Inkundla yomanyano iyala isicelo sikaSyngenta sokuphosa ityala malunga neparaquat herbicide

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Ijaji yomdibaniso iyayikhanyela iinzame zenkampani yaseSwitzerland yemichiza iSyngenta yokuphosa elinye lamanani akhulayo amatyala atyhola imveliso yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ebangela isifo sikaParkinson. Isigqibo sinika inkxaso kwi ukwandisa Inani lamashishini ezomthetho kunye nabamangali benza amabango afanayo.

Kwisigwebo se-12 ka-Epreli, iJaji yeSithili sase-US uJohn Ross kwi-Mpuma yeSithili sase-Missouri usikhabile isindululo esenziwe ngu-Syngenta kunye nommangalelwa u-DRM owayefuna ukugxotha ityala eziswe ngabantu abatshatileyo baseMissouri uHenry noTara Holyfield.

"Kuyasivuyisa ukuba inkundla yasikhaba isicelo sokuba kugxothwe," utshilo uSteven Crick, igqwetha lenkampani yaseHumphrey, Farrington & McClain omele iHallfields. “Siqinisekile ukuba iinzame zabamangalelwa zokuchitha okanye ukuphazamisa ityala liza kuqhubeka.”

Isimangalo sityhola uHenry Holyfield wenza i-Parkinson's, inkqubo yokuphazamiseka kwenkqubo ye-nervous ephazamisayo nenganyangekiyo, ngenxa yokuvezwa kwakhe kwiparaquat emsebenzini wakhe njenge-duster yesityalo. Isuti ithethe ukuba iparaquat yahanjiswa "ngaphandle kwemiyalelo eyaneleyo malunga nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo" kwaye "ngaphandle kwemiyalelo okanye izilumkiso zokuba iparaquat iyingozi empilweni nakubomi kwaye ibangela izifo."

Abavelisi baseSyngenta kwaye basasaza iparaquat-based Gramoxone, umbulali wokhula osetyenziswa kakhulu othandwayo kumafama aseMelika kodwa uvaliwe kumazwe angaphezu kwama-30 kuba isaziwa njengeyityhefu. ISyngenta iyabubona ubungozi betyhefu yengozi enxulunyaniswa neparaquat, kwaye iimveliso zayo zineelebheli ezilumkisayo ezingqongqo malunga nezilumkiso ezifunekayo ukuze zisetyenziswe ngokukhuselekileyo.

Kodwa inkampani iyabukhanyela ubunyani bophando lwezenzululwazi olufumene unxibelelwano phakathi kokuvezwa kweparaquat kunye nesifo sikaParkinson.

I-DRM ifumene amalungelo okuthengisa nawokuhambisa imveliso yeGramoxone paraquat e-United States kwisivumelwano nomanduleli wase-Syngenta obizwa ngokuba yi-Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), eyazisa nge-Gramoxone esekwe nge-paraquat ngo-1962. Phantsi kwesivumelwano selayisensi, i-DRM yanikwa amalungelo okwenza Sebenzisa, kwaye uthengise ukwenziwa kweparaquat eMelika

Kwisindululo sabo Ukulahla ityala, uSyngenta kunye no-DRM bathi amabango e-Holyfield ahlawulelwa ngumthetho olawula ukumiselwa kweparaquat yi-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo (EPA).

“IParaquat ibilawulwa kakhulu yi-EPA kumashumi eminyaka phantsi komthetho iFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)…” sitsho isindululo. “Kumashumi eminyaka yokuqwalaselwa, isigwebo se-EPA siyaqhubeka ukuba iparaquat ikhuselekile ukuba ingathengiswa kwaye isetyenziswe kude kube kuthatyathwa amanyathelo okhuseleko amiselwe yi-EPA kwaye kulandelwe imiyalelo. Ukuqinisekisa ukufana, i-FIFRA iyakwalela amazwe ukuba abeke naziphi na iimfuno zokuphawula "ukongeza okanye ngokwahlukileyo" kwiimfuno ze-FIFRA kunye neelebheli ezivunyiweyo ze-EPA… Kodwa yile nto kanye esi sikhalazo sifuna ukuyenza. "

Ujaji Ross uthe lempikiswano iphosakele. I-FIFRA ithi ukuvunywa kobhaliso yi-EPA “akwenzi
bakhusela ngokupheleleyo ”amabango okuba imveliso ethile“ ibhalwe igama elibi, ”wabhala kwisigqibo sakhe. Ngapha koko, isigwebo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US ngo-2005 kwityala elalibizwa ngokuba yi-Bates v. Dow Agrosciences yaqinisekisa ukuba ukuvunywa kwemveliso yi-EPA akuthinteli amabango okusilela ukulumkisa ngokuziswa komthetho welizwe.

"Le Nkundla iyazi ukuba akukho tyala okoko iBates apho inkundla yenqabe ulawulo malunga nebango elinxulumene ne-FIFRA ngokuhambelana nemfundiso yolawulo oluphambili," yabhala ijaji kwisigwebo sayo. "Iziphumo zovavanyo lwe-EPA zeparaquat, ngaphezulu, azizukunyanzela impumelelo okanye ukusilela kwamabango abaMangali."

