Amaphepha eMonsanto-Iimfihlo eziBulalayo, urhwaphilizo lwendibaniselwano, kunye nokuKhangelwa kweNdoda enye kuLuntu

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Incwadi entsha yoMlawuli woPhando wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam ikhutshiwe ngoku kwaye ifumana uphononongo oluqaqambileyo. Nantsi inkcazo emfutshane yencwadi evela kumpapashi Isiqithi seSiqithi:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupha alula. Eyona nto wayeyifuna yayingumsebenzi ozinzileyo kunye nekhaya elihle lenkosikazi nabantwana, into ebhetele kunobomi obunzima awayebazi bekhula. Khange ayicinge into yokuba angangumntu kumlo kaDavid-no-Goliyathi ngokuchasene nesinye sezigebenga ezinamandla zehlabathi. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yamshiya uLee efakwe kwimichiza enetyhefu kwaye ejongene nomhlaza obulalayo owabuguqula ubomi bakhe babuguqula. Kwi-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoko uLee ebethathelwe phambili kwelona dabi lomthetho lihle kwimbali yamva nje.

Amaphepha eMonsanto libali langaphakathi likaLee Johnson elimangalela uMonsanto. KuLee, ityala yayilugqatso ngokuchasene nexesha, oogqirha bexela kwangaphambili ukuba ngekhe aphile ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo ukuba angathatha ubungqina. Kwicandelo le-eclectic labancinci, amagqwetha amele ukummela, ibingumbandela wokuzingca ngobungcali kunye nomngcipheko wobuntu, nezigidi zeedola zabo kunye negama labo elisebenze nzima emgceni.

Ngamandla okubalisa, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi emva komlo wedabi elinzima lezomthetho, ukubuyisa ikhethini kubuthathaka benkqubo yenkundla yaseMelika kunye nobude amagqwetha aya kuya kuwo ukulwa nokungalunganga kwezopolitiko kunye nokufumana ubulungisa kubathengi.

Bona ngakumbi malunga incwadi apha. Thenga incwadi nge AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqithi seSiqithi okanye abathengisi beencwadi abazimeleyo.

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"Ibali elinamandla, libaliswa kakuhle, kunye nomsebenzi ophawulekayo wobuntatheli bophando. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi enyanzelisayo ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya esiphelweni, malunga nelinye lawona madabi asemthethweni abalulekileyo kweli xesha lethu. ” -U-Lukas Reiter, umvelisi olawulayo we-TV kunye nombhali we "Uluhlu oluMnyama," "Ukuziqhelanisa," kunye ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto adibanisa inzululwazi nentlekele yabantu kwidrama yasenkundleni ngendlela kaJohn Grisham. Libali lokungaziphathi kakuhle kwezorhwebo kwinqanaba elikhulu-isityhilelo esothusayo sokubawa kwemveliso yamachiza, ukuzingca, kunye nokungakhathali kobomi babantu kunye nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kufuneka ifundwe. ” -U-Philip J. Landrigan, MD, uMlawuli, iNkqubo yezeMpilo yoLuntu yeHlabathi kunye nokuQhelekileyo kokuLungileyo, kwiKholeji yaseBoston

"Intatheli yamagqala ophando uCarey Gillam uxelela ibali likaJohnson kwincwadi yakhe yamva nje," Amaphepha eMonsanto, "ingxelo ekhawulezayo, ebandakanyekayo yendlela iMonsanto kunye neBayer ithamsanqa elitshintshe kakhulu ngexesha elifutshane. Ngaphandle komcimbi oxandileyo - inzululwazi kunye neenkqubo zomthetho- "Amaphepha eMonsanto" kukufundwa okubambekayo okunika inkcazo ekulula ukuyilandela yendlela esi simangalo esenzeka ngayo, indlela abagwebi abasifikelela ngayo isigwebo sabo nokuba kutheni iBayer ibonakala ngathi, , ngoku ndiphakamisa iflegi emhlophe. ” - ISt. Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha ityala elikholisayo lokuba iMonsanto yayinomdla wokukhusela igama lenkomo yayo kunokuthobela ubungqina benzululwazi beempawu zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeleni ngemiba entsonkothileyo yabantu abasemthethweni, nto leyo yongeza ubuntununtunu bebali likaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyazisiweyo kombutho ekubonakala ukuba awuyikhathalelanga impilo yoluntu. ” - Kirkus

“UGillam ubalisa ngomzuzu wokuthatha uxanduva kunye nequmrhu elikhulu elineemveliso ezithengiswa njengezikhuselekileyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970. Njengoluvavanyo lwezinto ezigwenxa kwezorhwebo kunye nokuziphatha okusemthethweni kwiimeko zamatyala, incwadi kaGillam ichaza isidingo sokhuseleko lwabathengi nokhuseleko. ” Uluhlu lweencwadi

“Kufundwe kakuhle, ukujika iphepha. Ndandixheleke ngenkohliso, ukugqwethwa, kunye nokuswela isimilo kwenkampani. ” -U-Linda S. Birnbaum, owayenguMlawuli, iZiko leSizwe lezeNzululwazi ngezeMpilo kunye neNkqubo yeSizwe yeToxicology, kunye noMfundi wase Residence, kwiDuke University.

Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto kunye nabanye ekungakhange kubanjwe ixesha elide kubo!
-UJohn Boyd Jr., uMseki kunye noMongameli, uMbutho weSizwe wamaFama abaMnyama

Malunga uMbhali

Intatheli yophando uCarey Gillam uchithe ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 enika ingxelo kwimanyano yaseMelika, kubandakanya neminyaka eli-17 esebenzela iarhente yeendaba zamanye amazwe. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, iWhitewash: Ibali loMbulali wokhula, umhlaza, kunye noRhwaphilizo lwezeNzululwazi, uphumelele i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award kuMbutho Wezintatheli Zokusingqongileyo kwaye ubeyinxalenye yekharityhulamu kwizifundo zempilo zaseyunivesithi ezininzi. iinkqubo. UGillam kungoku nje nguMlawuli woPhando weqela labathengi elingenzi nzuzo e-US Ilungelo Lokwazi kwaye ubhala njengegalelo Guardian.

Intloko yeBayer's Monsanto iyaqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imigraine iMonsanto ayibonakali ngathi iyahamba nanini na kwiBayer AG.

Imizamo yokusombulula ubunzima bamatyala aziswe e-United States ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi i-Roundup herbicides kaMonsanto ibanike umhlaza uqhubeke nokuqhubela phambili, kodwa abajongani nawo onke amatyala angekahlawulwa, kwaye bonke abamangali abaniki ndawo yokuhlala.

In ileta eya kwiJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria, Igqwetha laseArizona uDavid Diamond uthe ukumelwa okwenziwe ngamagqwetha kukhokelela kwiingxoxo zokuhlala kunye neBayer egameni labamangali akubonakalisi ngokuchanekileyo imeko yabathengi bakhe. Ucacisile "ukunqongophala" "kwamava ahambelana nokuhlala" kunye neBayer kwaye wacela ukuba iJaji uChhabria iqhubele phambili amatyala aliqela eDiamond ukulingwa.

“Ubumeli beenkokheli malunga nemeko yokuhlala abubonakalisi ukuhlinzekwa kwabaxumi bam
amava ahambelana nawo, umdla okanye isikhundla, ”utshilo uDiamond kwijaji.

UDiam ubhale kule leta ukuba unabathengi abangama-423 abajikelezayo, kubandakanya nabangama-345 abanamatyala asalindiweyo phambi kweChhabria kwizimangalo ezininzi (MDL) kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla eCalifornia. Ecaleni kwe-MDL kukho amawaka abamangali amatyala abo asalindelwe kwiinkundla zikarhulumente.

Ukufikelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandelwe ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngasekupheleni kwenyanga ephelileyo apho uninzi lweefemu ezikhokelayo kwisimangalo kunye namagqwetha ka-Bayer axelele u-Chhabria ukuba bakufutshane ekusombululeni uninzi, ukuba ayingawo onke, amatyala aphambi kwejaji.

I-Bayer ifikelele kwiindawo zokuhlala ezibalulekileyo kunye neenkampani ezininzi zomthetho ezikhokelayo ezimele isabelo esikhulu samabango aziswe eMonsanto. NgoJuni, uBayer wathi uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo.

Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kweendawo zokuhlala.

Abamangali abaliqela ababemelwe ziifemu ezinkulu kwaye babethetha phantsi kwemiqathango yokuba amagama abo angasetyenziswa, bathi abavumelani nemigaqo yokuhlala, oko kuthetha ukuba amatyala abo aza kujoliswa kulamlo kwaye, ukuba oko kuyasilela, kuvavanyo.

Emva kokuthenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, iBayer ibisokola ukufumana indlela yokuphelisa isimangalo esibandakanya ngaphezulu kwe-100,000 yabamangali. Inkampani ilahlekelwe zizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebezibanjiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye ilahle umjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla umngcipheko.

Iinzame zenkampani zokusombulula isimangalo ziye zacaciswa ngokuyinxalenye ngumceli mngeni wendlela yokuphelisa amabango anokuziswa kwikamva ngabantu abaphuhlisa umhlaza emva kokusebenzisa iyeza lenkampani.

Iingxaki Zigcine Ukunyuka

I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile ukuba ingabinayo imali ukuba ayinakuphelisa ityala le-Roundup kwaye ngolwesiThathu inkampani ikhuphe isilumkiso senzuzo kwaye yabhengeza iibhiliyoni zokunciphisa iindleko, icacisa "umbono ophantsi kunoko bekulindelwe kwintengiso yezolimo" phakathi kwezinye izinto. Iindaba zithumele izabelo kwinkampani yokuwa.

Ekuxeleni iingxaki zikaBayer IBarron iqaphele: "Ingxaki zihlala zisiba nkulu kuBayer nakubatyali zimali, ekufuneka kuthi ngoku basebenzise ukungxola kweendaba ezidanisayo. Isitokhwe ngoku sele siwile ngaphezulu kwe-50% ukusukela oko isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Olu hlaziyo lwamva nje longeza kuphela kwimeko yesivumelwano seMonsanto sesinye sezona zimbi kwimbali yequmrhu."

Uvavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup lusoyikiso kwi-Bayer, kodwa iintetho zokuhlala ziqhubeka

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amagqwetha omnini weMonsanto uBayer AG kunye nabamangaleli abamangalela uMonsanto baxelele ijaji yomdibaniselwano ngoLwesine ukuba bayaqhubeka nokwenza inkqubela phambili ekusombululeni amatyala kwilizwe lonke aziswe ngabantu abathi ibango likaMonsanto Roundup libangele ukuba babe nomhlaza.

Kwindibano yevidiyo, igqwetha laseBayer uWilliam Hoffman uxelele iJaji yeSithili sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuba inkampani ifikelele kwizivumelwano-okanye isondele ekufikeleleni kwizivumelwano-ukusombulula ngaphezulu kwama-3,000 amatyala adityanisiweyo kwizimangalo (MDL) ezifakwe kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US. iSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia.

Inkampani ngokwahlukeneyo sele ixazulule amawaka amatyala ngaphandle kwe-MDL, amatyala aqhubeka kwiinkundla zikarhulumente. Kodwa impikiswano kunye nembambano ziye zanyanzelisa ukunikezelwa kwetyala lonke, ngezityholo zabanye babenzi bommangali ukuba iBayer ibuyile kwizivumelwano ezifikelelwe kwiinyanga ezidlulileyo, kwaye ezinye iinkampani zabamangali abafuni kuvuma koko bakubona kungonelanga ukunikwa yiBayer.

Kwakungekho ngxoxo malunga nezikhalazo, nangona kunjalo, kwindibano yangoLwesine, omabini amacala evakalisa izimvo ezinethemba.

“Inkampani ihambele phambili yagqiba izivumelwano ezininzi namafemu…. Sikwathemba nokuba sizokugqibezela izivumelwano kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”utshilo uHoffman kwijaji.

“Apho sikhoyo ngoku… la manani ngandlela ithile aqikelelwa kodwa ndicinga ukuba asondele ngokufanelekileyo: Kukho amatyala ayi-1,750 aphantsi kwezivumelwano phakathi kwenkampani kunye neefemu zomthetho kunye namanye amatyala ayi-1,850 ukuya kwi-1,900 akumanqanaba ngamanqanaba engxoxo ngoku, ”utshilo uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukubeka inkqubo yokukhawulezisa iingxoxo kwaye ngethemba lokuzisa izivumelwano kwiziqhamo kunye nala mafemu."

Igqwetha labamangali u-Brent Wisner uxelele ijaji ukuba kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba kusekho "amatyala ambalwa" ngaphakathi kwi-MDL engekagqitywa okwangoku. Kodwa, uthe - "Sinethemba lokuba bazokufika kungekudala."

Ujaji Chhabria uthe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili uzakuqhubeka nokuhlala kwetyala leRoundup kude kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uyakuqala ukuhambisa amatyala ukuba angagqitywanga ngelo xesha.

Ukujongana kakubi neBayer

Imvakalo-zwi yentsebenziswano evakaliswe kwityala langoLwesine yayiyinto ekude nengxoxo eyayibanjwe kwinyanga ephelileyo xa igqwetha labamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  uxelele uJaji Chhabria ukuba iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokulungisa ezenziwe ngo-Matshi kwaye zenzelwe ukugqitywa ngoJulayi.

I-Bayer ibhengeze ngoJuni ukuba ifikelele kwi-10 yezigidi zeedola zokuhlala kunye neefemu zomthetho zase-US ukusombulula uninzi lwamabango omhlaza we-Roundup ayi-100,000. Kodwa ngelo xesha ekuphela kweefemu ezinkulu zomthetho ezazikhokela isimangalo esinezivumelwano zokugqibela ezisayinwe neBayer yayiyiMiller Firm kunye neWeitz kunye neLuxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifikelela kwi-849 yezigidi zeedola ukugubungela amabango e-5,000 ye-Roundup abathengi, ngokwamaxwebhu okuhlawula.

Isekwe eCalifornia IBaum Hedlund Aristei kunye neGoldman ifemu yomthetho; i UAndrus Wagstaff ifemi evela eColorado; kwaye i Iqela le-Moore Law I-Kentucky yayineentengiselwano zokuzama kodwa hayi izivumelwano zokugqibela.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe kwinkundla, uBayer ucele ukwandiswa kaninzi de isivumelwano sakhe siwile phakathi ku-Agasti. Emva kokuxela imicimbi kuJaji Chhabria, iingxoxo zokuhlala zaphinda zaqala kwaye zazikho Ekugqibeleni isonjululwe ziifemu ezintathu kule nyanga.

Ezinye iinkcukacha lendawo yokuhlala iya kwenziwa bagcwaliswa ekuqaleni kwale veki kwinkundla yaseMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., esenza ushishino njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, iya kusebenza njenge
"Umlawuli weSigqibo seLinye, ” umzekelo, kubaxumi bakaAndrus Wagstaff ekufuneka iidola zokuhlala kuzo zisetyenziswe ngokuyinxenye okanye zizonke ukuhlawula iindleko zonyango lomhlaza ezihlawulwe yiMedicare.

