo yamanye amazwe.

Xa ebuzwa ukuba ngaba uncedo oluvela kuWillbrand ngelixa wayeligosa likarhulumente lwamnceda ukuba afumane umsebenzi eBayer, inkampani yathi "izama ngokuziphatha" ukuqesha abantu abavela "kuzo zonke iimvelaphi" nangayo nayiphi na "Isizathu sokuba aqeshwe ngaso nasiphi na isizathu ngaphandle kwetalente enkulu azisa nayo eBayer bubuxoki. ”

Kwi-imeyile eya kuWillbrand yomhla we-18 kuSeptemba 2019, uTravis wamxelela ukuba uBayer wayecinga ukuba kukho "ixabiso lokwenyani" lokubandakanyeka kukarhulumente wase-US kwisibhengezo se-glyphosate, kwaye waqaphela ukuba iBayer yayiququzelela amanye amaqela ukuba aqhankqalaze lo mthetho.

"Ekugqibeleni kwethu, sifundisa amaqela amafama, amasimi kunye namaqabane ezoshishino ukuze nabo bakwazi ukuchaza iinkxalabo kunye nesidingo senkqubo engqongqo, esekelwe kwisayensi," uTravis ubhalele uWillbrand. UWillbrand emva koko wathumela i-imeyile ku-McKinney, i-USDA's Under Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs.

Ngomhla we-Okthobha 8, 2019, intambo ye-imeyile enomxholo othi "Isishwankathelo seThailand Ban - Uphuhliso luhamba ngokukhawuleza," uTravis ubhalele uMarta Prado, usekela-Meli we-US oMele ezoRhwebo kuMazantsi mpuma eAsia nasePacific, bekopa uWillbrand nabanye. kubo kwimeko.

UTravis ubhale ukuba iThailand ikhangeleka ikulungele ukuvala i-glyphosate ngesantya "esimangalisayo", nge-1 kaDisemba ngo-2019. Kunye ne-glyphosate, ilizwe belicwangcisela ukuvimba esiyi, isibulali-zinambuzane esenziwe yathandwa yiDow Chemical esaziwayo ukonakalisa iingqondo zeentsana; kwaye iparaquat, Isazinzulu ngonyango sithi sibangela isifo senkqubo yemithambo-luvo esaziwa njenge-Parkinson.

UTravis uchaze umngcipheko wokuvalwa kwe-glyphosate ekuthengiseni izinto zase-US ngenxa yengxaki ye-MRL kwaye wanikezela ngeminye imvelaphi amagosa anokuyisebenzisa ukuzibandakanya neThailand.

"Ngenxa yezinto ezisandula ukwenzeka, sikhula sixhalabile kukuba abanye abenzi bomgaqo-nkqubo kunye nabenzi bomthetho bayayingxamisa le nkqubo kwaye abayi kubuza ngokufanelekileyo kubo bonke abachaphazelekayo kwezolimo okanye baqwalasele ngokupheleleyo ifuthe loqoqosho kunye nokusingqongileyo lokuthintela i-glyphosate," uTravis ubhalele amagosa ase-US.

Ukutshintshiselana nge-imeyile kubonisa ukuba iBayer kunye namagosa ase-US baxoxe ngezizathu ezinokubakho zokukhuthaza amagosa aseThai kunye nokuba olo lwazi lunokuba luncedo njani. Ukwazi ukuba yintoni emkhuthazayo kunokunceda kwiingxoxo eziphikisayo ze-USG, "elinye igosa laseMelika ubhalele iBayer malunga nenkokheli enye yaseThai.

UTravis ucebise ukuba amagosa ase-US azibandakanye kakhulu njengoko babenzile neVietnam xa ilizwe lalihamba ngo-Epreli 2019 Ukuthintela i-glyphosate.

Kungekudala emva kwesibheno esivela eBayer, uMcKinney wabhalela iNkulumbuso yaseThailand ngalo mbandela. Kwi Okthobha 17, 2019 ileta McKinney, ngaphambili wasebenzela AbakwaDow Agrosciences, bameme amagosa aseThailand eWashington ukuba axoxe nabantu malunga nokhuselo lwe-glyphosate kunye nokuzimisela kwe-Arhente yoKhuselo lwezeNdalo ukuba i-glyphosate "ayibeki mngcipheko empilweni xa isetyenziswa njengokugunyazwa."