Okwangoku kukho ubuncinci kumatyala ayi-14 afakwe ziifemu zomthetho ezisibhozo kwiinkundla zomdibaniso ezahlukeneyo ezintandathu kwilizwe liphela. Amacala onke afakwe egameni labamangali abafunyaniswe benesifo se-neurodegenerative, kwaye bonke batyhola ukubonakaliswa kweparaquat yaseSyngenta kubangele iimeko zabo. Amanye amatyala aliqela enza izityholo ezifanayo asalindelwe nakwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

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Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

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Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Inkundla yezibheno iyayikhaba imali iMonsanto yokuphinda umiselwe ityala

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Inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ngoLwesibini yalahla iMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa i-4 yezigidi ukusuka kwisixa semali esityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukusinda umhlaza ofunyenwe yijaji yabangelwa kukuvezwa komntu kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yeSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia ikwasikhaba isicelo senkampani sokuphinda umanyelwe lo mbandela. Isigqibo senkundla silandele isigwebo saso kwinyanga ephelileyo Ukubetha iMonsanto  ngokukhanyela ukomelela kobungqina bokuba ababulali bayo bokhula olusisiseko se-glyphosate babangela umhlaza. Kweso sigwebo sangoJulayi, inkundla yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson unike ubungqina “obuninzi” bokuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umhlaza wakhe. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa," inkundla yezibheno yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJulayi.

Kweso sigqibo ukusukela kwinyanga ephelileyo, inkundla yezibheno yenze njalo, isike isinxephezelo somonakalo esityala uJohnson, eyalela uMonsanto ukuba ahlawule i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, ezantsi ukusuka kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa ngumgwebi wetyala kwaye yehla kwi-289 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa yijaji eyagqiba isigqibo sikaJohnson Ityala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ukongeza kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iMonsanto etyala uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuba ihlawule i-519,000 yeedola kwiindleko.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe nguBayer AG kwi2018, yayinayo ibongoza inkundla ukusika ibhaso kuJohnson ukuya kwi- $ 16.5 yezigidi.

Isigqibo seDicamba simi ngokunjalo

Isigqibo senkundla yangoLwesibini silandele a Isigqibo esikhutshwe ngoMvulo yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba iphika ukuphinda kuqhutywe isigqibo senkundla kaJuni shiya imvume yemveliso yokubulala ukhula esekwe dicamba Bayer ezuzwe njengelifa kwiMonsanto. Isigwebo sikaJuni sikwaphelise ngokufanelekileyo i-dicamba-based herbicides eyenziwe yi-BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience.

Iinkampani zaye zacela iqela elibanzi leejaji kwiijaji zesekethe zeThoba ukuba liziqhelanise neli tyala, zisithi isigqibo sokurhoxisa ukwamkelwa kolawulo lweemveliso sasingalunganga. Kodwa inkundla yasikhaba ngaw 'omane eso sicelo.

Kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe yethoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

Isigqibo senkundla sokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani sabangela isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa yiMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba iinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana ne "Roundup Ready" izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo, izityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba zivumela amafama ukuba afafaze i-dicamba ngaphezulu kwamasimi abo ukubulala ukhula ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo.

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni.

Igqwetha lomhlaza i-Roundup liyalivuma ityala lokuzama ukuphanga

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Igqwetha laseVirginia elalinceda ukumela ummangali wokuqala womhlaza we-Roundup ukuba athathe ityala likaMonsanto alivume ityala ngolwe-Sihlanu ukuzama ukuthoba i-200 yezigidi zeedola kumthengisi wemichiza eya eMonsanto.

UTimothy Litzenburg, 38, wavuma kwisikimu apho yena nelinye igqwetha babesoyikisa ngokulimaza imali kunye nodumo kumthengisi ngaphandle kokuba inkampani ihlawule amagqwetha amabini ezigidi zeedola ezifihliwe "njengesivumelwano sokubonisana."

Ngokutsho kwiSebe lezoBulungisa lase-US, U-Litzenburg uxelele inkampani ukuba xa behlawule le mali, wayekulungele "ukuthatha indawo" ngexesha lokufaka imali, ngenjongo yokujongela phantsi amatyala abamangali bexesha elizayo ukuzama ukumangalela.

I-Litzenburg yahlawuliswa ngenani elinye lokuzama ukuphanga, iyelenqe kunye nokuhanjiswa konxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga. Yena wavuma ityala kwinani elinye lokudlulisa unxibelelwano lwangaphakathi ngenjongo yokuphanga.

Igqwetha uDaniel Kincheloe, 41, wavuma ityala Kwityala elifanayo lokuthatha inxaxheba kule nkqubo. Amadoda acwangciselwe ukugwetywa nge-18 kaSeptemba kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Western District yaseVirginia.

"Le yimeko apho amagqwetha amabini aphephela ngaphaya komgaqo wobundlobongela kwaye awelele ngaphakathi kummandla wokuphanga ngokungekho mthethweni, kwilinge elingenalusini lokuzityebisa ngokufumana izigidi zeedola kwinkampani yamazwe aphesheya," uMncedisi weGqwetha Jikelele uBrian A. UBenczkowski uthe kwingxelo. Uthe esi sicelo sibonisa ukuba "xa ulwaphulo-mthetho lwenziwe, amalungu e-bar, njengabo bonke abantu, bazakubekwa ityala ngezenzo zabo."

ILitzenburg yenye yegqwetha likaDewayne “Lee” Johnson elakhokelela kwityala likaJohnson ngo-2018 nxamnye neMonsanto, nto leyo eyakhokelela ekubeni $ 289 yezigidi zeerandi ngokuthanda kukaJohnson. (Ijaji kwelo tyala yasithoba isigwebo kwaye eli tyala ngoku liphantsi kwesibheno.)

Ityala lolokuqala kwezintathu ezenzekileyo ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa yezityholo zokuba i-glyphosate-based herbicides efana neRoundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IMonsanto, kunye nomnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG, baphulukene nazo zontathu izilingo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kodwa babhengeza isigwebo.