I-Bayer ithenge iMonsanto kwi-2018 kanye njengoko ulingo lokuqala lomhlaza we-Roundup lwalusaqhubeka. Sele ilahlekile zontathu ezi zilingo zintathu zabanjwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye yaphulukana nomjikelo wokuqala wezibheno ezifuna ukuguqula ilahleko zetyala. Amajele kuvavanyo ngalunye kuvavanyo afumanise ukuba i-Monsanto's herbicides ibangela umhlaza kwaye uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla ingozi.

Amabhaso ejaji afikelele ngaphaya kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi, nangona izigwebo ziye zayalelwa ukuba zincitshiswe lityala kunye nezibheno zenkundla.

U-Bayer wayesongele ngokufaka ifayile yokutshatyalaliswa ukuba akukho lali lizwe lifikileyo, ngokonxibelelwano Ukusuka kumashishini wabamangali ukuya kubathengi babo.

IGlyphosate kwimbungu yenkukhu esetyenziswa njengesichumiso yonakalisa imveliso yokutya, abaphandi bathi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Izazinzulu zizise ezinye iindaba ezimbi ngokubhekisele kwi-herbicide glyphosate, eyaziwa ngokuba yiRoundup, kwiphepha elitsha lophando elipapashwe kule nyanga.

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseTurku eFinland ityhilwe ephepheni papashwe kwincwadi  Inzululwazi Yendalo Engqongileyo iyonke ukuba umgquba ovela kwiinkuku ezisetyenziswa njengesichumisi unganciphisa isivuno sezityalo xa umgquba uqukethe iintsalela zemichiza yokutshabalalisa ukhula esekwe eglyphosate, efana neRoundup. Izichumisi zenzelwe ukonyusa imveliso yezityalo, ke ubungqina bokuba iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuba neziphumo ezichaseneyo zibalulekile.

Inkunkuma yenkukhu, njengoko ibizwa njalo umgquba, ihlala isetyenziswa njengesichumisi, kubandakanywa nezolimo eziphilayo, kuba ithathwa njengezityebile kwizakhamzimba eziyimfuneko. Ukusetyenziswa kwenkunkuma yenkuku njengesichumisi bekukhula kokubini kwezolimo kunye nokulima kunye nezitiya zasekhaya.

Ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kukhula, “umngcipheko onokubakho onxulunyaniswa nokuqokelelwa kwe-agrochemicals kumgquba weenkukhu usahoywa kakhulu,” balumkisa abaphandi baseFinland.

Amafama e-organic aye akhula exhalabile malunga nomkhondo we-glyphosate kwisichumiso somgquba esivunyelwe kwimveliso yezinto eziphilayo, kodwa uninzi kolu shishino aluthandabuzi ukwazisa lo mbandela.

Amafama atshiza i-glyphosate ngokuthe ngqo kwinani lezityalo ezikhuliswe kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya iimbotyi zesoya, umbona, umqhaphu, i-canola kunye nezinye izityalo ezenzelwe ufuzo ukumelana nonyango lwe-glyphosate. Bahlala betshiza ngokuthe ngqo izityalo ezifana nengqolowa kunye ne-oats, ezingafakwanga ngokwemfuza- kwakamsinya phambi kokuvuna ukomisa izityalo.

Ngenxa yemiyinge yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate-based esetyenziselwa ukunyanga izityalo ezisetyenziswa ekutyeni kwezilwanyana, kunye nomthamo womgquba osetyenziswayo njengesichumisi, "kufanele ukuba siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lomngcipheko lukhona," utshilo omnye wababhali. yokufunda, u-Anne Muola.

Akukho mntu ubonakala enomdla wokuthetha kakhulu malunga nayo. ” Muola uqaphele.

Ukusetyenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate herbicides ngokuthe ngqo kwizityalo zokutya kukhuthazwe yiMonsanto - ngoku iyunithi yeBayer AG - ukusukela nge1990s, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwe-glyphosate kuxhaphake kangangokuba iintsalela zihlala zifumaneka ekutyeni, emanzini nakwiisampulu zomoya.

Kuba kukho iintsalela zeglyphosate kukutya kwabantu nakwizilwanyana, amanqanaba e-glyphosate anokufunyanwa kumchamo womntu nakwimanyolo yezilwanyana.

Ezi ntsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumiso ziyingxaki kubalimi ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, ngokutsho kwabaphandi baseFinland.

"Sifumanise ukuba umgquba weenkukhu unokuqokelela intsalela ephezulu (ye-glyphosate-based herbicides), unciphise ukukhula kwezityalo kunye nokuzala, kwaye ke kuthintele ukukhula okunyusa ukukhula komgquba xa usetyenziswa njengesichumiso," latsho iphepha. "Ezi ziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela idlula kwinkqubo yokuhlafunisisa kweentaka, kwaye okona kubaluleke kakhulu, iyaqhubeka isichumiso ixesha elide."

Abaphandi bathi iintsalela zeglyphosate zinokuqhubeka kwiinkqubo zendalo, zichaphazela izinto ezininzi ekungajoliswanga kuzo kwiminyaka emininzi.

Iziphumo, bathi, zibandakanya ukunciphisa ukusebenza komgquba njengesichumisi; ukungcoliseka kweherbicide esekwe kwi-glyphosate esekwe kwimijikelezo yezolimo; Ungcoliseko "olungalawulwayo" lweglyphosate yemimandla engajoliswanga kuyo; ukwanda kwesoyikiso "kwizinto ezisemngciphekweni ekungajoliswanga kuzo," kunye nomngcipheko okhulayo wokuxhathisa okuvela kwi-glyphosate.

Abaphandi bathi kufuneka kwenziwe uphando oluninzi ukuveza ubungakanani bokungcoliseka kwe-glyphosate kwizichumiso zezinto eziphilayo kunye nendlela echaphazela ngayo uzinzo.

Uphando lwaseFinland longeza kubungqina bobungozi bezintsalela zeglyphosate kwisichumisi, ngokweengcali zezolimo.

"Iimpembelelo zentsalela ye-glyphosate ethe yaqokelelwa kwilindle leenkuku yindawo engakhathalelwanga," utshilo isazinzulu somhlaba iRodale Institute, uGqirha Yichao Rui. “Kodwa oluphi uphando olwenziweyo lubonakalisile ukuba ezo ntsalela zinganefuthe elibi kwizityalo, ukuba umgquba weenkukhu wawusetyenziswa njengesichumiso. Intsalela yeGlyphosate kwizichumisi ibonakalisiwe ukuba ineziphumo ezibi kwizityalo, ii-microbiomes zomhlaba, kunye neentsholongwane ezinxulunyaniswa nezityalo kunye nezilwanyana kubandakanya nabantu kwikhonkco lokutya. Xa olu tshintsho lusasazwa ngabom ngesichumiso, lubeka uxinzelelo olukhulu kwimisebenzi nakwiinkonzo zendalo. ”

Ehlabathini lonke i-9.4 yezigidi zeetoni yeglyphosate Utshiziwe emasimini- ngokwaneleyo ukutshiza phantse isiqingatha sephawundi yeRoundup kuwo onke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.

Ngo-2015, i-Arhente yeHlabathi yezeMpilo yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) I-glyphosate echaziweyo njenge-mhlawumbi i-carcinogenic ebantwini”Emva kokuphonononga iminyaka yophando kunye nophengululo olwenziwe ngontanga. Iqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe aphesheya lafumanisa ukuba kukho umbutho othile phakathi kwe-glyphosate kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amashumi amawaka abantu eUnited States abaphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ndimangalele uMonsanto, kwaye kwizilingo ezintathu ezigcinwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amajaji afumanise ukuba inkampani ye-glyphosate herbicides ibekwasizathu sokubangela umhlaza.

