Ukuphishekela inyaniso kunye nokubonakala kwimpilo yoluntu

Olunye uphononongo lweRoundup lufumana amakhonkco kwiingxaki ezinokubakho zempilo yabantu

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(Ukuhlaziywa ngoFebruwari 17, kongeza ukugxeka isifundo)

A iphepha elitsha lezesayensi Ukuvavanya iimpembelelo ezinokubakho kwezempilo zeRoundup herbicides kufumanise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchasana nokhula olubulala ikhemikhali glyphosate kunye nokonyuka kohlobo lwe-amino acid eyaziwa ngokuba ngumngcipheko wesifo sentliziyo.

Abaphandi benza izigqibo zabo emva kokubhengeza iigundane ezikhulelweyo kunye neentsana zabo ezisandul 'ukuzalwa kwi-glyphosate kunye neRoundup ngamanzi okusela. Bathe bajonge ngokukodwa kwiziphumo ze-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kwiimetabolites zomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana ne-gut microbiome kwizilwanyana.

Abaphandi bathi bafumene ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwe-amino acid ebizwa ngokuba yi-homocysteine ​​kwiintsana zamaduna ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate nakwiRoundup.

"Uphononongo lwethu lubonelela ngobungqina bokuqala bokuba ukubhencwa kwi-GBH esetyenziswa ngokuxhaphakileyo, kumthamo wokubonisa ukubonwa kwabantu okwamkelekileyo okwangoku, kunakho ukuguqula umchamo kwimetabolites kuzo zombini iirati zabantu abadala kunye namantshontsho," utshilo umphandi.

Eli phepha linesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa kwethamo elisezantsi lokutshabalalisa ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based herbicides kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” libhalwe ngabaphandi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York kunye nezine ezivela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Itali. Yapapashwa kwijenali yeeNgxelo zezeNzululwazi ngoFebruwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile uninzi lwezithintelo kufundo lwabo, kubandakanya nesampulu encinci, kodwa bathi umsebenzi wabo ubonakalisile ukuba "ukubonakaliswa kwethamo eliphantsi kunye nobomi obuncinci kwi-glyphosate okanye iRoundup kutshintshe kakhulu umchamo kwi-biomarker yomchamo, emadamini nakwinzala."

Uphononongo lolokuqala kwiinguqu kwimichamo ye-metabolism ye-urinary eyenziwe yi-glyphosate-based herbicides kwiidosi ekujongwa ukuba zikhuselekile ebantwini, abaphandi bathi.

Eli phepha lilandela ukupapashwa kwinyanga ephelileyo isifundo kwiphephancwadi Imiba yezeMpilo efumene i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso ye-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo. Inzululwazi ezivela eRamazzini Institute nazo zazibandakanyekile kolo phando.

URobin Mesnage, ongomnye wababhali bephepha elipapashwe kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiiNkqubo zeMpilo yezeNdalo, uthathe umba ngokunyaniseka kwephepha elitsha. Uthe uhlalutyo lwedatha lubonisa iyantlukwano efunyenwe phakathi kwezilwanyana ezivezwe kwi-glyphosate kunye nezo zingatyhilelwanga- izilwanyana ezilawulayo- zinokufunyanwa ngokufanayo nedatha eveliswe ngokungacwangciswanga.

"Ngokubanzi, uhlalutyo lwedatha alusixhasi isigqibo sokuba i-glyphosate iphazamisa umchamo kwimetabolome kunye ne-gut microbiota yezilwanyana eziveziweyo," utshilo uMesnage. "Olu phononongo luya kuphinda luqhubeke ludida nje ingxoxo malunga nobutyhefu be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezininzi zamva nje kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup bafumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

I-Bayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka i-cancer yabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye i-Bayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

 

 

I-Bayer yenza isicwangciso esitsha se-2 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ukuze isuse amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngolwe-Lwesithathu uzama kwakhona ukulawula nokusombulula amabango omhlaza we-Roundup anokubakho isivumelwano se-2 yezigidigidi kunye neqela lamagqwetha abamangali uBayer athemba ukuba aza kuphumelela kwimvume yejaji saliwe isicwangciso sangaphambili uhlobo oludlule.

Ngokukodwa, isivumelwano sifuna iBayer ukuba ifune imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokongeza ulwazi kwiilebheli zeemveliso zayo ezisekwe kwi-glyphosate ezinje ngeRoundup eya kuthi ibonelele ngonxibelelwano lokufikelela kwizifundo zesayensi kunye nolunye ulwazi malunga nokhuseleko lwe-glyphosate.

Ukongeza, ngokukaBayer, esi sicwangciso sifuna ukusekwa kwengxowa-mali eza kuhlawula "abafanelekileyo abafaka izicelo zamabango" ngaphezulu kweminyaka emine yenkqubo; ukuseka iphaneli yesayensi enika iingcebiso ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengobungqina kwizimangalo ezinokubakho kwixesha elizayo; kunye nophuhliso lophando kunye neenkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunyango kunye / okanye uphando lwenzululwazi ekuchongeni nasekunyangeni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Isicwangciso kufuneka samkelwe nguMgwebi weSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia. U-Chhabria ebejonge isohlwayo se-Roundup se-multidistrict.

U-Bayer uthe amalungu eklasi afanelekileyo kwiminyaka emine ezayo azakufanelekela amanqanaba eembuyekezo ngokubhekisele kwizikhokelo ezichazwe kwisivumelwano. "Udidi lokuhlala" lubhekisa kubantu ababekhe bavezwa kwiimveliso zeRoundup kodwa abakafaki ityala elibanga ukwenzakala ngenxa yokuvezwa.

Amalungu eklasi yokuHlaliswa aya kufaneleka ukuba afumane imbuyekezo phakathi kwe- $ 10,000 kunye ne- $ 200,000, utshilo uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ulwabiwo lwengxowa mali yokuhlala luya kuvela ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:
* Ingxowa-mali yeMbuyekezo-Ubuncinci i-1.325 yezigidigidi zeedola
Inkqubo yoNcedo lokuFikelela kwiDiagnostic- $ 210 yezigidi
* Inkqubo yeNgxowa-mali yoPhando- $ 40 yezigidi
Iindleko zoLawulo lokuHlaliswa kwaBantu, iindleko zePhaneli yeNzululwazi, Iindleko zeSaziso sokuHlaliswa kwabahlali, iirhafu,
Imirhumo yeeArhente ze-Escrow kunye neNkcitho-ukuya kuthi ga kwi-55 yezigidi zeedola
Isicwangciso sokuhlala esicetywayo sokumangalelwa kwinqanaba leklasi elizayo sahlukile isivumelwano sentlawulo I-Bayer yenziwe namagqwetha amashumi amawaka abamangali esele beze namabango atyhola ukubhencwa kwi-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate ababangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
I-Bayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa ityala lomhlaza we-Roundup okoko wathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nemijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala.
Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo alufumananga loo Monsanto kuphela I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Isifundo esitsha sifumana utshintsho olunxulumene ne-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome

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Isifundo esitsha sezilwanyana liqela labaphandi baseYurophu lifumanise ukuba amanqanaba asezantsi okubulala ukhula kwimichiza ye-glyphosate kunye nemveliso esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwi-Roundup inokutshintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngeendlela ezinokuthi zinxulunyaniswe neziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Lephepha, ipapashwe ngoLwesithathu kwijenali Imiba yezeMpilo, ibhalwe ngabaphandi abali-13, kuqukwa nophando lukaGqirha Michael Antoniou, intloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group kwiSebe lezoNyango kunye neMolekyuli yemfuza eKing's College eLondon, kunye noGqirha Robin Mesnage, iqabane lophando kwezobuchwephesha kwezobuchwephetsha ngaphakathi. iqela elinye. Oososayensi abavela kwiZiko iRamazzini e-Bologna, e-Itali, bathathe inxaxheba kolu phando njengoko besenza oososayensi baseFrance nase Netherlands.

Iziphumo ze-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome zifunyenwe zibangelwa yindlela efanayo yokusebenza ethi glyphosate ibulale ukhula kunye nezinye izityalo, abaphandi bathi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi echaphazela ukusebenza kwamajoni omzimba kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo, kunye nokuphazamiseka kwale nkqubo kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo, abaphandi bathi.

"Zombini i-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup ziye zanefuthe kubume bebacterial bacterium," uAntoniou uthethwe ngodliwano-ndlebe. Siyazi ukuba amathumbu ethu ahlala kumawaka eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeebhaktiriya kunye nokuma kwazo, kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kwazo, kubalulekile kwimpilo yethu. Ke nantoni na ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kakubi, i-gut microbiome… inokubangela impilo enkenenkene kuba sisuka ekusebenzeni ngokulungeleleneyo okulungeleyo impilo ukuya ekusebenzeni okungalinganiyo okunokukhokelela kwizifo ezahlukeneyo. ”

Jonga udliwanondlebe noCarey Gillam uGqirha Michael Antonoiu kunye noGqr.Robin Mesnage malunga nesifundo sabo esitsha sokujonga ifuthe le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi bazimisele ukuba, ngokuchaseneyo nezinye izimvo ngabagxeki bokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge -antibiotic, ibulala iintsholongwane eziyimfuneko emathunjini.