Nangona i-Litzenburg yayincede ukulungiselela uJohnson ukuba axoxwe, akazange avunyelwe ukuthatha inxaxheba ngexesha lomcimbi ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha kwakhe okwakubanjwe yi-Miller Firm, eyayingumqeshi wakhe ngelo xesha.

Ifemi yeMiller emva koko wagxothwa ILitzenburg kwaye wafaka isimangalo ekuqaleni kuka-2019 etyhola uLitzenburg ngokuzibandakanya, kunye "nokunganyaniseki nokungaziphathi kakuhle." ILitzenburg iphendule ngo counter-ibango. Amaqela athethathethane ngesivumelwano esiyimfihlo.

Isikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho esichasene neLitzenburg asiyichazanga inkampani i-Litzenburg ukuba izame ukuxhaphaza, kodwa wathi waqhagamshelana nenkampani ngoSeptemba ka-2019 unyaka esithi ulungiselela ityala eliza kuthi inkampani ibonelele ngezixhobo zemichiza ezisetyenziswe nguMonsanto ukwenza iRoundup kwaye Inkampani ibisazi ukuba izithako zibangele i-carcinogenic kodwa yehlulekile ukulumkisa uluntu.

Ngokwentlawulo yomdibaniso, u-Litzenburg uxelele igqwetha lale nkampani ukuba ibizama ukuqhatha ukuba inkampani kufuneka ingene "kulungiselelo lokubonisana" kunye naye ukuze yakhe ukungqubana komdla okuya kumthintela ekufakeni isimangalo esisongelwayo.

U-Litzenburg wabhala nge-imeyile ukuba i-200 yezigidi zeedola zesivumelwano sakhe kunye nomlingane "lixabiso elifanelekileyo," ngokwesikhalazo solwaphulo-mthetho.

Abaphandi baseburhulumenteni babhala umnxeba kunye neLitzenburg bexoxa nge-200 yezigidi zeedola awayezifuna, sitsho isikhalazo. ILitzenburg kuthiwa yarekhodwa isithi: “Indlela endicinga ukuba niyakucinga ngayo kwaye besicinga ngayo kukonga icala lenu. Andiqondi ukuba le nto ifayilishwe kwaye ijike ibe yintsokolo enkulu, nokuba niyaphumelela amatyala kwaye niqhubele phambili ixabiso… andicingi ukuba ikhona indlela eninokuphuma ngayo ngaphantsi kweebhiliyoni zeerandi. Kwaye, niyazi, kum, eh, eli lixabiso lokuthengisa umlilo ekufuneka nilithathele ingqalelo… ”

ILitzenburg ibanga ukuba imele abathengi abamalunga ne-1,000 abamangalela uMonsanto malunga nezityholo zomhlaza we-Roundup ngexesha lokubanjwa kwakhe kunyaka ophelileyo.

Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iindaba zamva: I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaseMelika ubhengeze u-Okthobha 27 izakuvumela amafama ase-US ukuba aqhubeke nokutshiza izityalo nge-Bayer AG's weedkiller esetyenziswa kwi-dicamba-resistant GMO soybeans and cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla othintela ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkundla yezibheno yakugweba oko I-EPA “ibeka umngcipheko omkhulu” kubabulali bokhula lwe-dicamba. Amashumi amafama ajikeleze i-US amangalela iBayer (eyayisakuba yiMonsanto) kunye ne-BASF kumzamo wokubamba iinkampani ukuba ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wesityalo amafama athi zibangelwa kukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba. Sithumela amaxwebhu okufumanisa kunye nohlalutyo lwezilingo kuthi Iphepha leDicamba Papers.

isishwankathelo

Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) lubanzi olubanzi utywala okokuqala kubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-Dicamba ikwabhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa okungezizo ezolimo kwiindawo zokuhlala nakwezinye iindawo, ezinje ngegalufa apho isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamagqabi abanzi anje ngeedandelions, ichickweed, i-clover kunye ne-ivy yomhlaba.

Ngaphezulu kweemveliso ezili-1,000 XNUMX ezithengiswa e-United States ezibandakanya i-dicamba, ngokwe-National Pesticide Information Centre Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-aginist ye-auxin: ivelisa ukukhula okungalawulekiyo okukhokelela kukufa kwezityalo.

Iingxaki zokusiNgqongileyo 

Iinguqu ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ukuba zihamba kude nalapho zisetyenziswe khona, kwaye zazingasetyenziswanga ngokubanzi ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo xa benokubulala izityalo okanye imithi.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkele ukubhaliswa kweefomula ezintsha ze-dicamba ngo-2016, nangona kunjalo, ivumela ukusetyenziswa ngokutsha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ekukhuleni kwezityalo zekotoni nezinyamezelayo zedicamba. Izazinzulu zilumkise ukuba ukusetyenziswa okutsha kuya kukhokelela kumonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kokuchasana nokhula ngokubanzi kwi-glyphosate-based herbicides, kubandakanya uphawu oludumileyo lweRoundup, olwaziswa nguMonsanto kwii-1970s. Ngama-1990, iMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-glyphosate, yaze yakhuthaza abantu abadumileyo ukuba basebenzise iinkqubo zokulima “iRoundup Ready”. Abalimi banokutyala iMonsanto yemfuza eyinyamezelayo yemfuza eyinyamezelo lweglyphosate, umbona, umqhaphu kunye nezinye izityalo, emva koko bafafaze i-glyphosate herbicides efana neRoundup ngokuthe ngqo ngaphezulu kwezityalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Inkqubo yenza ukhula lula kubalimi njengoko benokutshiza imichiza ngqo kumasimi abo onke ngexesha lokukhula, kususa ukhula olwalukhuphisana nezityalo ukufuma kunye nezondlo zomhlaba.