"Ukuba ngaba ukuphunyezwa kwesibhambathiso kuya kuba nefuthe elibi ekungenisweni kwezinto zolimo zaseThailand ezifana neembotyi zesoya nengqolowa," ubhale watsho uMcKinney. "Ndiyakubongoza ukuba ulibazise kwisigqibo se-glyphosate de sikwazi ukwenza amalungiselelo eengcali zobuchwephesha zase-US ukuba zabelane ngolwazi olufanelekileyo ukulungisa iingxaki zaseThailand."

Kancinci ngaphezulu kwenyanga kamva, ngoNovemba 27, Thailand Ukuguqula umva ukucwangciswa kwe-glyphosate. Ikwatsho ukuba iyakulibazisa ukuvalwa kweparaquat kunye ne-chlorpyrifos kangangeenyanga ezininzi.

I-Thailand igqibe ukuvalwa kweparaquat kunye ne-chlorpyrifos ngoJuni 1, walo nyaka. Kodwa i-glyphosate ihlala isetyenziswa. 

Xa ebuzwa malunga nokuzibandakanya kwakhe namagosa ase-US malunga nalo mbandela, uBayer wakhupha le ngxelo ilandelayo:

"Njengeenkampani ezininzi kunye nemibutho esebenza kumashishini alawulwa kakhulu, sinikezela ngolwazi kwaye sinegalelo ekwenzeni imigaqo-nkqubo esekwe kwisayensi kunye neenkqubo zolawulo. Ukudibana kwethu nabo bonke abakwicandelo likarhulumente yinto yesiqhelo, enobuchule, kwaye iyahambelana nayo yonke imithetho nemimiselo.

Ukuguqulwa kwabasemagunyeni eThailand ekuthinteleni i-glyphosate kuyahambelana nokumiselwa okusekwe kwisayensi yimibutho yolawulo kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya eunited StatesiYurophuJemani OstreliyaKoreaKhanadaNyu ZilendJaphan nakwezinye iindawo ezigqibe kwelokuba iimveliso zethu ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate zinokusetyenziswa ngokukhuselekileyo njengoko kuyalelwe.

 Amafama ase-Thai asebenzise i-glyphosate ngokukhuselekileyo nangempumelelo kumashumi eminyaka ukuvelisa izityalo eziyimfuneko kubandakanya iicassava, umbona, iswekile, iziqhamo, isundu seoyile kunye nerabha. IGlyphosate incede amafama ukuba aphucule ubomi bawo kwaye ahlangabezane nolindelo lwabahlali lokutya okukhuselekileyo, okufikelelekayo okuveliswa ngokuzinzileyo. ”

 

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

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Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Intshukumo yaseburhulumenteni

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

I-Dicamba ibisoloko isetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngee-1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukhumala kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude ukusuka apho wafafazwa khona. Xa iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithandwayo zeMonsanto, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ngeglyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

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Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

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Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba

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Iindaba zamva: I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaseMelika ubhengeze u-Okthobha 27 izakuvumela amafama ase-US ukuba aqhubeke nokutshiza izityalo nge-Bayer AG's weedkiller esetyenziswa kwi-dicamba-resistant GMO soybeans and cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla othintela ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkundla yezibheno yakugweba oko I-EPA “ibeka umngcipheko omkhulu” kubabulali bokhula lwe-dicamba. Amashumi amafama ajikeleze i-US amangalela iBayer (eyayisakuba yiMonsanto) kunye ne-BASF kumzamo wokubamba iinkampani ukuba ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wesityalo amafama athi zibangelwa kukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba. Sithumela amaxwebhu okufumanisa kunye nohlalutyo lwezilingo kuthi Iphepha leDicamba Papers.

isishwankathelo

Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) lubanzi olubanzi utywala okokuqala kubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-Dicamba ikwabhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa okungezizo ezolimo kwiindawo zokuhlala nakwezinye iindawo, ezinje ngegalufa apho isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamagqabi abanzi anje ngeedandelions, ichickweed, i-clover kunye ne-ivy yomhlaba.