Endaweni yoko, bathi-okokuqala, bathi-ukuba iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi laphazamisa ngendlela enokubangela inkxalabo ye-biochemical pathway ye-gut gut bacteria yezilwanyana ezisetyenziswe kulingo. Olo phazamiso lwabonakaliswa lutshintsho kwizinto ezithile emathunjini. Uhlalutyo lwamathumbu kunye ne-biochemistry yegazi luveze ubungqina bokuba izilwanyana ziphantsi koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative, imeko ehambelana nomonakalo we-DNA kunye nomhlaza.

Abaphandi bathi akucaci ukuba ukuphazamiseka ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi kwe-microbiome kuthinte uxinzelelo lwe-metabolic.

Ukubonakaliswa koxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwabonakala ngakumbi kuvavanyo kusetyenziswa i-glyphosate-based herbicide ebizwa ngokuba yiRoundup BioFlow, imveliso yomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, izazinzulu zatsho.

Ababhali bokufunda bathi baqhuba izifundo ezininzi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuba uxinzelelo lwe-oxidative abalubonayo luyonakalisa ne-DNA, eya kuphakamisa umngcipheko womhlaza.

Ababhali bathi uphando oluthe kratya luyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokwenyani imeko yezempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ebukekayo kunye nolunye uphazamiseko kwimetro microbiome nasegazini kodwa iziphumo zokuqala zinokusetyenziswa kuphuhliso lweempawu ze-bio zophando lwezifo kunye nokuqonda ukuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokuba neziphumo zebhayiloji ebantwini.

Kwisifundo, iigundane zabasetyhini zanikwa i-glyphosate kunye nemveliso yeRoundup. Iidosi zisiwe ngamanzi okusela anikezelwa kwizilwanyana kwaye zanikwa kumanqanaba abonisa ukufakwa okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla kuthathwa njengokukhuselekileyo ngabalawuli baseYurophu naseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe iziphumo zophando zakha kolunye uphando olwenza ukuba kucace ukuba abalawuli baxhomekeke kwiindlela eziphelelwe lixesha xa kusenziwa isigqibo ngamanqanaba "akhuselekileyo" e-glyphosate kunye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ekutyeni nasemanzini. Iintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ezisetyenziswa kwezolimo zihlala zifumaneka kuluhlu lokutya okutyiwa rhoqo.

"Abalawuli kufuneka bangene kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini ananye, bayeke ukurhuqa iinyawo zabo ... kwaye bamkele iintlobo zohlalutyo esele sizenzile kolu phando," utshilo u-Antoniou. Uthe ukuprofeta kwemolekyuli, yinxalenye yesebe lezesayensi eyaziwa ngokuba yi "OMICS," Uguqula isiseko solwazi malunga nefuthe lokuchazwa kwemichiza kwezempilo.

Uphononongo lweerat kodwa lolutshanje kuthotho lwezilingo zesayensi ezijolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba ngaba i-glyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides- kubandakanya iRoundup- inokuba yingozi ebantwini, nakumanqanaba abalawuli bokubhengeza bathi bakhuselekile.

Izifundo ezininzi ezinjalo zifumene uluhlu lweenkxalabo, kubandakanya epapashwe ngoNovemba  ngabaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland abathi babenakho ukufumanisa, "kuqikelelo olulondolozayo," ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto ezisembindini wegciwane lomntu emathunjini "zinokuthamba" kwi-glyphosate.

Njengabaphandi baya besanda jonga ukuqonda i-microbiome yomntu kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwimpilo yethu, imibuzo malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome khange ibe yingxoxo nje kuphela kwizangqa zesayensi, kodwa nakwizimangalo.

Kunyaka ophelileyo, iBayer uvumile ukuhlawula i-39.5 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa amabango athi iMonsanto yaqhuba intengiso elahlekisayo ibanga ukuba i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme kwizityalo kwaye ayinakuba nefuthe kwizilwanyana nakwabantu. Abamangali kwimeko etyholwa ukuba i-glyphosate ijolise kwi-enzyme efumaneka ebantwini nakwizilwanyana ezomeleza amajoni omzimba, ukwetyisa kunye nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyazuza njenge-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicide brand kunye ne-glyphosate-tolerant portal seeded portfolio yayo xa yayithenga inkampani kwi-2018, igcina ukuba ubuninzi besifundo senzululwazi kumashumi eminyaka buqinisekisa ukuba i-glyphosate ayibangeli mhlaza. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US kunye neminye imibutho emininzi yamazwe aphesheya nayo ayithathi njengemveliso ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kodwa i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza kwi-2015 yathi uphononongo lophando lwenzululwazi lufumene ubungqina obaneleyo bokuthi i-glyphosate yinto enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukusukela ngelo xesha, iBayer ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu eziziswe ngabantu abagxeka umhlaza wabo ekuvezeni i-Monsanto's herbicides, kwaye iBayer kunyaka ophelileyo ithe izakuhlawula i-11 yezigidigidi zeedola ukuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 amabango afanayo.

Ukusweleka kunye nokuhlala njengoko iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuphelisa ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup

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Kwiinyanga ezisixhenxe emva kweBayer AG zi cwangciso Ukuza kuthi ga kumatyala e-US Roundup omangalelanayo, umnini waseJamani iMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango aziswe ngabantu abaphethwe ngumhlaza abathi zibangelwe yimveliso yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye ityala labonakala lifumana ukuvalwa, nangona ummangali khange aphile ukuyibona.

Amagqwetha kaJaime Alvarez Calderon, kuvunyelwene ekuqaleni kwale veki kwisigqibo esenziwe nguBayer emva kweJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ngoMvulo wakhanyela isigwebo sesishwankathelo ukuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela ityala ukuba lisondele kwilingo.

Indawo yokuhlala iya kuya koonyana baka-Alvarez abane kuba utata wabo oneminyaka engama-65, osebenza ixesha elide e-winery eNapa County, California, usweleke nje kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma watyhola umsebenzi wakhe wokutshiza i-Roundup ejikeleze ipropathi ye-winery iminyaka.

Kwityala elabanjwa kwinkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu, igqwetha losapho lakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond uxelele iJaji uChhabria ukuba ityala liza kulivala ityala.

Emva kokumanyelwa kwetyala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze kwindawo yokuthengisa iivenkile kangangeminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isitshizi sasemva kobhaka ukufaka isicelo seMonsanto esekwe kwiglyphosate I-herbicides yokuhlambela i-acreage yeqela laseKhaya leSutter leewindows. Wayedla ngokuya ekhaya ngorhatya enxibe impahla emanzi ngeyeza lokubulala iintsholongwane ngenxa yokuvuza kwezixhobo kunye nombulali wokhula obaleka emoyeni. Wafunyaniswa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, esenza imijikelo emininzi ye-chemotherapy kunye nolunye unyango ngaphambi kokuba afe ngo-Disemba ka-2019.

UDiamond uthe wonwabile kukusombulula le nyewe kodwa une "400 plus" amatyala eRoundup angakasombululwa.

Akayedwa. Ubuncinci isiqingatha seshumi elinanye lezinye iifemu zomthetho zase-US zinabamangali baseRoundup abafuna useto lwetyala ngo-2021 nangaphaya.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokwenza phelisa isimangalo oko kubandakanya abangaphezulu kwe-100,000 XNUMX abamangali e-United States. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides Ngaba ubangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Ukongeza kwimizamo yokusombulula amabango asalindelweyo ngoku, iBayer ikwanethemba lokudala indlela yokusombulula amabango anokubakho anokuvela kubasebenzisi beRoundup abaphuhlisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwixa elizayo. Isicwangciso sayo sokuqala sokujongana nesimangalo esizayo yaliwa NguJaji Chhabria kwaye inkampani ayikabhengezi isicwangciso esitsha.

Ibhanti ka-Bayer yokuhlawula amabango e-US Roundup enza inkqubela phambili

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Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala angamawakawaka aseMelika aziswe ngabantu betyhola bona okanye abathandekayo babo ukuba babe nomhlaza emva kokubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Imbalelwano yamva nje evela kubameli babamangali iye kubathengi babo igxininise inkqubela phambili, eqinisekisa ipesenti enkulu yabamangali abakhetha ukuthatha inxaxheba ekuhlaleni, ngaphandle kwezikhalazo zabamangali abaninzi abajamelene nezindululo zokuhlawula ezincinci.

Ngokwezinye izibalo, isixa semali esihlawulelwayo siya kushiya intlawulo encinci, mhlawumbi amawaka ambalwa eedola, kubamangali ngabanye emva kokuba kuhlawulwe imirhumo yamagqwetha kwaye iindleko ezithile zonyango ezihlawulelwayo zihlawulwa.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokwencwadi eyathunyelwa kubamangali ngasekupheleni kuka-Novemba ngomnye weefemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo, ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-95 "zababango abafanelekileyo" bagqibe ekubeni bathathe inxaxheba kwisicwangciso sokuhlala ekuxoxiswene ngaso nenkampani neBayer. Ngoku "imbawula yokuhlala" ineentsuku ezingama-30 zokuphonononga amatyala nokuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukufumana inkxaso-mali yokuhlawula ityala, ngokwembalelwano.

Abantu banokukhetha ukuphuma ekuhlaleni kwaye bathathe amabango abo baye kulamlo, kulandele ukuzibophelela kulamlo ukuba banqwenela okanye bazame ukufumana igqwetha elitsha elizokusa ityala labo enkundleni. Abo bamangali banokuba nexesha elinzima lokufumana igqwetha eliza kubanceda bathathe ityala labo balise enkundleni kuba amafemu ezomthetho avumelana nokuhlala neBayer avumile ukungazami amanye amatyala okanye ukunceda kulingo oluzayo.