Ukuthandwa kwenkqubo yeRoundup Ready kukhokelele kukonyuka kokhula, nangona kunjalo, kushiya amafama ngamasimi okhula oluqinileyo olungasayi kuphinda lufe xa lufafazwe ngeglyphosate.

Kwi-2011 iMonsanto yabhengeza ukuba i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Bethembele kwixesha elide kakhulu” kwaye wathi icwangcise ukusebenzisana ne-BASF kwaye iphuhlise inkqubo yokulima izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezinokunyamezela ukutshizwa nge-dicamba. Yathi iyakwazisa uhlobo olutsha lwe-dicamba herbicide engayi kuhamba kude namasimi apho yafafazwa khona.

Ukusukela oko kwaziswa le nkqubo intsha, izikhalazo malunga nomonakalo we-dicamba ukwanda kwiindawo ezininzi zasezifama, kubandakanya nezikhulu zezikhalazo ezivela e-Illinois, e-Indiana, e-Iowa, eMissouri nase-Arkansas.

Kwingxelo yomhla ka-Novemba. 1, 2017, i-EPA yathi ifumene uphando malunga nokwenzakala kwezityalo ezingama-2,708 ezisemthethweni ezinxulumene nesicamba (njengoko kuchaziwe ngamasebe karhulumente wezolimo). Iarhente ithe zingaphezulu kwe-3.6 yezigidi iihektare zesoya ezichaphazelekileyo ngelo xesha. Ezinye izityalo ezichaphazelekileyo yayiziitumato, ivatala, icantaloupe, izidiliya, amathanga, imifuno, icuba, izitiya zokuhlala, imithi kunye namatyholo.

NgoJulayi 2017, iSebe lezoLimo laseMissouri lakhupha okwexeshana "ukuThengisa ukuThengisa, ukuSebenzisa okanye ukuSusa uMyalelo," kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-dicamba eMissouri. Urhulumente waphakamisa iodolo ngoSeptemba 2017.

Ezi ziimveliso zedicamba:

Nge-Okthobha 31, 2018, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US (i-EPA) yabhengeza ukongezwa kwe-Engenia, i-XtendiMax kunye ne-FeXapan yobhaliso nge-2020 yokusetyenziswa "ngaphezulu" kokusebenzisa indawo yecicamba enganyamezeliyo yomqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya. I-EPA ithe iphucule iilebheli zangaphambili kwaye yabeka ukhuselo olongezelelweyo kumzamo wokunyusa impumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo kwemveliso ebaleni.

Ubhaliso lweminyaka emibini lusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA ichaze la magatya alandelayo:

  • Abafaki zicelo abaqinisekisiweyo kuphela abanokufaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (abo basebenza phantsi kweliso lomenzi wesicelo oqinisekisiweyo abanakuphinda benze izicelo)
  • Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kwiintsuku ezingama-45 emva kokutyala okanye ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokukhula le-R1 (intyatyambo yokuqala), nokuba yeyiphi eza kuqala
  • Thintela ngaphezulu kwesicelo se-dicamba kwi-cotton kwiintsuku ezingama-60 emva kokutyala
  • Kwikotoni, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu ukusuka kwezine ukuya kwezimbini
  • Kwiimbotyi zesoya, inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu lihlala kwisibini
  • Izicelo ziya kuvunyelwa kuphela ukusuka kwiyure enye emva kokuphuma kwelanga ukuya kwiiyure ezimbini phambi kokutshona kwelanga
  • Kwiindawo apho iintlobo zezilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni zinokubakho, i-downwind buffer iya kuhlala kwi-110 yeenyawo kwaye kuyakubakho i-buffer entsha yeenyawo ezingama-57 ezijikeleze amanye amacala endle (i-110-foot-downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izicelo, hayi kwiibalo kuphela apho Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokubakho)
  • Ukuphuculwa kwemiyalelo yetanki yokucoca yonke inkqubo
  • Ukuphuculwa kwelebheli yokuphucula ulwazi lokufaka isicelo kwifuthe le-pH esezantsi kwimeko yokungazinzi kwe-dicamba
  • Ukucocwa kwelebheli kunye nokungaguquguquki ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa nokunyanzeliswa

Inkundla yezibheno yase-US Isigqibo se-9 seSekethe 

Nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences. Inkundla ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo ukufuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokujongela phantsi i-EPA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe kratya zinokuba njalo ifunyenwe apha.

Intsalela yokutya 

Njengokuba izicelo ze-glyphosate kwimihlaba yeefama ziye zafunyanwa zishiya intsalela ye-glyphosate kunye nasekutyeni okugqityiweyo, njenge-oatmeal, isonka, iisiriyeli, njl., Iintsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuba zishiye intsalela ekutyeni. Amafama emveliso yawo ibingcoliswe ziintsalela ze-dicamba ngokusebenzisa i-drift bavakalise inkxalabo yokuba iimveliso zabo zinokukhatywa okanye zonzakaliswe ngorhwebo ngenxa yomcimbi wentsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amanqanaba okunyamezelana nedicamba ziinkozo ezininzi kunye nenyama yemfuyo etya iinkozo, kodwa hayi iziqhamo kunye nemifuno. Ukunyamezelana kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kusetwe kwiindawo ezili-10 kwisigidi, umzekelo, eUnited States, kunye neenxalenye ezi-2 kwisigidi sengqolowa. Ukunyamezeleka kunako zibonwe apha. 

