I-USRTK ibuza i-ODNI ukuba ichaze amaxwebhu malunga neengozi kwiilebhu ezigcina izifo eziyingozi

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Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi (USRTK) ubuzile iOfisi yoMlawuli weSebe lezoBuntlola leSizwe (i-ODNI) ukubhengeza amaxwebhu amathathu malunga nokushiyeka kokungabikho kokutya okuvela kwiilebhu ezigcina iintsholongwane eziyingozi.

Isicelo esinyanzelekileyo sokuphononongwa ngokutsha (MDR) siphendula kwii-ODNI sigqibo ukubamba amaxwebhu amathathu ahleliweyo aphendulayo Isicelo soMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi USRTK ungenisiwe ngoAgasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubukrelekrele obugqityiweyo obuveliswe ukusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 malunga nokukhululwa ngengozi okanye ngabom kweearhente zebhayoloji, ukusilela kokuthintela amanqanaba e-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 okanye BSL-4 kumaziko ophando, kunye nezinye izehlo zokukhathazeka ezinxulumene Ukusetyenziswa kabini kophando lwe-biosafety kwi-BSL-2, BSL-3 okanye BSL-4 kumaziko ophando eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, kumazwe angaphambili eSoviet Union, eMzantsi Afrika , ETaiwan, eUnited Kingdom, naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ukuba ifumene amaxwebhu amathathu, kwaye igqibe kwelokuba "mababanjwe xa bebonke ngokungqinelana nokuxolelwa kwi-FOIA" ngokubhekisele kukhuseleko lwezixhobo ezihleliweyo ngokubhekisele kwiindlela zobuntlola kunye nemithombo yokufaneleka kukhuseleko lwesizwe. I-ODNI ayichazanga okanye ichaze ubume bamaxwebhu amathathu okanye imixholo yawo, ngaphandle kokuba ayephendula kwisicelo seFOIA.

Kwisicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuba i-ODNI ikhulule onke amaqhekeza amaxwebhu amathathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekubeni uluntu lunelungelo lokwazi ukuba yeyiphi idatha ekhoyo malunga neengozi, ukuvuza kunye nokunye okungahambi kakuhle kwiilebhu apho kugcinwa khona izifo ezinokubangela ubhubhane kwaye zilungiswe, nokuba ingaba kukho na ukuvuza okunjalo kuyanyanzeliswa kwimvelaphi ye-COVID-19, ebangele ukuba Ukufa kwabantu abangaphezu kwama-360,000 baseMelika.

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Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu zophando lwethu lwee-biohazards. Bona: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Iphepha elingasemva kuphando lwase-US lweLungelo lokwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Iidasethi eziguqulweyo ziphakamisa imibuzo ethembekileyo malunga nezifundo eziphambili kwimvelaphi yecoronavirus

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Uhlaziyo lwedatha ye-genomic enxulumene nezifundo ezine eziphambili kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus yongeza eminye imibuzo malunga nokuthembeka kwezi zifundo, ezibonelela ngenkxaso esisiseko ye-hypothesis ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ivela kwizilwanyana zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou okqhubekayo., Lam kunye al., yaye Xiao okqhubekayo., Ufumanise ii-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahashe kunye neepangolins zaseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelelana kweDNA ebizwa ngokuba ngokulandelelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukudibanisa i-bat- kunye ne-pangolin-coronavirus genomes, kwiZiko leSizwe loLwazi lwe-Biotechnology (NCBI) ngokulandelelana funda indawo yokugcina (SRA). I-NCBI iseke ugcino lwedatha yoluntu ukunceda ukungqinisisa okuzimeleyo kohlalutyo lwe-genomic ngokusekwe kubuchwephesha bokulandelelana okuphezulu.

Ilungelo lase-US lokuFumana amaxwebhu ngokwenziwa kweerekhodi zikarhulumente ukuba bonisa uhlaziyo kwezi zifundo 'i-SRA yedatha yeenyanga emva kokuba zipapashiwe. Olu hlaziyo aluqhelekanga kuba lwenzekile emva kokupapashwa, kwaye ngaphandle kwesizathu, inkcazo okanye ukuqinisekiswa.

Umzekelo, UPeng Zhou et al. kwaye Lam kunye al. bahlaziya idatha yabo ye-SRA ngemihla emibini efanayo. La maxwebhu awachazi ukuba kutheni etshintshe idatha, kuphela ukuba kwenziwe utshintsho oluthile. Xiao okqhubekayo. benze utshintsho oluninzi kwidatha yabo ye-SRA, kubandakanya nokususwa kweedatha ezimbini ngo-Matshi 10, ukongezwa kwedatha entsha ngoJuni 19, ukutshintshwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kwedatha yokuqala eyakhutshwa ngo-Okthobha u-30, kunye nolunye utshintsho lwedatha ngo-Novemba 13- kwiintsuku ezimbini emva koko indalo yongeze "inqaku lenkxalabo" loMhleli malunga nesifundo. Hong Zhou okqhubekayo. awusabelani ngedatha epheleleyo ye-SRA eya kwenza ukuba uqinisekiso luzimele. Ngelixa iijenali zithanda indalo ifuna ababhali ukuba benze yonke idatha "ifumaneke ngokukhawuleza”Ngexesha lokupapashwa, idatha ye-SRA inokukhutshwa emva upapasho; kodwa ayiqhelekanga ukwenza olo tshintsho kwiinyanga emva kokupapashwa.