Ummangali omnye, ocele ukungachazwa ngegama ngenxa yemfihlo yenkqubo yentlawulo, uthe uyaphuma kwesi sihlalo ngethemba lokufumana imali ethe kratya ngokulamla okanye kwityala elizayo. Uthe ufuna uvavanyo oluqhubekekayo kunye nonyango lomhlaza wakhe kwaye indawo yokuhlala ecetywayo ayizukumshiya nento yokuhlawulela iindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokuhlawula imali encinci kangangoko ngaphandle kokuya enkundleni," utshilo.

Uqikelelo olubi kumndilili wokuhlawulwa kwemali kummangali malunga ne- $ 165,000, amagqwetha kunye nabamangali ababandakanyekayo kwiingxoxo bathe. Kodwa abanye abamangali banokufumana ngaphezulu kakhulu, kwaye abanye bafumane okungaphantsi, kuxhomekeke kwiinkcukacha zetyala labo. Zininzi iindlela zokumisela ukuba ngubani onokuthatha inxaxheba kwintlawulo kunye nokuba ingakanani imali anokuyifumana loo mntu.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufuneka abe ngummi wase-US, kwaye afunyaniswe ukuba une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kwaye ebenokubonakaliswa kwi-Roundup okungenani unyaka omnye ngaphambi kokuba afunyaniswe ene-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokuhlawula kunye neBayer siyakugqitywa xa umlawuli eqinisekisa ukuba ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-93 zamabango afanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yesivumelwano.

Ukuba umlawuli wentlawulo ufumanisa ukuba ummangali akafaneleki, loo mmangali uneentsuku ezingama-30 zokubhena kwisigqibo.

Kwabamangali ababonwa befanelekile umlawuli wolungiso uya kunikezela ityala ngalinye inani lamanqaku ngokusekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezithile. Inani lemali lommangali ngamnye alifumanayo lisekwe kwinani lamanqaku abaliwe kwimeko yabo nganye.

Amanqaku esiseko asekwa kusetyenziswa ubudala bomntu ngelo xesha afunyaniswa ene-NHL kunye nenqanaba lobunzima "bokwenzakala" njengoko kumiselwe kwinqanaba lonyango kunye nesiphumo. Amanqanaba abaleka 1-5. Umntu osweleke kwi-NHL wabelwe amanqaku esiseko kwinqanaba lesi-5, umzekelo. Amanqaku angaphezulu anikwa abantu abancinci abaye bafumana imijikelo yonyango kunye / okanye bafa.

Ukongeza kumanqaku esiseko, uhlengahlengiso luyavunyelwa olunika amanqaku ngakumbi kubamangali ababekhe babhencwa ngakumbi kwiRoundup. Kukho izibonelelo zamanqaku angakumbi kwiindidi ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali bafunyaniswe benohlobo lwe-NHL ebizwa ngokuba yiPrimary Central Nervous System (CNS) i-lymphoma ifumana i-10 yepesenti yokunyusa amanqaku abo, umzekelo.

Abantu banokuba namanqaku ancitshisiweyo ngokusekwe kwizinto ezithile. Nayi imizekelo embalwa evela kumanqaku e-matrix amiselwe ukumangalelwa ngeRoundup:

  • Ukuba umsebenzisi wemveliso yeRoundup wasweleka phambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amanqaku apheleleyo ebango aziswe egameni lawo aya kuncitshiswa ngama-50 epesenti.
  • Ukuba ummangali ongasekhoyo wayengenalo iqabane okanye abantwana abancinci ngexesha lokusweleka kwabo kunokuthathwa iipesenti ezingama-20.
  • Ukuba ummangali wayenayo nayiphi na imihlaza yegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amanqaku abo anqunyulwa ngeepesenti ezingama-30.
  • Ukuba ixesha lexesha phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-Roundup yebango kunye nokuchongwa kwe-NHL yayingaphantsi kweminyaka emibini amanqaku anqunyulwe iipesenti ezingama-20.

Ingxowa mali yokuhlala kufuneka iqale ukungena kubathathi-nxaxheba entwasahlobo kunye neentlawulo zokugqibela ezinethemba lokuba zenziwe ngehlobo, ngokutsho kwamagqwetha abandakanyekayo.

Abamangali banokufaka izicelo zokuba babe yinxalenye "yengxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga," isetelwe iqela elincinci labamangali abanengxaki yokulimala okunxulumene ne-NHL. Ibango linokufanelekela kwingxowa-mali yokulimala engaqhelekanga ukuba ukubhubha komntu kwi-NHL kufike emva kweekhosi ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu ezigcweleyo zonyango kunye nezinye iindlela zonyango.

Ukusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali eMelika. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizo zontathu izilingo ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahlekile kwimijikelo yokuqala yezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajoni kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo lwafumanisa ukuba lweMonsanto I-glyphosate-based herbicides, ezinje ngeRoundup, zibangela umhlaza kwaye iMonsanto ichithe amashumi eminyaka ifihla umngcipheko.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Izibheno zovavanyo ziyaqhubeka

Nangona iBayer ijolise ekupheliseni izilingo ezizayo ngokuhlawula iidola, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula iziphumo zezilingo ezintathu ezilahlekileyo inkampani.

Kwilahleko yokuqala yetyala- Ityala likaJohnson v. Monsanto -U-Bayer waphulukana nemizamo yokuguqula i-jury efumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yayinoxanduva lomhlaza kaJohnson kwinqanaba lenkundla yezibheno, kwaye ngo-Okthobha, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ale ukujonga kwakhona kwimeko.

I-Bayer ngoku ineentsuku ezili-150 ukusuka kweso sigqibo sokucela ukuba umcimbi uhanjiswe yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US. Inkampani ayisenzi sigqibo sokugqibela malunga neli nyathelo, ngokutsho kwesithethi seBayer, kodwa ibonakalisile ngaphambili ukuba inenjongo yokuthatha amanyathelo.

Ukuba iBayer yenza isicelo kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US, amagqwetha kaJohnson kulindeleke ukuba afake isibheno esinemiqathango ecela inkundla ukuba ihlolisise amanyathelo okugweba awanciphise ibhaso likaJohnson ukusuka kwi-289 yezigidi ukuya kwi-20.5 yezigidi.

Amanye amatyala enkundla yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ukongeza kumatyala eBayer ajongene nembambano yomhlaza wase-Monsanto's Roundup, inkampani iyasokola noxanduva lweMonsanto kwityala lokungcoliseka kwe-PCB nakwizityholo zomonakalo wesityalo obangelwe yinkqubo yezityalo esekwe kwiMicanto ye-dicamba.

Ijaji yomdibaniso eLos Angeles kwiveki ephelileyo wasikhaba isicelo nguBayer ukuhlawula i-648 yezigidi zeedola ukulungisa ityala elithathwa ngabafaki-zicelo betyhola ukungcoliseka kwii-biphenyls ezine-polychlorine, okanye ii-PCB, ezenziwe yiMonsanto.

Kwiveki ephelileyo, ijaji yetyala kwityala lika Iifama zeBader, Inc. v. Monsanto yalahla izindululo zikaBayer kwetyala elitsha. Ijaji inqumle umonakalo owohlwaywa yijaji, nangona kunjalo, ukusuka kwi-250 yezigidi ukuya kwi-60 yezigidi zeedola, ishiya umonakalo ongahlawulwanga we-15 yezigidi, ngebhaso elipheleleyo le- $ 75 yezigidi.

Amaxwebhu afunyenweyo ngokufumanisa kwimeko ye-Bader ityhile ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF enkulu yeekhemikhali bebeyazi iminyaka ukuba izicwangciso zabo zokwazisa ngedicamba herbicide esekwe kwimbewu kunye nenkqubo yemichiza inokukhokelela kumonakalo kwiifama ezininzi zaseMelika.

Amaphepha amatsha e-glyphosate akhomba "ngokungxamisekileyo" kuphando oluninzi malunga nefuthe leekhemikhali kwimpilo yabantu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amaphepha enzululwazi asandula ukupapashwa abonisa ubume obuninzi bokhula olubulala ikhemikhali i-glyphosate kunye nesidingo sokuqonda ngcono ifuthe lokuchaphazeleka kwichiza lokubulala izitshabalalisi elithandwayo elinokuba nalo kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya impilo ye-gut microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amatsha, Abaphandi abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland bathi babenako ukufumanisa, “kuqikelelo olulondolozayo,” ukuba malunga neepesenti ezingama-54 zeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezingaphakathi kwintsholongwane yomntu emathunjini "zinokuba novakalelo" kwi-glyphosate. Abaphandi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza ukufumana.

Ngobuninzi be "bhakteria enkulu" yeentsholongwane ezisemathunjini ezinokufunyanwa yi-glyphosate, ukungeniswa kwe-glyphosate "kunokuchaphazela kakubi ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomntu," batsho ababhali kwiphepha labo, elapapashwa kulenyanga Ijenali yezixhobo ezinobungozi.

Iintsholongwane ezisemathunjini omntu zibandakanya iintlobo ngeentlobo zebacteria kunye nefungi kwaye kukholelwa ukuba zichaphazela imisebenzi yomzimba yokuzikhusela kunye nezinye iinkqubo ezibalulekileyo. Amachiza egciwane angenampilo akholelwa zizazinzulu ezithile ukuba zibe negalelo kuluhlu lwezifo.