I-EPA ikhuphe le nkcazo malunga nentsalela yedicamba ekutyeni: “I-EPA yenze uhlalutyo olufunwa ngumthetho iFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) kwaye yafumanisa ukuba intsalela ekutyeni“ ikhuselekile ”- okuthetha ukuba kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokungabinabungozi ebantwini, kubandakanya konke izinto ezinokuchongwa ngokufanelekileyo, kubandakanya iintsana nabantwana, ekutyeni nakwezinye izinto ezingasebenziyo kwi-dicamba. ”

Umhlaza kunye neHypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba ngumhlaza, kodwa ezinye izifundo zifumene umngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Jonga ezi zifundo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yoluntu yedicamba:

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Dicamba kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo: uhlalutyo oluhlaziyiweyo Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Xa kuthelekiswa nabafaki zicelo abangachazanga ukusebenzisa i-dicamba, abo bakwi-quartile ephezulu yokuvezwa benomngcipheko ophakamileyo wesifo somhlaza wesibindi kunye ne-intrahepatic bile duct kunye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheliyo kunye nokwehla komngcipheko we-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye neHyodys Hypothyroidism kubaFaki beziNtsholongwane kwizifundo zeMpilo yezoLimo. Iimpembelelo zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo (9.26.18)
"Kweli qela likhulu labalimi ababesemngciphekweni wokubulala izitshabalalisi, safumanisa ukuba kusoloko kusetyenziswa ii-organochlorine zinambuzane (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ii-inseophosphate zinambuzane ezine (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, kunye ne-malathion), kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, kunye ne-2,4-D) ayanyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo we-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane phakathi kwamadoda afaka isicelo sokubulala izitshabalalisi kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo. Ijenali yezeMpilo yokuSebenza ngokusiNgqongileyo (10.1.14)
"Imichiza yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, kunye neoyile yepetroleum zonke zinxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwe-hypothyroidism"

Ukuphononongwa kokuvezwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwiqela lezempilo lezolimo. Ukujongwa kweMpilo yeNdalo esingqongileyo (8.1.10)
“Sihlolisise izifundo ezingama-28; uninzi lweziyobisi zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezingama-32 ezazivavanyiwe zazingadibani kakhulu neziganeko zomhlaza kwizicelo zokubulala izinambuzane. Ukonyusa umyinge (okanye ukungalingani) kunye neepateni zokuphendula ezichazayo zichazwe kwizibulali zinambuzane ezili-12 ezibhaliswe ngoku eCanada kunye / okanye eUnited States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- idipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isifo seCancer phakathi kwabaFaki beziNtsholongwane ezichazwe kwiDicamba kwiMpilo yezoLimo Isifundo. Imiba yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo (7.13.06)
Ukuchazwa kwakungadibananga neziganeko zomhlaza ngokubanzi kwaye kwakungekho mibutho yomeleleyo kunye naluphi na uhlobo lomhlaza. Xa iqela lesalathiso lalinabafaki-zicelo abatyhilekileyo abasezantsi, sabona imeko elungileyo emngciphekweni phakathi kweentsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye nomhlaza wemiphunga (p = 0.02), kodwa akukho nanye kuqikelelo lwenqaku lomntu oluphakanyisiweyo. Siye sabona imeko eyandayo yomngcipheko womhlaza wekolon kuzo zombini iintsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye neentsuku zokuphila ezinobunzima, nangona ezi ziphumo zibangelwe ngumngcipheko ophakamileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvezwa.

I-Lymphoma ye-non-Hodgkin kunye nokuchazwa kwe-Pesticide ekhethekileyo kuMadoda: I-Cross-Canada Study of Pesticides kunye neMpilo. Umhlaza we-Epidemiology, Biomarkers kunye noThintelo (11.01)
“Phakathi kweekhompawundi ezizodwa, kuhlalutyo lwe-multivariate, umngcipheko we-NHL wanyuswa ngokweenkcukacha-manani ngokuvezwa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OKANYE, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye iimodeli ezongezayo, ezibandakanya ukubonwa kwezinye iikhemikhali eziphambili okanye iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, umhlaza wesibeleko, imbali yomhlaza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, kunye nokuvezwa kwimixube equkethe i-dicamba (OKANYE, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40- 2.75)… babengabacingeli abazimeleyo ababalulekileyo abonisa umngcipheko owandisiweyo weNHL ”

Ityala 

Inkxalabo yomonakalo we-dicamba ikhuthaze ukumangalelwa ngamafama kumazwe amaninzi ase-US. Iinkcukacha kwisimangalo ku funyanwa apha.

KWIINKCUKACHA-Inkundla igxotha ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kweBayer dicamba herbicide; Umlawuli uthi "uthoba umngcipheko"

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(UPHATHAZI ngeNgxelo evela kwi-BASF)

Ngokukhalima okumangalisayo kwe-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo, inkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yeedicamba ezisekwe kwi-herbicides ezenziwe ziikhemikhali ezinkulu Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva Agrisciences. Isigwebo esisebenzayo senza kube semthethweni ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Isigwebo seNkundla Yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe Yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA “ibubeka ecaleni kakhulu ubungozi” bokubulala ukhula i-dicamba kwaye “yasilela ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela ezinye iingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekunikezeleni ubhaliso olunemiqathango," isigwebo senkundla sithi.

IMonsanto kunye ne-EPA babeyicelile inkundla, ukuba iyavumelana nabamangali, ukuba bangakutshintshi kwangoko ukwamkelwa kwemveliso yokubulala ukhula. Inkundla yathi: “Siyala ukwenjenjalo.”