Olu tshintsho lungaqhelekanga kwidatha ye-SRA alwenzi ngokuzenzekelayo ukuba ezi zifundo zine kunye needatha zazo ezinxulumene nazo zingathembeki. Nangona kunjalo, ukulibaziseka, izithuba kunye notshintsho kwidatha ye-SRA Indibano ezimeleyo kunye nokuqinisekiswa yokulandelelana kwe-genome ngokulandelelana, kwaye yongeza ku imiba kwaye xhalaba malunga le sekile kwezi zifundo zine, ezinje:

  1. Luluphi olona hlaziyo lwasemva kokupapashwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Zazenzelwe ntoni? Ziluchaphazele njani uhlalutyo oluhambelana nolwe-genomic kunye neziphumo?
  2. Ngaba oku kuhlaziywa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimeleyo? Ukuba kunjalo, njani? Inkqubo ye- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela Indlela yokushicilela iSRA BioProject- ngaphaya kolwazi olusisiseko oluthi "igama lomzimba" - kukuba ayinakuphindwa.

Ukuze ufumane inkcazelo engakumbi

The IZiko leLizwe leNkcazelo yeBiotechnology (NCBI) amaxwebhu anokufunyanwa apha: Ii-imeyile zeNCBI (Iphepha le-63)

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu zophando lwethu lwee-biohazards. Bona: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Iphepha elingasemva kuphando lwase-US lweLungelo lokwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Alukho uphononongo loontanga lwesongezo kwisifundo se-coronavirus semvelaphi?

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Ijenali indalo khange kuvavanye ukuthembeka kwamabango abalulekileyo enziwe nge-17 kaNovemba sihlomelo iya ku isifundo kwimvelaphi ye-bat yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, imbalelwano ne indalo Abasebenzi bacebisa.

Ngo-Februwari 3, 2020, iZiko laseWuhan leSayensi yeVirology lafumanisa esona salamane sisondeleyo saziwayo seSARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa ngokuba yiRaTG13. I-RaTG13 iye yangumbindi kwingcinga yokuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ivela kwizilwanyana zasendle.

Idilesi yezihlomelo engaphendulwanga imiba malunga nemvelaphi yeRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisa ukuba bafumene i-RaTG13 kwi-2012-2013 "kwindawo encinci yokulahla umzuzu kwi-Mojiang County, kwiPhondo lase-Yunnan," apho abasebenzi-mgodini abathandathu beva ubunzima uxinzelelo olukhulu lokuphefumla emva kokuvezwa lilindle, yaye abathathu babhubha. Uphando lwe Iimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinokunika imikhondo ebalulekileyo malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. baxela ukuba abafumananga i-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS kwiisampuli ze-serum ezigciniweyo zabasebenzi-mgodini abagulayo, kodwa abawaxhasi amabango abo ngedatha nangeendlela malunga novavanyo lwabo kunye nolawulo lokulinga.

Ukungabikho kwedatha ephambili kwisihlomelo kuye iphakamise eminye imibuzo malunga nokuthembeka kweZhou et al. ukufunda. Nge-27 kaNovemba, i-US Right to Know yabuza indalo imiba malunga namabango esihlomelo, kwaye wacela ukuba indalo papasha yonke idatha exhasayo ethi Zhou et al. inokuba inikezele.

NgoDisemba 2, indalo Intloko yezoNxibelelwano uBex Walton phendula ukuba u-Zhou et al. Isifundo “besichanekile kodwa singacacanga,” kwaye isihlomelo besifanelekile iqonga emva kokupapashwa Ingcaciso. Wongeze wathi: “Malunga nemibuzo yakho, singakuyalela ukuba uye kubabhali bephepha ukufumana iimpendulo, njengoko le mibuzo ayibhekiseli kuphando esilupapashileyo kodwa kolunye uphando olwenziwe ngababhali, apho singenakho ukuphawula ”(ugxininiso lwethu). Ukusukela imibuzo yethu enxulumene nophando oluchazwe kwisihlomelo, i indalo Isiteyitimenti sommeli sicebisa ukuba iZhou et al.isihlomelo asivavanywanga njengophando.

Sibuze Umbuzo olandelayo Nge-2 kaDisemba: “ingaba esi sihlomelo besiphantsi koqwalaselo loontanga kunye / okanye ukonganyelwa kokuhlelwa ngu indalo? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena phendula: "Ngokubanzi, abahleli bethu baya kuvavanya izimvo okanye iinkxalabo eziphakanyiswe nathi okokuqala, bebuza ababhali, kwaye befuna iingcebiso kubavavanyi boontanga nakwezinye iingcali zangaphandle ukuba sikubona kufanelekile. Umgaqo-nkqubo wethu wokugcina imfihlo uthetha ukuba asinakho ukugqabaza ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamatyala. ”

ukusukela indalo uthathela ingqalelo isihlomelo njenge iposiuhlaziyo loshicilelo, kwaye ayisixhomekisi eso sithuba sokupapashwa kwezihlomelo kwimigangatho efanayo yokujonga oontanga njengopapasho lwantlandlolo, kubonakala ngathi uZhou et al. isihlomelo asikhange sijongwe kwakhona.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu malunga nabo indalo isihlomelo.