Ukongeza, i Uluhlu lwezifundo zezilwanyana kukhutshwa kweli hlobo kubonisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwe-glyphosate kunefuthe kumalungu okuzala kwaye kunokusongela ukuzala, kongeze ubungqina obutsha bokuba iarhente yokubulala ukhula inokuba ukuphazamisa i-endocrine. Ukuphazamiseka kwemichiza kwe-Endocrine kunokulinganisa okanye kuphazamise iihomoni zomzimba kwaye kunxulunyaniswa nengxaki zokukhula kunye nokuzala kunye nengqondo kunye nokungasebenzi komzimba.

Indoda eswelekileyo icela iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ukuba ibuyisele ibhaso lejaji kwityala leMonsanto Roundup

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Umgcini wesikolo ophumelele ityala lokuqala ngqa kwizityholo zokuba uMonsanto's Roundup ubangela umhlaza ucela iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia ukuba ibuyisele i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo wanikezelwa yijaji owaliva ityala lakhe kodwa inkundla yesibheno yaxhwitha i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Ngokuqaphelekayo, isibheno sommangali uDewayne "Lee" Johnson sinefuthe elikhulu kunakwityala lakhe. Igqwetha likaJohnson libongoza inkundla ukuba ijongane nengxaki yomthetho enokuthi ishiye abantu abanjengoJohnson abajamelene nokusweleka kwixesha elikufutshane benomvuzo ophantsi kunabanye kulindeleke ukuba baphile iminyaka emininzi besezintlungwini nasezintlungwini.

“Kudala-dala ukuba iinkundla zaseCalifornia ziqonde, njengokuba ezinye iinkundla zisenza, ubomi buxabisekile kwaye abo baphanga ummangali iminyaka yobomi kufuneka benziwe bahlawulise ummangali kwaye bohlwaywe ngokufanelekileyo,” amagqwetha kaJohnson babhale kwisicelo sabo Ukujongwa ngokutsha kwenkundla ephakamileyo. "Ijaji ichaze ixabiso elinentsingiselo kubomi bukaMnu. Johnson, kwaye ngenxa yoko unombulelo. Ucela le Nkundla ukuba ihloniphe isigqibo sejaji kwaye ibuyise elo xabiso. ”

Ijaji evumelekileyo efunyenwe ngo-Agasti 2018 yokuba ukuvezwa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides, eyaziwa kakhulu ngegama le-Roundup, yabangela uJohnson ukuba aphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji yafumanisa ukuba iMonsanto yenze into yokufihla umngcipheko weemveliso zayo ngokuziphatha kakubi kangangokuba inkampani kufuneka ihlawule uJohnson i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 39 yezigidi kwixa elidlulileyo nelizayo.

Emva kwesibheno esivela eMonsanto, esathengwa yinkampani yaseJamani iBayer AG kwi-2018, ijaji yetyala yehlisa i-289 yezigidi zeedola ukuya kwizigidi ezingama-78 zeedola. IMonsanto ibhenele ukufuna ityala elitsha okanye ibhaso elincitshisiweyo. UJohnson wenza isibheno efuna ukubuyiselwa kumvuzo wakhe opheleleyo.

Inkundla yezibheno kwityala emva koko yasika ibhaso kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, icacisa into yokuba uJohnson wayekulindeleke ukuba aphile ixesha elifutshane.

Inkundla yezibheno yalinciphisa ibhaso lomonakalo ngaphandle kokufumana Kwakukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson kwaye "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson uhluphekile, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokuhlupheka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka. ”

Ityala likaJohnson laligqunywe ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye beka obala kwimizamo kaMonsanto yokusebenzisa irekhodi yesayensi kwi-glyphosate kunye ne-Roundup kunye neenzame zayo zokuthula abagxeki kunye nefuthe labalawuli. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Ukuphumelela kwetyala likaJohnson kukhuthaze ukufayiliswa ngamashumi amawaka ezomthetho ezongezelelweyo. IMonsanto yaphulukana nezilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ngaphambi kokuba ivumelane ngoJuni ukuba ihlawule ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawula kufutshane ne-100,000 yamabango anje.

Indawo yokuhlala yile usaqhubeka, Nangona kunjalo, njengoko iBayer ilwa nendlela yokuthintela ukumangala kwixesha elizayo.

Kudliwanondlebe, uJohnson wathi uyazi ukuba umlo osemthethweni noMonsanto ungaqhubeka kangangeminyaka emininzi kodwa wayezimisele ukuzama ukubamba inkampani ukuba iphendule. Uye wakwazi ukugcina ukugula kwakhe kujongiwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ngonyango lwe-chemotherapy kunye nonyango lwemitha, kodwa akaqinisekanga ukuba iya kuqhubeka ixesha elingakanani.

"Andicingi ukuba nasiphi na isixa besinokwanela ukohlwaya loo nkampani," utshilo uJohnson.

Inkundla yezibheno iyayikhaba imali iMonsanto yokuphinda umiselwe ityala

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Inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia ngoLwesibini yalahla iMonsanto Umzamo wokunciphisa i-4 yezigidi ukusuka kwisixa semali esityala umgcini-ndawo waseCalifornia osokolayo ukusinda umhlaza ofunyenwe yijaji yabangelwa kukuvezwa komntu kwiMoldanto's Roundup herbicides.

Inkundla yezibheno yeSithili sokuQala seZibheno saseCalifornia ikwasikhaba isicelo senkampani sokuphinda umanyelwe lo mbandela. Isigqibo senkundla silandele isigwebo saso kwinyanga ephelileyo Ukubetha iMonsanto  ngokukhanyela ukomelela kobungqina bokuba ababulali bayo bokhula olusisiseko se-glyphosate babangela umhlaza. Kweso sigwebo sangoJulayi, inkundla yathi ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson unike ubungqina “obuninzi” bokuba umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ubangele umhlaza wakhe. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa," inkundla yezibheno yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJulayi.

Kweso sigqibo ukusukela kwinyanga ephelileyo, inkundla yezibheno yenze njalo, isike isinxephezelo somonakalo esityala uJohnson, eyalela uMonsanto ukuba ahlawule i-20.5 yezigidi zeedola, ezantsi ukusuka kwi-78 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa ngumgwebi wetyala kwaye yehla kwi-289 yezigidi zeedola eyalelwa yijaji eyagqiba isigqibo sikaJohnson Ityala ngo-Agasti 2018.

Ukongeza kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola iMonsanto etyala uJohnson, inkampani iyalelwa ukuba ihlawule i-519,000 yeedola kwiindleko.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe nguBayer AG kwi2018, yayinayo ibongoza inkundla ukusika ibhaso kuJohnson ukuya kwi- $ 16.5 yezigidi.

Isigqibo seDicamba simi ngokunjalo

Isigqibo senkundla yangoLwesibini silandele a Isigqibo esikhutshwe ngoMvulo yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba iphika ukuphinda kuqhutywe isigqibo senkundla kaJuni shiya imvume yemveliso yokubulala ukhula esekwe dicamba Bayer ezuzwe njengelifa kwiMonsanto. Isigwebo sikaJuni sikwaphelise ngokufanelekileyo i-dicamba-based herbicides eyenziwe yi-BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience.

Iinkampani zaye zacela iqela elibanzi leejaji kwiijaji zesekethe zeThoba ukuba liziqhelanise neli tyala, zisithi isigqibo sokurhoxisa ukwamkelwa kolawulo lweemveliso sasingalunganga. Kodwa inkundla yasikhaba ngaw 'omane eso sicelo.

Kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni, iSekethe yethoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

Isigqibo senkundla sokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani sabangela isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa yiMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba iinkampani ezintathu. Ngokufana ne "Roundup Ready" izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo, izityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba zivumela amafama ukuba afafaze i-dicamba ngaphezulu kwamasimi abo ukubulala ukhula ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo.

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo sangoJuni.

Abanye babamangali baseMelika basilele ekusayineni isivumelwano sokuhlala eBayer; I-160,000 yeedola zokuhlawula

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Abamangali kwi-US Roundup litigation baqala ukufunda iinkcukacha zento Bayer AG's $ 10 yezigidigidi ukuhlawulwa kwamabango omhlaza okunene kuthetha kubo ngokwahlukeneyo, kwaye abanye abayithandi into abayibonayo.

Bayer yatsho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni Kuthethathethwane ngokuhlala kunye neenkampani ezininzi zabammangali kwisivumelwano esiza kuvala ngokufanelekileyo isambuku semali engaphezulu kwe-100,000 esalindelwe ngokuchasene neMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngo-2018. Ukuvezwa kukaMonsanto's Roundup kunye namanye amayeza okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-glyphosate, kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko.

Ngelixa isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengeendaba ezimnandi kubamangali-abanye abanengxaki yokunyanga umhlaza kunye nabanye abammangalela abatshatileyo abaswelekileyo- uninzi lufumanisa ukuba lunokuphela lungenamali, kuxhomekeke kuluhlu izinto. Iifemu zamagqwetha, nangona kunjalo, zinokufaka ipokotho kumakhulu ezigidi zeedola.

“Yimpumelelo kumashishini ezomthetho kunye nempama ebusweni babantu abonzakeleyo” utshilo omnye ummangali, ongafunanga kuchazwa ngegama.

Abamangali baxelelwa ukuba kufuneka bathathe isigqibo kwezi veki zimbalwa zizayo ukuba bazokwamkela indawo yokuhlala, nangona bengazi ukuba bazakuhlawulwa malini kude kube kamva. Zonke iintengiselwano zentengiselwano ziyalela abamangali ukuba bangathethi esidlangalaleni malunga neenkcukacha, bebasongela ngesohlwayo ukuba baxoxa ngokuhlala kunye nabani na ngaphandle "kwamalungu osapho asondeleyo" okanye umcebisi wezezimali.

Oku kubacaphukisile abanye abathi bacinga ukwala iindawo zokuhlala ngenjongo yokufuna ezinye iinkampani zomthetho ukuba zijongane namabango abo. Le ntatheli iwajongisisile amaxwebhu athunyelwe kubamangali abaninzi.

Kwabo bavumayo, iintlawulo zinokwenziwa kwangoko ngoFebruwari, nangona inkqubo yokuhlawula bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuba yolule unyaka okanye nangaphezulu. Ezonxibelelwano ezithunyelwe zivela kumafemu ezomthetho ziye kubathengi bazo beRoundup zizo zombini inkqubo yomntu ngamnye ohlaselwe ngumhlaza kuya kufuneka ehambile ukuze afumane intlawulo yemali kunye nokuba ezo ntlawulo zinokufikelela phi. Imigaqo yeentengiselwano iyahluka kumzi-mveliso wamagqwetha, oko kuthetha ukuba abamangali abemi ngokufanayo banokuphelela kwiindawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala ngathi sisinye ekuxoxiswene ngaso Ifemi yeMiller, Kwaye ke kuyadanisa abanye babaxhasi benkampani. Ekunxibelelaneni nabathengi, inkampani yathi ikwazile ukuxoxa malunga ne-849 yezigidi zeedola ukusuka eBayer ukugubungela amabango abathengi abangaphezulu kwe-5,000 Roundup. Ifemi iqikelela ixabiso lokuhlawula umtyali ngamnye kumyinge wama- $ 160,000. Elo xabiso lipheleleyo liya kuncitshiswa ngokuncitshiswa kweefizi zamagqwetha kunye neendleko.

Nangona iifizi zamagqwetha zinokwahluka ngokuqina kunye nommangali, uninzi kwityala leRoundup lihlawulisa iipesenti ezingama-30-40 kwimirhumo engxamisekileyo.

Ukuze bakulungele ukuhlala, abamangali kufuneka babe neerekhodi zonyango ezixhasa ukuxilongwa kweentlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye bakwazi ukubonisa ukuba bavezwa ubuncinci unyaka ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isifo.

I-Firm yaseMiller ibiphambili kwityala leRoundup ukusukela ekuqaleni, ifumana uninzi lwamaxwebhu agwenxa angaphakathi eMonsanto ancede aphumelela kuzo zontathu izilingo zeRoundup ezibanjiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. IMiller Firm iphathe ezibini kwezo zilingo, isizisa amagqwetha avela kwinkampani yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman ukunceda kwityala  UDewayne "Lee" Johnson emva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller enzakaliswe kabuhlungu kwingozi kanye phambi kwetyala. Ezi femu zimbini zisebenze kunye ekuphumeleleni ityala labamangali bendoda nomfazi, Alva kunye neAlberta Pilliod. UJohnson wanikwa i-289 yezigidi zeedola kwaye ii-Pilliods zanikwa ngaphezulu kwe- $ 2 yezigidigidi nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba amabhaso.

Kwangoko kulenyanga, inkundla yezibheno eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isigwebo sikaJohnson, elawula ukuba kukho ubungqina "obuninzi" bokuba iimveliso zeRoundup zibangele umhlaza kaJohnson kodwa zinciphisa ibhaso likaJohnson ukuya kwizigidi ezingama- $ 20.5. Izibheno zisalindelwe kwezinye izigwebo ezibini ezichasene neMonsanto.

Ukufumana amanqaku kwabamangali

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngakanani na ummangali ngamnye afumana ukusuka ekuhlaleni kunye neBayer, umlawuli weqela lesithathu uya kunika amanqaku umntu ngamnye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kummangali ngamnye ophuhlileyo; ubudala bommangali ekuchongeni isifo; ubuzaza bomhlaza womntu kunye nobungakanani bonyango abalunyamezeleyo; ezinye izinto ezinobungozi; kunye nenani lokuvezwa kwabo kwiMonsanto herbicides.

Inye into yokuhlaliswa kwabantu ebambe uninzi lwabamangali bengafundanga yayikukufunda ukuba abo ekugqibeleni bafumana imali eBayer kuya kufuneka basebenzise imali yabo ukubuyisa inxenye yeendleko zonyango lwabo lomhlaza olwalugutyungelwe yiMedicare okanye i-inshurensi yabucala. Ngonyango oluthile lomhlaza oluya kumakhulu amawaka kunye nakwizigidi zeedola, oko kunokucima ngokukhawuleza intlawulo yommangali. Iifemu zomthetho zidwelise iikontraka zomntu wesithathu eziza kuthetha-thethana nabanikezeli ngeinshurensi ukuba bafune imbuyekezo ngezaphulelo, baxelelwa. Ngokwesiqhelo kolu hlobo lokumangalelwa ngobuninzi, loo malungelo onyango angancitshiswa kakhulu, utshilo iifemu zomthetho.

Kwicala elinye lesivumelwano esamkelweyo ngummangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziya kwakhiwa ukunqanda uxanduva lwerhafu, ngokolwazi olunikwe ababamangali.