Umgwebo waziswa nguMbutho weSizwe weFama yokuBumbana, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, iZiko lokwahluka kweBiological, kunye neNkqubo yokubulala izinambuzane eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali batyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ekuvavanyeni iimpembelelo zenkqubo eyilwe yiMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwi2018, ethe yabangela ukonakala "kwezityalo ngokubanzi" kwihlobo ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo kwaye iyaqhubeka nokusongela iifama kwilizwe liphela.

"Isigqibo sanamhlanje siphumelele kakhulu kumafama nakwindalo esingqongileyo," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell weZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, igqwetha elikhokelayo kwityala. “Kulungile ukukhunjuzwa ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeMonsanto kunye neTrump Administration azinakho ukubaleka umthetho, ngakumbi ngexesha lobunzima obunjengale. Ufikile umhla wabo wokuziphendulela. ”

Inkundla ifumanise ukuba phakathi kwezinye iingxaki, i-EPA “iyala ukuqikelela isixa somonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza umonakalo 'njengonokubakho' kunye 'nokutyholwa,' xa ubungqina berekhodi bubonisa ukuba i-dicamba ibangele umonakalo omkhulu kwaye awunakuphikiswa.”

Inkundla ikwafumanise ukuba i-EPA ayiphumelelanga ukuvuma ukuba izithintelo ezibekwa kusetyenziso lwe-dicamba ayizukulandelwa, kwaye yafumanisa ukuba i-EPA “isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko omkhulu wokuba ubhaliso luya kuba neziphumo zoqoqosho imizi-mveliso yeembotyi zesoya nomqhaphu. ”

Okokugqibela, inkundla ithe, i-EPA isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko wokusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba herbicides esekwe yi-Monsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva "iyakudiliza imeko yentlalo yoluntu."

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto iwuphakamisile lo mqobo xa yayisungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo zemozulu.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza zenziwe ngemfuza emva kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kumhlaba wonke weefama wase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezilumkiso, iMonsanto, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa imveliso entsha ye-dicamba herbicides kolu hlobo lubanzi lokutshiza. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ezichazwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwiindawo ze-18, inkundla iqaphele.

Njengoko bekuxelwe kwangaphambili, kukho amawakawaka ezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodwe kwiindawo ezininzi. Kwisigwebo sayo, inkundla iqaphele ukuba kwi-2018, kwizigidi ezili-103 zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu otyalwe e-United States, malunga ne-56 yezigidi zeehektare zatyalwa nembewu ene-Micanto dicamba-ukunyamezelana, ukusuka kwi-27 yezigidi zeehektare kunyaka ongaphambili. Ngo-2017.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo elandela esi sigwebo esithi akavumelani kwaphela nesigwebo senkundla kwaye uvavanya ukhetho.

Isigqibo esisekwe kwisayensi esisekwe kwi-EPA siyasiqinisekisa ukuba esi sixhobo sibalulekile kubalimi kwaye asibeki mngcipheko wokungahambi kakuhle xa sisetyenziswa ngokwemikhombandlela yeelebheli, utshilo inkampani. "Ukuba isigwebo simi, siza kusebenza ngokukhawuleza ukunciphisa nayiphi na impembelelo kubathengi bethu kule sizini."

UCorteva ukwathe i-dicamba herbicides yayidinga izixhobo zomfama kwaye yayivavanya ukhetho lwayo.

I-BASF ibize lo mthetho wenkundla "ngendlela engazange ibonwe ngaphambili" kwaye ithi "inokuba namandla okuphazamisa amashumi amawaka amafama."

Abalimi banokuphulukana "nengeniso ebalulekileyo" ukuba abakwazi ukubulala ukhula kwiindawo zabo zesoya kunye nekotoni kunye ne-dicamba herbicides, utshilo inkampani.

"Siza kusebenzisa zonke iindlela ezisemthethweni zokufumana lo mngeni," utshilo uBASF.

Isithethi se-EPA sithe i-arhente ngoku ijonga isigqibo senkundla kwaye "izakuhamba ngokukhawuleza ukujongana nomyalelo weNkundla."

Inkundla isamkele isigqibo singanendleko kumafama asele ethengile kunye / okanye atyale imbewu ye-dicamba enganyamezelekiyo ngelixesha lonyaka kwaye icwangcise ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula kuyo ngenxa yokuba isigwebo asikuvumeli ukusetyenziswa kweyeza.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima obunokubangelwa ngaba balimi ekufumaneni amayeza okubulala ukhula asebenzayo nakwezomthetho ukukhusela izityalo zabo (ezinyamezelayo) ..." isigwebo sitsho. “Babekwe kule meko kungekho siphoso sabo. Nangona kunjalo, ukungabikho kobungqina obuninzi obuxhasa isigqibo se-EPA kusinyanzela ukuba siphume kubhaliso. ”

UDicamba: Amafama oyika elinye ixesha lomonakalo wezityalo; Kulindelwe isigwebo senkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngokujika kwekhalenda ukuya kuJuni, amafama aseMelika eMidwest asonga ukutyala izityalo zesoya ezintsha kunye nokujonga amasimi akhulayo ezityalo zengqolowa kunye nemifuno. Kodwa baninzi abakwalungiselela ukubethwa lutshaba olungabonakaliyo oluye lwadala umonakalo kwilizwe lasezifama ihlobo lokugqibela- ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umfama oqinisekisiweyo wase-Robinson, e-Kansas, uchaza amaxesha okugqibela okukhula ehlotyeni njengoko ephawulwe "sisiphithiphithi," kwaye uthe waphulukana nesiqinisekiso sentsimi enye yezityalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efafazwe kude. Ngoku uyabongoza abamelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula kumasimi abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuba ikhemikhali ihlala kude kwipropathi yakhe.