"Nangona idatha engeentsalela zeglyphosate kwiinkqubo zesisu somntu isasilela, iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinciphisa ukwahluka kwebacteria kwaye zilungelelanise ukwakheka kweentlobo zebacteria emathunjini," batsho ababhali. "Singacinga ukuba ukubonakaliswa kweentsalela zeglyphosate ixesha elide kukhokelela kuxinzelelo lweentsholongwane ezinganyangekiyo kwindawo yebacteria."

Iinkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwintsholongwane yomntu ephuma kwisibakala sokuba i-glyphosate isebenza ngokujolisa kwi-enzyme eyaziwa ngokuba yi-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibaluleke kakhulu ekudibaniseni iiamino acid eziyimfuneko.

"Ukuchonga eyona mpembelelo ye-glyphosate kwi-gut gut microbiota kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kuyafuneka ukuba kwenziwe uphando olongezelelekileyo lokuveza intsalela ye-glyphosate ekutyeni, ukumisela iziphumo ze-glyphosate emsulwa kunye nokwenziwa kwezorhwebo kwii-microbiomes kunye nokuvavanya ubungakanani i-EPSPS yethu Iimpawu ze-amino acid ziqikelela ubungozi bentsholongwane kwi-glyphosate kwi-vitro nakwizinto ezenzekayo ehlabathini, ”baqukumbela ababhali bephepha elitsha.

Ukongeza kubaphandi abathandathu abavela eFinland, omnye wababhali bephepha unxulumene nesebe le-biochemistry kunye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Catalonia, eSpain.

Iziphumo zempilo yomntu azimiselwanga kwisifundo sethu. Nangona kunjalo, ngokusekwe kwizifundo zangaphambili… siyazi ukuba utshintsho kwi-microbiome yamathumbu omntu lunokudityaniswa nezifo ezininzi, utshilo umphandi weYunivesithi yaseTurku uPere Puigbo kudliwanondlebe.

"Ndiyathemba ukuba uphando lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubela phambili kuvavanyo, kwi-vitro nakwintsimi, kunye nezifundo ezisekwe kubemi ukulinganisa isiphumo sokusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," utshilo uPuigbo.

Yaziswa kwi1974

Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwi-Roundup herbicides kunye namakhulu ezinye iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithengiswa kwihlabathi liphela. Yaziswa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngo-1974 yaza yakhula yaba sesona sibulala ntsholongwane sisetyenziswa kakhulu emva kokungeniswa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yoo-1990s yezityalo ezakhiwe ngendlela yemfuza ukunyamezela imichiza. Iintsalela zeglyphosate zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yoko, iintsalela zihlala zifunyanwa kumchamo wabantu ababhencwe kwi-glyphosate ngokusebenzisa ukutya kunye / okanye nokusetyenziswa.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye nomnini weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuba akukho zinkxalabo zempilo yabantu ngokuchazwa kwe-glyphosate xa iimveliso zisetyenziswa njengoko bekucwangcisiwe, kubandakanya nentsalela ekudleni.

Umzimba wophando ophikisana nala mabango uyakhula, nangona kunjalo. Uphando malunga nefuthe elinokubakho le-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome aluphantse lomelele njengoncwadi oludibanisa i-glyphosate nomhlaza, kodwa yindawo leyo izazinzulu ezininzi ziyaphanda.

Kwimeko enxulumene noko iphepha epapashwe kule nyanga, iqela labaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseWashington State naseDuke University bathi bafumene unxibelelwano phakathi kwamanqanaba ebacteria kunye nefungi kumaphecana esisu abantwana kunye neekhemikhali ezifumaneka emakhaya abo. Abaphandi abakhange bajonge i-glyphosate ngokukodwa, kodwa babenjalo wothukile ukuyifumana ukuba abantwana abanamanqanaba aphezulu eekhemikhali eziqhelekileyo zekhaya kwigazi labo babonisa ukunciphisa inani kunye nokwahluka kwebacteria ebalulekileyo emathunjini abo.

IGlyphosate kumchamo

An iphepha lezenzululwazi elongezelelweyo epapashwe kule nyanga igxininise isidingo sedatha engcono kunye nengakumbi xa kuziwa ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate kunye nabantwana.

Iphepha, elipapashwe kwiphephancwadi LeMpilo yeNdalo ngabaphandi abavela kwiZiko loGuqulelo lwe-Epidemiology kwiSikolo i-Icahn yezoNyango kwiNtaba yeSinayi eNew York, sisiphumo sokuphononongwa koncwadi kwizifundo ezininzi ezixela amaxabiso okwenyani e-glyphosate ebantwini.

Ababhali bathi bahlalutye izifundo ezintlanu ezipapashiweyo kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo yokuxela amanqanaba e-glyphosate alinganiswe ebantwini, kubandakanya nesifundo esinye apho amanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate alinganiswa kubantwana abahlala emaphandleni eMexico. Kwabantwana abangama-192 abahlala kwindawo yaseAgua Caliente, iipesenti ezingama-72.91 zazinamanqanaba afumanekayo e-glyphosate kumchamo wabo, kwaye bonke abantwana abangama-89 abahlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, babenamanqanaba afumanekayo okubulala izinambuzane kumchamo wabo.

Nokuba uquka izifundo ezongezelelweyo, zizonke, kukho idatha encinci malunga namanqanaba e-glyphosate ebantwini. Izifundo kwihlabathi liphela zizonke ngabantu abangama-4,299, kubandakanya abantwana abangama-520, abaphandi bathi.

Ababhali baqukumbele ngelithi okwangoku akunakwenzeka ukuba baqonde "ubudlelwane obunokubakho" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunye nezifo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, kuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha kumanqanaba okuvezwa kwabantu kuncitshisiwe kwaye akumiselweyo.

Baqwalasele ukuba ngaphandle kokunqongophala kwedatha eqinileyo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate ebantwaneni, inani leentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli base-US ekutyeni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo.

"Kukho izikhewu kuncwadi lwe-glyphosate, kwaye ezi zithuba kufuneka zigcwaliswe ngokungxamisekileyo, ngenxa yokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwale mveliso kunye nokufumaneka kwayo kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo umbhali uEmanuela Taioli.

Abantwana ngabona basesichengeni sokufumana i-carcinogens yokusingqongileyo kunye nokulandela umkhondo kwiimveliso ezinjenge-glyphosate ebantwaneni "yinto ephambili kwezempilo yoluntu," ngokutsho kwababhali bephepha.

"Njengayo nayiphi na ikhemikhali, kukho amanyathelo aliqela abandakanyekayo kuvavanyo lomngcipheko, kubandakanya nokuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amanqanaba avelisa ingozi kuluntu olunye okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesilwanyana unokuthelekiswa namanqanaba okuvezwa okuqhelekileyo," ababhali babhala.

“Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambili besibonisile ukuba idatha ekubonakalisweni kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu ngokubanzi inqongophele. Zininzi ezinye izithuba kulwazi ezikhoyo malunga nale mveliso, umzekelo, iziphumo kwi-genotoxicity yayo ebantwini isikelwe umda. Ingxoxo eqhubekayo malunga nefuthe lokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuba ukusekwa kwinqanaba lokuvezwa kuluntu ngokubanzi kube ngumcimbi oxinzelelweyo wezempilo, ngakumbi kwabona basemngciphekweni. ”

Ababhali bathi ukubekwa kweliso kumanqanaba e-urinary glyphosate kufuneka kuqhutywe kubemi ngokubanzi.

"Siyaqhubeka nokucebisa ukuba ukubandakanywa kwe-glyphosate njengokubonakaliswa okulinganiselweyo kwizifundo ezimele ilizwe njenge-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuyakuvumela ukuqonda okungcono ngemingcipheko enokubangelwa yi-glyphosate kwaye ivumele ukubekwa esweni okungcono kwabo kunokwenzeka babhentswe kwaye abo basemngciphekweni wokuvezwa, ”babhala.

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka elishumi yeSayensi ibhekisa kwiingozi eziMandla zeMpilo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imbali emide yeeNkxalabo
Izifundo eziPhambili zeNzululwazi kwiAspartame
Imizamo ye-PR yoShishino
Iingqinisiso zeSayensi

Iinyani eziphambili malunga nokutya kweSoda Chemical 

Yintoni iAspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yeyona ndawo iswiti esetyenziswa ngokubanzi emhlabeni. Ikwathengiswa njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin kunye neAminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona ngaphezulu kwe- iimveliso 6,000, kubandakanya iDiet Coke kunye neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango kunye nezinye iziselo ezinencasa; Iimveliso ezingenashukela zeJell-O; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kunye nezinye iimveliso zentsini engenashukela; iilekese ezinzima ezingenashukela; i-condiments eswekile esezantsi okanye engenaswekile enje nge ketchups kunye nokunxiba; amayeza abantwana, iivithamini kunye nokuhlahlela kokukhohlela.
  • I-Aspartame yimichiza eyenziweyo eyenziwe zii-amino acid ze-phenylalanine kunye ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Xa isetyenzisiwe, i-ester ye-methyl yehla iye kwi-methanol, enokuguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka elishumi yezifundo iphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neAspartame

Ukusukela ukuba i-aspartame yavunywa okokuqala ngo-1974, bobabini oososayensi be-FDA kunye noososayensi abazimeleyo baphakamise inkxalabo malunga neziphumo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kunye nokusilela kwisayensi engeniswe kwi-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (UMonsanto wathenga iSearle ngo-1984).