Izinto ezivela kwiingcali ze-coralvirus ze-imeyile zikaRalph Baric 

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Eli phepha ludwelisa amaxwebhu kwii-imeyile zikaNjingalwazi uRalph Baric, e-US Right to Know efunyenwe ngesicelo seerekhodi zoluntu. UGqirha Baric yingcali ye-coronavirus kwiYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Une kuphuhliswe ubuchule bemfuza ukuba ukuphucula ubukho besifo se-bat coronaviruses esele zikhona in ngentsebenziswano noGqirha Zhengli Shi kwiziko laseWuhan leVirology kunye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ii-imeyile zibonisa iingxoxo zangaphakathi kunye nokuyilwa kwangoko kwincwadi engundoqo yesayensi malunga nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, kunye nokukhanya okuthe kratya kubudlelwane phakathi kweengcali zaseMelika nezaseTshayina kwizifo ezosulelayo kunye nezifo ezosulelayo, kunye nendima yemibutho efana ne-EcoHealth Alliance kunye ne-National Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Nceda uthumele nge-imeyile nantoni na enomdla ekusenokwenzeka ukuba siphose kuyo sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sibe nokuzibandakanya apha ngezantsi.

Izinto ezivela kwii-imeyile zeBaric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uNjingalwazi wePathology kwiYunivesithi yaseNtshona yezeMpilo ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesihlanu kwinyanga yoKwindla ngo-25: “I-Federal govt ichithe ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2020 yezigidi zeedola ukuxhasa i-Ajenda yoKhuseleko lwezeMpilo kwiHlabathi liphela ukunceda amazwe asaphuhlayo ukuba enze amandla okufumana / ukunika ingxelo / ukuphendula kwizoyikiso zobhubhane. I $ 1 yezigidi eyongezelelweyo ichithwe kwiprojekthi yePREDICT nge-USAID ikhangela iintsholongwane ezivela kumalulwane, kwiigundane nakwiinkawu phesheya kolwandle. Kwaye ngoku Iprojekthi yeVirome Global ifuna i-200 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuba zibaleke kwihlabathi liphela zizingela yonke intsholongwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Baya kufumana inkxaso-mali. Kodwa akukho nanye kwezi nkqubo eyenze abarhafi bakhuseleke kwalapha ekhaya. ” (ugxininiso kwasekuqaleni)
  2. UGqr.Jonathan Epstein, usekela-Mongameli weSayensi kunye nokuFikelela kwi-EcoHealth Alliance, bafuna isikhokelo sesicelo esivela kwi-Arhente yoPhando oluPhucukileyo lwe-Arhente yase-US (i-DARPA) malunga nokunxibelelana "nolwazi olunokusetyenziswa kolwazi olunokusetyenziswa kabini" (ngoMatshi 2018).
  3. Umanyano lwe-EcoHealth imali UGqirha Baric isixa esingachazwanga njenge-honarium (ngoJanuwari 2018).
  4. isimemo kwi-US National Academy of Sciences, Ubunjineli kunye noNyango (NASEM) kunye ne-Chinese Academy yezoLimo lwezoLimo (CAAS) I-China China Dialogue kunye neWorkshop malunga neMiceli mngeni yoSulelo oluKhulayo, uKhuseleko lweLebhu, uKhuseleko lwezeMpilo kwiHlabathi liphela kunye nokuziphatha okufanelekileyo ekusebenziseni iGene Editing kuPhando lwezifo eziSulelayo., Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela email kunye a Imemorandam yokuhamba bonisa izazisi zabathathi-nxaxheba baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS kwintlanganiso yeengcali zaseMelika nezaseTshayina ezisebenza ukulwa nezifo ezasulelayo nokuphucula impilo yehlabathi (ngoNovemba 2017). Intlanganiso ibibizwe yi-NAS kunye neLebhu yeSizwe yaseGalveston. Yenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A Imemorandam yokuhamba ibonisa izazisi zabathathi-nxaxheba baseMelika. Okulandelayo email bonisa ukuba uGqirha Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona entlanganisweni.
  6. NgoFebruwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Ngalo mzuzu eyona mvelaphi yamalulwane, kwaye ndiyaqaphela ukuba yimpazamo ukucinga ukuba umamkeli zindwendwe ophakathi uyafuneka."
  7. Ngo-Matshi 5, 2020, i-Baric wabhala, “Abukho ubungqina bokuba le ntsholongwane yenziwe ngoochwephesha bezinto eziphilayo.”

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Ikhonkco kwii-imeyile zikaNjingalwazi uRalph Baric zingafumaneka apha: Ii-imeyile zebaric (~ 83,416 amaphepha)

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu ukusuka uphando lwethu lweBiohazards. Qaphela: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.