"Kukho dicamba kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomnye kuphela wamakhulu amafama ajikeleze iMidwest West yase-US kunye namazwe aliqela asezantsi athe axela ukonakaliswa kwesityalo kunye nelahleko abathi zibangelwe kukukhukuliseka kwe-dicamba kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo.

Olo thintelo lwabuyiselwa umva emva kokuba uMonsanto ephehlelele imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imichiza ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zilimo zenziwe ngemfuza. IMonsanto, ngoku eyeyeBayer AG, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokuthengisa iimveliso ezintsha ze-dicamba herbicides zokutshiza ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo ezinganyangekiyo. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza.

Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umanyano lwamaqela amafama kunye nabathengi amangalele i-EPA malunga nokuxhasa kwayo ukusetyenziswa okuphezulu kweyeza ze-dicamba kwaye ngoku balindele isigwebo senkundla yesithoba yesibheno sezibheno eSan Francisco malunga nemfuno yabo yokuba inkundla iguqule i-EPA Ukuvunywa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Iingxoxo zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Epreli.

Abathengi kunye namaqela ezendalo atyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ngokusilela ukuhlalutya "iindleko zentlalo noqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kumafama" ekhokelela kumanqanaba "obubi" omonakalo wezityalo.

Amaqela athi i-EPA ibonakala inomdla ngakumbi ukukhusela umdla kwishishini zeMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani kunokukhusela amafama.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto, amele inkampani njengeyunithi yaseBayer, bathi abamangali abanangqiniseko ethembekileyo. Idicamba herbicide yenkampani entsha, ebizwa ngokuba yiXtendiMax, “incede abalimi ekusombululeni ingxaki enkulu yokhula kwilizwe lonke, kwaye isivuno seembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu zifikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe lonke ngeli xesha lesimangalo,” ngokufutshane ifayilishwe ngamagqwetha enkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Abaceli besicelo somyalelo wokumisa kwangoko konke ukuthengisa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwento yokubulala izitshabalalisi kumema impazamo yomthetho kunye neempembelelo ezinokubakho eziyinyani kwilizwe liphela," yatsho inkampani.

Njengoko belinde isigqibo senkundla yomanyano, amafama athemba ukuba izithintelo ezitsha ezibekwe ngamanye amazwe ziya kubakhusela. ISebe lezoLimo lase-Illinois ucebisile Abafakizicelo abangenako ukutshiza emva komhla wama-20 kuJuni, nokuba akufuneki batshize iimveliso ze-dicamba ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-45 degrees Fahrenheit, kwaye kufuneka basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba xa umoya uvuthuza usuka kwiindawo “ezibuthathaka”. IMinnesota, iIndiana, iNyakatho yeDakota kunye noMzantsi Dakota ziphakathi kwamanye amazwe zibeka imihla yokuphelisa ukutshiza i-dicamba.

U-Steve Smith, umlawuli wezolimo e-Red Gold Inc, iprosesa enkulu yeetamati enkonkxiweyo, uthe nangemida karhulumente "uxhalabile kakhulu" malunga nexesha elizayo. Iihektare ezininzi zokutyala kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto ke kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuyakubakho ukutshizwa kwe-dicamba, utshilo.

"Sisebenze nzima ukugcina umyalezo phaya ukuze ungasondeli kuthi, kodwa umntu, ngamanye amaxesha, uza kwenza impazamo enokusibizela ishishini lethu," utshilo.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuba inkundla izakuchitha ukuvuma kwe-EPA kwaye "ayeke obu buhlanya benkqubo."

Ngokwahlukileyo kumonakalo onokubakho we-dicamba kwizityalo, uphando olutsha kutshanje kupapashwe kubonisa ukuba amafama avezwe kumanqanaba aphezulu e-dicamba kubonakala ngathi aphakame umngcipheko wesibindi kunye nezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abaphandi bathi idatha entsha ibonise ukuba umbutho owawubonwe ngaphambili kwidatha phakathi kwe-dicamba kunye ne-lung kunye ne-colon cancer zazingabonakali "ngedatha ehlaziyiweyo.

Njengokuba kugqitywa ukugwetywa ngumhlaza kwi-Roundup, iMonsanto ilwa ukugcina umsebenzi we-PR uyimfihlo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Njengokuba iMonsanto iqhubeka nokulwa amabango asemthethweni malunga neengozi zokurhwaphiliswa kwayo kweeroundup, inkampani izama ukuthintela iiodolo zokuguqula iirekhodi zangaphakathi malunga nomsebenzi wayo nobudlelwane noluntu kunye neekhontraktha zokubonisana ngobuchule.

Kwi uthotho lweefilitha Inkundla yeSekethe yaseSt. Louis, iMonsanto ithi akufuneki ukuba ihambelane nezicelo zokufumanisa ezibandakanya ukusebenzisana okuthile phakathi kwayo kunye nenkampani yoluntu UmfundiHillard, nangona inkosi ekhethekileyo ifumene iMonsanto kufuneka ihambise loo maxwebhu. IMonsanto iyangqina ukuba unxibelelwano lwayo neFleishmanHillard kufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo "njengelungelo," ngokufana nokunxibelelana negqwetha-nomxhasi, kwaye iMonsanto akufuneki ukuba ivelise njengenxalenye yokufumanisa kumagqwetha amele abaguli abanomhlaza abammangalela uMonsanto.

UFleishmanHillard waba yiarhente yerekhodi yeMonsanto "yomsebenzi wegama elidumileyo" kwi2013, kwaye abasebenzi bayo bazibandakanya ngokunzulu nenkampani, besebenza "kwiiofisi zikaMonsanto phantse yonke imihla" kwaye bafumana "ukufikelela kwizitokhwe zekhompyuter zolwazi oluyimfihlo olungeyoluntu," yatsho inkampani. "Inyaniso yokuba ezinye zonxibelelwano zibandakanya ukwenziwa kwemiyalezo eluntwini ayizukuhlutha ilungelo labo," utshilo uMonsanto kwinkundla yayo yokufayilisha.

UFleishmanHillard usebenze kwiiprojekthi ezimbini zeMonsanto eYurophu malunga nokubhaliswa kwakhona kwe
glyphosate kwaye wasebenza namagqwetha eMonsanto "kwiprojekthi ethile yophando lwejaji." Uhlobo lomsebenzi owenziwe yinkampani yonxibelelwano noluntu "ifuna unxibelelwano olunelungelo" nomcebisi wezomthetho kaMonsanto, inkampani ithe.

Kwangoko kulo nyaka umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wathi iphelisa ubudlelwane bukaMonsanto noFleishmanHillard emva koko iindaba zaqhekeka ukuba inkampani yobudlelwane noluntu ibandakanyeke kwinkqubo yokuqokelelwa kwedatha eYurophu ngokubanzi yeMonsanto, ijolise kwiintatheli, abezopolitiko nabanye abachaphazelekayo ukuzama ukuphembelela umgaqo-nkqubo wokubulala izitshabalalisi.

IMonsanto ithathe indawo efanayo ngokubhekisele kunxibelelwano olubandakanya umsebenzi wayo kunye nenkampani yolawulo lwemifanekiso yenkampani Ukubonisana ne-FTI, apho uMonsanto waqesha ngoJuni 2016. "Ukungabikho kwegqwetha kuxwebhu olunelungelo nako akunikezi ngokuzenzekelayo olo xwebhu lube semngciphekweni womceli mngeni," utshilo uMonsanto ekubhaleni.

Kwangoko kulo nyaka, umqeshwa we-FTI waye wabanjwa ekulingiseni intatheli kolunye uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup, ukuzama ukucebisa ngemigca yamabali kwezinye iintatheli ukuba zilandele iMonsanto.

Inkampani ifuna ukunqanda ukunikezela ngamaxwebhu abandakanya ubudlelwane bayo kunye neNkampani yeScotts Miracle-Gro, Ebithengisa kwaye ithengisa iMonsanto's Roundup ingca kunye neemveliso zegadi ukusukela nge1998.

Ngaphezulu kwamaxhoba omhlaza angama-40,000 okanye amalungu eentsapho zawo ngoku amangalela uMonsanto etyhola ukubhencwa kumgca wenkampani weeRoundup herbicides kwizifo zabo, ngokukaBayer. Amacala atyhola ukuba ukubhencwa kwi-Monsanto's herbicides kubangele ukuba abamangali baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye nangona iMonsanto ibisazi ngomngcipheko womhlaza, ngenjongo ayizange ibalumkise abathengi.

Bayer ibambe umnxeba wenkomfa kunye nabatyali-mali ngoLwesithathu ukuxoxa ngeziphumo zekota yesithathu kunye nokuhlaziya abanini zabelo kwityala leRoundup. Ebetha ithoni eqinisekisayo, u-CEO we-Bayer u-Werner Baumann uthe ngelixa abatyali mali bengothuka linani eliphezulu lezimangalo, "ayothusi loo nto." Uthe amagqwetha abamangali eMelika echithe amashumi ezigidi zeedola kwintengiso kubathengi.

"Ukonyuka kwenani lamatyala akutshintshi ukukholelwa kwethu kwiprofayili yokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate kwaye ayibonisi ukufaneleka kwesi simangalo," utshilo uBaumann. Izibheno ziyaqhubeka emva kokuba inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu zokuqala, kwaye inkampani "iyakha" ngokuzibandakanya kulamlo, ngokukaBaumann. U-Bayer uyakuvuma kuphela kwisivumelwano "esifanelekileyo ngokwasemalini" kwaye siza kuzisa "ukuvalwa okufanelekileyo kwisimangalo sisonke," utshilo.

Nangona inkampani ibhekisa kuyo njenge- "glyphosate", abamangali batyhola ukuba umhlaza wabo awubangelwa kukuvezwa yi-glyphosate yodwa, kodwa kukuvezwa yimveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate eyenziwe yiMonsanto.

Izifundo ezininzi zesayensi zibonise ukuba ukwenziwa kunetyhefu ngakumbi kune-glyphosate ngokwayo. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (i-EPA) ayifunanga zifundo zexesha elide kukhuseleko kwiifom Roundup kuyo yonke iminyaka engama-40 kunye nemveliso ibisemarikeni, kwaye unxibelelwano lwangaphakathi lwenkampani phakathi kwezazinzulu zeMonsanto zifunyenwe ngamagqwetha abamangali apho Oososayensi baxoxa ngokusilela kovavanyo lwe-carcinogenicity kwiimveliso zeRoundup.

Izilingo ezininzi ebezicwangciselwe oku kuwa eSt. Louis, eMissouri indawo ziye zalibaziseka kwade kwangunyaka olandelayo.