Umngcipheko wokungahlali

Iifemu zamagqwetha kufuneka zifumane uninzi lwabamangali ukuba bavumelane nemimiselo yeendawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwengcaciso enikezelwe kubamangali, iindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa ngoku ngenxa yenani lomngcipheko onxulumene nokuqhubeka nokulandela izilingo ezongezelelweyo. Phakathi kwemingcipheko echongiweyo:

  • I-Bayer isoyikisile ngokufaka kwifayile njengongenamali, kwaye ukuba inkampani iyithathile loo ndlela, ukusombulula amabango e-Roundup kuya kuthatha ixesha elide kwaye ekugqibeleni kungakhokelela kwimali encinci yabamangali.
  • I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) wakhupha incwadi ku-Agasti ophelileyo uxelele uMonsanto ukuba iarhente ayizukuvumela isilumkiso somhlaza kwiRoundup. Oko kunceda ikamva likaMonsanto lokuphumelela enkundleni.
  • Ulibaziseko lwenkundla enxulumene no-Covid kuthetha ukuba izilingo ezongezelelweyo ze-Roundup akunakulindeleka ukuba zonyaka okanye nangaphezulu.

Ayisiyonto ingaqhelekanga ukuba abamangali abachophele amatyala amakhulu bahambe bedanile nangona bezibonakala ngathi zinkulu iindawo ekuxoxiswene ngazo kumatyala abo. Incwadi ye2019 "IiNtsebenzo zoThutho oluNinzi: Ukuxoxisana kwigumbi elingasemva kwi-Multidistrict Litigation”NguElizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo wezoMthetho u-Fuller E. Callaway kwiYunivesithi yaseGeorgia, wenza imeko yokuba ukunqongophala kweetsheki kunye nemali ezilinganayo kwizityholo zolwaphulo-mthetho zinika phantse wonke umntu obandakanyekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ucaphula njengomzekelo wokumangalela i-asidi-reflux yeyeza iPropulsid, wathi ufumanise ukuba kwabamangali abangama-6,012 abangena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula, ngama-37 kuphela afumana imali. Abanye abafumani ntlawulo kodwa sele bevumile ukuwachasa amatyala abo njengemeko yokungena kwinkqubo yokuhlawula. Abamangali abangama-37 ngokudibeneyo bafumene ngaphezulu kweedola eziyi-6.5 yezigidi (phantse i-175,000 yeedola nganye kwi-avareji), ngelixa iifemu zomthetho ezikhokelayo zabamangali zifumene i-27 yezigidi zeedola, ngokweBurch,

Ukubeka bucala ukuba ngawaphi na abamangali abanokuthi okanye abangayi kuhamba nawo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho kufutshane nesimangalo seRoundup bathi kulunge ngakumbi ukufezekiswa kokungalunganga komanyano nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobungqina obuye bavela ngenxa yesimangalo ngamaxwebhu angaphakathi eMonsanto abonisa ukuba inkampani yenze uxwebhu lokupapashwa kwamaphepha enzululwazi abonakala ngobuxoki ukuba enziwe kuphela zizazinzulu ezizimeleyo; Inkxaso mali, kunye nokusebenzisana, amaqela angaphambili abesetyenziselwa ukuzama ukunyelisa izazinzulu ezixela ukwenzakala ngamayeza okubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; kunye nokusebenzisana namagosa athile ngaphakathi kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ukukhusela kunye nokukhuthaza isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuba iimveliso zayo azibanga ngumhlaza.

Amazwe aliqela kwihlabathi liphela, kunye noorhulumente basekhaya kunye nezithili zesikolo, baye bafudukela ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kunye / okanye ezinye izibulali-zinambuzane ngenxa yokutyhilwa kwetyala leRoundup.

(Ibali laqala ukuvela Iindaba zezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo.)

Inkundla yezibheno ixhasa izizathu zovavanyo lomhlaza we-Roundup ophumelele iMonsanto

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngenye ilahleko yenkundla kumnini weMonsanto uBayer AG, inkundla yezibheno yala umzamo wenkampani wokubhukuqa uloyiso lwetyala olungafakwanga ngumgcini wesikolo saseCalifornia otyhola ukubhencwa kwimichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane eMonsanto yabangela ukuba abe nomhlaza, nangona inkundla yathi umonakalo kufuneka ube yinqumle kwi-20.5 yezigidi zeedola.

Inkundla yeziBheno yesiThili sokuqala seZibheno eCalifornia utshilo uMvulo ukuba iimpikiswano zikaMonsanto zazingacacanga kwaye uDewayne “Lee” Johnson wayenelungelo lokuqokelela i-10.25 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye nezinye i-10.25 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayo. Oko kuhla kwisimbuku se-78 yezigidi zeedola ijaji yetyala ivumelekile.

"Ngokokubona kwethu, uJohnson wabonisa ubungqina obuninzi-kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo bukhulu- bokuba i-glyphosate, kunye nezinye izithako kwimveliso yeRoundup, yabangela umhlaza wakhe," yatsho inkundla. "Ingcali emva kokuba ingcali inike ubungqina bobabini ukuba iimveliso zeRoundup ziyakwazi ukubangela i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... kwaye yabangela umhlaza kaJohnson ngokukodwa."

Inkundla iphinde yaqaphela ukuba "kwabakho ubungqina obugqithisileyo bokuba uJohnson wabandezeleka, kwaye uzakuqhubeka nokubandezeleka ubomi bakhe bonke, iintlungu kunye nokubandezeleka."

Inkundla yathi impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuba iziphumo zesayensi malunga nokunxibelelana kwe-glyphosate nomhlaza zenza "umbono omncinci" awuxhaswanga.

Ngokukodwa, inkundla yezibheno yongeze ukuba isohlwayo somonakalo sasikhona ngenxa yokuba kwakukhona ubungqina obaneleyo bokuba uMonsanto wenza "ngabom nangokungakhathaleli ukhuseleko lwabanye."

UMike Miller, ogama lakhe laseVirginia lalimela uJohnson etyaleni kunye neBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles, wathi wayevuyiswa kukuqinisekiswa kwenkundla ukuba uJohnson uhlaselwe ngumhlaza ekusebenziseni kwakhe iRoundup kwaye inkundla iqinisekisile imbasa yesohlwayo. umonakalo ngenxa “yokuziphatha gwenxa ngabom kukaMonsanto.”

“Umnumzana Johnson usaqhubekeka nokugula. Siyazingca ngokulwela uMnu Johnson nokulandela kwakhe ubulungisa, ”utshilo uMiller.

IMonsanto ityala inzala yonyaka kwinqanaba leepesenti ezili-10 ukusuka ngo-Epreli we-2018 de ihlawule isigwebo sokugqibela.

Ukuncitshiswa komonakalo kubotshelelwe kwinxalenye yokuba oogqirha baxelele uJohnson ukuba umhlaza wakhe awupheli kwaye akalindelwe ukuba aphile ixesha elide. Inkundla ivumile noMonsanto ukuba ngenxa yomonakalo owenzelwayo wenzelwe ukubuyekeza iintlungu ezizayo, ukubandezeleka ngokwasengqondweni, ukuphulukana nokonwaba kobomi, ukukhubazeka emzimbeni, njlnjl .. Ixesha elifutshane lokuphila kukaJohnson ngokusemthethweni lithetha ngomonakalo "ongekho kwezoqoqosho" wexesha elizayo owanikwa yinkundla yamatyala. kufuneka icuthwe.

U-Brent Wisner, elinye lamagqwetha kaJohnson, wathi ukwehliswa komonakalo sisiphumo "sesona siphoso sinzulu somthetho waseCalifornia."