Ngaphezulu kweemveliso ezili-1,000 XNUMX ezithengiswa e-United States ezibandakanya i-dicamba, ngokwe-National Pesticide Information Centre Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-aginist ye-auxin: ivelisa ukukhula okungalawulekiyo okukhokelela kukufa kwezityalo.

Iingxaki zokusiNgqongileyo 

Iinguqu ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ukuba zihamba kude nalapho zisetyenziswe khona, kwaye zazingasetyenziswanga ngokubanzi ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo xa benokubulala izityalo okanye imithi.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkele ukubhaliswa kweefomula ezintsha ze-dicamba ngo-2016, nangona kunjalo, ivumela ukusetyenziswa ngokutsha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ekukhuleni kwezityalo zekotoni nezinyamezelayo zedicamba. Izazinzulu zilumkise ukuba ukusetyenziswa okutsha kuya kukhokelela kumonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kokuchasana nokhula ngokubanzi kwi-glyphosate-based herbicides, kubandakanya uphawu oludumileyo lweRoundup, olwaziswa nguMonsanto kwii-1970s. Ngama-1990, iMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-glyphosate, yaze yakhuthaza abantu abadumileyo ukuba basebenzise iinkqubo zokulima “iRoundup Ready”. Abalimi banokutyala iMonsanto yemfuza eyinyamezelayo yemfuza eyinyamezelo lweglyphosate, umbona, umqhaphu kunye nezinye izityalo, emva koko bafafaze i-glyphosate herbicides efana neRoundup ngokuthe ngqo ngaphezulu kwezityalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Inkqubo yenza ukhula lula kubalimi njengoko benokutshiza imichiza ngqo kumasimi abo onke ngexesha lokukhula, kususa ukhula olwalukhuphisana nezityalo ukufuma kunye nezondlo zomhlaba.

Ukuthandwa kwenkqubo yeRoundup Ready kukhokelele kukonyuka kokhula, nangona kunjalo, kushiya amafama ngamasimi okhula oluqinileyo olungasayi kuphinda lufe xa lufafazwe ngeglyphosate.

Kwi-2011 iMonsanto yabhengeza ukuba i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Bethembele kwixesha elide kakhulu” kwaye wathi icwangcise ukusebenzisana ne-BASF kwaye iphuhlise inkqubo yokulima izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezinokunyamezela ukutshizwa nge-dicamba. Yathi iyakwazisa uhlobo olutsha lwe-dicamba herbicide engayi kuhamba kude namasimi apho yafafazwa khona.

Ukusukela oko kwaziswa le nkqubo intsha, izikhalazo malunga nomonakalo we-dicamba ukwanda kwiindawo ezininzi zasezifama, kubandakanya nezikhulu zezikhalazo ezivela e-Illinois, e-Indiana, e-Iowa, eMissouri nase-Arkansas.

Kwingxelo yomhla ka-Novemba. 1, 2017, i-EPA yathi ifumene uphando malunga nokwenzakala kwezityalo ezingama-2,708 ezisemthethweni ezinxulumene nesicamba (njengoko kuchaziwe ngamasebe karhulumente wezolimo). Iarhente ithe zingaphezulu kwe-3.6 yezigidi iihektare zesoya ezichaphazelekileyo ngelo xesha. Ezinye izityalo ezichaphazelekileyo yayiziitumato, ivatala, icantaloupe, izidiliya, amathanga, imifuno, icuba, izitiya zokuhlala, imithi kunye namatyholo.

NgoJulayi 2017, iSebe lezoLimo laseMissouri lakhupha okwexeshana "ukuThengisa ukuThengisa, ukuSebenzisa okanye ukuSusa uMyalelo," kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-dicamba eMissouri. Urhulumente waphakamisa iodolo ngoSeptemba 2017.

Ezi ziimveliso zedicamba:

Nge-Okthobha 31, 2018, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US (i-EPA) yabhengeza ukongezwa kwe-Engenia, i-XtendiMax kunye ne-FeXapan yobhaliso nge-2020 yokusetyenziswa "ngaphezulu" kokusebenzisa indawo yecicamba enganyamezeliyo yomqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya. I-EPA ithe iphucule iilebheli zangaphambili kwaye yabeka ukhuselo olongezelelweyo kumzamo wokunyusa impumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo kwemveliso ebaleni.