Kwi-1987, i-UPI yapapasha uthotho lwamanqaku ophando nguGregory Gordon enika ingxelo ngezi zinto zixhalabisayo, kubandakanya nezifundo zokuqala ezinxibelelanisa i-aspartame neengxaki zempilo, umgangatho ophantsi wophando oluxhaswa ngemali lushishino olukhokelele ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kunye nobudlelwane bokungena emnyango phakathi kwamagosa e-FDA. kunye nomzi mveliso wokutya. Uthotho lukaGordon sisixhobo esixabisekileyo kuye nabani na ofuna ukuqonda imbali ye-aspartame / Nutra

Iziphene kuvavanyo lweGunya loKhuseleko loKutya lwaseYurophu

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha kwiVimba yoLuntu lwezeMpilo, Abaphandi kwiYunivesithi yaseSussex banikezela uhlalutyo olunzulu lovavanyo lwe-aspartame lwe-EFSA ngo-2013 kwaye bafumanisa ukuba iphaneli isaphulelo njengongathembekiyo kwizifundo ezingama-73 ezibonisa ukwenzakala, kwaye zisebenzise iikhrayitheriya ezingaphezulu kakhulu zokwamkela njengezithembekileyo ezingama-84% zezifundo obufumene ubungqina bokwenzakala. “Ngenxa yeziphene zovavanyo lomngcipheko we-EFSA we-aspartame, kunye nokusilela kuko konke ukuvavanywa kobungozi obusemthethweni be-aspartame, kuya kuba ngaphambi kwexesha ukugqiba ukuba ikhuselekile ngokwamkelekileyo,” ligqibe isifundo.

khangela Impendulo ye-EFSA kunye nokulandelelwa ngabaphandi uErik Paul Millstone noElizabeth Dawson kuVimba weeMpilo zikaRhulumente, Kutheni le nto i-EFSA iyinciphisile i-ADI yayo kwi-aspartame okanye icebisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwayo akufuneki kuvunyelwe? Ukusasazwa kweendaba:

  • Iingcali zithi: “Eyona nto ithandwa ehlabathini lonke siswiti kufuneka ingavunyelwa. Iingcali ezimbini zokhuselo lokutya ziye zacela ukuba iswiti eyenziwayo esetyenziswayo, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK kwaye ibuze ukuba kutheni ibonwa yamkelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” Imagazini eNtsha yokutya (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufuneka kunqunyanyiswe': i-EFSA ityholwa ngokuthatha icala kuvavanyo lokhuseleko," nguKaty Askew, Ukutya okuKhokelela kwi-Navigator (7.27.2019)

Iziphumo zeMpilo kunye neziFundo eziPhambili kwiAspartame 

Ngelixa uninzi lwezifundo, ezinye zazo zishishini ezixhaswe ngemali, ziye zabika akukho ngxaki nge-aspartame, uninzi lwezifundo ezizimeleyo eziqhutywa kumashumi eminyaka ziye zadibanisa i-aspartame kuluhlu olude lweengxaki zempilo, kubandakanya:

Cancer

Kuphando olunzulu lomhlaza ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwi-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zobomi eziqhutywa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Centre yeZiko iRamazzini, zibonelela ubungqina obuzinzileyo be-carcinogenicity kwiintonga ezivezwe kwinto leyo.

  • I-Aspartame "yiarhente ye-carcinogenic ephindaphindayo, nakwidosi yemihla ngemihla ye-… incinci kakhulu kunendlela eyamkelekileyo yemihla ngemihla yokutya," ngokophando lwempuku lwe-2006 Imiba yezeMpilo.1
  • Uphononongo olulandelayo ngo-2007 lwafumana ukonyuka okubalulekileyo okunxulumene nedosi kwizicubu ezinobungozi kwezinye iigundane. "Iziphumo… ziqinisekisa kwaye zomeleza umboniso wokuqala wovavanyo lwe- [aspartame's] carcinogenicity kwinqanaba lokufumana idosi kufutshane nokutya okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla ebantwini ... phakathi Imiba yezeMpilo.2
  • Iziphumo zophononongo lobomi be-2010 "ziqinisekisa ukuba [i-aspartame] yiarhente ye-carcinogenic kwiindawo ezininzi kwizikrekrethi, kwaye esi siphumo sibangelwa ziindidi ezimbini, iigundane (amadoda nabasetyhini) kunye neempuku (amadoda)," Ijenali yaseMelika yoNyango lwezoShishino.3

Abaphandi baseHarvard ngo-2012 baxela umanyano olungileyo phakathi kokutya i-aspartame kunye nokwanda komngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kunye ne-myeloma emininzi emadodeni, kunye neleukemia emadodeni nakwabasetyhini. Iziphumo ezifunyanisiweyo “zigcina ukubakho kwesiphumo esibi… zomhlaza okhethiweyo” kodwa “azikuvumeli ukugwetywa ngengozi njengenkcazo,” babhala abaphandi kwi I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.4

Kwinkcazo ka-2014 kwi Ijenali yaseMelika yoNyango lwezoShishino, Abaphandi beZiko leMaltoni babhale ukuba izifundo ezingeniswe ngu-GD Searle ukuze zamkelwe kwimarike “aziboneleli ngenkxaso yezenzululwazi eyaneleyo kukhuseleko lwe- [aspartame]. Ngokuchasene noko, iziphumo zamva nje zobomi be-carcinogenicity bioassays kwiigundane kunye neempuku ezipapashwe kwiijenali ezijongwa ngoontanga, kunye nophando olunokubakho lwezifo, zinika ubungqina obungaguqukiyo [be-aspartame] be-carcinogenic. Ngokwesiseko sobungqina bezinto ezinokubangela umdlavuza… ukuphinda kujongwe imeko yangoku yeearhente zolawulo kufuneka kuthathwe njengomba ongxamisekileyo wezempilo yoluntu. ”5

Izibilini zeBongo

Ngo-1996, abaphandi baxela Ijenali yeNeuropathology kunye novavanyo lweNeurology kubungqina obusisifo obudibanisa ukuqaliswa kwe-aspartame kunye nokwanda kohlobo olundlongondlongo lwezidumbu ezinobungozi. "Xa kuthelekiswa neminye imiba yokusingqongileyo edityaniswe namathumba ebuchwephesha, i-aspartame yeswekile eyenziweyo ngumgqatswa othembisayo wokuchaza ukwanda okwenzekayo kunye nenqanaba lokudumba kwamathumba ebuchotsheni… Sigqiba kwelokuba kukho imfuneko yokuvavanya amandla e-carcinogenic aspartame."6

  • Isazi nge-Neuroscientist uGqirha John Olney, umbhali ophambili wesifundo, uxelele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kubekho ukonyuka okumangalisayo kwizigulo ezinobungozi (kwiminyaka emithathu ukuya kwemihlanu emva kokuvunywa kwe-aspartame)… kukho izizathu ezaneleyo zokurhanela i-aspartame ekufuneka iphinde yavavanywa. I-FDA kufuneka iyiphonononge kwakhona, kwaye ngeli xesha, i-FDA kufuneka iyenze kakuhle. ”

Izifundo zakwangoko kwi-aspartame kwii-1970s zafumana ubungqina bamathumba obuchopho kwizilwanyana zaselebhu, kodwa ezo zifundo khange zilandelwe.

Izifo Zeenhliziyo 

Uhlalutyo lwe-meta lwango-2017 lophando kwizithambisi ezingezizo, ezipapashwe kwi I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, akafumananga bungqina bucacileyo bokulahleka kobunzima bezinto zokuthambisa ezilungeleleneyo kuvavanyo lweklinikhi, kwaye waxela ukuba izifundo ezenziwa ngamaqela zidibanisa izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo kunye "nokunyuka kobunzima kunye nokujikeleza kwesinqe, kunye neziganeko eziphezulu zokutyeba kakhulu, uxinzelelo lwegazi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile yesifo seswekile kunye nentliziyo iziganeko. ”7 Bona kwakho:

  • “Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo azincedi ekunciphiseni umzimba kwaye zingakhokelela ekufumaneni iiponti,” ngu-Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kutheni enye i-cardiologist isele ukutya kwayo kokugqibela kwesoda," nguHarlan Krumholz, Ijenali yeWall Street (9.14.2017)
  • “Le ngcali yeentliziyo ifuna ukuba usapho lwayo lunciphise i-diet soda. Ngaba eyakho ifanele ukuba nayo? ” NguDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly wabuza (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 kwi I-Physiology kunye nokuziphatha uxele, "kukho ukungqinelana okuthe kratya phakathi kweziphumo zophando lwezilwanyana kunye nenani elikhulu lezifundo ezikhulu, zokujonga ixesha elide ebantwini, ekufumaneni ukwanda komzimba, ukutyeba, imeko yokutya kakhulu, umngcipheko we-cardiometabolic, kunye nokufa kwabantu abantu abanezifo ezinganyangekiyo, zemihla ngemihla kwizinto ezinencindi ekwiikhalori ezisezantsi - kwaye ezi ziphumo ziyaxhalabisa. ”8

Abasetyhini abasele ngaphezu kwezimbini iziselo zokutya ngemini "babenomngcipheko ophezulu [wezifo sentliziyo] iziganeko… [isifo sentliziyo] ukusweleka… kunye nokufa jikelele," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2014 kwiPhulo lezeMpilo laBasetyhini elipapashwe kwi I-Journal ye-General Medicine.9

Stroke, isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo kunye Izifo ze-Alzheimer's

Abantu abasela isoda yokutya yonke imihla phantse baphantse babe kathathu amathuba okuba nesifo sokubethwa sisifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo njengabo basitya rhoqo ngeveki okanye ngaphantsi. Oku kubandakanya umngcipheko ophezulu wokubethwa sischemic, apho imithambo yegazi kwingqondo iye yaphazamiseka, kunye nesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo i-Alzheimer, eyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo yesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. Isifundo se-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona kwakho: Ividiyo yaseBoston University of Medicine kolu phando olwenziwe yingcali yemithambo-luvo uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetyenziswa kweSodas kwemihla ngemihla, iiJusi yeziqhamo kunye neeSodas ezenziwe ngobumnandi zichaphazela uBongo.”
  • "Uphononongo lunxibelelanisa isoda yokutya kunye nomngcipheko ophezulu wokubetha, isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-ester ye-methyl kwi-aspartame idibanisa ngaphakathi methanol emva koko inokuguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, enxulunyaniswe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Isifundo esinamacandelo amabini esipapashwe kwi-2014 kwi Ingxelo yeZifo ze-Alzheimer's kunxulunyaniswa nokuvezwa kwemethanol engapheliyo kwimemori yokulahleka kunye neempawu zesifo se-Alzheimer kwiimpuku nakwiinkawu.

  • "[M] Iimpuku ezondliwa yi-ethanol ziboniswe ngeempawu ezifana ne-AD… Ezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo zongeza kubungqina obukhulayo obudibanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Icandelo 1)11
  • "[Ukutya kwe-ethanol kubangele utshintsho olwenzeka ixesha elide kwaye oluqhubekekayo olunxulumene [nesifo se-Alzheimer] ... ezi ziphumo zixhasa ubungqina obukhulayo obudibanisa i-methanol kunye ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo kwisifo se-Alzheimer's." (Icandelo 2)12

Ukuxhamla

"I-Aspartame ibonakala iyandisa inani le-EEG spike wave kubantwana ngokungabikho koxinzelelo. Izifundo ezizezinye ziyafuneka ukufumanisa ukuba ingaba oku kwenzeka ngeedosi ezisezantsi nakwezinye iintlobo zokubanjwa, ”ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1992 Neurology.13

I-Aspartame "inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuhluthwa kwiimodeli zezilwanyana ezisetyenziswa kakhulu ekuchongeni izinto ezichaphazela… izehlo zokubanjwa," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1987. Imiba yezeMpilo.14

Amanani aphezulu kakhulu e-aspartame “anokuchaphazela nokubakho kokuxhuzula kubantu abangenampawu kodwa abasesichengeni,” ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1985. Lancet. Olu phononongo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababesempilweni ababekhe baxhuzula ngexesha lokudla kwabo i-aspartame.15

Neurotoxicity, Ukonakala kweBongo kunye nokuphazamiseka kweMood

I-Aspartame inxulunyaniswe neengxaki zokuziphatha kunye nokuqonda kubandakanya iingxaki zokufunda, intloko ebuhlungu, ukubanjwa, imigraines, iimvakalelo ezinomsindo, unxunguphalo, uxinzelelo kunye nokuqaqanjelwa sisisu, babhala abaphandi besifundo se-2017. Isondlo Neuroscience. Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Aspartame kufuneka kuyiwe kuyo ngononophelo ngenxa yeziphumo ezinokubakho kwimpilo ye-neurobehaisheral. ”16

“I-aspartame yomlomo itshintshe kakhulu indlela yokuziphatha, inqanaba le-anti-oxidant kunye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kwiimpuku; kananjalo, kusenokwenzeka ukuba ibangele i-hippocampal neurogeneis yabantu abadala, ”luchaze uphando olwenziweyo ngo-2016 I-Neurobiology yokuFunda kunye neNkumbulo.17 

“Ngaphambili, bekuxelwe ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-aspartame kunokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwemithambo-luvo nokuziphatha kubantu abanovakalelo. Intloko ebuhlungu, ukuqaqanjelwa bubuthongo kunye nokuxhuzula zezinye zeempembelelo zemithambo-luvo ekuye kwaqubiswana nazo, ”ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2008. I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "[Sicebisa ukuba ukungeniswa kwe-aspartame okugabadeleyo kungabandakanyeka kwisifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo ....18 

"(N) iimpawu ze-eurological, kubandakanya ukufunda kunye neenkqubo zememori, zinokunxulunyaniswa nokuxinana okuphezulu okanye okunetyhefu ye-sweetener [aspartame] yeemetabolites," utshilo u-2006 Uphando lwezeMpilo.19

I-Aspartame "inokuphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori kunye nokonakalisa ii-hypothalamic neurons kwiimpuku zabantu abadala," ngokwe-2000 iimpuku zophando ezipapashwe kwi Iileta zetyhefu.20

"(I) abantu abanengxaki yokuphazamiseka ngokweemvakalelo banovakalelo ngokukodwa kwesi sithambisi senziweyo kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwaso kuluntu kufuneka kungakhuthazwa," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1993. Ijenali yezebhayoloji yengqondo.21

Amanani aphezulu e-aspartame "anokuvelisa utshintsho olukhulu kwimichiza," luchaze u-1984 I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.22

Uvavanyo lubonakalise ukonakala kwengqondo kwiimpuku zosana emva kokutya ngomlomo i-aspartate, kwaye kubonisa ukuba "i-aspartate [iyityhefu] kwimouse yeentsana kumanqanaba asezantsi okutya ngomlomo," ingxelo ka-1970 indalo.23

Intloko kunye neMigraines

“I-Aspartame, iswekile ethandwayo yokutya ukutya, inokubangela iintloko kwabanye abantu abachaphazelekayo. Apha, sichaza amatyala amathathu amabhinqa aselula ane-migraine axele ukuba iintloko zawo zinokuxhokonxwa ngokuhlafuna intshungama engenaswekile ene-aspartame, ”ngokutsho kwephepha lowe-1997. Ijenali yentloko.24

Ityala le-crossover ngokuthelekisa i-aspartame kunye ne-placebo epapashwe ngo-1994 kwi Neurology, "Ibonelela ubungqina bokuba, phakathi kwabantu abaneentloko ezixelwayo emva kokungenisa i-aspartame, iseti yeli qela inika ingxelo yentloko ngakumbi xa kuvavanywa phantsi kweemeko ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala ngathi abanye abantu ngabona basesichengeni sokuqaqanjelwa yintloko ngenxa ye-aspartame kwaye banokufuna ukunciphisa ukusebenzisa kwabo. ”25

Uvavanyo kwizigulana ezili-171 kwiZiko lonyango laseMontefiore Medical Headache Unit lafumanisa ukuba izigulana ezine-migraine "zichaze i-aspartame njenge-precipitant ephindaphindwe kathathu kunalezo zineentlobo ezithile zentloko ... ”Isifundo ngo-1989 Ijenali yentloko.26

Ulingo lwe-crossover ngokuthelekisa i-aspartame kunye ne-placebo kumaza kunye nokuqina kwe-migraines "kubonise ukuba ukungeniswa kwe-aspartame ngabagulisi be-migraineurs kubangele ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwintloko yesifo seentloko kwezinye izifundo," ingxelo ngo-1988. Ijenali yentloko.27

Umsebenzi weZintso wehla

Ukusetyenziswa kokutya okungaphezulu kwesibini ngemini yesoda eneswekile eyenziweyo "kunxulunyaniswa nokuphindaphindeka kabini kokunyuka kokusebenza kwezintso kwabasetyhini," ngokophando luka-2 kwi Ijenali yezonyango yaseMelika yoMbutho weNephrology.28

Ukufumana ubunzima, ukutya okunyukayo kunye nokutyeba kakhulu iingxaki ezinxulumene noko

Izifundo ezininzi zinxibelelana ne-aspartame ekuzuzeni ubunzima, ukonyusa ukutya, isifo seswekile, isifo se-metabolic kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokukhuluphala. Jonga iphepha lethu lenyaniso: Ukutya kweSoda Imichiza eboshwe kuTywala.

Le sayensi idibanisa i-aspartame ekuzuzeni ubunzima kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo malunga nokuba semthethweni kweemveliso zentengiso ze-aspartame njenge "ndlela yokutya" okanye izixhobo zokunciphisa umzimba. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK yacela i Federal Trade Commission kwaye FDA ukuphanda intengiso kunye nentengiso yeemveliso "zokutya" eziqukethe ikhemikhali enxulunyaniswe nokuzuza kobunzima. Yabona iindaba ezinxulumene ukugubungela, Impendulo evela kwi-FTC, yaye impendulo evela kwi-FDA.

Isifo seswekile kunye nokuDanjiswa kweMetabolic

I-Aspartame yehla ngokwenxalenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa isenzo se-enzyme emathunjini e-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebonakaliswe ngaphambili ukuthintela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqela leempawu ezinxulunyaniswa nohlobo lwesibini lweswekile kunye nesifo sentliziyo) ngokutsho ko-2 I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo, isondlo kunye neMetabolism. Kolu phononongo, iimpuku ezifumana i-aspartame emanzini okusela ziye zafumana ubunzima ngakumbi kwaye zaphuhlisa ezinye iimpawu zesifo se-metabolic syndrome kunezilwanyana ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Uphononongo luqukumbela ngelithi, "Iziphumo zokhuselo ze-IAP ngokubhekisele kwisifo se-metabolic syndrome zinokuthintelwa yi-phenylalanine, imetabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbi ichaza ukungabikho kwethamo lokunciphisa ubunzima kunye nokuphuculwa kokutya okunxulumene neziselo zokutya."29

Abantu abahlala besitya iilekese ezingezizo ezomngcipheko basemngciphekweni omkhulu wokufumana ubunzima obuninzi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile sesifo seswekile, kunye nesifo sentliziyo, ngokutsho kovavanyo lwe-2 yePurdue ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-2013 epapashwe Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwi-Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism.30

Kwisifundo esilandele abafazi abangama-66,118 ngaphezulu kweminyaka eli-14, zombini iziselo ezineswekile kunye neziselo ezinencasa ezinxulumene nobungozi zinxulunyaniswa nomngcipheko wohlobo lwe-2 lweswekile. Iimpawu eziqinisekileyo zomngcipheko we-T2D umngcipheko ziye zaqwalaselwa kuzo zonke ii-quartiles ze ukuselwa kwezi ntlobo zombini zesiselo… Akukho mbutho waqwalaselwayo nge-100% yokusetyenziswa kweziqhamo, ”luchaze uphando lwango-2013 olupapashwe ngo I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.31

I-Dysbiosis yangaphakathi, ukuDanjiswa kweMetabolic kunye nokuTyeba kakhulu

Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo ezenziweyo zinokubangela ukunganyamezelani kweswekile ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokwe-a Uphononongo luka-2014 kwiNdalo. Abaphandi babhale, "iziphumo zethu zidibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS [non-caloric sweetener], ukusetyenziswa kwesifo se-dysbiosis kunye nokungaqheleki kokutya emzimbeni, ngokwenza njalo kucelwa ukuba kuphononongwe ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS enkulu… Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba i-NAS inokuba negalelo elithe ngqo ekwandiseni ubhubhane [ukutyeba] ukuba bona bebenzelwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bona kwakho: “Izinto ezenza iincumfisi ezingezizo ezenziweyo zingatshintsha i-Gut Bacteria kwiindlela ezinobungozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, Inzululwazi yaseMelika (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwe-2016 I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo Isondlo kunye neMetabolism uxele, "Ukutya kwe-Aspartame kube nefuthe elibalulekileyo kunxibelelwano phakathi kwesalathiso somzimba (BMI) kunye nokunyamezelana kweswekile ... ukusetyenziswa kwe-aspartame kunxulunyaniswa nokukhubazeka okunxulumene nokukhuluphala ekunyamezelweni kweswekile."33

Ngokwe-2014 rat rat kwi I-PLOS ONE, "I-aspartame inyuse amanqanaba eswekile yokuzila kunye novavanyo lokunyamezelwa kwe-insulin ibonakalise i-aspartame ukuphazamisa ukulahlwa kwe-glucose ekhuthazwa yi-insulin ...34

 Ukungaqhelekanga kokukhulelwa: Ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwexesha 

Ngokophando lwamaqela angama-2010 aseDanish akhulelweyo I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition, "Kwakukho umanyano phakathi kokutya iziselo ezihlwahlwazayo ezingezizo ezekhaboni kunye nomngcipheko owandayo wokuhanjiswa kwangaphambi kwexesha." Olu pho nonongo luqukumbele ngelithi, “Ukutya yonke imihla iziselo ezinencasa ezinencasa kungandisa umngcipheko wokuziswa kwangaphambi kokuzalwa.”35

  • Bona kwakho: "Ukutya ukutya okwexeshana kubotshwe ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwexesha," ngu-Anne Harding, Reuters (7.23.2010)

Ukutyeba ngokugqithiseleyo abantwana

Ukusetyenziswa kwesiselo esenziwe ngobumnandi ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunxulunyaniswa nesalathiso sobunzima bomzimba kwiintsana, ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2016 JAMA Pediatrics. "Kulwazi lwethu, sinika ubungqina bokuqala bomntu ukuba ukusetyenziswa koomama ngeeswiti ezingezizo ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokuba nefuthe kwi-BMI yabantwana," babhala abaphandi.36

  • Bona kwakho: "Ukutya okuneSoda ekukhulelweni kunxulunyaniswa neentsana eziTyebileyo," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini ekuqaleni

Ukukhula kweSizwe seNtliziyo, iMiphunga, kunye neGazi kwiZiko lezeMpilo kulandele amantombazana e-1988 iminyaka eli-10 ukuvavanya ubudlelwane obunokubakho phakathi kokusetyenziswa kweswekile ene-caffeine kunye ne-noncaffeine- kunye neziselo ezinencasa ezenziwe ngobumnandi kunye nokuya exesheni kwangoko. "Ukusetyenziswa kweziselo ezihlwahlwazayo ezine-caffeine kunye neziswiti bekudityaniswa ngokuqinisekileyo nomngcipheko wokuba sexesheni kwangoko kwiqela laseMelika lamantombazana ase-Afrika aseMelika nawaseCaucasus," uqukumbele uphando olwapapashwa ngo-2015 Ijenali yeAmerican Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukonakala kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okubonakalayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda sezilwanyana eziphathwa nge-aspartame kwajongwa xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo kunye nolawulo lweMTX," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2017 kwi International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Ezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo zibonisa ukuba i-aspartame metabolites inokuba negalelo kuphuhliso loxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwisidoda se-epididymal."38

Ukonakala kwesibindi kunye nokupheliswa kweGlutathione

Isifundo sempuku esapapashwa ngo-2017 I-Redox Biology uxele, "Ukulawulwa okungapheliyo kwe-aspartame ... kubangele ukonzakala kwesibindi kunye nokuhla okuphawulweyo kwamanqanaba okunciphisa i-glutathione, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kunye ne-metabolites eninzi ye-trans-sulphuration pathway ..."39

Uphononongo lweempuku olupapashwe kwi-2017 kwi Uphando lweZondlo Ndafumanisa ukuba, “Ukutya into engadibaniyo nesiselo esinxilisayo okanye i-aspartame ebangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kunye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia…. Ezi datha zicebisa ukuba ukusela ixesha elide kwisiselo esinxilisayo okanye umonakalo we-aspartame owenziwe nge-hepatic unokulawulwa kukungeniswa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqokelelwa kwe-lipid, kunye noxinzelelo lwe-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwe-adipocytokines. ”40

Isilumkiso kuBemi abaKhuselekileyo

Uphengululo loncwadi olwenziwe ngo-2016 kwizithambisi ezingezizo kwifayile Ijenali yeIndiya yezeTekhnoloji Kuxelwe, "akukho kungangqinelani ubungqina bokuxhasa uninzi losetyenziso lwabo kunye nolunye uphononongo lwakutsha nje luye lwabonisa ukuba ezi zibonelelo zisungulwe ngaphambili ... Abantu abakhoyo njengabafazi abakhulelweyo nabancancisayo, abantwana, abanesifo seswekile, migraine, kunye nabagulayo "kufuneka bazisebenzise ngononophelo olukhulu."41

Imizamo yeShishini PR kunye namaQela aPhambili 

Ukusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamva iMonsanto kunye neNkampani yeNutraSweet) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR abukhali kwintengiso ye-aspartame njengemveliso ekhuselekileyo. Ngo-Okthobha u-1987, uGregory Gordon ixelwe kwi-UPI:

“INutraSweet Co. ikwahlawule ukuya kuthi ga kwi-3 yezigidi zeedola ngonyaka kumzamo wobudlelwane noluntu ngabantu abali-100 ziiofisi zaseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owayesakuba ngumqeshwa wenkampani ye-PR eNew York. Umqeshwa uthe uBurson Marsteller uqeshe oosonzululwazi kunye noogqirha abaninzi, uhlala eyi- $ 1,000 ngemini, ukukhusela iswiti kudliwanondlebe nemithombo yeendaba nakwezinye iiforamu zikarhulumente. UBurson Marsteller uyala ukuxoxa ngemicimbi enjalo. ”

Ingxelo yamva nje esekwe kumaxwebhu oshishino lwangaphakathi atyhila indlela iinkampani zotywala ezinje ngeCoca-Cola ezihlawula ngayo abathunywa besithathu, kubandakanya oogqirha kunye nososayensi, ukuba bathengise iimveliso zabo kwaye batshintshe ityala xa inzululwazi ibophelela iimveliso zabo kwiingxaki zempilo ezinzulu.

Jonga ukunika ingxelo ngo-Anahad O'Connor kwi ENew York Times, UCandice Choi kwi I-Press Associated, kunye neziphumo ezivela kwifayile ye- Uphando lwe-USRTK malunga nepropaganda yeshishini leswekile kunye namaphulo okuphembelela.

Amanqaku eendaba malunga nomkhankaso we-PR kwimizi-mveliso:

Amagqabantshintshi ngamabali eendaba malunga ne-aspartame:

Amaxwebhu eStTK eenyani

Iingxelo kumaQela aPhambili kunye namaPhulo e-PR

Iingqinisiso zeSayensi

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Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina bokuba ukhula olubulala ukhula luyaphazamisa iihormoni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uphando olutsha longeza ubungqina obukhathazayo kwinkxalabo yokuba ukubulala ukhula kusetyenziswa kakhulu imichiza glyphosate inokubanakho ukuphazamisa iihomoni zabantu.

Kwiphepha elipapashwe kwijenali Imichiza zibizwa IGlyphosate kunye neempawu eziphambili zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Uphengululo, Isithathu senzululwazi sagqiba kwelokuba i-glyphosate ibonakala ineempawu ezisibhozo kwezilishumi eziphambili ezinxulunyaniswa i-endocrine ephazamisa iikhemikhali . Ababhali balumkisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba izifundo eziza kudibana ziyafuneka ukuze kuqondwe ngokucacileyo iimpembelelo ze-glyphosate kwinkqubo ye-endocrine yomntu.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, uTammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, elowo nalowo unxulumene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, bathi iphepha labo luphononongo lokuqala lokudibanisa ubungqina boomatshini kwi-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobungqina bucacisa ukuba iRoundup, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate-based herbicide, inokutshintsha i-biosynthesis yehomoni zesondo, ngokutsho kwabaphandi.

Ii-EDCs zinokulingisa okanye ziphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye zinxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Eli phepha litsha lilandela ukupapashwa ebutsheni balo nyaka Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana ebonakalise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kuchaphazela amalungu okuzala kwaye isoyikisa ukuzala.

IGlyphosate sesona sifo sisetyenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, esithengiswa kumazwe ali-140. Yaziswa ngentengiso ngo-1974 nguMonsanto Co, imichiza sisithako esisebenzayo kwiimveliso ezithandwayo ezinje ngeRoundup kunye namakhulu abanye babulali bokhula abasetyenziswa ngabathengi, oomasipala, izixhobo, amafama, abaqhubi begalufa kunye nabanye kwihlabathi liphela.

UDana Barr, Unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yaseEmory iRollins School of Health Public, wathi obu bungqina “buye bubonakalise ngendlela engathethekiyo ukuba i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa iipropathi.”

“Ayisiyonto ingalindelekanga kuba i-glyphosate inezakhiwo ezifanayo nezinye i-endocrine ephazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; Nangona kunjalo, ingakumbi kuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude ezinye izibulali zinambuzane, ”utshilo u-Barr, olawula inkqubo ngaphakathi kwiziko le-National Institutes of Health elixhaswa ngezempilo. "IGlyphosate isetyenziswa kwizityalo ezininzi nakwizicelo ezininzi zokuhlala ezinokubangela ukubonwa kwabantu ngokubanzi."

Phil Landrigan, umlawuli we-Global Observatory on Pollution and Health, kunye nonjingalwazi webhayoloji
KwiKholeji yaseBoston, uthe uphononongo ludibanise "ubungqina obuqinileyo" bokuthi i-glyphosate ngumphazamisi we-endocrine.

"Ingxelo iyahambelana nomzimba omkhulu woncwadi obonisa ukuba i-glyphosate inoluhlu olubanzi lweziphumo ezibi kwezempilo - iziphumo eziguqula imeko ende kaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenazimpembelelo zimbi kwimpilo yabantu, ”utshilo uLandrigan.

Ii-EDC bezingumbandela oxhalabisayo ukusukela nge-1990s emva kothotho lopapasho olucebisayo ukuba ezinye iikhemikhali zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwizibulali zinambuzane, izinyibilikisi zorhwebo, iiplastikhi, iisepha, kunye nezinye izinto zinokubanakho ukuphazamisa unxibelelwano phakathi kwamahomoni kunye nezamkeli.

Izazinzulu ngokubanzi ziye zamkela iipropathi ezilishumi ezisebenzayo zearhente eziguqula isenzo sehomoni, zibhekisa kwezi "njengeempawu eziphambili" ezilishumi ze-endocrine-disorors. Iimpawu ezilishumi zezi zilandelayo:

Ii-EDC's zinako:

  • Ukutshintsha kwehomoni ukuhanjiswa kwamanqanaba okujikeleza kwehomoni
  • Yenza utshintsho kwi-hormone metabolism okanye kugqitywe
  • Guqula ikamva lokuvelisa iincindi zamadlala okanye iiseli eziphendula iihomoni
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Ukuchasene ne-hormone receptors
  • Nxibelelana okanye wenze ii-hormone receptors
  • Ukutshintshwa kwesiginali yokutshintsha kwiiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Yenza uhlengahlengiso lwe-epigenetic kwimveliso evelisa iihomoni okanye iiseli eziphendula ihomoni
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Utshintsho lwehormoni yokuhambisa kwiimbrane zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elitsha bathi uphononongo lwedatha yoomatshini lubonise ukuba i-glyphosate idibene nazo zonke iimpawu eziphambili ngaphandle kwezi zimbini: "Ngokubhekiselele kwi-glyphosate, abukho ubungqina obunxulunyaniswa namandla okuchasana nabamkeli behomoni," batsho. Kananjalo, "abukho ubungqina bempembelelo yayo kwimetabolism ye-hormonal okanye kugqitywe," ngokutsho kwababhali.

Uphando kule minyaka ingamashumi idlulileyo lujolise ikakhulu kumakhonkco afunyanwa phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye nomhlaza, ngakumbi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza. I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kwe-100,000 abantu Ndimangalele uMonsanto e-United States etyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate esekwe kwinkampani kubangele bona okanye abo babathandayo ukuba baphuhlise i-NHL.

Abamangali kwizimangalo zelizwe lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala ifuna ukufihla umngcipheko weyeza layo. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu kwaye umnini wayo waseJamani uBayer AG uchithe unyaka ophelileyo enesiqingatha ukuzama ukuhlala Ukumangalelwa ngaphandle kwenkundla.

Ababhali bephepha elitsha baqaphela indalo ekuyo yonke indawo ye-glyphosate, besithi "ukusetyenziswa okukhulu" kwale khemikhali "kukhokelele ekusasazekeni kwendalo," kubandakanya nokuvela okuchaphazelayo okuboshwe kukusetyenziswa kwabantu kombulali wokhula ngokutya.

Abaphandi bathi nangona abalawuli bathi amanqanaba entsalela ye-glyphosate efumaneka ekutyeni iphantsi ngokwaneleyo ukuba ikhuseleke, "abanakuyilawula" ingozi "enokubakho ebantwini abatya ukutya okungcoliswe yimichiza, ngakumbi iinkozo kunye nezinye izityalo- ukutya okusekwe, okuhlala kunamanqanaba aphezulu kunobisi, inyama okanye iimveliso zentlanzi.

Amaxwebhu aseburhulumenteni ase-US abonisa ukuba iintsalela ze-glyphosate zifunyenwe kuluhlu lokutya, kubandakanya ubusi bendalo, yaye igranola kunye nabaqhekezi.

Abaphandi bakarhulumente waseCanada bakwachaze intsalela yeglyphosate ekutyeni. Ingxelo enye ekhutshwe ngo-2019 ngoososayensi abavela kwiiLabhoratri zeAgri-Food eCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bafumana i-glyphosate kwi-197 ye-200 yeesampulu zobusi abazihlolisayo.

Ngaphandle kwenkxalabo malunga nefuthe le-glyphosate kwimpilo yabantu, kubandakanya nokuvezwa kokutya, abalawuli base-US bakhusele ngokuqinileyo ukhuseleko lweekhemikhali. Inkqubo ye- I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo igcina ayifumanekanga "nayiphi na impilo yomntu ngenxa yokuchanabeka kwi-glyphosate. ”

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia iyala ukuphononongwa kwelahleko yesilingo seMonsanto Roundup

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Inkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ayizukuphonononga ityala lomntu waseCalifornia lokuphumelela iMonsanto, ejongene nomnye umniniyo waseMonsanto waseJamani, uBayer AG.

The isigqibo sokwala uphononongo kwimeko kaDewayne "Lee" Johnson uphawula okutsha kumtya welahleko yenkundla ye Bayer njengoko izama ukugqibezela iindawo zokuhlala kunye nabamangali abamalunga ne-100,000 abathi ngamnye wabo okanye abo babathandayo baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ekuvezeni i-Roundup kunye nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. AmaJaji kuvavanyo ngalunye lwesithathu oluye lwaqhutywa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alufumananga kuphela ukuba yinkampani I-glyphosate-based herbicides kubangela umhlaza kodwa nokuba uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

“Sidanile sisigqibo seNkundla sokungasiqwalaseli isigqibo senkundla yezibheno esiphakathi Johnson Siza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwethu lwezomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokujonga eli tyala, ”utshilo uBayer kwingxelo.  

Ifemi yeMiller, Ifemu yezomthetho esekwe eVirginia yaseJohnson, yathi isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia siyasikhaba "ukuzama kweMonsanto kwangoko ukuthwala uxanduva" ngokubangela umhlaza kaJohnson.

"Abagwebi abaninzi ngoku baqinisekisile ukufumanisa ukuba iMonsanto ifihle ingozi yomhlaza we-Roundup kwaye yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba avelise umhlaza. Lifikile ixesha lokuba iMonsanto iphele kwizibheno ezingenasiseko kwaye ihlawule uMnu. Johnson imali emtyala yona, utshilo inkampani.

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukubonakaliswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuba uJohnson avelise uhlobo oluyingozi lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, umgwebi wecala wanciphisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. Inkundla yezibheno emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno ithe inciphise ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Bobabini uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukuphononongwa yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia, noJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa ibhaso lomonakalo omkhulu kunye neMonsanto efuna ukuguqula isigwebo setyala.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka  

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

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