"Ngokusisiseko, umthetho waseCalifornia awumvumeli ummangali ukuba afumane ithuba elifutshane lokuphila," utshilo uWisner. “Oku kuvuza ngokufanelekileyo ummangalelwa ngokubulala ummangali, ngokuchasene nokwenzakala nje kwakhe. Yimpambano. ”

Ukujongwa kokuziphatha kukaMonsanto

Kwakuyinyanga nje ezimbini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto, ngo-Agasti 2018, ukuba ijaji enye wanika uJohnson i-289 yezigidi zeedola, kubandakanya i-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, ukufumanisa ukuba ayenzanga kuphela imichiza yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto ibangele ukuba uJohnson avelise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa ukuba inkampani iyayazi ingozi yomhlaza kwaye yasilela ukulumkisa uJohnson. Ityala elalibandakanya iMonsanto glyphosate ezimbini zeemveliso zokutshabalalisa ukhula - iRoundup kunye neRanger Pro.

Ijaji yetyala lasithoba isigwebo esiyi- $ 78 yezigidi kodwa uMonsanto wabhenela kwisixa esincitshisiweyo. Umnqamlezo uJohnson ubhenele ekubuyiseleni isigwebo se-289 yezigidi.

Ityala likaJohnson lagutyungelwa ngamajelo eendaba kwihlabathi liphela kwaye libeka ukuqaqanjelwa kokuziphatha okungathandabuzekiyo kweMonsanto. Amagqwetha kaJohnson abonisa abagwebi ii-imeyile zenkampani yangaphakathi kunye nezinye iirekhodi ezibonisa oososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngemibhalo yezenzululwazi yokubhala ghost ukuzama ukuxhasa inkxaso kukhuseleko lweemveliso zenkampani, kunye nonxibelelwano oluchaza izicwangciso zokuhlazisa abagxeki, kunye nokuphelisa uvavanyo lukarhulumente. Ityhefu ye-glyphosate, ikhemikhali ephambili kwiimveliso zeMonsanto.

Amaxwebhu angaphakathi akwabonisa ukuba iMonsanto ilindele ukuba i-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza ihlukanise i-glyphosate njengento enokwenzeka okanye enokubangela i-carcinogen yabantu ngo-Matshi ka-2015. bakhupha udidi lwabo.

Amashumi amawaka abamangali bafaka isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto besenza amabango afana nakaJohnson, kwaye ezinye izilingo ezimbini zenzekile ukusukela kwityala likaJohnson. Zombini ezo zilingo zakhokelela kwizigwebo ezinkulu ngokuchasene neMonsanto. Zombini ziphantsi kwesibheno.

NgoJuni, iBayer yathi ifikelele kwi-  isivumelwano sokuhlala kunye namagqwetha amele iipesenti ezingama-75 ze-125,000 ezifakiweyo kwaye ziseza kufakwa amabango aqalwe ngabamangali baseMelika abasola ukubhengezwa kwi-Roundup kaMonsanto kuphuhliso lwabo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. U-Bayer uthe uza kubonelela nge- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi ukusombulula isimangalo. Kodwa amagqwetha amele ngaphezulu kwe-20,000 XNUMX yabamangali abathi abavumelananga ukuhlala neBayer kwaye loo matyala kulindeleke ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yenkqubo yenkundla.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesigwebo senkundla, uBayer uthe umi ngasemva kukhuseleko lweRoundup: Isigqibo senkundla yesibheno sokunciphisa umonakalo kunye nezohlwayo linyathelo eliya kwicala elilungileyo, kodwa siyaqhubeka nokukholelwa ekubeni isigwebo sejaji kunye nomonakalo Amabhaso awuhambelani nobungqina ekuxoxweni kwetyala nasemthethweni. IMonsanto iza kuthathela ingqalelo ukhetho lwayo lwezomthetho, kubandakanya nokufaka isibheno kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaseCalifornia. ”

I-EPA isusa igama legosa laseMelika kwisilumkiso sekhonkco lomhlaza we-glyphosate

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(Hlaziya ngenkcazo ye-EPA)

Kwintshukumo engaqhelekanga, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) ilisusile igama legosa lezempilo laseMelika elikwisikhundla esiphakamileyo kumagqabantshintshi kawonke-wonke alumkisa ngomhlaza onxulumene nokubulala ukhula kwemichiza i-glyphosate kwaye yabiza ukumiswa kophando kushishino.

Izimvo zoluntu ekuthethwa ngazo zingeniswe kwi-EPA kwaye yathunyelwa kwiwebhusayithi ye-arhente phantsi kwegama likaPatrick Breysse, umlawuli weZiko leSizwe lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo kunye ne-Arhente yeZinto ezinobungozi kunye neRejista yezifo (i-ATSDR). I-ATSDR yinxalenye yeSebe lezeMpilo laseMelika kunye neenkonzo zoLuntu.

Amagqabantshintshi phantsi kwegama likaBreysse afakwa kunyaka ophelileyo kunye ne-EPA ekuphenduleni ukuphononongwa kwearhente ehlaziyiweyo ye-glyphosate kwaye yabongoza iarhente ukuba iphonononge "ubungqina obubhaliweyo" bokuba i-glyphosate iyingozi kwaye kufuneka ivinjelwe.

Kwaphela iinyanga uluvo luhleli kwiwebhusayithi ye-EPA phantsi kwegama likaBreysse. Kwakungemva kokuba i-US Right to Know ifune amagqabantshintshi kwiveki ephelileyo evela eBreysse malunga nengxelo yakhe apho i-EPA yasusa igama lakhe. Amagqabantshintshi ngoku kuthiwa "Ongaziwayo," emva kokuba umqeshi kaBreysse egqibe ekubeni ayingeniswanga nguye, ngokwe-EPA.

I-Glyphosate sisixhobo esisebenzayo kwiRoundup nakwezinye izinto zokubulala ukhula kwaye yenziwa yathandwa nguMonsanto, iyunithi yeBayer AG. Kucingelwa ukuba lolona hlobo lonyango lusetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi. Ikwayenye yezona ziphikisanayo kwaye ingumcimbi wamatyala aziswe ngamashumi amawaka abantu abathi baphuhlise umhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup kunye nezinye izinto zokubulala ukhula ezenziwe ngeglyphosate ezenziwe nguMonsanto.

I-EPA ikukhusele ngokungagungqiyo ukhuseleko lwe-glyphosate ngaphandle kokufunyanwa zizazinzulu ezininzi ezizimeleyo zokuba i-glyphosate herbicides inokubangela uluhlu lwezifo kunye nezifo, kubandakanya ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amagqabantshintshi phantsi kwegama likaBreysse aphikisana nesimo se-EPA:

“Izifundo ezininzi ziye zadibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwayo nokwanda kwee-lymphomas, kwaye lixesha lokuba siyeke ukuvumela ishishini leekhemikhali ukuba lisebenzise uphando ukuze lisebenzele iimfuno zalo. Abemi base-US kufuneka bayithembe i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo ukuba isebenze ngendlela yethu, okuthetha ukuba ubunzima bobungqina obuvela kwimithombo yezenzululwazi engathath'icala.

Ngokukodwa, uBreysse ukwaligosa le-ATSDR icinezelwe ngamagosa e-EPA Kwi-2015 kwisicelo seMonsanto sokumisa ukuphononongwa kwetyhefu ye-glyphosate emva koko iqhubeka kwi-ATSDR. Ukunyanzeliswa kokulibazisa ukuphononongwa kwe-ATSDR ye-glyphosate yeza kuba uMonsanto woyika ukuba i-ATSDR iya kuvumelana ne-Arhente yeHlabathi yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) ekufumaneni amakhonkco omhlaza kwi-glyphosate, imbalelwano yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

I-imeyile yangaphakathi yeMonsanto yathi igosa le-EPA uJess Rowland uxelele uMonsanto Kuya kufuneka "afumane imbasa" ukuba uphumelele ekubulaleni uphononongo lwe-ATSDR glyphosate.