Ubhaliso lweminyaka emibini lusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA ichaze la magatya alandelayo:

  • Abafaki zicelo abaqinisekisiweyo kuphela abanokufaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (abo basebenza phantsi kweliso lomenzi wesicelo oqinisekisiweyo abanakuphinda benze izicelo)
  • Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kwiintsuku ezingama-45 emva kokutyala okanye ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokukhula le-R1 (intyatyambo yokuqala), nokuba yeyiphi eza kuqala
  • Thintela ngaphezulu kwesicelo se-dicamba kwi-cotton kwiintsuku ezingama-60 emva kokutyala
  • Kwikotoni, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu ukusuka kwezine ukuya kwezimbini
  • Kwiimbotyi zesoya, inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu lihlala kwisibini
  • Izicelo ziya kuvunyelwa kuphela ukusuka kwiyure enye emva kokuphuma kwelanga ukuya kwiiyure ezimbini phambi kokutshona kwelanga
  • Kwiindawo apho iintlobo zezilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni zinokubakho, i-downwind buffer iya kuhlala kwi-110 yeenyawo kwaye kuyakubakho i-buffer entsha yeenyawo ezingama-57 ezijikeleze amanye amacala endle (i-110-foot-downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izicelo, hayi kwiibalo kuphela apho Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokubakho)
  • Ukuphuculwa kwemiyalelo yetanki yokucoca yonke inkqubo
  • Ukuphuculwa kwelebheli yokuphucula ulwazi lokufaka isicelo kwifuthe le-pH esezantsi kwimeko yokungazinzi kwe-dicamba
  • Ukucocwa kwelebheli kunye nokungaguquguquki ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa nokunyanzeliswa

Inkundla yezibheno yase-US Isigqibo se-9 seSekethe 

Nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences. Inkundla ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo ukufuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokujongela phantsi i-EPA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe kratya zinokuba njalo ifunyenwe apha.

Intsalela yokutya 

Njengokuba izicelo ze-glyphosate kwimihlaba yeefama ziye zafunyanwa zishiya intsalela ye-glyphosate kunye nasekutyeni okugqityiweyo, njenge-oatmeal, isonka, iisiriyeli, njl., Iintsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuba zishiye intsalela ekutyeni. Amafama emveliso yawo ibingcoliswe ziintsalela ze-dicamba ngokusebenzisa i-drift bavakalise inkxalabo yokuba iimveliso zabo zinokukhatywa okanye zonzakaliswe ngorhwebo ngenxa yomcimbi wentsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amanqanaba okunyamezelana nedicamba ziinkozo ezininzi kunye nenyama yemfuyo etya iinkozo, kodwa hayi iziqhamo kunye nemifuno. Ukunyamezelana kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kusetwe kwiindawo ezili-10 kwisigidi, umzekelo, eUnited States, kunye neenxalenye ezi-2 kwisigidi sengqolowa. Ukunyamezeleka kunako zibonwe apha. 

I-EPA ikhuphe le nkcazo malunga nentsalela yedicamba ekutyeni: “I-EPA yenze uhlalutyo olufunwa ngumthetho iFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) kwaye yafumanisa ukuba intsalela ekutyeni“ ikhuselekile ”- okuthetha ukuba kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokungabinabungozi ebantwini, kubandakanya konke izinto ezinokuchongwa ngokufanelekileyo, kubandakanya iintsana nabantwana, ekutyeni nakwezinye izinto ezingasebenziyo kwi-dicamba. ”

Umhlaza kunye neHypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba ngumhlaza, kodwa ezinye izifundo zifumene umngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Jonga ezi zifundo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yoluntu yedicamba:

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Dicamba kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo: uhlalutyo oluhlaziyiweyo Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Xa kuthelekiswa nabafaki zicelo abangachazanga ukusebenzisa i-dicamba, abo bakwi-quartile ephezulu yokuvezwa benomngcipheko ophakamileyo wesifo somhlaza wesibindi kunye ne-intrahepatic bile duct kunye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheliyo kunye nokwehla komngcipheko we-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye neHyodys Hypothyroidism kubaFaki beziNtsholongwane kwizifundo zeMpilo yezoLimo. Iimpembelelo zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo (9.26.18)
"Kweli qela likhulu labalimi ababesemngciphekweni wokubulala izitshabalalisi, safumanisa ukuba kusoloko kusetyenziswa ii-organochlorine zinambuzane (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ii-inseophosphate zinambuzane ezine (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, kunye ne-malathion), kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, kunye ne-2,4-D) ayanyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo we-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane phakathi kwamadoda afaka isicelo sokubulala izitshabalalisi kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo. Ijenali yezeMpilo yokuSebenza ngokusiNgqongileyo (10.1.14)
"Imichiza yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, kunye neoyile yepetroleum zonke zinxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwe-hypothyroidism"

Ukuphononongwa kokuvezwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwiqela lezempilo lezolimo. Ukujongwa kweMpilo yeNdalo esingqongileyo (8.1.10)
“Sihlolisise izifundo ezingama-28; uninzi lweziyobisi zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezingama-32 ezazivavanyiwe zazingadibani kakhulu neziganeko zomhlaza kwizicelo zokubulala izinambuzane. Ukonyusa umyinge (okanye ukungalingani) kunye neepateni zokuphendula ezichazayo zichazwe kwizibulali zinambuzane ezili-12 ezibhaliswe ngoku eCanada kunye / okanye eUnited States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- idipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isifo seCancer phakathi kwabaFaki beziNtsholongwane ezichazwe kwiDicamba kwiMpilo yezoLimo Isifundo. Imiba yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo (7.13.06)
Ukuchazwa kwakungadibananga neziganeko zomhlaza ngokubanzi kwaye kwakungekho mibutho yomeleleyo kunye naluphi na uhlobo lomhlaza. Xa iqela lesalathiso lalinabafaki-zicelo abatyhilekileyo abasezantsi, sabona imeko elungileyo emngciphekweni phakathi kweentsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye nomhlaza wemiphunga (p = 0.02), kodwa akukho nanye kuqikelelo lwenqaku lomntu oluphakanyisiweyo. Siye sabona imeko eyandayo yomngcipheko womhlaza wekolon kuzo zombini iintsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye neentsuku zokuphila ezinobunzima, nangona ezi ziphumo zibangelwe ngumngcipheko ophakamileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvezwa.

I-Lymphoma ye-non-Hodgkin kunye nokuchazwa kwe-Pesticide ekhethekileyo kuMadoda: I-Cross-Canada Study of Pesticides kunye neMpilo. Umhlaza we-Epidemiology, Biomarkers kunye noThintelo (11.01)
“Phakathi kweekhompawundi ezizodwa, kuhlalutyo lwe-multivariate, umngcipheko we-NHL wanyuswa ngokweenkcukacha-manani ngokuvezwa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OKANYE, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye iimodeli ezongezayo, ezibandakanya ukubonwa kwezinye iikhemikhali eziphambili okanye iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, umhlaza wesibeleko, imbali yomhlaza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, kunye nokuvezwa kwimixube equkethe i-dicamba (OKANYE, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40- 2.75)… babengabacingeli abazimeleyo ababalulekileyo abonisa umngcipheko owandisiweyo weNHL ”

Ityala 

Inkxalabo yomonakalo we-dicamba ikhuthaze ukumangalelwa ngamafama kumazwe amaninzi ase-US. Iinkcukacha kwisimangalo ku funyanwa apha.

UDicamba: Amafama oyika elinye ixesha lomonakalo wezityalo; Kulindelwe isigwebo senkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngokujika kwekhalenda ukuya kuJuni, amafama aseMelika eMidwest asonga ukutyala izityalo zesoya ezintsha kunye nokujonga amasimi akhulayo ezityalo zengqolowa kunye nemifuno. Kodwa baninzi abakwalungiselela ukubethwa lutshaba olungabonakaliyo oluye lwadala umonakalo kwilizwe lasezifama ihlobo lokugqibela- ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umfama oqinisekisiweyo wase-Robinson, e-Kansas, uchaza amaxesha okugqibela okukhula ehlotyeni njengoko ephawulwe "sisiphithiphithi," kwaye uthe waphulukana nesiqinisekiso sentsimi enye yezityalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efafazwe kude. Ngoku uyabongoza abamelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula kumasimi abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuba ikhemikhali ihlala kude kwipropathi yakhe.

"Kukho dicamba kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomnye kuphela wamakhulu amafama ajikeleze iMidwest West yase-US kunye namazwe aliqela asezantsi athe axela ukonakaliswa kwesityalo kunye nelahleko abathi zibangelwe kukukhukuliseka kwe-dicamba kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo.

Olo thintelo lwabuyiselwa umva emva kokuba uMonsanto ephehlelele imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imichiza ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zilimo zenziwe ngemfuza. IMonsanto, ngoku eyeyeBayer AG, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokuthengisa iimveliso ezintsha ze-dicamba herbicides zokutshiza ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo ezinganyangekiyo. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza.

Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umanyano lwamaqela amafama kunye nabathengi amangalele i-EPA malunga nokuxhasa kwayo ukusetyenziswa okuphezulu kweyeza ze-dicamba kwaye ngoku balindele isigwebo senkundla yesithoba yesibheno sezibheno eSan Francisco malunga nemfuno yabo yokuba inkundla iguqule i-EPA Ukuvunywa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Iingxoxo zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Epreli.

Abathengi kunye namaqela ezendalo atyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ngokusilela ukuhlalutya "iindleko zentlalo noqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kumafama" ekhokelela kumanqanaba "obubi" omonakalo wezityalo.

Amaqela athi i-EPA ibonakala inomdla ngakumbi ukukhusela umdla kwishishini zeMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani kunokukhusela amafama.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto, amele inkampani njengeyunithi yaseBayer, bathi abamangali abanangqiniseko ethembekileyo. Idicamba herbicide yenkampani entsha, ebizwa ngokuba yiXtendiMax, “incede abalimi ekusombululeni ingxaki enkulu yokhula kwilizwe lonke, kwaye isivuno seembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu zifikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe lonke ngeli xesha lesimangalo,” ngokufutshane ifayilishwe ngamagqwetha enkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Abaceli besicelo somyalelo wokumisa kwangoko konke ukuthengisa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwento yokubulala izitshabalalisi kumema impazamo yomthetho kunye neempembelelo ezinokubakho eziyinyani kwilizwe liphela," yatsho inkampani.

Njengoko belinde isigqibo senkundla yomanyano, amafama athemba ukuba izithintelo ezitsha ezibekwe ngamanye amazwe ziya kubakhusela. ISebe lezoLimo lase-Illinois ucebisile Abafakizicelo abangenako ukutshiza emva komhla wama-20 kuJuni, nokuba akufuneki batshize iimveliso ze-dicamba ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-45 degrees Fahrenheit, kwaye kufuneka basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba xa umoya uvuthuza usuka kwiindawo “ezibuthathaka”. IMinnesota, iIndiana, iNyakatho yeDakota kunye noMzantsi Dakota ziphakathi kwamanye amazwe zibeka imihla yokuphelisa ukutshiza i-dicamba.

U-Steve Smith, umlawuli wezolimo e-Red Gold Inc, iprosesa enkulu yeetamati enkonkxiweyo, uthe nangemida karhulumente "uxhalabile kakhulu" malunga nexesha elizayo. Iihektare ezininzi zokutyala kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto ke kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuyakubakho ukutshizwa kwe-dicamba, utshilo.

"Sisebenze nzima ukugcina umyalezo phaya ukuze ungasondeli kuthi, kodwa umntu, ngamanye amaxesha, uza kwenza impazamo enokusibizela ishishini lethu," utshilo.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuba inkundla izakuchitha ukuvuma kwe-EPA kwaye "ayeke obu buhlanya benkqubo."

Ngokwahlukileyo kumonakalo onokubakho we-dicamba kwizityalo, uphando olutsha kutshanje kupapashwe kubonisa ukuba amafama avezwe kumanqanaba aphezulu e-dicamba kubonakala ngathi aphakame umngcipheko wesibindi kunye nezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abaphandi bathi idatha entsha ibonise ukuba umbutho owawubonwe ngaphambili kwidatha phakathi kwe-dicamba kunye ne-lung kunye ne-colon cancer zazingabonakali "ngedatha ehlaziyiweyo.