Uphengululo lwe-ATSDR eneneni lwalulibazisekile de kwaba li-2019 emva koxinzelelo kumagosa aseMonsanto nase-EPA. Xa ingxelo yakhululwa ekugqibeleni, yaqinisekisa ukwesaba kukaMonsanto, Ukunika inkxaso kwinkxalabo ye-IARC ka-2015 malunga nonxibelelwano phakathi komhlaza kunye ne-glyphosate. Ingxelo ye-ATSDR isayinwe nguBreysse.

Xa ebuzwa malunga notshintsho kuluntu, u-EPA wathi ulisusile igama likaBreysse emva kwamaZiko oLawulo noThintelo lwezifo, ejongene ne-ATSDR, uxelele i-EPA ukuba amagqabantshintshi lawo angeniswanga nguBreysse kwaye wabuza ukuba icinywe okanye ihlelwe. Endaweni yokucima uluvo, i-EPA inyule ukugcina loo magqabantshintshi kwidokodo kodwa yalitshintsha igama lomthumeli laba lelingaziwayo.

I-EPA ithe ayikhangeli okanye iqinisekise izimvo ezingenisiweyo.

I-ofisi yeendaba yeZiko leSizwe lezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo ikwathi uBreysse akazange alungenise olu luvo. U-Breysse akazange aphendule kwisicelo sokuqinisekisa okanye ukukhanyela ukubhalwa kwakhe kwezimvo kwiwebhusayithi ye-EPA.

Amagqabantshintshi kunye notshintshiweyo aboniswe ngezantsi:

I-Bayer ibuya kude nesicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza we-Roundup kwikamva

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Umnini weMonsanto uBayer AG uyarhoxa kwisicwangciso sokuqulatha amabango omhlaza weRoundup kwikamva emva kokuba ijaji yomanyano icacise ukuba ayizukusivuma esi sikimu, esinokulibazisa izilingo ezintsha kunye nokunciphisa izigqibo zokugweba.

Isicwangciso senziwe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha lafakwa kwinyanga ephelileyo kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia njengenxalenye yeenzame zikaBayer zokuphelisa ukutshutshiswa kwezimangalo esele zikhokelele kwilahleko kathathu kumatyala amatyala amathathu, okumangalisa ukohlwaywa komonakalo kunye nokungoneliseki kwabanini zabelo. Abantu abangaphezu kwe-100,000 e-United States bathi ukubonakaliswa kwe-Monsanto's glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) kwaye ukuba iMonsanto kudala yazi malunga nokugubungela umngcipheko womhlaza.

NgoMvulo uJaji Vince Chhabria ikhuphe iodolo ukuseta ukumanyelwa kwetyala ngoJulayi 24 kwaye ayicacise ayizukuvuma isicwangciso sokuhlawula. "Wayengathandabuzi malunga nokuchaneka kunye nokuchaneka kwale ndawo icetywayo," u-Chhabria wabhala ngokulandelelana.

Phambi komyalelo wejaji, amaqela amaninzi afaka izaziso zokuphikisana nesicwangciso seBayer; ecaphula "ukuphambuka okukhulu kuqheliselo oluqhelekileyo" kumenyiwe kule ndawo yokuhlala icetywayo.

Ukuphendula, ngolwe-Lwesithathu iqela lamagqwetha elalicwangcise isivumelwano neBayer wafaka isaziso sokurhoxa yesicwangciso sabo.

Isicwangciso sokuhlawulwa esindululweyo samatyala ezenzo zodidi lwexesha elizayo sahlukile kwisivumelwano sokuhlawula iBayer esenziwe namagqwetha kubamangali abasele bagcwalise amatyala kwaye ayilelwe ukunceda iBayer ukuba igcine kwaye ilawule uxanduva lwexa elizayo. Ngaphantsi kolwakhiwo oludityaniswe nguBayer kunye neqela elincinci lamagqwetha abamangaleli ukuhlawulwa kwamanyathelo eklasi bekuya kusebenza kuye nakubani na ovezwe kwi-Roundup ongakhange afake isimangalo okanye agcine igqwetha ngoJuni 24, 2020, nokuba uyayenza okanye hayi Umntu sele efunyaniswe enomhlaza bakholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvezwa kweRoundup.

Esi sicwangciso besinokulibazisa ukufakwa kwamatyala amatsha kangangeminyaka emine, kwaye sifuna ukuba kusekwe amalungu amahlanu "ephaneli yesayensi" eya kuthi ithathe naziphi na iziphumo eziza kubakho kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji. Endaweni yoko, "iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi" inokumiselwa ukumisela ukuba ngaba iRoundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, kweliphi inqanaba lokuvezwa. I-Bayer iya kuthi inyule amalungu amabini kwiphaneli ezintlanu. Ukuba iphaneli igqibe ekubeni akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa kumabango anjalo.

Ujaji Chhabria uthathe umba ngalo lonke uluvo lwephaneli yesayensi. Ngokomyalelo wakhe, ijaji yabhala:

"Kwindawo apho inzululwazi inokuthi iguquke khona, kufanelekile njani ukuba sitshixe kwisigqibo esivela kwiphaneli yesayensi kuwo onke amatyala exesha elizayo? Ukuvavanya, cinga ukuba iphaneli ithathe isigqibo kwi-2023 ukuba i-Roundup ayinakho ukubangela umhlaza. Emva koko khawufane ucinge ukuba isifundo esitsha esithembekileyo sipapashiwe ngo-2028 esisingela phantsi kakhulu isigqibo sepaneli. Ukuba umsebenzisi we-Roundup ufunyaniswe ene-NHL ngo-2030, kufanelekile ukubaxelela ukuba babotshiwe sisigqibo sango-2023 sephaneli kuba bengakhange baphume kwisivumelwano ngo-2020? ”

U-Bayer uthe uzakubeka bucala i-1.25 yezigidigidi kulungiselelo. Imali yayiza kusetyenziselwa ukubuyekeza amalungu eklasi afunyaniswe ene-NHL "ngeziphumo zokulibaziseka" kwizimangalo, kunye nokuxhasa ngezimali uphando malunga nokufunyaniswa nokunyangwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Amagqwetha abamangali ababeka isicwangciso kunye neBayer bema ukwenza ngaphezulu kwe- $ 150 yezigidi kwimirhumo ehlawulwa yiBayer. Ayizizo iifemu zomthetho ezifanayo ezikhokelele isimangalo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Eli qela leefemu zomthetho libandakanya uLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Uphicotho-zincwadi kunye namaqabane; Ifemi yoMthetho eDugan; kunye negqwetha uSamuel Issacharoff, uNjingalwazi kaReiss woMthetho woMgaqo-siseko kwiSikolo soMthetho kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York.

Amalungu aliqela eefemu zomthetho akhokelayo aphumelele izilingo ezintathu zomhlaza weRoundup ayasichasa isicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi, esithi iya kuhlutha amalungelo abamangali ngeli xesha ityebisa amanye amagqwetha angazange abekho ngaphambili kwityala leRoundup.

Akucaci ukuba ukurhoxiswa kwesi sicwangciso sokulungiswa kwamanyathelo eklasi kunokuchaphazela njani ukuhlawulwa okukhulu kwamabango akhoyo. Bayer kwinyanga edlulileyo izakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango akhoyo ngoku kwaye iya kuqhubeka nokusebenza ukulungisa ezinye. Oko kuhlawulwa akufuneki kuvunywe yinkundla.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo ngolwe-Lwesithathu esithi uhlala "ezimisele kakhulu kwisisombululo esijongana nesimangalo sangoku ngendlela efanelekileyo kunye nesisombululo esisebenzayo sokulawula nokusombulula isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo."